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Ab ses by !ing John "a sed a re#olt by nobles who "o$%elled hi$ to exe" te this re"ognition of rights for both noble$en and ordinary &nglish$en' (t established the %rin"i%le that no one) in"l ding the *ing or a law$a*er) is abo#e the law'
+re%ared by ,an"y Tro t$an (The Cle#eland -ree. ,et . aa/01)' 2istrib ted by the Cyber"asting 3er#i"es 2i#ision of the ,ational + bli" Tele"o$% ting ,etwor* (,+T,)'
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or$andy and A5 itaine) and "o nt of An6o ) to the ar"hbisho%) bisho%s) abbots) earls) barons) 6 sti"iaries) foresters) sheriffs) stewards) ser#ants) and to all his bailiffs and liege s b6e"ts) greetings' !now that) ha#ing regard to God and for the sal#ation of o r so l) and those of all o r an"estors and heirs) and nto the honor of God and the ad#an"e$ent of his holy Ch r"h and for the re"tifying of o r real$) we ha#e granted as nderwritten by ad#i"e of o r #enerable fathers) 3te%hen) ar"hbisho% of Canterb ry) %ri$ate of all &ngland and "ardinal of the holy Ro$an Ch r"h) Henry) ar"hbisho% of 2 blin) 7illia$ of London) +eter of 7in"hester) Jo"elyn of 8ath and Glastonb ry) H gh of Lin"oln) 7alter of 7or"ester) 7illia$ of Co#entry) 8enedi"t of Ro"hester) bisho%s9 of Master +and lf) s bdea"on and $e$ber of the ho sehold of o r lord the +o%e) of brother Ay$eri" ($aster of the !nights of the Te$%le in &ngland)) and of the ill strio s $en 7illia$ Marshal) earl of +e$bro*e) 7illia$) earl of 3alisb ry) 7illia$) earl of 7arenne) 7illia$) earl of Ar ndel) Alan of Galloway ("onstable of 3"otland)) 7aren -it: Gerold) +eter -it: Herbert) H bert 2e 8 rgh .The Magna Carta 4 The Magna Carta (The Great Charter) Preamble: John) by the gra"e of God) *ing of &ngland) lord of (reland) d *e of .
e#ille) Matthew -it: Herbert) Tho$as 8asset) Alan 8asset) +hili% d<A bigny) Robert of Ro%%esley) John Marshal) John -it: H gh) and others) o r liege$en' 4' (n the first %la"e we ha#e granted to God) and by this o r %resent "harter "onfir$ed for s and o r heirs fore#er that the &nglish Ch r"h shall be free) and shall ha#e her rights entire) and her liberties in#iolate9 and we will that it be th s obser#ed9 whi"h is a%%arent fro$ this that the freedo$ of ele"tions) whi"h is re"*oned $ost i$%ortant and #ery essential to the &nglish Ch r"h) we) of o r % re and n"onstrained will) did grant) and did by o r "harter "onfir$ and did obtain the ratifi"ation of the sa$e fro$ o r lord) +o%e (nno"ent ((() before the 5 arrel arose between s and o r barons= and this we will obser#e) and o r will is that it be obser#ed in good faith by o r heirs fore#er' 7e ha#e also granted to all free$en of o r *ingdo$) for s and o r heirs fore#er) all the nderwritten liberties) to be had and held by the$ and their heirs) of s and o r heirs fore#er' .The Magna Carta . (senes"hal of +oito )) H gh de .' (f any of o r earls or barons) or others holding of s in "hief by $ilitary ser#i"e shall ha#e died) and at the ti$e of his death his heir shall be f ll of age and owe >relief>) he shall ha#e his inheritan"e by the old relief) to wit) the heir or heirs of an earl) for the whole barony of an earl by ?4@@9 the heir or heirs of a baron) ?4@@ for a whole barony9 the heir .
The Magna Carta / or heirs of a *night) 4@@s) at $ost) and whoe#er owes less let hi$ gi#e less) a""ording to the an"ient " sto$ of fees' /' (f) howe#er) the heir of any one of the aforesaid has been nder age and in wardshi%) let hi$ ha#e his inheritan"e witho t relief and witho t fine when he "o$es of age' 0' The g ardian of the land of an heir who is th s nder age) shall ta*e fro$ the land of the heir nothing b t reasonable %rod "e) reasonable " sto$s) and reasonable ser#i"es) and that witho t destr "tion or waste of $en or goods9 and if we ha#e "o$$itted the wardshi% of the lands of any s "h $inor to the sheriff) or to any other who is res%onsible to s for its iss es) and he has $ade destr "tion or waster of what he holds in wardshi%) we will ta*e of hi$ a$ends) and the land shall be "o$$itted to two lawf l and dis"reet $en of that fee) who shall be res%onsible for the iss es to s or to hi$ to who$ we shall assign the$9 and if we ha#e gi#en or sold the wardshi% of any s "h land to anyone and he has therein $ade destr "tion or waste) he shall lose that wardshi%) and it shall be transferred to two lawf l and dis"reet $en of that fief) who shall be res%onsible to s in li*e $anner as aforesaid' 1' The g ardian) $oreo#er) so long as he has the wardshi% of the land) shall *ee% % the ho ses) .
either we nor o r bailiffs will sei:e any land or rent for any debt) as long as the "hattels of the .o widow shall be "o$%elled to $arry) so long as she %refers to li#e witho t a h sband9 %ro#ided always that she gi#es se" rity not to $arry witho t o r "onsent) if she holds of s) or witho t the "onsent of the lord of who$ she holds) if she holds of another' D' .The Magna Carta 0 %ar*s) fish%onds) stan*s) $ills) and other things %ertaining to the land) o t of the iss es of the sa$e land9 and he shall restore to the heir) when he has "o$e to f ll age) all his land) sto"*ed with %lo ghs and wainage) a""ording as the season of h sbandry shall re5 ire) and the iss es of the land "an reasonable bear' A' Heirs shall be $arried witho t dis%arage$ent) yet so that before the $arriage ta*es %la"e the nearest in blood to that heir shall ha#e noti"e' B' A widow) after the death of her h sband) shall forthwith and witho t diffi" lty ha#e her $arriage %ortion and inheritan"e9 nor shall she gi#e anything for her dower) or for her $arriage %ortion) or for the inheritan"e whi"h her h sband and she held on the day of the death of that h sband9 and she $ay re$ain in the ho se of her h sband for forty days after his death) within whi"h ti$e her dower shall be assigned to her' C' .
o s" tage not aid shall be i$%osed on o r *ingdo$) nless by "o$$on "o nsel of o r .' .The Magna Carta 1 debtor are s ffi"ient to re%ay the debt9 nor shall the s reties of the debtor be distrained so long as the %rin"i%al debtor is able to satisfy the debt9 and if the %rin"i%al debtor shall fail to %ay the debt) ha#ing nothing wherewith to %ay it) then the s reties shall answer for the debt9 and let the$ ha#e the lands and rents of the debtor) if they desire the$) ntil they are inde$nified for the debt whi"h they ha#e %aid for hi$) nless the %rin"i%al debtor "an show %roof that he is dis"harged thereof as against the said s reties' 4@' (f one who has borrowed fro$ the Jews any s $) great or s$all) die before that loan be re%aid) the debt shall not bear interest while the heir is nder age) of who$soe#er he $ay hold9 and if the debt fall into o r hands) we will not ta*e anything ex"e%t the %rin"i%al s $ "ontained in the bond' 44' And if anyone die indebted to the Jews) his wife shall ha#e her dower and %ay nothing of that debt9 and if any "hildren of the de"eased are left nder age) ne"essaries shall be %ro#ided for the$ in *ee%ing with the holding of the de"eased9 and o t of the resid e the debt shall be %aid) reser#ing) howe#er) ser#i"e d e to fe dal lords9 in li*e $anner let it be done to "hing debts d e to others than Jews' 4.
The Magna Carta A *ingdo$) ex"e%t for ranso$ing o r %erson) for $a*ing o r eldest son a *night) and for on"e $arrying o r eldest da ghter9 and for these there shall not be le#ied $ore than a reasonable aid' (n li*e $anner it shall be done "on"erning aids fro$ the "ity of London' 4/' And the "ity of London shall ha#e all it an"ient liberties and free " sto$s) as well by land as by water9 f rther$ore) we de"ree and grant that all other "ities) boro ghs) towns) and %orts shall ha#e all their liberties and free " sto$s' 40' And for obtaining the "o$$on "o nsel of the *ingdo$ anent the assessing of an aid (ex"e%t in the three "ases aforesaid) or of a s" tage) we will "a se to be s $$oned the ar"hbisho%s) bisho%s) abbots) earls) and greater barons) se#erally by o r letters9 and we will $o#eo#er "a se to be s $$oned generally) thro gh o r sheriffs and bailiffs) and others who hold of s in "hief) for a fixed date) na$ely) after the ex%iry of at least forty days) and at a fixed %la"e9 and in all letters of s "h s $$ons we will s%e"ify the reason of the s $$ons' And when the s $$ons has th s been $ade) the b siness shall %ro"eed on the day a%%ointed) a""ording to the "o nsel of s "h as are %resent) altho gh not all who were s $$oned ha#e "o$e' 41' 7e will not for the f t re grant to anyone .
The Magna Carta B li"ense to ta*e an aid fro$ his own free tenants) ex"e%t to ranso$ his %erson) to $a*e his eldest son a *night) and on"e to $arry his eldest da ghter9 and on ea"h of these o""asions there shall be le#ied only a reasonable aid' 4A' .o one shall be distrained for %erfor$an"e of greater ser#i"e for a *night<s fee) or for any other free tene$ent) than is d e therefro$' 4B' Co$$on %leas shall not follow o r "o rt) b t shall be held in so$e fixed %la"e' 4C' (n5 ests of no#el disseisin) of $ort d<an"estor) and of darrein %resent$ent shall not be held elsewhere than in their own "o nty "o rts) and that in $anner following9 7e) or) if we sho ld be o t of the real$) o r "hief 6 sti"iar) will send two 6 sti"iaries thro gh e#ery "o nty fo r ti$es a year) who shall alone with fo r *nights of the "o nty "hosen by the "o nty) hold the said assi:es in the "o nty "o rt) on the day and in the %la"e of $eeting of that "o rt' 4D' And if any of the said assi:es "annot be ta*en on the day of the "o nty "o rt) let there re$ain of the *nights and freeholders) who were %resent at the "o nty "o rt on that day) as $any as $ay be re5 ired for the effi"ient $a*ing of 6 dg$ents) a""ording as the b siness be $ore or less' .
The Magna Carta C .o #illage or indi#id al shall be "o$%elled to $a*e bridges at ri#er ban*s) ex"e%t those who fro$ of old were legally bo nd to do so' .0' .1' All "o nties) h ndred) wa%enta*es) and trithings (ex"e%t o r de$esne $anors) shall re$ain ..@' A free$an shall not be a$er"ed for a slight offense) ex"e%t in a""ordan"e with the degree of the offense9 and for a gra#e offense he shall be a$er"ed in a""ordan"e with the gra#ity of the offense) yet sa#ing always his >"ontent$ent>9 and a $er"hant in the sa$e way) sa#ing his >$er"handise>9 and a #illein shall be a$er"ed in the sa$e way) sa#ing his >wainage> if they ha#e fallen into o r $er"y= and none of the aforesaid a$er"e$ents shall be i$%osed ex"e%t by the oath of honest $en of the neighborhood' .4' &arls and barons shall not be a$er"ed ex"e%t thro gh their %eers) and only in a""ordan"e with the degree of the offense' .' A "ler* shall not be a$er"ed in res%e"t of his lay holding ex"e%t after the $anner of the others aforesaid9 f rther) he shall not be a$er"ed in a""ordan"e with the extent of his e""lesiasti"al benefi"e' .o sheriff) "onstable) "oroners) or others of o r bailiffs) shall hold %leas of o r Crown' ./' .
C' .o "onstable or other bailiff of o rs shall ta*e "orn or other %ro#isions fro$ anyone witho t i$$ediately tendering $oney therefor) nless he "an ha#e %ost%one$ent thereof by %er$ission of the seller' .B' (f any free$an shall die intestate) his "hattels shall be distrib ted by the hands of his nearest *insfol* and friends) nder s %er#ision of the Ch r"h) sa#ing to e#ery one the debts whi"h the de"eased owed to hi$' .A' (f anyone holding of s a lay fief shall die) and o r sheriff or bailiff shall exhibit o r letters %atent of s $$ons for a debt whi"h the de"eased owed s) it shall be lawf l for o r sheriff or bailiff to atta"h and enroll the "hattels of the de"eased) fo nd %on the lay fief) to the #al e of that debt) at the sight of law worthy $en) %ro#ided always that nothing whate#er be then"e re$o#ed ntil the debt whi"h is e#ident shall be f lly %aid to s9 and the resid e shall be left to the exe" tors to f lfill the will of the de"eased9 and if there be nothing d e fro$ hi$ to s) all the "hattels shall go to the de"eased) sa#ing to his wife and "hildren their reasonable shares' .The Magna Carta D at the old rents) and witho t any additional %ay$ent' .D' .o "onstable shall "o$%el any *night to gi#e .
g ard) when he is willing to %erfor$ it in his own %erson) or (if he hi$self "annot do it fro$ any reasonable "a se) then by another res%onsible $an' .' 7e will not retain beyond one year and one day) the lands those who ha#e been "on#i"ted of felony) and the lands shall thereafter be handed o#er to the lords of the fiefs' //' All *ydells for the f t re shall be re$o#ed altogether fro$ Tha$es and Medway) and thro gho t all &ngland) ex"e%t %on the seashore' /0' The writ whi"h is "alled %rae"i%e shall not for the f t re be iss ed to anyone) regarding any tene$ent whereby a free$an $ay lose his "o rt' /1' Let there be one $eas re of wine thro gho t .rther) if we ha#e led or sent hi$ %on $ilitary ser#i"e) he shall be relie#ed fro$ g ard in %ro%ortion to the ti$e d ring whi"h he has been on ser#i"e be"a se of s' /@' .The Magna Carta 4@ $oney in lie of "astle.either we nor o r bailiffs shall ta*e) for o r "astles or for any other wor* of o rs) wood whi"h is not o rs) against the will of the owner of that wood' /.o sheriff or bailiff of o rs) or other %erson) shall ta*e the horses or "arts of any free$an for trans%ort d ty) against the will of the said free$an' /4' .
The Magna Carta 44 o r whole real$9 and one $eas re of ale9 and one $eas re of "orn) to wit) >the London 5 arter>9 and one width of "loth (whether dyed) or r sset) or >halberget>)) to wit) two ells within the sel#edges9 of weights also let it be as of $eas res' /A' . far$) so"age) or b rgage)) ha#e the wardshi% of the heir) or of s "h land of his as if of the fief of that other9 nor shall we ha#e wardshi% of that fee.far$ owes *night<s ser#i"e' 7e will not by reason of any s$all ser6ean"y whi"h anyone $ay hold of s by the ser#i"e of rendering to s *ni#es) arrows) or the li*e) ha#e wardshi% of his heir or of the land whi"h he holds of another lord by *night<s ser#i"e' /C' .o bailiff for the f t re shall) %on his own ns %%orted "o$%laint) % t anyone to his >law>) witho t "redible witnesses bro ght for this % r%oses' /D' .far$) so"age) or b rgage) nless s "h fee.o free$en shall be ta*en or i$%risoned or disseised or exiled or in any way destroyed) nor will we go %on hi$ nor send %on hi$) ex"e%t by .othing in f t re shall be gi#en or ta*en for a writ of in5 isition of life or li$bs) b t freely it shall be granted) and ne#er denied' /B' (f anyone holds of s by fee.far$) either by so"age or by b rage) or of any other land by *night<s ser#i"e) we will not (by reason of that fee.
The Magna Carta 4. reser#ing always the allegian"e d e to s' 0/' (f anyone holding of so$e es"heat (s "h as the .' (t shall be lawf l in f t re for anyone (ex"e%ting always those i$%risoned or o tlawed in a""ordan"e with the law of the *ingdo$) and nati#es of any "o ntry at war with s) and $er"hants) who shall be treated as if abo#e %ro#ided) to lea#e o r *ingdo$ and to ret rn) safe and se" re by land and water) ex"e%t for a short %eriod in ti$e of war) on gro nds of % bli" %oli"y. the lawf l 6 dg$ent of his %eers or by the law of the land' 0@' To no one will we sell) to no one will we ref se or delay) right or 6 sti"e' 04' All $er"hants shall ha#e safe and se" re exit fro$ &ngland) and entry to &ngland) with the right to tarry there and to $o#e abo t as well by land as by water) for b ying and selling by the an"ient and right " sto$s) 5 it fro$ all e#il tolls) ex"e%t (in ti$e of war) s "h $er"hants as are of the land at war with s' And if s "h are fo nd in o r land at the beginning of the war) they shall be detained) witho t in6 ry to their bodies or goods) ntil infor$ation be re"ei#ed by s) or by o r "hief 6 sti"iar) how the $er"hants of o r land fo nd in the land at war with s are treated9 and if o r $en are safe there) the others shall be safe in o r land' 0.
The Magna Carta 4/ honor of 7allingford) .ottingha$) 8o logne) Lan"aster) or of other es"heats whi"h are in o r hands and are baronies) shall die) his heir shall gi#e no other relief) and %erfor$ no other ser#i"e to s than he wo ld ha#e done to the baron if that barony had been in the baron<s hand9 and we shall hold it in the sa$e $anner in whi"h the baron held it' 00' Men who dwell witho t the forest need not hen"eforth "o$e before o r 6 sti"iaries of the forest %on a general s $$ons) nless they are in %lea) or s reties of one or $ore) who are atta"hed for the forest' 01' 7e will a%%oint as 6 sti"es) "onstables) sheriffs) or bailiffs only s "h as *now the law of the real$ and $ean to obser#e it well' 0A' All barons who ha#e fo nded abbeys) "on"erning whi"h they hold "harters fro$ the *ings of &ngland) or of whi"h they ha#e long "ontin ed %ossession) shall ha#e the wardshi% of the$) when #a"ant) as they o ght to ha#e' 0B' All forests that ha#e been $ade s "h in o r ti$e shall forthwith be disafforsted9 and a si$ilar "o rse shall be followed with regard to ri#er ban*s that ha#e been %la"ed >in defense> by s in o r ti$e' .
The Magna Carta 40 0C' All e#il " sto$s "onne"ted with forests and warrens) foresters and warreners) sheriffs and their offi"ers) ri#er ban*s and their wardens) shall i$$ediately by in5 ired into in ea"h "o nty by twel#e sworn *nights of the sa$e "o nty "hosen by the honest $en of the sa$e "o nty) and shall) within forty days of the said in5 est) be tterly abolished) so as ne#er to be restored) %ro#ided always that we %re#io sly ha#e inti$ation thereof) or o r 6 sti"iar) if we sho ld not be in &ngland' 0D' 7e will i$$ediately restore all hostages and "harters deli#ered to s by &nglish$en) as s reties of the %ea"e of faithf l ser#i"e' 1@' 7e will entirely re$o#e fro$ their bailiwi"*s) the relations of Gerard of Athee (so that in f t re they shall ha#e no bailiwi"* in &ngland)9 na$ely) &ngelard of Cigogne) +eter) G y) and Andrew of Chan"ea x) G y of Cigogne) Geoffrey of Martigny with his brothers) +hili% Mar* with his brothers and his ne%hew Geoffrey) and the whole brood of the sa$e' 14' As soon as %ea"e is restored) we will banish fro$ the *ingdo$ all foreign born *nights) "rossbow$en) ser6eants) and $er"enary soldiers who ha#e "o$e with horses and ar$s to the *ingdo$<s h rt' 1.' (f anyone has been dis%ossessed or re$o#ed by .
The Magna Carta 41 s) witho t the legal 6 dg$ent of his %eers) fro$ his lands) "astles) fran"hises) or fro$ his right) we will i$$ediately restore the$ to hi$9 and if a dis% te arise o#er this) then let it be de"ided by the fi#e and twenty barons of who$ $ention is $ade below in the "la se for se" ring the %ea"e' Moreo#er) for all those %ossessions) fro$ whi"h anyone has) witho t the lawf l 6 dg$ent of his %eers) been disseised or re$o#ed) by o r father) !ing Henry) or by o r brother) !ing Ri"hard) and whi"h we retain in o r hand (or whi"h as %ossessed by others) to who$ we are bo nd to warrant the$) we shall ha#e res%ite ntil the s al ter$ of "r saders9 ex"e%ting those things abo t whi"h a %lea has been raised) or an in5 est $ade by o r order) before o r ta*ing of the "ross9 b t as soon as we ret rn fro$ the ex%edition) we will i$$ediately grant f ll 6 sti"e therein' 1/' 7e shall ha#e) $oreo#er) the sa$e res%ite and in the sa$e $anner in rendering 6 sti"e "on"erning the disafforestation or retention of those forests whi"h Henry o r father and Ri"hard o r broter afforested) and "on"erning the wardshi% of lands whi"h are of the fief of another (na$ely) s "h wardshi%s as we ha#e hitherto had by reason of a fief whi"h anyone held of s by *night<s ser#i"e)) and "on"erning abbeys fo nded on other fiefs than o r own) in whi"h the lord of the fee "lai$s to ha#e right9 and when we ha#e ret rned) or if we desist fro$ o r ex%edition) we will i$$ediately .
o one shall be arrested or i$%risoned %on the a%%eal of a wo$an) for the death of any other than her h sband' 11' All fines $ade with s n6 stly and against the law of the land) and all a$er"e$ents) i$%osed n6 stly and against the law of the land) shall be entirely re$itted) or else it shall be done "on"erning the$ a""ording to the de"ision of the fi#e and twenty barons who$ $ention is $ade below in the "la se for se" ring the %ease) or a""ording to the 6 dg$ent of the $a6ority of the sa$e) along with the aforesaid 3te%hen) ar"hbisho% of Canterb ry) if he "an be %resent) and s "h others as he $ay wish to bring with hi$ for this % r%ose) and if he "annot be %resent the b siness shall ne#ertheless %ro"eed witho t hi$) %ro#ided always that if any one or $ore of the aforesaid fi#e and twenty barons are in a si$ilar s it) they shall be re$o#ed as far as "on"erns this %arti" lar 6 dg$ent) others being s bstit ted in their %la"es after ha#ing been sele"ted by the rest of the sa$e fi#e and twenty for this % r%ose only) and after ha#ing been sworn' 1A' (f we ha#e disseised or re$o#ed 7elsh$en fro$ lands or liberties) or other things) witho t the legal 6 dg$ent of their %eers in &ngland or in .The Magna Carta 4A grant f ll 6 sti"e to all who "o$%lain of s "h things' 10' .
The Magna Carta 4B 7ales) they shall be i$$ediately restored to the$9 and if a dis% te arise o#er this) then let it be de"ided in the $ar"hes by the 6 dg$ent of their %eers9 for the tene$ents in &ngland a""ording to the law of &ngland) for tene$ents in 7ales a""ording to the law of 7ales) and for tene$ents in the $ar"hes a""ording to the law of the $ar"hes' 7elsh$en shall do the sa$e to s and o rs' 1B' .rther) for all those %ossessions fro$ whi"h any 7elsh$an has) witho t the lawf l 6 dg$ent of his %eers) been disseised or re$o#ed by !ing Henry o r father) or !ing Ri"hard o r brother) and whi"h we retain in o r hand (or whi"h are %ossessed by others) and whi"h we o ght to warrant)) we will ha#e res%ite ntil the s al ter$ of "r saders9 ex"e%ting those things abo t whi"h a %lea has been raised or an in5 est $ade by o r order before we too* the "ross9 b t as soon as we ret rn (or if %er"han"e we desist fro$ o r ex%edition)) we will i$$ediately grant f ll 6 sti"e in a""ordan"e with the laws of the 7elsh and in relation to the foresaid regions' 1C' 7e will i$$ediately gi#e % the son of Llywelyn and all the hostages of 7ales) and the "harters deli#ered to s as se" rity for the %ea"e' 1D' 7e will do towards Alexander) *ing of 3"ots) "on"erning the ret rn of his sisters and his .
The Magna Carta 4C hostages) and "on"erning his fran"hises) and his right) in the sa$e $anner as we shall do towards o r owher barons of &ngland) nless it o ght to be otherwise a""ording to the "harters whi"h we hold fro$ 7illia$ his father) for$erly *ing of 3"ots9 and this shall be a""ording to the 6 dg$ent of his %eers in o r "o rt' A@' Moreo#er) all these aforesaid " sto$s and liberties) the obser#an"es of whi"h we ha#e granted in o r *ingdo$ as far as %ertains to s towards o r $en) shall be obser#ed b all of o r *ingdo$) as well "lergy as lay$en) as far as %ertains to the$ towards their $en' A4' 3in"e) $o#eo#er) for God and the a$end$ent of o r *ingdo$ and for the better allaying of the 5 arrel that has arisen between s and o r barons) we ha#e granted all these "on"essions) desiro s that they sho ld en6oy the$ in "o$%lete and fir$ end ran"e fore#er) we gi#e and grant to the$ the nderwritten se" rity) na$ely) that the barons "hoose fi#e and twenty barons of the *ingdo$) who$soe#er they will) who shall be bo nd with all their $ight) to obser#e and hold) and "a se to be obser#ed) the %ea"e and liberties we ha#e granted and "onfir$ed to the$ by this o r %resent Charter) so that if we) or o r 6 sti"iar) or o r bailiffs or any one of o r offi"ers) shall in anything be at fa lt towards anyone) or shall ha#e bro*en any one of the arti"les of this %ea"e or of this se" rity) and the .
The Magna Carta 4D offense be notified to fo r barons of the foresaid fi#e and twenty) the said fo r barons shall re%air to s (or o r 6 sti"iar) if we are o t of the real$) and) laying the transgression before s) %etition to ha#e that transgression redressed witho t delay' And if we shall not ha#e "orre"ted the transgression (or) in the e#ent of o r being o t of the real$) if o r 6 sti"iar shall not ha#e "orre"ted it) within forty days) re"*oning fro$ the ti$e it has been inti$ated to s (or to o r 6 sti"iar) if we sho ld be o t of the real$)) the fo r barons aforesaid shall refer that $atter to the rest of the fi#e and twenty barons) and those fi#e and twenty barons shall) together with the "o$$ nity of the whole real$) distrain and distress s in all %ossible ways) na$ely) by sei:ing o r "astles) lands) %ossessions) and in any other way they "an) ntil redress has been obtained as they dee$ fit) sa#ing har$less o r own %erson) and the %ersons of o r 5 een and "hildren9 and when redress has been obtained) they shall res $e their old relations towards s' And let whoe#er in the "o ntry desires it) swear to obey the orders of the said fi#e and twenty barons for the exe" tion of all the aforesaid $atters) and along with the$) to $olest s to the t$ost of his %ower9 and we % bli"ly and freely grant lea#e to e#eryone who wishes to swear) and we shall ne#er forbid anyone to swear' All those) $o#eo#er) in the land who of the$sel#es and of their own a""ord are nwilling to swear to the twenty fi#e to hel% the$ in "onstraining and $olesting s) we shall by o r .
@ "o$$and "o$%el the sa$e to swear to the effe"t foresaid' And if any one of the fi#e and twenty barons shall ha#e died or de%arted fro$ the land) or be in"a%a"itated in any other $anner whi"h wo ld %re#ent the foresaid %ro#isions being "arried o t) those of the said twenty fi#e barons who are left shall "hoose another in his %la"e a""ording to their own 6 dg$ent) and he shall be sworn in the sa$e way as the others' .The Magna Carta .rther) in all $atters) the exe" tion of whi"h is entr sted)to these twenty fi#e barons) if %er"han"e these twenty fi#e are %resent and disagree abo t anything) or if so$e of the$) after being s $$oned) are nwilling or nable to be %resent) that whi"h the $a6ority of those %resent ordain or "o$$and shall be held as fixed and established) exa"tly as if the whole twenty fi#e had "on" rred in this9 and the said twenty fi#e shall swear that they will faithf lly obser#e all that is aforesaid) and "a se it to be obser#ed with all their $ight' And we shall %ro" re nothing fro$ anyone) dire"tly or indire"tly) whereby any %art of these "on"essions and liberties $ight be re#o*ed or di$inished9 and if any s "h things has been %ro" red) let it be #oid and n ll) and we shall ne#er se it %ersonally or by another' A.' And all the will) hatreds) and bitterness that ha#e arisen between s and o r $en) "lergy and lay) fro$ the date of the 5 arrel) we ha#e "o$%letely re$itted and %ardoned to e#eryone' Moreo#er) all tres%asses o""asioned by the said .
The Magna Carta .4 5 arrel) fro$ &aster in the sixteenth year of o r reign till the restoration of %ea"e) we ha#e f lly re$itted to all) both "lergy and lay$en) and "o$%letely forgi#en) as far as %ertains to s' And on this head) we ha#e "a sed to be $ade for the$ letters testi$onial %atent of the lord 3te%hen) ar"hbisho% of Canterb ry) of the lord Henry) ar"hbisho% of 2 blin) of the bisho%s aforesaid) and of Master +and lf as to "hing this se" rity and the "on"essions aforesaid' A/' 7herefore we will and fir$ly order that the &nglish Ch r"h be free) and that the $en in o r *ingdo$ ha#e and hold all the aforesaid liberties) rights) and "on"essions) well and %ea"eably) freely and 5 ietly) f lly and wholly) for the$sel#es and their heirs) of s and o r heirs) in all res%e"ts and in all %la"es fore#er) as is aforesaid' An oath) $oreo#er) has been ta*en) as well on o r %art as on the art of the barons) that all these "onditions aforesaid shall be *e%t in good faith and witho t e#il intent' Gi#en nder o r hand . the abo#e na$ed and $any others being witnesses . in the $eadow whi"h is "alled R nny$ede) between 7indsor and 3taines) on the fifteenth day of J ne) in the se#enteenth year of o r reign' .
4A) 4.4B and 4.... -ro$ the Resear"her This is b t one of three different translations ( fo nd of the Magna Carta9 it was originally done in Latin) %robably by the Ar"hbisho%) 3te%hen Langton' (t was in for"e for only a few $onths) when it was #iolated by the *ing' J st o#er a year later) with no resol tion to the war) the *ing died) being s ""eeded by his D.year old son) Henry (((' The Charter (Carta) was reiss ed again) with so$e re#isions) in 4.1' As near as ( "an tell) the #ersion %resented here is the one that %re"eeded all of the others9 nearly all of it<s %ro#isions were soon s %er"eded by other laws) and none of it is effe"ti#e today' The two other #ersions ( fo nd ea"h %rofessed to be the original) as well' The basi" intent of ea"h is the sa$e' Gerald M r%hy (The Cle#eland -ree. aa/@@) .et .The Magna Carta .
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