You are on page 1of 114
ial THE GOLDEN BOOK OF : Mf CHEMISTRY * “EXPERIMENTS THE GOLDEN BOOK OF Chemistry Experiments How to Set Up a Home Laboratory— Over 200 Simple Experiments BY ROBERT BRENT ILLUSTRATED BY HARRY LAZARUS GOLDEN PRESS NEW YORK Words Used by Chemists Acids a hydrogen-cont that releases hydrogen compound Solution, Alloy: a material made up by combining ‘v0 oF more metals. Analysis: breaking down a compound into two or more substances, Anhydrous free from water. Atom: the smallest unit of an clement that can enter into the making of chemical compound. Atomife weight: the weight of an atom ccampared with the weight of an oxygen ftom set at 16, Base: » compound containing the hy= droxide group (OH). Catalyst: a substance that helps in a chemical reaction without itsell being changed. Chemical change: a change of a sub- stance into another substance having different propert Chemistry: a branch of science dealing ‘ith the compositions of substances and the changes that ean he made in them, Combustion: burning: a chemical change that produces beat and light. 16 of Compound: a substance co tbvo oF more different kinds of Aefinite proportions by weight, Crystal: a solid in which atoms or mole- cules are arranged in @ definite pattern. + the weight of a liquid or a ‘grams per em! or milliliter Distillate: a liquid that has been turned into vapor and again cooled into a liquid. Distillation: the process of producing a distillate Ductile: capable of being drawn out into Electrolysis: breaking down a substance by passing an electric current through it, Electrolyte: a substance that, when in solution or when melted, will conduct fan electrio current mercury ‘Elements substance that contains only fone kind of atoms Equation: a complete description of @ chemical reaction by the use of symbols, ormulas, and signs. Evaporation: the changing of a subs stance into vapor; also the process of re~ ‘moving water by heating. Filtrate: a liquid obtained by file ration: the process of straining a liquid from a solid through porous mate rial, usually filter paper. Formula: a group of symbols and num- bers giving the composition of a com- pound. Hydrate: bound water of hs crystallization) that can be driven off Dy heating. Hydroxide: a compound that contains the hydroxyl (OH) radical, Ton: an electrically charged stom or ‘group of atoms (radical), ‘Malleable: capable of being hammered fr rolled into a thin sheet. Matter: anything that takes up space and bas welsh. thot is a good con- ; hes luster, and whose oxide forms a base with water Metalloids an element that has proper- ties of hoth metsle and nonmetale Mixture: a mingling of substances not combined chemically. Molecular weight: the sum of the ltomie weights of the atoms that make ‘up @ molecule of @ compound, Molecules the smallest unit of com- pound that con exist in the free state, ‘Neutralization: the reaction of an acid fand a base to give a salt and water. Nonmetal: an element that is « poor conductor of electricity, does not have luster, and whore oxide forms an acid ‘when combined with water. Organic chemistry: the chemistry of the carbon compounds. Oxidation: the process by which a sub- es with oxygen. luble solid formed ‘chemical reaction 1: @ group of atoms that behave chemically as # single atom. Reaction: a chemical change. Reduction: removal of oxygen; the op- posite of oxidation. Salt: compound (other than water) formed by the reaction of an acid and a base, Saturated solution: a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute tunder the conditions. Solubility: tho number of grams of « solute needed to make # saturated <0- lution in 100 grams of solvent. Solute: the substance dissolved in solvent. Solution: @ non-settling mixture of a solute in a solvent. Solvents a liquid in which a solute is dissolved. Sublimation: a process by which a sal- id is turned into vapor and again cooled {nto a solid without passing through a liquid stage. Subscript: a sinall numeral indicating the number of stoms of a certain element jn the formula of a compo Substance: any specific hind of matter ‘whether element, compound, or mixture. ide Symbol: a letter of to Tottors repre senting one atom of an element. Synthesis: tho making up of a com- pound from simpler compounds or from elements; the opposite of analy Yalenee: the number of hydrogen atoms wvhich one stom of an element can dis- place or with which it ean unite, copper