Jessica Chu Chapter #34: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War – Big Picture Themes 1.

When it became evident that both Japan and Germany were marching toward militarism, FDR (and Europe) made it clear they wanted peace. This effectively gave the dictators a “go-ahead” sign. 2. Events showed war as inevitable. Japan attacked China. Spain became a dictatorship, and Italy and Germany did as well. 3. After watching Hitler go on the move, he finally broke a pledge to not attack Poland. England and France went to war. The U.S. still wanted to stay out. 4. As the situation overseas deteriorated, the U.S. began to support England and France more openly with words and supplies. Finally, when Pearl Harbor was attacked, the U.S. entered WWII. Chapter #34: IDENTIFICATIONS Cordell Hull FDR’s secretary of state who promoted reciprocal trade agreements Winston Churchill prime minister of Britain who led GB’s lonely resistance to Hitler Charles Lindbergh leader of America First organization and chief spokesman for US isolationism Good Neighbor Policy US will not use hostile forces to gain/help surrounding territiors. Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act Lower tariffs in US will increase trade. Rome-Berlin Axis the alliance between Mussolini(Italy) and Hitler( Germany) Neutrality Acts series of laws by Congress in 1930s that attempted to prevent US involvement in future overseas wars Russo-German Nonaggression Pact Stalin ( Russia) and Hitler(Germany) will not attack each other "cash and carry" no credit and US will not haul the cargo America First Committee isolationships group adovating that US forcus on continental defense and non involvement with europmean war Lend-Lease Act 1941 law that made US the arsenal of democracy by providing temporary military material to Britain Atlantic Charter US British agreement of Aug 1941 to promote democracy and establish a new international organization for peace Chapter #34 Guided Reading Questions The London Conference Know: London Economic Conference

Jessica Chu 1. What were the results of Roosevelt's decision not to help stabilize currencies? The results of Roosevelt’s decisions not to help stabilize currencies were solidifing US isolationists policies. US was alone in both war and economy. Freedom for (from?) the Filipinos and Recognition for the Russians Know: Tydings-McDuffie Act 2. What was the reason for America's decision to free the Philippines? Philippines have always been a headache when US took over. US sugar growers also wanted to free themselves from Filipino sugar. Becoming a Good Neighbor Know: Good Neighbor Policy 3. Was the United States serious about the Good Neighbor policy? Explain. The US was serious about the Good Neighbor policy. In Latin America, US lessened her influence in Cuba and Panama and Haiti. FDR also said TR’s big stick policy was bad. US also signed an agreement with Mexico about US oil properties. Secretary Hull's Reciprocal Trade Agreements Know: Cordell Hull, Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act 4. Were reciprocal trade agreements a good idea? Explain. It was a good idea because the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act started to reverse high tariff trend to a low tariff trend that continued in the post- WWII period. Tariff rates were sometimes cut in half. Storm-Cellar Isolationism Know: Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Fascism 5. What were the reasons for American isolationism? American was an ocean away so she didn’t think the war would bother her. Also, US had her own problems such as coming out of the depression. American also didn’t want to get drawn into Europe’s problems. Congress Legislates Neutrality Know: Gerald Nye, Neutrality Acts 6. How did the Neutrality Acts attempt to keep the U.S. out of war? The Neutrality Act started that US could not sail on a belligerent ship, sell/haul munitions, or make loans to the belligerents. This was done to avoid the mistakes made in WWI. However, WWII was simply not the case. America Dooms Loyalist Spain Know: Francisco Franco, Spanish Civil War 7. How did the Spanish Civil War contribute to WWII? The Spanish Civil War was a test for Hitler for his tanks and planes.Franco and his fascists won which helped the dictators such as Hitler. US also didn’t set her military up for defense and let her navy get

Jessica Chu weaker. Appeasing Japan and Germany Know: Quarantine Speech, Panay, Rhineland, Sudentenland, Munich Conference, Appeasement 8. What actions were taken by fascist governments that showed that they were a threat? Hitler broke the Treaty of Versaille by making military service mandatory and marched troops into the Rhineland. 6 million Jews were also killed in the Holocaust. Chamerlain also allowed hitler to have his Sudetenland. Japan also beaten the Americans in China as an hostile act towards US.

Hitler's Belligerency and U.S. Neutrality Know: Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, Cash and Carry 9. How did the United States respond to the start of WWII in Europe? US supported Britain and France mentally but was still neutral. The Neutrality act of 1939 said US would sell war materials on a cash and carry basis. This meant no credit and no US ships hauled the stuff. The Fall of France Know: Phony War, Blitzkrieg, Winston Churchill 10. What further steps did the United States take after the fall of France? FDR called for America to build the military. A conscription law was passed which would train 1.2 million troops yearly and 800,000 reserves.

Bolstering Britain with the Destroyer Deal (1940) Know: Battle of Britain, Royal Air Force, Fortress America, America First, Charles Lindbergh, Destroyer Deal 12. Describe the conflict between interventionists and isolationists in America in 1940. Isolationists set up the America First Committee. Charles Lindbergh was a member of this. Interventionists set up the Committee to Defend the Allies. FDR Shatters the Two-Term Tradition (1940) Know: Wendell Wilke 13. Interpret the results of the 1940 election. Wendell L. Willkie was the Republican nominee and FDR was the Democratic. Wilkie was criticized for some of the New Deal mishandling and FDR came with a slogan “Better a third term a third-rater” FDR also probmised not to send any boys to any foreign war. Congress Passes the Landmark Lend-Lease Law Know: Lend-Lease 14. What was so controversial about Lend-Lease?

Jessica Chu Lend- Lease meant the end of isolation. Everyone in America realized this. Before this, Germany had avoided American ships. How German subs destroyed American ships. Hitler's Assault on the Soviet Union Spawns the Atlantic Charter Know: Atlantic Charter 15. What was the reaction in America to the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union? America was happy because Russia and Germany can now beat each other up. US sent 1bil to Russia to help defend Moscow. Isolations criticized the Atlantic Conference but US was no longer isolated. U.S. Destroyers and Hitler's U-Boats Clash 16. How did America's implementation of the Lend-Lease policy bring us closer to war? On December 8, the US decalred war on Japan. On Deb Germany and Italy declared war on US and vice versa. By now, war was not official. America's Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent 17. Was United States entry into WWII sudden or gradual? Explain. US’s entry was sudden because the bombing of pearl harbor lead to their entry. It was the last straw for US to enter the WWI Chapter #35: America in World War II – Big Picture Themes 1. The first goal of the U.S. in the war was to mobilize. This meant signing up thousands of troops, and switching the American economy over to war. For example, it was time to stop making sedans, and start building bombers. 2. The war affected all Americans. Men (of all races) went to war and women took the jobs the men had left. 3. In the Pacific, the U.S. “island hopped” over four years from Hawaii all the way to Okinawa and were “knocking on Japan’s door.” Finally, the atomic bomb drove Japan to surrender. 4. In Europe, the U.S. and her allies worked from North Africa up through Italy and toward the “soft underbelly” of Germany. Then, the massive D-Day invasion drove the Nazis back to Germany where Hitler committed suicide and his generals surrendered. Chapter #35: IDENTIFICATIONS A. Philip Randolph leading black labor leader who called for a march to DC to protest factories’ resusals to hire African americans. George S. Patton pushed German troops into Tunisia and saved allied forces at the battle of the bulge. Albert Einstein German scientist who fled Nazi Germany and agreed to work on the atomic bomb for US Office of Price Administration regulated prices when prices rose. Fair Employment Practice Commission

Jessica Chu established by FDR to monitor compliance with his executive order forbidding discrimination in defense industries. D-Day Alllies attacked Germans in Normandy France. It was the largest land-sea-air operation in history Manhattan Project the project that secretly built the first atomic bombs in history Braceros brought mexicans to work and harvest crops. Chapter #35: Guided Reading Questions The Allies Trade Space for Time Know: Germany First 1. "America's task was far more complex and back-breaking [in World War II] than in World War I." Explain. In WWII American is actually attacked and FDR wants to attack two countries on entirely different sides of the world (Germany and Japan). Also, the only democratic powerful country standing in Europe was Britain and America has to protect Britain in order to not let communism take over. The Shock of War Know: Axis Powers, Internment Camps, Korematsu v. U.S. 2. How did the war affect liberal ideals and goals at home? Japanese-Americans were arrested and sent to internment camps. Supreme court also supported the internment camps. All jobs became war jobs. America was just trying to defeat the bad guys. Building the War Machine Know: War Production Board, War Labor Board 3. What effects did the war have on manufacturing, agriculture and labor? In manufacturing, the war production board took over and stopped production of non-essential items. In agricultural, new equipment and fertilizers yielded record harvests. In labor, there were minimal labor strikes even though there was a war labor board that set low wages. Manpower and Womanpower Know: WAACS, WAVES, SPARS, GI, Braceros, Rosie the Riveter 5. What opportunities were opened to women as a result of the war? There were 216000 women in the military. Women took war jobs such as building planes, artillery shells, tanks, etc. After, women left the workplace because of the baby boom. Wartime Migrations Know: A. Philip Randolph, Fair Employment Practices Commission, Double V, CORE, Code Talkers, Zoot Suit Riots 6. What effect did the war have on the nation's minorities? African Americans served in segregated units in the military. Becuause of the newly invented cotton

Jessica Chu picking machines, blacks moved to the north or west. The black organizations increased in membership. Native Americans also fought in the war using their code language. Holding the Homefront 7. What economic effects resulted from American participation in the war? The GNP doubled and disaposable income also doubled. The war’s cost was 330 billion. Four times more people had to pay income taxes on credit which meant the national debt went up to 259 billion. The Rising Sun in the Pacific Know: Douglas MacArthur, Bataan Death March 8. Describe Japanese victories in the Pacific in the months following Pearl Harbor. After Pearl Harbor, Japanese began to take island after island such as Guam, Wake Island, Philippines, Hong Kong, British Malaya, Burma, Dutch East Indies and much of coastal China. Japan's High Tide at Midway Know: Battle of the Coral Sea, Midway, Chester Nimitz 9. Why was Midway an important battle? During Midway, instead of being surprised, US surprised Japanese. Adm Raymond Spruance was in charge. America won and sunk four Japanese aircraft carriers. This battle proved to be the turning point in the expansion of Japanese. It halted the expansion. American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo Know: Guadalcanal, Island Hopping, Guam 10. What strategy did the United States use to defeat the Japanese? US used the strategy of island hopping meaning US would take the weaker islands and build airbases on them instead of attacking the stronghold. The stronger islands would be invaded later by bombing or keeping resources from them. The first island-hopping victory was at Guadalcanal. The Allied Halting of Hitler Know: Wolf Packs, Enigma, Erwin Rommel, Bernard Montgomery, El Alamein, Battle of Stalingrad 11. "The war against Hitler looked much better at the end of 1942 than it had in the beginning." Explain. 1942 was a turning point in Europe. The brit bombed germans in france. At the Battle of El Alamein the British stopped the Germans. From there, the Allies would be pushing the Germans back. Russans also stopped Germans at Stalingrad. A Second Front from North Africa to Rome Know: Soft Underbelly of Europe, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Casablanca, Sicily 12. Describe the purpose and outcome of the Invasion of North Africa. The purpose of the invasion of North Africa is to open a second front against Germany so the Russian casualties would not be so heavy. The outcome was the Germans were pushed out of Africa and Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to seek the unconditional surrender of Germany.

Jessica Chu

D-Day: June 6, 1944 Know: Teheran, D-Day, Normandy, George Patton 13. Why could June 6, 1944 be considered THE turning point of the war? The D-Day invasion was the largest amphibious assault in history. The allies managed to get in at Normandy and spread out with the lead of Gen. George S. Patton. Paris was liberated in the Aug of 1944. FDR: The Fourth-Termite of 1944 Know: Thomas Dewey, Henry Wallace, Harry S Truman 14. Why was the choice of a vice-presidential candidate important and difficult for the democrats in 1944? FDR had lots of enemies in outer countries. There was a possiblility that FDR will also die of disease or get murdered by an German spy. Therefore, it is very important for the vice president to not have any enemies and is able to become president when FDR dies. Roosevelt Defeats Dewey Know: Fala 15. What factors led to Roosevelt's victory over Dewey? FDR didn’t campaign a lot. He got a lot of financial help from the CIO’s new political action committee. He won big: 432 to 99. IT was also because the war was going very well at this point.

The Last Days of Hitler Know: Battle of the Bulge, "Nuts," Elbe River, Holocaust, V-E Day 16. Describe the last six months of war in Europe. Germans made one last push at the Battle of the Bulge. America was surprised but they still won. The Allies started pushing towards Berlin. They also found out the horrors of the Holocaust. Eisenhower made the German civilians march through the camps to see what they have done. Japan Dies Hard Know: Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Kamikazes 17. Explain the meaning of the title of this section. Japan was slowly being pushed back. There was a two-day fire-bomb raid on Tokyo. Gen MacArthur was able to get the Philippines back. The small islands of Iwo Jima was captured. Okinawa was also captured. There was the start of Japanese kamikaze suicide pilots

The Atomic Bombs Know: Potsdam, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Hirohito

Jessica Chu 18. What was the military impact of the atomic bomb? The atomic bomb was made by German scientists who had feld Nazi Germany and FDR convinced these scientists. It made the US military the greatest power in the world. The Nahattan Project secretly developed and built the world’s first atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Allies Triumphant Know: George Marshall 19. "This complex conflict was the best fought war in America's history." Explain Although the casualities were a lot, America came out of the war tougher and more powerful than ever. They were also the only ones with the homeland untouched while other countries were in rubble. US also had amazing leaders and great resources and industry. Varying Viewpoints: The Atomic Bombs: Were They Justified? 20. What questions concerning WWII have historians attempted to answer? Historians may have attempted to answer all the moral questions and also whether or not FDR actually knew about the bombing of Pearl Harbor before it happened and didn’t do anything to protect it.