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Chapter #31: American Life in the "Roaring Twenties" – Big Picture Themes Chapter #31 Identifications Red Scare Widespread fear of communism and other politically radical ideas. (A. Mitchell) Palmer Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter." Palmer Raids (1919) Raids led by influential attorney-general of the time on houses of suspected communists/radicals. Sacco and Vanzetti These were two Italian immigrants who were arrested in connection with a shooting in Massachusetts. After a controversial trial, which many deemed unfair, they were sentenced to death. KKK Racist, anti-immigrant clan that held much influence in the 1920s. Used violence and scare tactics to achieve its goals. (Was HORRIFIC) isolationism A term that describes America's withdrawn attitude in the 1920s. Emergency Quota Act of 1921 1921 legislation that limited immigration to 3% of the people of their nationality living in the US in 1910. Immigration Act of 1924 This was passed in 1924--cut quotas for foreigners from 3 % to 2% of the total number of immigrants in 1890--purpose was to freeze America's existing racial composition --prevented Japanese from immigrating, causing outrage in Japan. prohibition The banning of the sale and consumption of all alcoholic products. 18th Amendment (1918) Constitutional amendment that banned the sale and consumption of alcohol. Volstead Act (1919) This law established a Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department. It was under-budgeted and largely ineffective, especially in strongly anti-prohibition states bootlegging The act of making and transporting alcoholic liquor for sale illegally Nicknamed "Scarface" and one of the most notorious gangsters in history, this man earned the title of "Public Enemy No. 1" for his many illegal exploits in Chicago. (John) Dewey United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education (1859-1952) Fundamentalism Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).

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(Billy) Sunday American fundamentalist minister; he used colorful language and powerful sermons to drive home the message of salvation through Jesus and to oppose radical and progressive groups. Scopes Trial A highly publicized trial in 1925 in which a teacher violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school. In the trial, William Jennings Bryan argued on the side of fundamentalism, while Clarence Darrow argued for evolution. (Clarence) Darrow Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools. The Man Nobody Knows 1925 book by advertiser Bruce Barton- set forth provocative thesis that Jesus was the greatest adman of all time. (Henry) Ford United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947) (Frederick) Taylor American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants scientific management A management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it Wright Brothers These two siblings and bike mechanics created the first functioning flying machine. (Charles) Lindbergh This man achieved worldwide renown when he became the first person ever to complete a transatlantic flight. Birth of a Nation Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK. (Margaret) Sanger United States nurse who campaigned for birth control and planned parenthood. flappers Carefree young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion (Sigmund) Freud (1856-1939) Founder of psychoanalysis, created the first comprehensive theory of personality. Tied many psychological processes to sexual desire. (F. Scott) Fitzgerald One of the 20th-century's literary stars, his writing chronicled the Jazz Age. He wrote "This Side of Paradise, and his novel "The Great Gatsby" is considered an American masterpiece. (Married a woman named Zelda!)

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(Ernest) Hemingway This American author saw combat in Italy. His "The Sun Also Rises" and "A Farewell to Arms" reflected postwar disillusionment. Ended up committing suicide. Harlem Renaissance A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished (Langston) Hughes A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People" "on margin" To buy stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest. (Andrew) Mellon An American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. Believed in a government "hands-off" approach to the economy. Chapter #31 Guided Reading Questions Chapter #31 Guided Reading Questions Seeing Red Know: Billy Sunday, Red Scare, A. Mitchell Palmer, Sacco and Vanzetti

1. Cite examples of actions taken in reaction to the perceived threat of radicals and communists during the red scare. The red scare was a very troubling time for Americans throughout the duration of the period. A popular method of dealing with radicals and communists was by way of deportation. Laws were passed that stated violence was against the law in the name of social change and people were denied positions of power just for the mere fact that they were socialist. Hooded Hoodlums of the KKK 2. Compare and contrast the new and old Ku Klux Klansmen.

The old KKK Klansmen was very radical in both their actions and politics being typically violent at all times. The new KKK however was politically minded and resembled the old nativist movements instead of taking major violent action. They were anti-foreign in their ideology which was pro-Anglo-Saxon, pro-“native” American, and proProtestant. Stemming the Foreign Flood Know: 3. Emergency Quota Act, Immigration Act Describe the immigration laws passed in the 1920's.

In the 1920s America had little use for immigrants even though a great many still came into the gates of America. The government first started to stem the flow of immigrants with the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 which restricted the number of immigrants to 3 percent of the people of their nationality who had been living in the US. Secondly the Immigration Act of 1924 cut the quota from 3 to 2 percent which ended an extensive era of free immigration. Makers of America: The Poles Know: Prussian Poles, Russian Poles, Austrian Poles, American Warsaw

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4.

What factors led Poles to America?

Many factors led Poles to America which includes improving political status and economic concerns regarding their country. Originally Poles in the 19th century came to America to escape starvation and earn money to buy land back in their country of origin. Later on in the century more Poles came because of letters from their relatives describing how great America was. The Prohibition "Experiment" Know: Eighteenth Amendment, Volstead Act, Wet and Dry, Speakeasies, Home Brew, Bathtub Gin, Noble Experiment 5. How and why was the eighteenth amendment broken so frequently?

The eighteenth amendment was the legal document that officially banned alcohol completely. Many people used alcohol as a social tool and couldn’t resist living without it. The Federal Government also didn’t enforce prohibition as stringently as any other product and therefore people started to make alcohol and also drink it The Golden Age of Gangsterism Know: Al Capone, St. Valentine's Day Massacre, Lindbergh Law

6. What was Gangsterism? Prohibition soon sparked a major upheaval of crime with many people seeing the profits of making illegal alcohol and selling it. Gangsterism was the way of life in which people act as gangsters and take advantage of people and laws in general. Al Capone was the most notorious of these gangsters as he made millions off of illegal alcohol at any cost. Gangsterism was also dissuaded with the introduction of the Lindbergh Law which made interstate abduction a death penalty in some cases. Monkey Business in Tennessee Know: John Dewey, John T. Scopes, William Jennings Bryan, Clarence Darrow

7. Describe the clash of cultures that took place in schools in the 1920's. The 1920s saw the rise of many different ideas from many sources such as science and religion. Obviously the ideas of both institutions differ and do not go well together. A perfect example of this was in the Monkey Trial in which a high school biology teacher John T. Scopes was indicted for teaching evolution in which he lost the case against the court which was dominated by religious men including William Jennings Bryan. The stress of this ordeal also resulted in Bryan’s death by stroke. The Mass-Consumption Economy Know: Andrew Mellon, The Man Nobody Knows, Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey

8. Give evidence to prove that America became a mass-consumption economy in the 20's. America became a mass-consumption economy because of the way all the businesses started to churn out products efficiently with the help of machines. With all of the resource consumption needed to produce products efficiently America started to advertise. Buying on credit was also another feature that arose which resulted in people falling into debt, sports were also used to take in money with the likes of Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey causing people to pack stadiums and arenas. Putting America on Rubber Tires Know: Henry Ford, Frederick W. Taylor, Model T

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What methods made it possible to mass-produce automobiles?

The assembly line was by far the most efficient method in producing automobiles massively. But in order to establish effective assembly lines themselves innovative machines had to be invented. Finally new management techniques were made that saved time starting with Frederick W. Taylor. The Advent of the Gasoline Age 10. What were the effects of the widespread adoption of the automobile?

The automobile proved to be revolutionary in the fact that it could transport people faster. Now that everyone had cars previously trivial industries were now important due to the fact that the minor parts of the cars needed to be made like glass, rubber, and fabrics. The biggest of these new industries however was the oil industry and the advancement of these industries thus made speedy marketing possible. Humans Develop Wings Know: 11. Orville and Wilbur Wright, Charles Lindbergh What effects did the early airplane have on America?

The airplane was obviously a revolutionary invention that would change the world. The airplane improved transportation of mail with airmail routes, the flight of the Spirit of St. Louis however had the most profound effect by inspiring the youth of the nation. Airplanes also changed the face of war forever with the introduction of a threat by air. The Radio Revolution 12. How did America change as the result of the radio?

America before radio was not really connected as a result of the sluggish news spreading by letters and the scarcity of telegraphs. With the introduction of radio however America was now connected more than ever and entertainment was also changed as well. With comedic shows and major sporting events being casually broadcast. Hollywood's Filmland Fantasies Know: The Great Train Robbery, The Birth of a Nation, The Jazz Singer

13. What were some milestones in the history of motion pictures? Film has always been the most popular form of entertainment. In 1903 “The Great Train Robbery”, was the first story sequence found in film and introduced new ways to express messages. Movies really took off in WW1 when they were used as anti-German propoganda. The Dynamic Decade Know: Margaret Sanger, Flappers, Sigmund Freud, Jelly Roll Morton, Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey

14. "Far-reaching changes in lifestyles and values paralleled the dramatic upsurge in the economy." Explain. The 1920s were very different than any other decade before it and established many different social standards. Sex was also a broken taboo that was very common throughout the 1920s. African-Americans also broke through with many entertainment and cultural phenomenon. African-Americans made many revolutionary contributions to entertainment such as jazz, blues, poetry, and acting, Cultural Liberation Know: H. L. Mencken, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, William Faulkner, Ezra Pound, T.

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S. Eliot, e.e. cummings, Eugene O'Neill, Louis Armstrong, Frank Lloyd Wright 15. How did the arts of the 1920's reflect the times?

The arts of the 1920s were new and revolutionary with many never before seen themes and topics. Young authors came bursting onto the arts scene with great success with a revolutionary and rebellious attitude. Plays and architecture also took on great success with the plays like “Strange Interlude” and the modern marvel the Empire State building. Wall Street's Big Bull Market Know: 16. Margin, Andrew Mellon Was government economic policy successful in the 20's?

The US was in debt during the 1920s in 26 billion dollars because of borrowed money for the war effort. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon made drastic changes to taxes and cut the national debt down to 16 billion dollars. Overall I think that the government’s economic policy was successfu l Chapter #32: The Politics of Boom and Bust – Big Picture Themes 1. President Harding had several scandals underneath him, notably the Teapot Dome Scandal over oil. 2. America entered into policies of “isolationism” whereby the US just wanted to look after herself and leave Europe alone. 3. Coolidge was very pro-business, following a “hands-off” approach by government. 4. Hoover held the same ideas with his “rugged individualism” phrase. When the Stock Crash hit and Great Depression started, Hoover was very reluctant and slow to take government action. Chapter #32: IDENTIFICATIONS Warren Harding President of the United States from 1921 to 1923. This Republican man, though good-natured himself, surrounded himself with a few shady characters who tainted his presidency. Believed in a quasi-laissez-faire economic policy. Died of illness in 1923. Adkins v Children's Hospital (1923) In this court case, the Supreme Court reversed its own reasoning in Muller v. Oregon, on the grounds that women were now the legal equals of men (after the Nineteenth Amendment). Washington Naval Conference (1921-22) A conference hosted by the US which called for US and British de-fortification of Far East possessions (though Japan could fortify all it wanted). Also called for general naval disarmament. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) A rather idealistic agreement between the great world powers to never engage in war except for defensive purposes.

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Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) Raised tariff from 27% to 35%, Duties on farm produce increased. Passed during the Harding Administration. Teapot Dome Scandal (1923) A horrible political scandal involving the private bribery of Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall in exchange for government oileries. Up to that point, it was considered the worst political scandal in American History. (Calvin) Coolidge President of the United States from 1923 to 1929. Became president when Harding died of pneumonia. This man was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business. Progressive Party Revived political party that ran Robert La Follette in the Election of 1924. This group believed in a more prolabor policy, especially in the supporting of economically downtrodden farmers. It received a fairly large percentage of votes for a third party. Dawes Plan (1924) This loan program was crafted to give money to Germany so that they could pay war reparations and lessen the financial crisis in Europe; the program ended with the 1929 stock market crash. (Herbert) Hoover President of the United States from 1929 to 1933. Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community. (Alfred) Smith He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate. Had too many "problems" to win against Hoover. Agricultural Marketing Act (1929) This act provided for a form of relief for farmers by creating a Federal Farm Board, which was designed to stabilize farm crop prices. lost over $150 billion Federal Farm Board Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming. Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930) Raised tariffs to an unprecedented level and worsened the depression by raising prices and discouraging foreign trade. Stock Market Crash (1929) Plunge in stock market prices that marked the beginning of the Great Depression "Black Tuesday" (10/29/29) Name given to the fatal crash of 1929.

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Hoovervilles Sneering name given to the shantytowns that sprang up during the depression. rugged individualism The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Herbert Hoover. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932) This agency became a government lending bank. It was designed to provide indirect relief by assisting insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, and railroads. "Bonus Army" (BEF) (1932) Name given to the mass of struggling WWI vets who, in the face of hard economic times, wanted to collect their pay checks early. Manchurian Crisis (1931) In 1931 the Japanese stage-managed an attack on the Japanese owned Manchurian railway by "Chinese bandits." To protect their interests the Japanese army took control of the whole region. Both China and Japan appealed to the League of Nations to arbitrate. Stimson Doctrine (1932) American foreign policy that stated that the US would not formally recognize any territories that were seized by force. Good Neighbor Policy FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region.

The Republican "Old Guard" Returns Know: Warren Harding, Ohio Gang

1. What flaws did Warren Harding possess? Warren Harding, the republican president after Wilson, was noted for being very popular with the people and also very friendly. However, he was also known for being very easily tricked, in other words gullible, and not that much smarter than the average citizen. He sought to have the best cabinet around him, and although he chose a few of the best people suited for their jobs such as Charles Evans Hughes, Andrew Mellon and also Herbert Hoover; he also chose people he thought he could trust but actually couldn’t such as Albert B. Fall who was a schemer and against conserving and also Harry M. Daugherty, who was easily bribed as attorney general. GOP Reaction at the Throttle 2. What pro-business policies were taken by the government during the Harding administration.

Harding’s administration was a very traditional one, in which many of the progressive cases were halted or even reversed. Harding had to appoint 4 new judges for the Supreme Court, and he chose 3 traditional ones and also former president William Taft, who was the most liberal of the 4 new judges. With the Harding administration, America returned back to laissez-faire, which encouraged less government limitations on companies. They also

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reversed child labor laws and in Adkins v Children’s Hospital, they actually overturned the women’s minimum wage. They also turned back many anti-trust laws and encouraged big businesses to reign again. The Aftermath of War Know: Railway Labor Board, American Legion, Adjusted Compensation Act

3. What effects did the war have on the post-war economy? The economy did not prosper after the war. In addition to war debts, many ex-soldiers demanded 'adjusted compensation' to make up for the wages they 'lost' after joining the army. Congress passed the Adjusted Compensation Act in 1924, which gave every former soldier an insurance policy due in twenty years and added about $3.5 billion to the total war cost. Labor also suffered; strikes were brutally dealt with by exploiting ethnic and racial divisions among the workers. America Seeks Benefits Without Burdens Know: Unofficial Observers, Charles Evans Hughes, Five-Power Naval Treaty, Four-Power Treaty, Nine-Power Treaty, Kellogg-Briand Pact 4. How did the U.S. take the lead in disarmament in the 20's?

The United States, led by then-president Warren G. Harding, took the lead in disarmament in the 1920's by creating the Five-Power Naval Treaty and the Four-Power Treaty between Britain, Japan, France, and the United States. These treaties said to cut down on the amounts of battleships and aircrafts produced and used. Hiking the Tariff Higher Know: 5. Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law What effects were produced by high American tariffs?

Since businesses in America need to have a higher tariff to protect themselves against cheaper European goods, the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law was passed. Rates were raised from 27 % to 38.5%. Although this was good for America, Europe owed them some money, and because of the high tariffs, they aren't able to pay back the money they owed. The Stench of Scandal Know: Charles R. Forbes, Albert B. Fall, Teapot Dome, Harry M. Daugherty

6. "Such was his [Harding's] weakness that he tolerated people and conditions that subjected the Republic to its worst disgrace since the days of President Grant." Explain Since businesses in America need to have a higher tariff to protect themselves against cheaper European goods, the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law was passed. Rates were raised from 27 % to 38.5%. Although this was good for America, Europe owed them some money, and because of the high tariffs, they aren't able to pay back the money they owed. “Silent Cal” Coolidge Know: 7. Calvin Coolidge Do the nicknames, "Silent Cal" and "Cautious Cal" accurately describe the Coolidge presidency?

Both of Coolidge's nicknames were true descriptions for the five and a half years of his presidency. During the duration of his presidency he never performed or authorized any rash or controversial actions and decisions. Businesses favored him because he didn't bother to take any risks in their domain unlike many of his predecessors.

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His nickname "Silent Cal" suits his personality perfectly because he actually didn't talk much and his inability to have powerful speeches most likely stemmed from his silent personality. Frustrated Farmers Know: McNary-Haugen Bill 8. What had changed for the farmer since 1890? What had remained the same? The most drastic change for the farmer since 1890 was probably the introduction of machines that increased the product a farmer could produce. Machines also eliminated the need for farm hands and were now able to grow larger crops. The conditions that remained the same were the farmers desire for high crop prices and ability to work their land. A Three-Way Race for the White House in 1924 Know: Robert La Follette 9. Why did Calvin Coolidge easily win the 1924 election? Coolidge easily won the election primarily because he was a good president and was popular because of it. The other candidates were also not very capable and radical in their ideas and policy. John W. Davis seemed to be an unworthy candidate for presidency while Robert La Follette showed that he had the spirit but not the manpower for his progressive party. Foreign-Policy Flounderings 10. What are the arguments for America canceling the WWI debt of European countries? The reasons were that America during the time was doing financially well overall while they still wanted more money. The Allied countries additionally stated that they had sacrificed millions of lives and that their sacrifice was their repayment towards the loans. They also said that if they really did pay back America it would only go towards boosting the already successful economy. Unraveling the Debt Knot Know: Dawes Plan

11. What were the world-wide repercussions of America’s insistence on debt repayment? America’s strong insistence on debt repayment was very strong and had adverse effects on the world’s view of America. America was ridiculed by all of Europe when in the end the US didn’t get the money it was cla moring for. This led to the passing of a neutrality legislation in the 1930s that attempted to stem the ill will from Europe. The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, 1928 Know: 12. Al Smith, "Rum, Romanism, and Ruin" Why was Herbert Hoover so much more popular with voters than Al Smith?

Al Smith was less popular than Herbert Hoover for a number of reasons that relate to his personality and mannerisms. Smith drank while the country was still practicing prohibition, he was a Roman Catholic in a predominantly protestant county, and they saw him as too abrasively urban. Herbert Hoover was much more popular because he was a perfect example of the American Dream and dignity. President Hoover's First Moves Know: 13. Farm Board, Hawley-Smoot Tariff Did Hoover’s attempts to help farmers produce positive results? Explain.

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Hoover’s attempts to help farmers did not produce positive results due to his failure to make good on his promise to consider agricultural relief and bring limited changes to the tariff. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff was designed to protect the farmers but instead it took farmers’ incomes away by charging 60 percent. The act proved especially tragic on the farmers when the depression hit. The Great Crash Ends the Golden Twenties Know: 14. Black Tuesday, "Brother Can You Spare a Dime?" What were the immediate effects of the stock market crash?

The stock market crash of 1929 also known as “Black Tuesday” is one of the worst economic crisis’s that has happened in the modern world. Some of the immediate effects of the crash were job losses across the country, businesses went bankrupt, people lost homes to foreclosure, and mothers had fewer kids. Attempts to mediate the people were with the formation of bread lines and soup kitchens to feed the starving people. Hooked on the Horn of Plenty Know: 15. Hoover Blankets, Hoovervilles What causes contributed to the Great Depression?

The main reason behind the Great Depression was the overproduction of both farm and factory. Other causes were overexpansion of credit, buying overstimulated production, and additional financial collapse in Europe. All of these factors ultimately led to the Great Depression in the end. Rugged Times for Rugged Individualists Know: 16. Rugged Individualism, The Great Humanitarian How did President Hoover’s beliefs affect the way he handled the Depression?

At first Hoover’s beliefs in individualism affected the way he handled the Depression by hi m not taking any action at all. But as soon as the Depression worsened he soon backed off of his individualistic ideas and offered help to businesses and the common people with relief stations. Hoover overall was criticized by the way he handled the Depression situation as a whole Hoover Battles the Great Depression Know: Muscle Shoals Bill, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Pump-Priming, Yellow Dog Contracts 17. Is Hoover’s reputation as ultra-conservative well deserved? Explain. President Hoover has always been considered a conservative throughout history which is evident in many of his actions. For example, during the Depression he would not help people until it was too late which at first went against his policy. This shows that Hoover was truly conservative and not willing to go the extra mile and do something. Routing the Bonus Army in Washington Know: Bonus Expeditionary Force, Douglas MacArthur 18. What happened to the Bonus Army? Why? The Bonus Army was the collections of WWI veterans demanding that they get their deserved pay from their service. They established a camp in Washington D.C. and made several protests against congress. In the end the Bonus Army was forced out with brutal force by General MacArthur and Hoover’s reputation was shattered.

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Japanese Militarists Attack China Know: Manchuria, Stimson Doctrine 19. How did the Japanese attack on Manchuria demonstrate the weakness of the League of Nations? The Japanese attacked Manchuria aggressively without mercy in 1931. With the U.S. still in the midst of the Depression other countries could not count on their support and thus were afraid to act against Japan. The only thing that the League of Nations could do was condemn their actions with a written document that the Japanese unsurprisingly ignored. Hoover Pioneers the Good Neighbor Policy 20. What was President Hoover’s policy toward Latin America? Upon taking up the presidency Hoover sought to improve relations in Latin America. Despite the Depression he was successfully able to remove Marine platoons from Haiti, and Nicaragua. These moves set the foundation of the “Good Neighbor” policy which Franklin Roosevelt would later expand upon. Chapter #33: The Great Depression and the New Deal – Big Picture Themes Chapter #33: Identifications (Franklin Delano) Roosevelt (FDR) Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover's policies with the intent on enacting his own. He pledged a present a "New Deal" (its specific meaning ambiguous at the time to the American people) to the American public. Eleanor Roosevelt [FULL NAME REQUIRED] FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women Election of 1932 In this election, a fresh and energetic Franklin Delano Roosevelt ran against the hapless Hoover. FDR pushed his ambiguous "new deal", and the public ate it up. The election ended in a landslide for FDR. 100 Days (Congress) F.Roosevelt's democratic congress who brought out legislation. Congress gave F.Roosevelt blank check power, passed many progressive goals, supported public reliability on banks during depression. FDR's "I'm here!" statement. Relief, Recovery, Reform Three components of the New Deal. The first "R" was the effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression, & included social security and unemployment insurance. The second "R" was the effort in numerous programs to restore the economy to normal health, achieved by 1937. Finally, the third "R" let government intervention stabilize the economy by balancing the interests of farmers, business and labor. There was no major anti-trust program. Emergency Bank Relief Act (1933) Passed on March 9, 1933, this act allowed a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive.It was a temporary response to a major problem. The 1933 Banking Act passed later that year presented elements of longer-term response, including formation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Fireside chats The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.

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Glass-Steagall Act (1933) This act forbade commercial banks from engaging in excessive speculation, added $1 billion in gold to economy and established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) This entity provided insurance to personal banking accounts up to $5,000. These assured people that their money was safe and secure. This agency still functions today. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 1933. This unemployment relief act hired young men for reforestation programs, firefighting. flood control, spawn drainage, etc; Federal Emergency Relief Act (1933) One of the New Deal's most comprehensive measures, this 1933 act appropriated $500 million to support state and local treasuries that had run dry First Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933) This act restricted agricultural production in the New Deal era by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops. Civil Works Administration (1933) New Deal program that was only open for two years. It put people to work with building roads and bridges, construction, etc. (Charles) Coughlin Catholic priest who used his popular radio program to criticize the New Deal; he grew increasingly antiRoosevelt and anti-Semitic until the Catholic Church pulled him off the air. Huey Long [FULL NAME REQUIRED] Louisianna Senator who opposed FDR's New Deal and came up with a "Share the Wealth" plan, which planned to give $5000 to all families. He was later assassinated. Dr. Francis Townsend [FULL NAME REQUIRED] This man was a critic of the new deal. He developed the Townsend Plan as a way for the elderly to gain a monthly pension of $200 that must be spent within 30 days. Works Progress Administration (1935) New Deal program that provided relief to the unemployed in fields such as theater, literature, entertainment, and art. One of the largest "alphabet" agencies. (Frances) Perkins U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. She took much flak from her contemporaries.

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Mary McLeod Bethune [FULL NAME REQUIRED] This woman was a leader in the struggle for racial and gender equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) This act authorized the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and established a national public works program. National Recovery Administration (1933) Directed by Hugh John, this agency set up a system of codes of business practice, including giving fair wages and work hours. Businesses and labor unions who followed such codes could advertise as such (symbol: Blue Eagle) and thus gain more membership. Was limited in success. Schechter v. U.S. (1935) Declared the National Recovery Administration (part of FDR's New Deal) unconstitutional on the basis that the NRA gave the executive branch regulatory powers that belonged exclusively to Congress. Public Works Administration (1933) Provided funding for numerous projects that created many jobs while improving the nation's infrastructure. 21st Amendment (1933) This repealed prohibition. Dust Bowl A horrible natural disaster in which Midwestern dust from millions of acres of dry, arid land (which in-part got that way from the tilling of the area) was blown up into the air and carried as far as Boston. Caused much suffering. Indian Reorganization Act (1934) The Native American "New Deal"; encouraged tribes to preserve their culture and tradition. Essentially repealed the Dawes Act.

Securities and Exchange Commission (1934) Congressional commission created in 1934 to administer the Securites Act requiring full financial disclosure by companies wishing to sell stock, and to prevent the unfair manipulation of stock exchanges

Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) It built a hydroelectric network that supplied cheap power while also developing a flood-control system, recreational facilities, and soil conservation program. First federal business to compete with private enterprises. Social Security Act (1935) The greatest victory for New Dealers; created pension and insurance for the old-aged, the blind, the physically handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents by taxing employees and employers

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(John L.) Lewis United Mine Workers of America leader who organized the coal miners strike

Wagner Act (1935) Created National Labor Relations board for administrative purposes & reasserted rights to unionize & bargain through reps.

National Labor Relations Board An independent agency of the United States government charged with mediating disputes between management and labor unions. Congress of Industrial Organizations Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955. (John Maynard) Keynes British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption.

Hatch Act (1939) Limits how involved federal government employees can become in elections. This prevented political parties from forcing federal workers to take part in election campaigns.

First New Deal (1933-35) The first part of Roosevelt's economic policy, this one was a bit more fiscally conservative and more experimental than its successor.

Second New Deal (1935-38) The second part of Roosevelt's economic policy, this took more drastic action and was more pro-labor/antibusiness. Chapter #33 Guided Reading Questions FDR: A Politician in a Wheelchair Know: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt 1 What kind of man was FDR? Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the cousin of Teddy Roosevelt and was known for his leadership capabilities and qualities. FDR was a very compassionate, extraordinary man with an unbreakable will. FDR acquired these qualities by persevering through his deadly paralysis. Presidential Hopefuls of 1932 2. What was Roosevelt's campaign message in the 1932 election? Roosevelt’s speeches during his campaign were written by the Brains Trust who was a group of young college professors. With their help Roosevelt sent his message of a balanced budget and the condemnation of Hooverian deficits. Hoover knew that his campaign was doomed due to his tarnished reputation from the Great Depression.

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The Humiliation of Hoover in 1932 3. What were the immediate results of Roosevelt's victory? There were various results that showed immediately after FDR won throughout the country. The most drastic change was the switching of allegiances of blacks to the Democratic Party after staying with the Republicans since Lincoln’s presidency. People also began to save money in case the depression got worse with FD R as president. FDR and the Three R's: Relief, Recovery, Reform Know: New Deal, Banking Holiday, Hundred Days, Three R's, 4. Describe the New Deal. The New Deal was a program that was designed to help ease the United States back into normal post-depression life. The main focuses of the New Deal were the three R’s - relief, recovery, and reform. Overall the New Deal would further cement the US’s recovered status as a strong nation again. Roosevelt Manages the Money Know: Fireside Chats, Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Managed Currency 5. What were the key aspects of FDR's monetary policy? The bank was clamoring for immediate action from congress due to the mess the banking system was in. Congress therefore pumped out the Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933 and many other documents as well. Another key aspect of FDR’s monetary policy was his gold buying scheme to increase the number of dollars in circulation Creating Jobs for the Jobless Know: Pump Priming, CCC, FERA, Harry Hopkins, AAA, HOLC, CWA 6. Explain the difference between New Deal agencies and what radical critics wanted the government to do. New deal agencies were designed to help different groups of people with attaining work. Although people were now gaining jobs these jobs were composed of trivial work and appropriately dubbed “boondoggling”. Radical critics wanted the government to assign real jobs to people instead of simple ones. A Day for Every Demagogue Know: Father Charles Coughlin, Huey Long, Dr. Francis E. Townsend, WPA 7. List other historical demagogues. Demagogues were people who arose with radical ideas and gained followers much like cult leaders. There are many demagogues found throughout history such as Adolf Hitler, the American Revolutionaries and other figures. All of these demagogues were eventually silenced in some way or another which is something they all have in common. New Visibility for Women Know: Frances Perkins, Mary McLeod Bethune, Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, Pearl Buck 8. Explain the factors that made it possible for these women to gain fame. The 20th century was a revolutionary time and this sort of time period made it possible for women to be heard. Various women gained fame with their many works in literature and the arts while other gained fame by their actions. Women were also more socially acceptable as well which contributes to the factors that made it possible for women to gain fame. Helping Industry and Labor Know: NRA, Sick Chicken Decision, PWA, Harold Ickes 9. How did the NRA attempt to restore industry? The National Recovery Administration was authorized by the Emergency Congress and tried to restore immediate relief with long range recovery and reform. It was also designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed. The NRA tried to restore industry by administering codes of fair competition under which hours

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of labor would be reduced so that employment could be spread over more people. Paying Farmers Not to Farm 10. How did the federal government attempt to help farmers? The federal government tried to help farmers with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. The AAA tried to help by letting farmers sell their products at a massive scale while simultaneously conserving land. Many attempts and acts were made and the government was able to help farmers. Dust Bowls and Black Blizzards Know: Dust Bowl, Okies and Arkies, The Grapes of Wrath, Indian Reorganization Act 11. How did nature cause problems for some farmers on the plains? During the farming season many farmers planted their crop using dry farming techniques because of their drought and high grain prices. Nature was a problem because there was no rain and winds kicked up the bad soil from all around the plains. These conditions made the plains uninhabitable and therefore farming was impossible. Makers of America: The Dust Bowl Migrants Know: San Joaquin Valley, Farm Security Administration, Okievilles 12. In what ways were things better in California? In what ways were they the same? The residents of the plains fled to California to escape the Dust Bowl in which they successfully escaped. Things were better in California because of the temperate climate and abundant land. Things were the same because of the nationally affecting Great Depression. Battling Bankers and Big Business Know: Federal Securities Act, SEC 13. "Reformist New Dealers were determined from the outset to curb the `money changers....'" Explain. The New Dealers were ready to beat out the money changers so that they could avoid another depression. These New Dealers wanted to reform the economy and stock market to make it all better. Their attempts rid the economy of fraud investors and manipulation. The TVA Harnesses the Tennessee River Know: TVA, Creeping Socialism 14. What arguments were used for and against the TVA project? The Tennessee Valley Authority was formed by the Hundred Days Congress in an effort to utilize electricity better. This was the most revolutionary of the New Deal ideas because it was essentially a planned economy. The arguments for the TVA project were that it brought many environmentally friendly results and also restored employment with cheap electric power. The arguments against it were that it was a socialistic ploy by the government. Housing Reform and Social Security Know: FHA, Social Security 15. How did the FHA and Social Security attempt to help some of society's least fortunate? Both the FHA and Social Security were designed to help the less fortunate since its inception. The FHA helped the less fortunate by building houses for a great number of people that were affordable. The Social Security helped people by providing insurance in case they ever found themselves unemployed or handicapped. A New Deal for Labor Know: Wagner Act, National Labor Relations Board, CIO, John L. Lewis, Sit-down Strike 16. How did labor respond to the improvement of conditions brought about by the New Deal? Labor did not respond very well at first to the new deal. They found it to be offensive and did not accept it at all until they worked something out. It was primarily the labor unions that were opposing the new deals.

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Landon Challenges "the Champ” Know: Alfred Landon, American Liberty League 17. What was the significance of the 1936 election? The 1936 election was especially important in politics because it determined a lot of racial facts for a while. Like the blacks moving towards the Democratic side instead of the Republican side. FDR also garnered support from many distinct religious groups and races. Nine Old Men on the Supreme Bench 18. Why did Roosevelt ask Congress for a bill that would allow him to add justices to the Supreme Court? FDR was a very smart man and he knew that he couldn’t have incompetent justices in the Supreme Court. His specific targets were old and possibly senile men who were out of their mental prime. After he eliminated these justices he turned out to have too many Justices The Court Changes Course Know: Court Packing, Hugo Black 19. What were the consequences of FDR's attempt to pack the Court? FDR’s attempt to pack the court had not too many consequences but the ones that are evident are that he had too many inexperienced judges. He also lost the court battles which resulted in his first defeat. Another consequence was that the court was not reformed. The Twilight of the New Deal Know: Roosevelt Recession, John Maynard Keynes, Hatch Act 20. Assess the successfulness of FDR in his second term. FDR in his second term was not as successful as in his second term because of several reasons. The economy took another major downturn and he did not do as much overall compared to his last term. FDR however would still get a chance to prove himself in his coming terms. New Deal or Raw Deal? 21. What criticism of the New Deal seems most fair to you? Least fair? The criticism of the New Deal is massive due to there being many critics of FDR in his time. The most fair criticism was the alphabet soup criticism while the least fair was the accusation that he had done nothing. This accusation is harsh because he did in fact do a lot for the country. Varying Viewpoints: How Radical Was the New Deal Know: Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Carl Degler, Constraints School of Historians, New Deal Coalition 22. What did William Leuechtenburg mean when he called the New Deal a "half-way revolution?" (Your answer should focus more on the information before this term than on the information after it.) William Lecechtenburg said that the New Deal was a half way revolution for a reason. The new deal was very radical and controversial in all of its decisions and ideals. Many supported it as a welcome change while most thought it was un-American.