Chapter #27: Empire and Expansion – Big Picture Themes 1. The Spanish-American War saw the U.S.

gain Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guantanomo Bay in u!a, the Phi"ippines, an# other sma""er is"an#s. $. The Phi"ippines pro%e# to !e har# to han#"e since the &i"ipino peop"e #i#n't want the U.S. there. They wage# a gueri""a war an# resente# American contro" unti" it was turne# !ac( o%er to the Phi"ippines a)ter WW**. +. The U.S. manage# to get an ,-pen .oor Po"icy/ with hina. This opene# the Asian giant to internationa" tra#e. 0. Te##y Roose%e"t !ecame a %igorous presi#ent who o!taine# an# !ui"t the Panama ana". His ,Big Stic( Po"icy/ towar# 1atin America increase# America's in)"uence, !ut a"so increase# animosity towar# the U.S.

Chapter #27: *#enti)ications Richard Olney U.S. secretary o) state who use# the 2onroe .octrine to pressure Britain in the 3ene4ue"an !oun#ary crisis A")re# Thayer 2ahan American na%a" o))icer who wrote in)"uentia" !oo(s emphasi4ing sea power an# a#%ocating a !ig na%y 3a"eriano Wey"er Spanish Genera" in u!a who her#e# many ci%i"ians into !ar!e#-wire reconcentration camps so they cou"# not he"p the insurrectos. a""e# 5Butcher Wey"er5 !ecause hun#re#s o) thousan#s o) peop"e #ie# in his concentration camps #e 1ome 1etter 1etter written !y Spanish o))icia" .upuy #e 1one which critici4e# Presi#ent 2c6in"ey an# ca""e# him a wimp. Hearst pu!"ishe# the "etter an# many Americans were angere# !y it 7mi"io Aguina"#o 1ea#er o) the &i"ipino insurgents who ai#e# Americans in #e)eating Spain an# ta(ing 2ani"a 8ingoism 79treme, chau%inistic patriotism, o)ten )a%oring an aggressi%e, war"i(e )oreign po"icy.

Te""er Amen#ment Act o) ongress in 1:;: that state# that when the Unite# States ha# ri# u!a o) Spanish ru"e, u!a wou"# !e grante# its )ree#om. *t pre%ente# u!a )rom turning hosti"e towar#s the U.S. Rough Ri#ers 3o"unteer so"#iers "e# !y Theo#ore Roose%e"t #uring the Spanish-American War Anti-*mperia"ist 1eague o!<ecte# to the anne9ation o) the Phi"ippines an# the !ui"#ing o) an American empire. *#ea"ism, se")-interest, racism, constitutiona"ism, an# other reasons moti%ate# them, !ut they )ai"e# to ma(e their case= the Phi"ippines were anne9e# in 1;>> &ora(er Act ongress accor#e# the Puerto Ricans a "imite# #egree o) popu"ar go%?t an# in 1;1@, grante# then US citi4enship. Wor(e# won#ers in e#ucation, sanitation, transportation, A more *nsu"ar cases onstitution #i#n?t ha%e )u"" authority o) how to #ea" with is"an#s BPuerto Ricans C u!ans su!<ect to American ru"e, !ut #i#n?t ha%e a"" rightsD P"att Amen#ment This amen#ment to the new u!an constitution authori4e# U.S. inter%ention in u!a to protect its interests. u!a p"e#ge# not to ma(e treates with other countries that might compromise its in#epen#ence, an# it grante# na%a" !ases to the Unite# States, most nota!"e !eing Guantanamo Bay. Spheres o) *n)"uence. the geographica" area in which one nation is %ery in)"uentia" Phi"ippine *nsurrection !e)ore the Phi"ippines was anne9e# !y the U.S. there was tension !etween U.S. troops an# &i"ipinos, US went to war with Phi". an# they gaine# their in#epen#ence a)ter "osing the war -pen .oor Po"icy Po"icy that as(e# power)u" an# in)"uentia" countries to respect hinese rights an# promote )air tra#e with "ow tari))s. This po"icy was accepte# !y other countries an# pre%ente# any country )rom creating a monopo"y on hinese tra#e.E Bo9er Re!e""ion 1:;; re!e""ion in Bei<ing, hina starte# !y a secret society o) hinese who oppose# the 5)oreign #e%i"s5. The re!e""ion was en#e# !y British troops

Big Stic( Po"icy .ip"omatic po"icy #e%e"ope# !y TR that emphasi4es US power an# TR?s rea#iness to use mi"itary )orce i) necessary. *t is a way o) intimi#ating countries without actua""y harming them an# was the !asis o) U.S. imperia"istic )oreign po"icy. Roose%e"t oro""ary Roose%e"t?s 1;>0 e9tension o) the 2onroe .octrine, stating that the Unite# States has the right to protect its economic interests in South An# entra" America !y using mi"itary )orce Portsmouth on)erence The meeting !etween 8apan, Russia, an# the U.S. that en#e# the Russo-8apanese War in 1;>F. Roose%e"t won the Go!e" Peace Pri4e )or stopping the )ighting !etween those two countries. Gent"emen's Agreement Agreement when 8apan agree# to cur! the num!er o) wor(ers coming to the US an# in e9change Roose%e"t agree# to a""ow the wi%es o) the 8apenese men a"rea#y "i%ing in the US to <oin them Root-Ta(ahira Agreement 1;>: - 8apan H U.S. agreement in which !oth nations agree# to respect each other?s territories in the Paci)ic an# to upho"# the -pen .oor po"icy in hina. Chapter #27: denti!ications America Turns -utwar# 6nowI 8osiah Strong, A")re# 2ahan, Richar# -"ney, British Guiana, Great Rapprochement 1. What )actors cause# America to turn its attention to the wor"# !eyon# her !or#ersJ *n the )ina" #eca#es o) the nineteenth century, America grew hungry )or empire an# e9pansion, or imperia"ism, an# !ecame incre#i!"y aggressi%e in its )oreign po"icy Aggressi%e e9pansionism !ecame popu"ar in America than(s to the #esire to tap o%erseas mar(ets, the ye""ow press o) 8oseph Pu"it4er an# Wi""iam Ran#o"ph Hearst, the racist %iew that Ang"o-Sa9ons ought to #ominate the 5!ac(war#s peop"es5 Spurning the Hawaiian Pear 6nowI Kueen 1i"iuo(a"ani $. Why #i# Presi#ent "e%e"an# not want to anne9 HawaiiJ Gro%er "e%e"an#, an anti-imperia"ist, oppose# anne9ation as an in)ringement upon a so%ereign nation an# trie# to restore the Kueen B1i"iuo(a"aniD.

u!ans Rise in Re%o"t 6nowI Genera" Wey"er +. What was happening in u!a that cause# Americans to !e concerne#J u!an re!e"s B(nown as the insurrectosD "aunche# an e))ort to )ight )or in#epen#ence in 1:;F, a#opting the scorche#-earth po"icy against cane )ie"#s, sugar mi""s, an# passenger trains .ewey?s 2ay .ay 3ictory at 2ani"a 6nowI Te##y Roose%e"t, George .ewey 0. Why #i# ommo#ore .ewey ha%e such an easy %ictory o%er the Spanish )"eet at the Phi"ippinesJ .ewey?s sLua#ron, consisting o) si9 !ran# new warships, sai"e# into 2ani"a har!or. The 1>-ship Spanish )"eet was comp"ete"y ta(en !y surprise. Se%era" o) the Spanish ships were so o"# an# rotting that they cou"# !are"y )"oat. The on)use# *n%asion o) u!a 6nowI Rough Ri#ers, Te##y Roose%e"t, San 8uan Hi"" F. .escri!e the )ighting in u!a. A)ter initia" panic, the Spanish 5arma#a5 was easi"y !"oc(a#e# in Santiago Har!or, u!a, !y the American )"eet, a""owing American )orces "e# !y Genera" Wi""iam R. Sha)ter to in%a#e with his )orce Bwhich inc"u#e# the Rough Ri#ers, who were "e# !y o"one" 1eonar# Woo# an# Theo#ore Roose%e"tD o) se%enteen thousan# men in the mi##"e o) 8une= a)ter "an#ing with re"ati%e ease, Americans swi)t"y #e)eate# Spanish troops at 7" aney, 6ett"e Hi"", an# San 8uan Hi"" on 8u"y 1st. The wea( Spanish )"eet "e)t Santiago Har!or to a%oi# the Army, steaming out to the waiting !"oc(a#e o) American warships , causing Santiago to surren#er= short"y a)ter, American troops easi"y in%a#e# Puerto Rico, )orcing Spain to sign an armistice on August 1$, 1:;: American troops statione# in the u!an <ung"es were e9pose# to #iseases Binc"u#ing ma"aria, typhoi# )e%er, #ysentery, an# ye""ow )e%erD which incapacitate# hun#re#s an# (i""e# o%er )i%e thousan# men= in contrast, "ess than )our hun#re# men were (i""e# !y Spanish troops. The Spanish-American negotiations in Paris in "ate 1:;: resu"te# in the )reeing o) u!a America?s ourse B urseJD o) 7mpire 6nowI Anti-*mperia"ist 1eague M. What were the arguments )or an# against the anne9ation o) the Phi"ippinesJ The peop"e that were )or anne9ing the is"an#s argue# that there were !usiness interests in thoughts o) new mar(ets an# )ie"#s o) in%estments, the Unite# States wante# to !ecome an empire an# so they wante# to e9pan# more. USA, especia""y, #i#n?t want to "ose these is"an#s to 8apan or Germany. 2a(ers o) AmericaI The Puerto Ricans @. How has U.S. citi4enship cause# Puerto Ricans to !e #i))erent )rom other immigrantsJ *nstea# o) !eing a technica" 5a"ien5 in country, they a"rea#y ha%e citi4enship. .espite !eing new in the county an# (nowing nothing B<ust "i(e other immigrantsD , the #on?t ha%e to go through the natura"i4ation process.

Perp"e9ities in Puerto Rico an# u!a 6nowI *nsu"ar ases, Genera" 1eonar# Woo#, Wa"ter Ree#, P"att Amen#ment, Guantanamo :. .escri!e American treatment o) u!a a)ter the Spanish-American War. The American mi"itary go%ernment in u!a, "e# !y Genera" 1eonar# Woo#, ma#e impro%ements in go%ernment, )inance, e#ucation, agricu"ture, an# pu!"ic hea"th= Woo# an# o"one" Wi""iam . Gorgas !oth supporte# e9periments !y .r. Wa"ter Ree# which i#enti)ie# the stegomyia mosLuito as the carrier o) ye""ow )e%er, an# "aunche# e))orts to wipe the insects an# the #isease out in Ha%ana an# other cities Gew Hori4ons in Two Hemispheres ;. What were the outcomes o) the Spanish-American WarJ Peace was arrange# !y the Treaty o) Paris signe# .ec. 1>, 1:;: Brati)ie# !y the U.S. Senate, &e!. M, 1:;;D. The Spanish 7mpire was practica""y #isso"%e#. u!a was )ree#, !ut un#er U.S. tute"age !y terms o) the P"att Amen#ment Bsee un#er P"att, -r%i""eD, with Spain assuming the u!an #e!t. Puerto Rico an# Guam were ce#e# to the Unite# States as in#emnity, an# the Phi"ippines were surren#ere# to the Unite# States )or a payment o) mi""ion. The Unite# States emerge# )rom the war with new internationa" power. *n !oth 1atin America an# 7ast Asia it ha# esta!"ishe# an imperia" )ootho"#. 51itt"e Brown Brothers5 in the Phi"ippines 6nowI Wi""iam Howar# Ta)t, Bene%o"ent Assimi"ation 1>. *n what way #o the Phi"ippines show the goo# an# !a# si#es o) American imperia"ismJ *n 1:;:, in an e))ort to )ree u!a )rom the oppression o) its Spanish co"oni4ers, America capture# the Phi"ippines. This !rought a!out Luestions o) what America shou"# #o with the Phi"ippines. Soon, contro%ersy ensue# !oth in the American po"itica" arena as we"" as among its citi4ens. When America e9pan#e# to the Phi"ippines, the po"icy it )o""owe# was a star( !rea( )rom past )orms o) e9pansionism. .espite much contro%ersy, America )o""owe# the e9amp"e o) the imperia"istic nations in 7urope an# sought to conLuer the Phi"ippines as an imperia"ist co"ony that they wou"# ru"e either #irect"y or in#irect"y. Hinging the -pen .oor in hina 6nowI Bo9er Re!e""ion 11. Was American in%o"%ement in hina !ene)icia" to hinaJ A)ter !eing #e)eate# !y 8apan in 1:;0-1:;F, a wea(ene# hina was su!<ecte# to the esta!"ishment o) spheres o) in)"uence o) !y 7uropean powers, causing a concerne# America Bparticu"ar"y hurches an# merchantsD to act= Secretary o) State 8ohn Hay?s -pen .oor note, sent to the Great Powers in the summer o) 1:;;, propose# that each power announce that they wou"# respect hinese rights an# )air competition within their spheres o) in)"uence. 2a(ers o) AmericaI The &i"ipinos 1$. Were &i"ipino immigrants we"come# with open arms in AmericaJ 79p"ain. Some &i"ipino immigrants were we"come# with open arms, especia""y those whose s(i""s were nee#e# at the time, "i(e nurses, who are in short supp"y at times.

*mperia"ism or Bryanism in 1;>>J 1+. What issues were important in the 1;>> e"ectionJ *n the Repu!"ican con%ention o) 1;>>, 2c6in"ey was renominate# than(s to his %ictorious war, increase# prosperity, an# protection o) the go"# stan#ar#, an# Theo#ore Roose%e"t was nominate# )or %ice presi#ent in an e))ort !y Gew Nor( party !osses to neutra"i4e their har#hea#e# go%ernor= the .emocrats nominate# Wi""iam 8ennings Bryan in 6ansas ity, who charge# that 1inco"n ha# )ree# +.F mi""ion A)ricans an# that 2c6in"ey in contrast ha# ens"a%e# @ mi""ion &i"ipinos TRI Bran#isher o) the Big Stic( 6nowI Big Stic(, Bu""y Pu"pit 10. Gi%e e%i#ence to show that Te##y Roose%e"t was an uncon%entiona" presi#entJ His motto was 5Spea( so)t"y an# carry a !ig stic(,5 which e9emp"i)ie# his emphasis o) action rather than ta"(. Bui"#ing the Panama ana" 6nowI Hay-Paunce)ote Treaty, Phi"ippe Bunau-3ari""a, George Washington Goetha"s, Wi""iam . Gorgas 1F. Why was the Panama route chosen )or the cana"J With the pre-e9isting "a(es, the route across Panama reLuire# the "east amount o) #igging an# #re#ging to create a passage !etween the At"antic an# Paci)ic -ceans. TR?s Per%ersion o) 2onroe?s .octrine 6nowI Roose%e"t oro""ary, .ominican Repu!"ic, Ba# Geigh!or 1M. 79p"ain the simi"arities an# #i))erences !etween the 2onroe .octrine an# the Roose%e"t oro""aryJ The simi"arities were that they !oth (ept 7urope )rom inter%ening an# they pre%ente# 7uropean aggression. The #i))erences were that the Roose%e"t oro""ary #ea"t with #e!t pro!"ems, whi"e the 2onroe .octrine #ea"t with 7uropean imperia"ism. Roose%e"t on the Wor"# Stage 6nowI Russo-8apanese War, Portsmouth 1@. How #i# Te##y Roose%e"t win the Go!e" Peace Pri4eJ *n 1;>M, Roose%e"t was awar#e# the Go!e" Peace Pri4e )or his wor( with the Russo8apanese ta"(s as we"" as his me#iation o) Gorth A)rican .isputes at A"geciras, Spain=

8apanese 1a!orers in a"i)ornia 6nowI Gent"emen's Agreement, Great White &"eet 1:. How #i# a schoo" !oar# in a"i)ornia act in a way that )irst hurt an# then he"pe# American-8apanese re"ationsJ A)ter the 1;>M earthLua(e, the San &rancisco Boar# o) 7#ucation segregate# schoo"s, #i%i#ing White stu#ents )rom hinese, 6orean, an# 8apanese stu#ents, in)uriating the 8apanese go%ernment an# near"y causing a war Roose%e"t !rought the mem!ers o) the San &rancisco Boar# o) 7#ucation into the -%a" -))ice an# )orce# them to agree to #esegregate the schoo"s as "ong as 8apan an# the Unite# States maintaine# the 5Gent"emen?s Agreement,5 negotiate# #uring 1;>@-1;>:, in which 8apan prohi!ite# their wor(ers )rom mo%ing to the Unite# States 3arying 3iewpointsI Why #i# America Become a Wor"# PowerJ 1;. What cause# America?s )oray into imperia"ismJ .e)en# your opinion. Race an# gen#er are what prope""e# America into imperia"ism. *n that time, mascu"inity was the power)u" #ominance o%er the wor"# an# the e9pansion westwar# pro%i#e# amp"e opportunity to #isp"ay that characteristic through cow!oys an# go"# #iggers. The i#ea o) #ominance o%er countries e%en )arther west appea"e# to the masses who were "oo(ing )or an a#%enture. The Ang"o-Sa9on supremacy a"so contri!ute# !ecause the arrogance o) whites "oo(ing )or #omination he"p push )or the conLuering o) countries such as u!a an# the Phi""ippines.