FURTHER COMPREHENSION AND PRECIS PIECES

(4) Code (222)

By
Dr. Ghada Abdel Kader & Dr. Sherine El Shoura

2010/2011

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FURTHER COMPREHENSION AND PRECIS PIECES

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CONTENTS

PAGE Introduction 1 Aeroplanes 2 The Best Age to be. 3 The Hero 4 A Day in London 5 Escape 6 Beware of the Bull . 7 An Ideal Holiday 8 National Heroes 9 Trees 10 Radar II The Underground in London 12 Taxation 13 Ships 14 Sports and Games 15 The Value of Education 16 Travelling Cheaply 17 The Value of Fear 18 Women's Rights 19 A Wet Afternoon. 20 Beginnings of Government in Europe 21 A Quiet Holiday 22 Freedom 3 7 11 15 18 22 26 30 34 38 41 45 49 53 57 61 64 68 72 75 79 84 88

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28 Public Spirit 30 Money 92 96 100 104 108 112 120 # PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com .23 A Lucky Escape 24 Equal Pay for Equal Work 25 Amusements 26 My Hobby 27 Memory.pdffactory.

The value of comprehension work in learning a foreign language is now widely recognized. using texts which are still written within controlled English. is that of A General Service List of English Words (WEST. This book. with a few exceptions. which have been specially written for overseas students. most of them of a factual nature. full English can be used in a similar fashion. $ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Then an intensive course of reading for speed and comprehension can be started. Good foundations have first to be laid by using a carefully graded course. The vocabulary. the most important thing is to train students to read the language rapidly with good comprehension. Longmans).com . This cannot be done suddenly. In the choice of structures.INTRODUCTION This book contains thirty pieces. In countries where a reading knowledge of English is the main aim. the aim has been to avoid the rarer ones and to give as much practice as possible of commoner ones. and the authors have tried to use each word only in ways which are given in this "List". like my previous one (Comprehension & Précis Pieces for Overseas Students.pdffactory. Finally.

Some of them ask for a personal opinion instead of merely requiring the student to show that he understands what the writer has said. This book is rather more advanced than Comprehension & Précis Pieces. Such questions may be left until later in the year. This means that the student must show that he knows the meaning in which the % PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. and failure to observe them must be penalised by the teacher.pdffactory.. It is not necessary to use all the questions provided in the book. Some of the questions have deliberately been made more difficult than others on the same piece (the more difficult ones are marked ADV. In the vocabulary questions.Longmans). nor to use all the questions on one piece at the same time. If the maximum benefit is to be obtained from this book. for instance. for Advanced). the words "of similar meaning to that in the context" are used. especially in thought content. is intended to help in the second step by providing texts written within limits which should be reached somewhere about the end of the Fourth Year of study. the instructions which head each question must be carefully followed.com .

The teacher should also insist on only one sentence being in fact used. Smith arrive late?". Marks should be taken off for any extra information. Where a question requires a longer answer. not 'merely one meaning that might be shown opposite it in a dictionary.com . and he should make sure that only the information asked for in the question is given in the answer. Where a question requires one complete sentence for the answer. or "He did this because he missed his train". the answer should not be. In the answers to these questions. even if it is correct. the teacher should insist that the sentence makes complete sense when taken by itself and that it shows what question it is an answer to. so that the question can be answered clearly. as this is part of the exercise.pdffactory. & PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. it is once more essential to make sure that the students give all the information asked for in the question and nothing more. it is often necessary to rearrange material to be found in the piece. and a limit is set to the number of words to be used. The teacher should insist on the limit being strictly adhered to. For instance. if the question is. Smith arrived late because he missed his train". "Why did Mr. "Because he missed his train".word is used in the piece. but "Mr.

Teachers may find certain of these pieces useful as a basis for discussion or debate. The approximate number of words in each piece is given at the end of it. ' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. and a number of them are intended to test ability to follow argumentative writing.com . a piece should be reduced to within a third of the number of words it contains.It should not be thought that all the opinions expressed in the pieces are those of the authors of this book. For précis work.pdffactory. whether one happens to agree with the writer's opinion or not. The pieces have been written primarily with a linguistic aim.

so that he fell to his death in the sea. (Unfortunately. but many thousands of years ago he learnt how to travel on the sea-in fact boats are older than anything built for land transport. therefore. as a further example of Man's interest in flying.com .) Then we have the plans of Leonardo da Vinci. we are told.pdffactory. For centuries. ( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. flying remained only a dream. * since wood. floats easily on water. there is the story of two men who escaped from an island by sticking wings made of feathers on to themselves with wax. which can be found in most places near the sea. since men knew of nothing which could at the same time float in the air and carry a man's weight.I AEROPLANES Man's natural home is the land. the Renaissance Italian artist and engineer. But it was not until rather recent times that the great dream became a fact. one of them flew too near the sun. But travel through the air was quite a different matter. * In Ancient Greek times. Travel on the sea was not a very difficult problem. and the wax melted.

man made use of the fact that hot air rises to make a light balloon carry people up a short distance above the ground. Then gases lighter than air were used in place of hot air. aeroplanes were invented and developed into one of the most important means of transport* and instruments of war. which increased greatly in size. strength. in the short space of fifty years. But balloons had the disadvantage of having to go wherever the wind blew them.First. aeroplanes. so that one never knew where they would come down. Great progress was made in knowledge about flying as a result of the needs of the war. early. It was not until the petrol engine was invented that this difficulty could be overcome. ) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. made of wood and canvas and armed with an ordinary machine-gun each. For thousands of years man dreamt what seemed impossible dreams about flying. were used by both sides.pdffactory. speed and safety.com . During the 1914-18 war. so that the years between 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in ] 939 saw an extraordinary development of aeroplanes. and in the 1870-71 war between France and Prussia a balloon was used by a Frenchman to fly out of Paris when the Prussians were all round it. and then suddenly.

expedition 2. They are listed below and opposite each are three words or phrases. country. burning more easily superiority.) QUESTIONS I. advance.com . Choose this word and write it down. met less dark. In the piece. remains on top. (a) natural (b) floats (c) fell (d) lighter (e) progress wild. Only one of these gives the correct meaning as the word is used in the piece. five words are printed in italic.without which the atom-bomb might never have been thought of. swims dropped. less heavy.pdffactory. marked * in the piece: a very difficult problem remained only a dream one of the most important means of transport !* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. usual rises. (About 410 words. came.

Use your own words as far as possible. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece.3· Answer the following questions using short-form answers wherever possible. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. (a) Why did one of the Greeks who were trying to fly fall into the sea? (b) Who was Leonardo da Vinci? (c) What was a balloon used for during the war between France and Prussia in 1870? (d) What were the early planes made of? 4.com .pdffactory. (a) Why was it not difficult for men to be able to travel on the sea? (b) Why was it hard to discover how to travel through the air? (c) What was the disadvantage of flying in a balloon? (d) What reasons does the author give for the extraordinary development of aeroplanes between 1918 and 1939? !! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

or being punished for what he has done wrong. His first visit to the seaside is a marvellous adventure. A child finds pleasure in playing in the rain. In addition. he is continually being told not to do things. It is improbable* that he will ever again in his life be given so much without having to do anything in return. If a child has good parents. His life is therefore not perfectly happy. Each age has its pleasures and its pains. he is fed. looked after and loved. !" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com . or in the snow. whatever he may do. But a child has his pains: he is not so free to do as he wishes as he thinks older people are.pdffactory. and the happiest person is the one who enjoys what each age gives him without wasting his time in useless regrets.2 THE BEST AGE TO BE How often one hears children wishing they were grown up. and old people wishing they were young again. Childhood is a time when there are few responsibilities to make life difficult. life is always presenting new things to the child-things that have lost their interest for older people because they are too well-known.

com .be. his clothes. but has to work if he wants to live comfortably. he becomes free from the discipline of school and parents. but at the same time he is forced to accept responsibilities. The old can have the Joy of seeing their children making progress in life. perhaps best of all. he may go to prison. keeps out of trouble and has good health. and his room. but It IS not necessary for the old to be unhappy. He can no longer expect others to pay for his food. they can watch their grandchildren growing up around them. With old age should come wisdom and the ability to help others with advice wisely given. they can. and. if their life has been a useful one. he will go hungry. however. And if he breaks the laws of society as he used to break the laws of his parents.pdffactory. he can have the great happiness of seeing himself make steady progress in his Job and of building up for himself his own position in society. he works hard.When the young man starts to earn his own living. leaving others to continue the fight.* Old age ago always been thought of as the worst age to . feel the happiness of having come through the battle of life* safely and of having reached a time when they can he back and rest. If he spends most of his time playing about in the way that he used to as a child. If. !# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

adventure. Use your own words as far as possible.) QUESTIONS I. (a) What kind of person is the happiest according to the author? (b) What things are mentioned that the child enjoys very much? (c) What may happen if the young man breaks the law? !$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. discipline. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage.com . The following words and phrases are printed above in italic. wisdom. useless. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. playing about.pdffactory. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. 2. marked * in the piece: it is improbable building up for himself his own position in society the battle of life 3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. responsibilities.(About 350 words.

Write down in a few words what each one IS about.(d) What are the pleasures of old people? 4.com . (ADV.pdffactory.) There are four paragraphs in this piece. !% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

The thing I had fallen over felt like a bundle of clothes.* But before I could reach it. wooden house-the sort that burns . instead of going towards the stairs I went in the opposite direction. As I !& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. I jumped out of bed. I began to run. My feet burned me terribly. but as I was still only half-awake. put the bundle over my face and ran. but I got through.pdffactory.3 THE HERO "Fire! Fire I" What terrible words to hear when one wakes up in a strange house in the middle of the night! It was a large. old. * The floor became hot under my bare feet.com . * opened the door and stepped out into the passage. beautifully-and my room was on the top floor. It was full of thick smoke. The smoke grew thicker and I could see flames all around. I saw a flaming doorway in front. one of my feet caught in something soft and I fell down. Just then the floor gave way under me and I crashed to the floor below with pieces of burning wood all around me. and I picked it up to protect my face from the smoke and heat. I found an open door and ran into a room to get to the window.

"My baby! My baby!" she cried. I had some difficulty in recognizing her. my bundle of clothes gave a thin cry. The crowd cheered wildly as she took the smoke-blackened bundle out of my arms. got through. She was the Mayor's wife. beautifully. gathered. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. A woman in a night-dress and a borrowed man's coat screamed as she saw me and came running madly. protect.com . recognizing.pdffactory. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage. and I had saved her baby. I nearly dropped it in my surprise. Then I saw a crowd gathered in the street. marked * in the piece: jumped out of bed I could see flames all around to get to the window !' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. 2.) QUESTIONS I.reached the cold air outside. gave way. I was a hero! (About 300 words. The following words and phrases are printed above in italic.

Use your own words as far as possible. (a) Why was it so terrible on this occasion to hear the cry of "Fire"? (b) Why did the writer not run straight to the stairs? (c) For what reason did he pick up the bundle he had fallen over? (d) Why did the crowd gathered in the street cheer when the writer came out? (e) Why was it difficult for him to recognize the mother of the baby? 4· Explain. Do not use more than 80 words. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece.pdffactory.com . Be sure not to miss anything out. in your own words.3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. exactly how the writer escaped from his room. !( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com . a flat black hat on his head and a long stick in his hand. and he advised me to go to the Tower of London in the morning and to Westminster in the afternoon. with a big crown sewn on his chest. and showed us the Crown jewels. I set off at about nine in the morning by the Underground train. the old soldiers dressed in clothes of long ago who guard the Tower. and found myself in a group of several other people. !) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.4 A DAY IN LONDON This morning the sun was shining. some of them foreigners like myself. So I asked the manager of my hotel what I should see first. which the King and Queen wear on special days.pdffactory. and I decided to begin seeing the sights of London.* I had to walk a short distance from the latter to the Tower. I knew from books I had read that he was one of the "Beefeaters". who were also taking the opportunity of the fine weather to see something of London. and managed to get out at the right station. Our "Beefeater" took us round the Tower. We reached the entrance to the Tower. crossed a bridge and were met by a soldier in strange red and yellow clothes.

just as that morning I had been at the heart of English history when I was at the Tower. with its bridge over the Thames.pdffactory. the Houses of Parliament. this time to see Westminster.) QUESTIONS I. Listening to all these strange stories and seeing the old stones of the Tower. and the places where some queens of England had their heads cut off.the prisons in which famous people were kept long ago. where history is made day after day.com . Big Ben and Westminster Abbey. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage. and I left the Tower at lunch-time with a clearer idea of English history* than I had had before. (About 380 words.B. The following words and phrases are printed above in italic. I could easily imagine the terrible things that had happened within those walls. "* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.. In the afternoon I went out again. at the tower of Big Ben. As I looked at these famous buildings.C. and at the Houses of Parliament.* I felt that I was at the heart of modern England. which is heard all over the world through the B. at the Abbey where kings and queens of England are crowned.

pdffactory. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. (a) What does the author tell us about the group of people with whom he went round the Tower? (b) What did the "Beefeater" show them? "! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. 2.advised. (a) What was the weather like on the day described in the piece? (b) How did the author travel to the Tower of London? (c) How is Big Ben heard all over the world? (d) What buildings did the writer see in the afternoon? 4· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. famous.com . Explain the meaning of the following phrases. set off. marked * in the piece: managed to get out at the right station with a clearer idea of English history day after day 3· Answer the following questions using short-form answers wherever possible. at the heart of. Use your own words as far as possible. terrible.

Write a short letter to your parents or a friend describing such a day as the writer had.com . "" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.) Imagine that you are spending a holiday in London.(c) What helped the author to imagine the events that had taken place? 5· (ADV. but tell it in your own way.pdffactory.

we had to eat everything. and I must say I did not much enjoy the experience: perhaps sea-fish which do not live in the mud are less tasteless. including the fish.5 ESCAPE Our boat floated on. As we had no fire. though we knew from the map that our river must from time to time be passing through chains of hills which crossed the jungle plains.pdffactory. caught with a home-made net of string (we had no hooks). cutting one's way with knives the whole way.com . and any fruit and nuts we could pick up out of the water. what would we have gained by landing? The country was full of snakes and other dangerous creatures. and the jungle so thick that one would be able to advance only slowly. We lived on fish. Nowhere did we find a place where we could have landed: where the jungle did not actually spread right down into the river. In any case. banks of soft mud prevented us going ashore. So we stayed in the boat. a friendly fisherman would pick us up* and take us to civilization.* After eating my "# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. raw. hoping that when we reached the sea. between walls of forest* too thick to allow us a view of the land we were passing through. I had never tasted raw fish before.

there was a choice: we could drink the muddy river water. We drank the water. One day we passed another village. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage.com . but fortunately nobody saw us.) QUESTIONS I. or die of thirst. chains.pdffactory. risk. landing. I lay back and dreamed of such things as fried chicken and rice. As for water. frequent. (About 350 words. none of us suffered from any illness as a result. Me-r who have just escaped what had appeared to be certain death lose all worries about such small things as diseases caused by dirty water. The following words are printed above in italic. and ice-cream. ice-cream was a particularly frequent dream. In the never-ending damp heat of the jungle.raw fish. We did not wish to risk being taken prisoners a second time: we might not be so lucky as to escape* in a stolen boat again. experience. "$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. escaped. In fact.

(a) Why were the people in the boat unable to land? (b) What did the writer often dream of? "% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. marked * in the piece: walls of forest pick us up less tasteless we might not be so lucky as to escape 3· Answer the following questions using short-form answers wherever possible. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. (a) Why could the people in the boat not see the land they were passing through? (b) What did they live on? (c) Did any of them become ill through drinking the river water? (d) How had they obtained their boat? 4· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. Use your own words as far as possible.2.com . Explain the meaning of the following phrases.pdffactory.

It is not necessary to make up facts: you are told sufficient in the piece. "& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.) Explain. how these people came to be in the boat.(c) Why did they drink the dirty river water? (d) What did they fear as they passed another village? 5· (ADV. as clearly as you can.com . Do not use more than 60 words.pdffactory.

cakes. we came to a gate near which "' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.6 BEWARE OF THE BULL A friend and I had arranged to spend a whole Sunday taking a long walk in the country. It is famous because each side passes through a different kind of country. fruit and bottles of lemonade. We set off on an early train. We started off in high spirits along the first side.pdffactory. We were lucky. which followed a river. each carrying a heavy bag filled with sandwiches.* We decided to go on a walk called the Four Mile Square: it has four equal sides. Soon we had left behind the smoky air of the city and had reached the country station where our walk was to begin. I wondered how two people would be able to finish it all.com . because the sun was shining and there was a gentle breeze to make it just right for walking. Before long. planning to have a swim and our first meal before we left it. each about four miles in length and on a map looks like a rough square.

" my friend said. "He seems to have a long rope."* I said. and.pdffactory. but it's all right. "That was a clever trick of mine. because I could see for myself a strong rope tied to the ring in its nose at one end and round a large tree at the other. at the same moment we both saw that the rope was broken.com .there was a notice "Beware of the Bull". and without another word we began to run. waving a red handkerchief just to show that we weren't afraid. The bull began to walk towards us-and did not stop. as it was a public foot-path. "Oh. We felt very bold and walked nearer. wasn't it?" said my friend: "I dropped the food on purpose to draw away the bull's attention:' "( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. We jumped over. "The bull is tied up. We were half way across the field but it didn't take us long to reach the gate again. Come on. walking more quickly. The bull too was . the farmer had no right· to put a dangerous animal in it. very much out of breath.walking more quickly. and looked back to see the bull quietly examining a bag of food. Then. Our path ran through this field." I followed. We were very annoyed.

Explain the meaning of the following phrases. Square? (c) What did they do to show that they weren't afraid? (d) Which way did they run? ") PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. before long. "it was not clever! I dropped mine-accidentally. set off. The following words and phrases are printed above in italic. examining. accidentally. lucky. " (About 400 words. ran. 2. annoyed. (a) What were their bags filled with? (b) How far would it be round the Four Mile." I cried. marked * in the piece: just right for walking the farmer had no right he seems to have a long rope 3· Answer the following questions using short-form answers wherever possible. bold.) QUESTIONS I. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage."No.com . looked back.pdffactory.

(a) Why does the writer say they were lucky? (b) What did the friends plan to do before they left the first side of the walk? (c) Why were they not afraid to go into the field where they could see the bull? (d) When did they start to run? 5· (ADV.4· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each.) Explain the friend's trick and why he thought it was clever.com . Do not use more than 60 words. #* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Use your own words 16 as far as possible.pdffactory. and why the writer thought it was not. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece.

If I were allowed to choose my own holiday. I would have no doubts*: I would go on a voyage in a modern passenger ship with a swimming bath. I can go and sleep in my cabin at any time of the day or night. the other could sit in a comfortable chair all day.* when one likes. In a ship. then I can play games with other passengers until I am hot and sweating and ready for a bath.7 AN IDEAL HOLIDAY Of course. If one day I find an interesting book in the ship's library. I can spend the whole day reading it. one can do as one likes. Even if my sportsman friend and my lazy friend came with me. Well.pdffactory. and nobody will stop me. while the lazy man's ideal holiday would leave the sportsman quite unsatisfied. The sportsman likes a kind of holiday which his lazy friend would find worse than his daily work.com . what is an ideal holiday for one person may be a very unpleasant one for another. Perhaps the next day I shall want some exercise. swimming and dancing. looking at the sea and drinking lemonade or beer. I can get cheap drinks #! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. they would both be happy: one would have plenty of games.

during most of the day, and I can eat as I like, choosing among a variety of foods.

But what I like even more about a sea voyage is the chance to meet new and interesting people from many countries. What other kind of holiday gives us such a chance? Freed from all the duties* of life at home, we can talk, play games, swim, drink and dance with our new friends. They can tell us about their own countries, their daily lives and amusements, their hopes and their fears. And in return we can tell them all about ourselves.

But perhaps the greatest pleasure of a sea holiday is coming to new ports in strange lands, and going ashore for a few hours to see strange places, eat strange foods and hear a strange language talked around us. Whenever I think of my ideal holiday, it is the picture of a mysterious foreign city that comes to my mind. (About 370 words.)

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QUESTIONS I. The following words are printed above in italic. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage. ideal, worse, exercise, variety, chance, strange.

2. Explain the meaning of the following phrases, marked * in the piece: I would have no doubts one can do as one likes freed from all duties.

3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. Use your own words as far as possible, but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. (a) What does the writer say the sportsman would feel about the lazy man's holiday? (b) What are we told about the food and drink on a modern passenger ship? (c) What does the author discuss with his new friends? (d) What picture comes into the writer's mind when he thinks of the ideal holiday?

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4· State briefly, using not more than 90 words, the reasons the author gives for choosing to take his holiday on a modem passenger ship.

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called "the Great" because he did both these things while he was king. But the story most often told about Alfred is certainly not heroic. He was escaping after one of the early battles against the Danes in #% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Many heroes are remembered only for their famous deeds and those which are not heroic have been forgotten. he was able to defeat the attackers soon after he became king. by his wise rule.8 NATIONAL HEROES Most nations have a hero who is remembered for his great deeds. although he had only a small army. He was also a good man who preferred peace to war. An English hero of this kind is King Alfred. at the time when England was being attacked by Danish tribes. He was a brave fighter and a great leader of men in battle so that. and he encouraged learning in his kingdom by translating foreign books into English and sending them all over England. either in saving his country from enemies.pdffactory. or in bringing order. He was a great organiser." respected as the English ruler who first built ships to defend the island against enemies by sea.com . to a land which had previously been in disorder.

" helps them to remember King Alfred the Great although he lived so long ago. as she wished to go out. Alone and dressed in borrowed clothes.which his army had been defeated.) #& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. re-told to English children ever since. Yet this story. She was baking some cakes at the fire and. When the housewife returned she found that they were very burnt. she asked the stranger to stay and watch her cakes." he asked a poor man's wife for shelter in her cottage. she was very angry with him for being so careless as to allow her cakes to spoil. They remember him first as the man who burnt the cakes and then as the national hero whose bravery and wisdom brought peace and honour to his native land. (About 360 words. Since she did not recognise the stranger as her king. She reminded him to turn them so that they would not burn.pdffactory.com . with the result that he did not notice the cakes although he was looking at the fire. But the king spent the time thinking of plans to defeat the enemy and bring peace to his unfortunate people.

Use your own words as far as #' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. defeat.com . marked * in the piece. preferred. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage. escaping. ever since. notice. (a) When did King Alfred beat the Danes? (b) How had he got the clothes that he wore during his escape? (c) What did he forget to do in the cottage? (d) Why didn't the woman watch the cakes herself? 4· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. . a great orgainser. dressed in borrowed clothes.pdffactory. 3· Answer the following questions using short form answers wherever possible.QUESTIONS I. 2. deeds. The following words are printed above in italic. recognise. Explain the meaning of the following phrases.

what the reader learns about the character of King Alfred from this piece. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. (a) What were the two things that caused people to call King Alfred "the Great"? (b) Why did King Alfred ask for shelter in a poor cottage? (c) Why were the cakes burnt? (d) Why did the woman not recognise Alfred as her king? 5.possible.pdffactory. (ADV. #( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.) State. in your own words as far as possible.com .

the home country found itself faced by floods and starvation. and they help to prevent drought and floods. its soil became hard and poor. Unfortunately. * Even where a government realizes the importance of a plentiful supply of trees. he has cut them down in large numbers.com . and he can #) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. they give him shade. It gained the empire but. Man has not realized that the third of these services is the most important. only to find that with them he has lost the best friends he had. with which to gain itself an empire. The villager wants wood to cook his food with. Two thousand years ago a rich and powerful country cut down its trees to build warships. In his eagerness to draw quick profit* from the trees. in many parts of the world.9 TREES Trees are useful to Man in three very important ways: they provide him with wood and other products. without its trees.pdffactory. When the empire fell to pieces. it is difficult for it to persuade the villager to see this.

the rain falls on hard ground and flows away on the surface. in which crops grow so well.com . So.pdffactory. The results are even more serious: for where there are trees their roots break the soil up-allowing the rain to sink in-and also bind the soil. thus preventing its being washed away easily. the forests slowly disappear.) QUESTIONS I. When all the top-soil is gone. or can educate the people. He is usually too lazy or too careless to plant and look after new trees.earn money by making charcoal or selling wood to the townsman. unless the government has a good system of control.* (About 310 words. causing floods and carrying away with it the rich top-soil. nothing remains but worthless desert. but where there are no trees. This does not only mean that the Villagers' sons and grandsons have fewer trees. Choose SIX of the following words and give for each another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the piece: products realized services gain poor importance disappear serious worthless $* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

2. marked * in the piece: to draw quick profit the country found itself faced by floods and starvation nothing remains but desert 3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. by cutting down its trees? (c) Why does a villager cut down trees? (d) What happens to land in the end after all the trees are cut down? 4. You should not use more than 50 words. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. (a) What is the most important service of trees to man? (b) What did the country mentioned in the third paragraph gain and what did it lose. and the result of taking them away.pdffactory. $! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com . Explain briefly what you understand by the following phrases. Use your own words as far as possible. Explain clearly in your own words the effects trees have on the soil.

All of us have heard echoes: we speak in a large hall or before a wall of rock.com . For example. we are much happier if we know that the captain of the ship. because there was no way of "seeing" dangers through fog and cloud. so that he can keep away from them. or a ball is thrown back by the wall it has hit.10 RADAR When we are travelling along in a ship or an aeroplane at night or in fog. and our voices come back to us. or the pilot of the plane. just as light is reflected by a mirror. travellers could never have this feeling of safety. echoed by the hard substance which they hit. Scientists know the speed at which sound travels. both in war and in peace. Until the Second World War. Radar is not too difficult a thing for the ordinary man in the street to understand. a wonderful wartime invention. knows where rocks or mountain tops are. at the same $" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. But now there is "radar".pdffactory. so they can measure the distance of a wall of rock by making a loud sound and seeing how long it takes to reach the wall and return to the place from which it started. which has saved the lives of many thousands.

the watch is stopped. you can imagine that you would not be able to measure (with a watch or a clock) how long they take to go from a ship to the shore. is started. or from an aeroplane to a mountain near it.com . and it is found that the sound has taken 20 seconds to go and return. It is therefore no use to an aeroplane. and two from the rock back to us.pdffactory. or to a ship which wants to discover a small enemy ten miles away. must be two miles away. The rock. it has been known for many years that wireless waves travel at very great speed: it takes them less than four seconds to go from the earth to the moon and back. Radar was made possible by the use of a thing called a "cathode-ray tube" which $# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. then. If they take less than two seconds to reach the moon. So we know that the noise of our car horn has covered 4 miles. which can measure time very accurately. Now. As soon as the echo comes back. We know that the speed of sound is about I mile in 5 seconds. But the difficult thing is to measure the time they take to go a certain distance.time as the noise is made (perhaps with a car horn) a special watch. two miles from us to the rock. But sound travels too slowly and cannot go far enough to be useful over long distances or when something is moving very fast.

com . one of the wonders of modern science.can measure millionths of a second. On the radar screen we can "see" all around us. Use your own words as far as possible. (a) If we are travelling in a plane. and it shows us how far away they are. what does the writer say makes us much happier? (b) What examples of different kinds of echoes does the writer give? $$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. With this tube. and the soldiers guarding a town can see enemy aeroplanes hundreds of miles away. The captain of a ship can find his way between rocks and other ships. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. in which direction they lie.pdffactory. (About 580 words. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. perhaps from many different directions at once. we can "see" things at a great distance. and follow them as they approach. and what movements they are making.) QUESTIONS I. That is radar. which is making travel and trade between the nations easier and safer.

pdffactory. In the example of scientists measuring the distance of a rock.(c) Why cannot sound be used for finding distances from an aeroplane? (d) How did the "cathode-ray tube" make radar possible? (e) What information is radar able to give us? 2. (ADV.com . 3.) How can radar make "travel and trade between the nations easier and safer". explain exactly how they found it was two miles away. Do not use more than 60 words. as the author says it does? $% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

11 THE UNDERGROUND IN LONDON In a very big city. the old engines were taken away. Originally the London Underground had steam trains which were not very different from other English trains. because there were no buses. fast. They could get from one place to another faster under the ground than above it. except that they went along in big holes under the ground in order to keep away from the crowded city above their heads. however. As the traffic on the roads above has also become greater and greater. all offices. the trains and the Underground stopped work. and electric ones put in their place. In London. in which millions of people live and work. factories and schools would have to close if the buses. As a result. and the electric trains make faster runs possible. Steam trains used coal. which filled the underground stations with terrible smoke. frequent means of transport* are of the greatest importance.pdffactory. Now the London Underground is very clean. carriages and people on foot to get in their way the whole time. where most people live long distances from their work. trams. which one saves by going $& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the time .com .

such as Piccadilly. (About 385 words. but they are very much more expensive. so that it is easy to see how to get to wherever one wants to go. and in some places. everything is done to make the Underground fast and efficient. In fact. * the trains on the different lines are not on the same level. there are actually three lines crossing each other. At some stations one can change to a different underground line.* Taxis are usually faster. At every Underground station there are maps of all the Underground lines in London. It would be tiring to have to walk up these stairs. and all that the passengers have to do is to stand and be carried up or down to where they wish. so that one can see when one comes to where one must get out. one has to go up or down some stairs to a new level.com .pdffactory.by Underground instead of by bus has increased year after year. Each station has its name written up clearly and in large letters several times. so the stairs are made to move themselves. To change trains. So that there should not be accidents.) $' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

faster.pdffactory.com . crowded.QUESTIONS I. Use your own words as far as possible. clearly. factories and schools have to close if the Underground stopped working? (b) Why can these trains travel quicker than the traffic above ground? (c) Why were the original Underground stations not clean? (d) What does the writer say about travel by taxi commpared with travel by Underground? $( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. marked * in the piece: means of transport increased year after year so that there should not be accidents 3. For each of the following words write a separate sentence of your own to illustrate its meaning. 2. (a) Why would all offices. originally. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. efficient.

com . $) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.4· Explain what is done to make it both easy and safe for people to travel on the London Underground.pdffactory. You should not use more than 75 words.

different people have different ideas about how taxation should be arranged. our water. should everyone pay the same tax. whether he is rich or poor? If the second kind of tax is preferred. and all the other things that we cannot do for ourselves. Should each person have to pay a certain amount of money to the government each year?· Or should there be a tax on things that people buy and sell? If the first kind of taxation is used. nor the workers in government offices who look after our health. we pay for things that we need just as much as we need somewhere to live and something to eat. should everything be taxed equally? %* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. our food.pdffactory. it would not be possible to pay the soldiers and policemen who protect us.12 TAXATION Everyone knows that taxation is necessary in a modern state: without it. But though everyone knows that taxation is necessary. nor also the ministers and members of parliament who govern the country for us. By means of taxation.com .

it is the men and women who buy these imported things in the shops who really have to pay the duties. which is called income tax. but the tax is fairer. It is arranged in such a way that the poorest people pay nothing. In some countries.In most countries. there is a tax on things sold in the shops. Of course. but the poor people suffer most. the tax on the richest people goes up as high as ninety-five per cent I But countries with direct taxation nearly always have indirect taxation too. exists. (About 370 words. and the percentage of tax grows greater as the taxpayer's income grows. as the rich pay it. If the most necessary things are taxed. Probably this last kind of indirect tax.com . Many things imported into the country have to pay taxes or 'duties'.) QUESTIONS %! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. in the form of higher prices. If unnecessary things like jewels and fur coats are taxed. a lot of money is collected. is the best arrangement. together with a direct tax on incomes which is low for the poor and high for the rich. for example. a direct tax on persons. too. less money is obtained. In England.

com . (c) taxes and duties. (a) Who has to be paid out of the taxes? (b) How is income tax arranged? (c) Who has to pay the duties that are collected on imported goods? (d) Why is it fairer if unnecessary things are taxed? %" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Use your own words as far as possible. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. state protect look after Should arranged preferred income imported fairer 2.I.pdffactory. 3. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. Distinguish between each of the following pairs of words: (a) Soldiers and policemen. Choose SIX of the following words or phrases and give 'for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that in the context. (b) ministers and members of Parliament.

Do not use more than 50 words.pdffactory.4.com . and the effects they have on rich people and poor people. Explain the differences between direct and indirect taxes. %# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

We may remember stories of terrible storms. and of people from ships which have sunk spending weeks in small boats hundreds of miles from land. But ships are not.pdffactory. and of the unforgettable excitement of coming. and there are not enough of them to feed even a small country like England. with waves as high as mountains. made chiefly for pleasure: their biggest use is in carrying goods from country to country. Trains cannot cross seas. If ships did not exist. of course. the amount of goods they can carry %$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. But we have also heard of the joy of travelling over calm seas under blue skies. one fine morning. the British Government would be quite unable* to feed the people in the British Isles.com . and even if they could. to a new and beautiful land which we have seen only in pictures before. Even the idea of leaving the solid land on which most of us were born and brought up. Aeroplanes are much too expensive.13 SHIPS The person who can see a ship without some feeling of excitement must have very little imagination. and going out on to the ever-moving waters must rouse in us all some feelings of strangeness.

ships have the advantage of being cheaper* than trains or aeroplanes. ships can carry more goods than any other means of transport.com . ships are used for exploring the Antarctic. but. (About 380 words. But even for passengers.pdffactory. and can do so more cheaply. so that if you want a restful. not be too much to say* that ships have for thousands of years played one of the most important parts in shaping society. This slowness means that travellers who want to get somewhere in a hurry and who have not got too much luggage now usually prefer to fly rather than to go by ship.) %% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the ship will suit you best. Columbus used a ship to discover America about 450 years ago. It would. and also much more comfortable. And even now. in fact. In fact. not too expensive voyage.cannot be compared with* the amount that ships can. Ships have played a very important part in history by making it possible to discover more and more distant parts of our world. on the other hand. they are slower than trains or aeroplanes.

pdffactory.QUESTIONS I. Use your own words as far as possible. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. excitement solid rouse unforgettable chiefly in a hurry suit exploring shaping 2. marked * in the piece: quite unable cannot be compared with have the advantage of being cheaper it would not be too much to say 3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. Choose SIX of the following words or phrases and give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that in the context. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. (a) What does the writer say we must all feel at the idea of going to sea? (b) What stories may we remember of unpleasant experiiences at sea? %& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com .

(c) What have we heard about pleasant ones? (d) What is the most important use of ships? (e) Why cannot aeroplanes be used to carryall the goods from abroad that England needs? (f) Who prefers to fly rather than go by sea? (g) How have ships played an important part in history? 4. In a third paragraph.) In one paragraph describe the advantages of sea travel that the writer gives compared with other means.(ADV.pdffactory. say which method you would prefer and why. %' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. describe the disadvantages.com . In the next paragraph.

prevent us from getting too fat. and so on. or sleeping. so that the ball is met and hit back where it ought to go. * All this must happen with very great speed. instead of going to the cinema. But these are not their only uses. and to send its orders to the muscles of the arms. The brain then has to decide what to do. our eyes see the ball coming. the practice of such skills is especially useful. brain and muscles work together. and only those who have had a lot of practice at tennis can carry out this complicated chain of events successfully. legs. and keep us healthy.com . For those who work with their brains most of the day. But in actual fact* sports and games can be of great value. especially to people who work with their brains most of the day. They give us valuable practice in making eyes. listening to the radio. %( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. and should not be treated only as amusements.pdffactory. Sports and games make our bodies strong.14 SPORTS AND GAMES Some people seem to think that sports and games are unimportant things that people do. In tennis. judge its speed and direction and pass this information on to the brain. at times when they are not working.

So it is what the pupils do in their spare time that really prepares them to take their place in society as citizens when they grow up. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage. If each of them learns to work for his team* and not for himself on the football field. boys and girls may learn about such virtues at unselfishness. experience. pass on.com .pdffactory. courage. %) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. complicated. he will later find it natural to work for the good of his country instead of only for his own benefit. judge. studying lessons.) QUESTIONS I. instead of. The following words and phrases are printed above in italic. but what is learned in books cannot have the same deep effect on a child's character as what is learned by experience.Sports and games are also very useful for character-training. (About 350 words. The ordinary day-school cannot give much practical training in living. benefit. In their lessons at school. because most of the pupils' time is spent in classes. discipline and love of one's country.

Explain the meaning of the following phrases. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. Write down the following words and then give for each a word or phrase of opposite meaning to that used in the passage.com . (a) What different activities are mentioned in the first paragraph? (b) To whom are sports and games of especial value? (c) What does the writer say that the playing of sports and games will do for us? (d) What is the writer's opinion about learning from books? &* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. Use your own words as far as possible. marked * in the piece: in actual fact where it ought to go for his team 4.2. valuable successfully practical 3. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece.

) The writer says "sports and games should not be treated only as amusements".5· (ADV. What does he tell us to support this statement? You should not use more than 75 words for your answer. &! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com .

Because of their degrees. and. clever or stupid-one can solve all the problems of society and build a perfect nation. in fact. As soon as we realize this fact.com . enough: we find in such countries a far larger number of people with university degrees than there are jobs for them to fill. In other words. by free education for all-whether rich or poor.15 THE VALUE OF EDUCATION Education is not an end. or to continue with one's old system of education without examining it to see whether it is in fact suitable or not. In many modern countries it has for some time* been fashionable to think that. &" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. we will understand that it is very important to choose a system of education which will really prepare children for life. we do not educate children only for the purpose of educating them. But we can already see that free education for all is not. work with the hands is thought to be dirty and shameful in such countries. It is not enough* just to choose the first system of education one finds. but a means to an end. our purpose is to fit them for life. they refuse to do what they think "low" work.

when we say that all of us must be educated to fit us for life. we should get terrible diseases in our towns. secondly. education fit realize suitable fashionable perfect &# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. but we die if we have no food.of them another word of similar meaning to that in the context. the professors have to waste much of their time doing housework. (About 375 words. and. If no one cleaned our streets and took the rubbish away from our houses. Choose SIX of the following words and give for each . Only such a type of education can be called valuable to society. firstly. and that it is very bad to be ashamed of one's work. In fact. each of us can do whatever job is suited to his brain and ability.com shameful housework scorn . or to scorn someone else's.pdffactory.But we have only to think a moment* to understand that the work of a completely uneducated farmer is far more important than that of a professor: we can live without education. that we can realize that all jobs are necessary to society. In countries where there are no servants because everyone is ashamed to do such work. it means that we must be educated in such a way that.) QUESTIONS I.

2. Explain the meaning of the following phrases, marked * in the piece: it is not enough for some time we have only to think a moment

3. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. Use your own words as far as possible, but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. . (a) What is the definition of education given by the writer in the first paragraph? (b) What is the fashionable view about free education for all? (c) How is a farmer's work more important than a professor's? (d) Why do professors in some countries have to spend their time doing housework?

4· What does the writer think education is for? How does he disagree with the system used in many modern countries? Use two paragraphs in answering these questions. Your total number of words should not be more than 75

&$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

16
TRAVELLING CHEAPLY

The express train was waiting for us when we left the CrossChannel steamer. After climbing up into my carriage and finding my reserved seat, I had the usual heated argument with the porter and then settled down to wait* for the train to start, while passengers from the ship continued to stream past. I leant out of the window and watched the fatter people struggling to climb up -the steps into the train. I could never understand why they did not build a platform high enough to enable people to step straight into the train, as they do in England. instead of making them climb about four feet.

I was lucky: the five travellers with whom I shared my compartment were pleasant people-and not too fat. A waiter from the dining-car came round. and I arranged to have dinner soon after the train started. I knew that the food on these big Continental trains was always excellent.

Before going to dinner, however, I went along to the sleepingcars, and booked a bed just for the night* at a cost of ten

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shillings (this was before the war I). It was much cheaper that way than if one booked for the whole journey. During the day, I travelled in an ordinary second-class carriage, which was just as comfortable and much more interesting, because I met more people. Then each evening I went along to see the sleeping-car attendant. Of course, I was sometimes unlucky enough to find all the beds already booked; but this was rare.

Next morning, after an unhurried wash and shave, followed by a pleasant breakfast in the dining-car, I returned to my carriage of the day before, to find my fellow-passengers tired and unshaven.

I had to change trains at Munich, which gave me a chance of having a hot bath at the railway station, followed by a good and amazingly cheap lunch in a little restaurant opposite. As my next train did not leave until the evening, I had plenty of time for a sleep on a park-bench and a visit to a museum, before I went back to my little restaurant for dinner.

On returning to the station after a cheap and interesting day, Y. again began by making sure of a bed* in the train for the night, knowing that I would wake up in the mountains next morning

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com . Use your own words as far as possible. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. &' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.) QUESTIONS I.pdffactory. Choose SIX of the following words or phrases and give. marked * in the piece: settled down to wait just for the night making sure of a bed 3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. reserved seat heated argument stream past came round went along unhurried amazingly delicious frontier 2.in time for coffee and delicious buns at the Austrian frontier before I again returned to my day-carriage. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that in the context. (About 415 words.

10 a.com .m. Make clear. Left steamer.: Thurs.a) What were the writer's thoughts as he saw fat people struggling to get into the train? (b) What did the writer do before he went for his dinner on the train? (c) What did he notice about his fellow-passengers when he returned to his carriage in the morning? (d) What did the writer do during his day in Munich? 4. how the writer travelled cheaply. had to argue with porter.. using not more than 60 words. (ADV.g. found reserved seat. &( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.) This piece could be an extract from a diary.. 5. Write down the notes that the writer might have made at the time. E. Fat people.pdffactory.

because he is soon killed. you never go out of your house because of the danger of being knocked down and killed in the street by a car.com . In our first sentence we suggested that fear ought to be properly used. or ants may eat away some of the beams in your roof so that the latter falls on you. if they are properly used. If fire did not hurt when it burnt. you are letting fear rule you too much. children would play with it until their hands were burnt away. If. because fear would not warn it to keep away from the fire that had burnt it before. A really fearless soldier-and some do exist-is not a good soldier. if pain existed but fear did not. a child would burn itself again and again.* Similarly. for example. and a dead soldier is of no use to his army.17 THE VALUE OF FEAR Fear and its companion pain are two of the most useful things that men and animals possess.pdffactory. Even in your house you are not absolutely safe:* an aeroplane may crash on your house. Fear and pain are therefore two guards without which men and animals might soon die out. or you may get cancer! &) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

fear has given you its warning. Fear will warn you of dangers. you see a car coming straight towards you. and you may not want to go and live in a desert where there are no aeroplanes. Choose SIX of the following words or phrases and give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that in the context. you have examined it and decided on your course of action. fear warns you. you jump out of the way. and you have to try to overcome it. (About 365 words. then you have to decide what action to take. and all is well. '* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. In this case.pdffactory.com . however. you can take quick and successful action to avoid the danger. For example. In many cases.The important thing is not to let fear rule you. In some cases. but instead to use fear as your servant and guide. you decide that there is nothing that you can do to avoid the danger.) QUESTIONS I. For example.* so fear of this particular danger is no longer of any use to you. you cannot prevent an aeroplane crashing into your house.

(a) If fire did not give pain what would happen to a child who put his hand in a fire? (b) What would happen to the same child if he did not have fear? (c) What does the writer say may happen to you even if you stay in your house? (d) What might you do to avoid the danger of an aeroplane crashing on your house? '! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. 3. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each.com . Use your own words as far as possible.companion hurt again and again warn guards servant avoid prevent examined 2. marked * in the piece: burnt away absolutely safe decided on your course of action.pdffactory.

in not more than 60 words. how the author shows that without fear and pain animals and men might die out.4· Make clear. '" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com .

Even now. but now.com . and had worse characters.18 WOMEN'S RIGHTS Ought women to have the same rights as men? A hundredyears ago. scornfully and pityingly. "Why not?" you would have been told. when men lived in caves and hunted animals for food. in countries where girls are not given so good an education as boys they know less. Thousands of years ago. or even slaves.pdffactory. If you had asked. that women were weaker and less clever than men. brains are more important. In the Twentieth Century. but the fact that such kinds of work are not well paid shows that the Twentieth Century does not think that muscles are of very great importance. the answer In every country In the world would have been. Strength of body is still needed for a few kinds of work. But '# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. in the Twentieth Century. What about women's brains? Of course. there are many countries where women are still treated almost like servants. It is certainly true that the average woman has weaker muscles than the average man. strength of body was the most important thing. "No".

It is their own choice. For this reason. women ministers in the British government and women University professors in many countries. they usually love their children more. since they are more patient and understanding with small children.) QUESTIONS I. it has been clearly shown that there is no difference at all between the brain of the average woman and that of the average man. Choose SIX of the following words or phrases and give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that '$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. But women can do one thing that men cannot: they can produce children. many women are happier if they can stay at home and look after their house and family than if they go out and do the same work as men do. and not the result of being less clever than men. women ambassadors in America.com .in countries where there is the same education for both. Because they. And among the greatest and strongest rulers of England were Queen Elizabeth and Queen Victoria. and not men. (About 350 words. do this. There have been women judges in Turkey. and are better able to look after them.

Use your own words as far as possible.com . Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each.pdffactory.in the context. ought scornfully average well paid know ambassadors understanding look after the result of 2. '% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. (a) Why would you have been told a hundred years ago that women ought not to have the same rights as men? (b) Why was strength of body important thousands of years ago? (c) How can we see that it is no longer so important? (d) What work does the writer mention that women have done as well as men? 3· What does the writer think about the brains of women compared with those of men? Do not use more than 50 words in your answer. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece.

fully. "You've done that to me before.pdffactory. What a nuisance I Now we shan't be able to play tennis this afternoon. You'll have to do your share." said John. "I'll just watch you sticking them in." "No." '& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.19 A WET AFTERNOON "Hullo. Then what about playing cards? You're keen enough on doing that with your friends at the club." "Oh. "I suppose we shan't. you won't. my girl I " "All right. "I thought you said you didn't like doing it because it was so messy." said Mary. "it's raining again.' replied Mary.com . no." said John." "Oh. shall we?" "Do you really want to?" said John rather doubt. Let's stay at home and stick some photographs in our book.

The Grand's the one down by the river. because I don't know how to play." protested John. it's not much fun teaching someone to play cards. Surely that would be better than playing with your friends. can't you? You taught me to drive a car. isn't it?" '' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www." "Oh.com . "That's all right. You can teach me. I would only win my own money I " Mary laughed. yes. because you sometimes lose there."But you don't know how to play.pdffactory. Then she said. isn't there?" "Not the Grand. I think we'll just have to go to the cinema. "All right. "I keep on getting them mixed up. "The Splendid. There's a good film on at the Grand." said John." "But if I did win when I was playing against you." said Mary." "Well. The whole point of playing cards is the chance of winning." "You'd be sure to win if you played with me.

'It does. or will you have to go on sharing mine?" "No.' said Jane. it doesn't." answered John. The shopkeeper was horrified. 'it belongs to me.25 words. I came across Jane in a shop this morning.com . that umbrella belongs to this lady!' 'No. or we'll be too late for the matinee.pdffactory.' You should have seen the shopkeeper's face! He didn't know whether to believe his eyes or his ears-especially as Jane pretended never to have seen me before: you know how she loves a joke!" (About 4. (a) What had John and Mary planned to do earlier? (b) Why didn't Mary like sticking photographs in a book? (c) Why does Mary say that John would be sure to win at cards? '( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. we'd better go. She was carrying my umbrella. Well. So I picked the umbrella up and started to walk out."Yes.' 'That's right. "After we've been here a few more weeks we'll know everything there is to know about this town: it's small enough. Have you got your umbrella back from Jane yet.' I answered.) QUESTIONS I. I got mine back. 'Madam. He said. but she put it down for a moment while she looked in her handbag for some money.

com . Explain why the shopkeeper "didn't know whether to believe his eyes or his ears". (c) Whereabouts is the Grand Cinema? (f) What reason does John give for saying that they will soon get to know the town? (g) Which performance of the film are they going to? (h) Why was the shopkeeper horrified when Mary picked up the umbrella? (i) What was Jane's joke? 2. ') PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.(d) What does John mean when he says that he would only win his own money? .

They had no real government: such a thing was unnecessary because there was no public business. But such meetings were only for discussion. not for governing. Sometimes the old men of the tribe would meet together to discuss questions which were very important to the whole tribe.com . At this time they were wandering shepherds. since the tribe moved from place to place the whole time looking for grass for its sheep and goats. and occasionally there might be a meeting of all the fighting men in the tribe to say what they thought about such important matters. and men were controlled by a few customs. the Greeks began to move across from their' home in the mountains of Asia towards the Western Mediterranean Sea.20 BEGINNINGS OF GOVERNMENT IN EUROPE About 4000 years ago. and nobody owned any land. there were no taxes. one of the dead man's relations had to find and kill the killer. such as the one that said that if one man killed another. (* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. living in groups of families called tribes. such as a war or long journeys. There were also no law cases and no lawyers.

After a man had died. as they had done before. some sort of government became necessary. As each tribe settled and became a group of villages. there were also arguments between his relations as to how his land should be divided. During this time. while the women did the work in the fields. growing corn as well as keeping sheep. too. and quarrels between classes. became more and more dangerous. and for about 400 years the Greeks struggled to learn how to carry out the business of groups of people living a settled life and owning land. people began to be divided into rich and poor by the owning of land. instead of living only in tents. and about the lines dividing one piece of land from the next. which had never taken place when the Greeks were wandering shepherds. To settle such business.When the Greek shepherds came to what is now Greece. (! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. This forced them to settle in one place and build real houses. they began to become farmers. But slowly families began to own pieces of land. the men continued to look after the sheep and goats and to fight enemies. but for a long time the tribe continued to be the only owner of the land.com . and arguments began between families about who owned a certain piece of land. the land was divided among the families. At first.

even though they were often neither very honest. (" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. but more like small nations. (About 575 words. The king and his council used to sit in the market-place all day. each quite independent of other cities. or group.com . which were not like our modern cities. daily meetings were the beginnings of real government in Europe. These public.pdffactory. who alone could buy good armour and weapons. The head of the government was the king. and doing all the public business of the city. The rich landowners.Slowly groups of villages joined together to make cities. governing itself and going to war with other cities when it wanted to. of other rich men. In his work he was helped by a council. hearing all those who came to them to complain against anyone. Choose SIX of the following words and give for each ?f them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that III the context. who was one of the rich.) QUESTIONS I. nor very effective. Each of these cities had its own laws and its own army. loved war and robbed the poor and weak. nor very just.

Write down the following words and then give for each a word or phrase of opposite meaning to that used in the passage. (a) Why was a government unnecessary to the wandering Greek shepherds? (b) What example of an early custom does the writer give? (c) What did the old men of the tribe discuss when they met together? (d) What were quarrels between families usually about? (e) In what ways were the Greek cities different from modern ones? (f) Who did the fighting in the time of the Greek ci ties? (# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.taxes owned relations discussion settle dangerous governing council effective 2.pdffactory. wandering public whole loved 3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. Use your own words as far as possible.com .

4· (ADV.com .) What are we told about the different kinds of public meeting that are mentioned in this piece? You should not use more than 60 words in your answer.pdffactory. ($ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

with the green mountain rising up behind it. The school was closed for the holidays.* so that they were had-tempered and disobedient. Then we went in to turn on the light---but there was no switch I We searched all the rooms carefully-there was no electricity I (% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. At last. We stood in the garden for half an hour before unpacking our things from the car. clean and cheerful. they seemed even more stupid than usual. enjoying the peace and coolness and watching the sunset. We decided to take the three children.com . standing in a beautiful garden. As for the servants.21 A QUIET HOLIDAY It was the hottest part of the year. we rented a house in the mountains for two weeks. walking and enjoying the air of the mountains. and said we would spend our time swimming. and also the busiest in the office. far from hot offices and stupid servants. and the children could not find enough to do. It was a very small house. We were delighted. but no servants.

so there must be water* somewhere: I took a candle and followed a pipe out of the house. My wife and I didn't even wash: we do not like cold water. I pumped for a quarter of an hour and then stopped.com . We cooked breakfast on the oil-stove next morning: the smell of that burning oil was terrible.* We ate sandwiches and drank lemonade for supper: we were too tired to cook. I went down the road to the little village store and bought some candles: they had no oil. (& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. and the water felt very. but no way of heating it. There was a shower in the house.pdffactory. I began pumping. Then we heated water for washing ourselves." There were pipes and taps. "There's no water either.We found several oil lamps-but we had no oil I At last. It led to a pump and well. Then we went straight to bed. too tired to continue. very cold. and lots more water for washing our clothes. The children's cries as they were being washed brought a crowd of village children to our gate. my wife said. When I got back. I pumped for three-quarters of an hour that morning.

The following words and phrases are printed above in italic. We were all very glad to see them.com .pdffactory. and give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage.That afternoon I drove back to town and brought the servants up to the mountains. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. busiest seemed far from searched got back led to no way straight terrible 2. and they seemed less stupid now. (About 400 words.) QUESTIONS I. marked * in the piece: could not find enough to do there must be water the cries brought a crowd of children to our gate 3· (a) What did the writer and his family plan to do for their holiday? (' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Choose SIX.

com . Describe what the writer did on the first two days of his holiday.(b) What did they do before they unpacked their things from the car? (c) Why had they to use candles? (d) Why did the writer and his wife not wash on their first night in the mountains? 4.pdffactory. (( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Make sure that you do not miss out anything mentioned in the piece.

it is possible to get freedom from hunger. water. but such a society cannot work successfully unless the freedom of each () PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. When men become organized into very large groups. * When men live together.pdffactory. so that each person can live a happier life than he could if he were living alone. protection against wild animals is easier and they can work together to get food and build shelters. such as wild animals or cliffs too steep to climb. but he is not absolutely free. and death will certainly come to him sooner or later. by the things around him. heat and many diseases. thirst. by his own nature as a man: disease may attack him. by his own needs: he must have sleep. His freedom is limited* in several ways. Firstly. Secondly. and civilization develops. cold. Lastly.com . food and shelter from extreme heat or cold.22 FREEDOM A man living absolutely alone in a desert or forest is free from other people. but each man has to give up some of his freedom so that he can live happily with the others. on the other hand.

human being is to some extent limited so that he is kept from hurting others. The advantages of such an agreement are great: one man can become a doctor.com . I am not free to kill others. and in return they agree to respect mine. I have to limit my own freedom myself so that others will not limit it too much: I agree to respect the rights of others. If each man had to grow his own food.pdffactory. in return for the work he does to keep them healthy. build his own house and learn to be his own doctor. nor to behave in a way that offends against the moral sense of the society in which I live.* we make it possible for society to provide us all with food. while leaving each of us with as much freedom as it can. make his own clothes. (About 375 words. clothes. )* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Choose SIX of the following words or phrases and give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meanning to that in the context. make clothes and build a house for him. By working together. shelter and medical care.) QUESTIONS I. knowing that others will grow food. nor to steal someone else's property. he would find it impossible to do anyone of these jobs really well.

pdffactory. Use your own words as far as possible. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. (a) Why is a man living alone in a desert or forest not absolutely free? (b) Why are individuals in a civilized society willing to accept limits on their freedom? (c) What would happen. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. according to the writer. marked * in the piece: his freedom is limited sooner or later by working together 3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each.absolutely his needs protection give up successfully respect in return advantages healthy 2.com . if everybody had to do all his own jobs? 4· What do men gain if they live together in large groups? In a second paragraph explain how they have to pay for these )! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

)" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory. 5· (ADV.com .advantages. Your total number of words should not he more than 80.) Make clear the author's meaning when he says in the first paragraph that the man living alone is limited by his own needs.

we found that the bolts fastening the wheel to the axle had just broken off as if they had been sticks. They advised me to leave my car with the driver and continue my journey in another one.23 A LUCKY ESCAPE We had slowed down to go round a corner when the wheel came off our car. If it had been a front wheel. While the driver stayed with the car.* It was a strange sight seeing our wheel running past us and disappearing up the road. When we got out. pale and shaken. the car would have rolled over and over like a shot rabbit.pdffactory. )# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. I stopped a passing Army truck and went to the next village to telephone to the nearest Army garage and work-shop.com . They said that they were very busy because of the big battle that was going on: hundreds of damaged cars and trucks and guns were coming in for repair. Luckily it was a back wheel. otherwise we should probably have been killed. The car dropped heavily on to the axle and tore a hole in the road before we came to a stop.

so that the car was now off the road and in a farmyard. There I left them: a friendly captain took me on to the next small town on the back of his motor-cycle." said the voice at the other end.pdffactory. and found that he had managed to get the help of some farmers* and their horses. I telephoned to my staff to ask about it. Was he killed? Of course he was. and he was driving at 50 miles an hour at least. when things were quieter once more. You had a lucky escape.) )$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. and for two weeks took part in one of the fiercest battles I have ever seen. It was on a straight piece of road.com .* Then. but as they were 100 miles away. "Oh. "haven't you heard? The repair-shop put a new back-axle in." (About 410 words. and I spent the night there in a hotel which had been taken over by the Army.I then telephoned my staff "head-quarters to tell them about the accident and to ask for another car. I went back to tell my driver what had happened. I had no time to think of my three-wheeled car. Next day I completed my journey. they were unable to help. and your driver was on his way to join you when one of the front wheels came off. two weeks ago.

com . Explain the meaning of these phrases (marked *): otherwise we should probably have been killed had managed to get the help of some farmers I had no time to think of my car 3· In your own words as far as possible.QUESTIONS I. The following words and phrases are in italic in the piece. Choose SIX of them and give for each another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used In the piece: slowed down tore continue happened friendly taken over completed on his way straight 2. answer these questions using one complete sentence for each. (a) Why had the writer's car slowed down before the accident took place? (b) Why was the Army workshop busy when he telephoned? (c) Why was his headquarters unable to help? (d) Why did the writer not think of his car for the next fortnight? )% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

)& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com .4· Explain why the writer calls his escape a lucky one.pdffactory. You should not use more than 50 words.

while the other is making a lot. so it is sometimes useful to pay workers at different rates. In some kinds of work.com . but one may be doing it twice as fast as the other. one must be sure that the work is in fact equal. Two people may be working side by side in a factory and doing the same work. But it is not as easy as it appears at first sight to introduce equal pay for equal work. But it is not always possible to do this.24 EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK It seems quite clearly unjust to pay two people different amounts of money for doing the same work. )' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. or one may be making no mistakes. This usually means that the younger and therefore less experienced worker gets less than the older and more experienced one. First of all. which take differences in skill into account. which seems reasonable enough. one can solve the problem of speed if one pays by the amount of work done and not by the hour: work paid for in this way is called piece-work.pdffactory.

may have old or sick parents and young brothers and sisters who cannot yet work. Other women workers. and )( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. The answer is to pay both alike. equally fast workers receive different rates of pay. In some countries. women are paid less than men for the same work.pdffactory. of course. They say that most women workers are either unmarried and have no one to support. so that it would be unjust for them to be paid as much as a man who has a wife who does not work because she has several children at home to look after. but you do find some men workers who are unmarried and have no one to support. for instance.What does not appear to be so reasonable is when two equally skilled. or have husbands who also work and bring home money. and some women workers who are widows and have children to support. The fact is that the problem of paying workers according to their family needs cannot be solved simply by giving the men more and the women less. The employers' argument in places where this happens is that men usually have a wife and children to support and women usually have not. though they have no children.com . is quite true. This.

but your answer must be based only on the facts in the piece. (a) How is it possible for two people working side by side in the same factory at the same work not to be doing equal work? (b) What is meant by piece-work? (c) Why do older workers usually get more money than younger ones? (d) What is the employers' argument for paying women less than men? )) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Give for each of the following words or phrases another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the context.com . (About 405 words.to leave it to the state to see that justice is done by means of taxation and allowances.pdffactory. clearly unjust skill reasonable look after simply by means of 2. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each.) QUESTIONS I. Use your own words as far as possible.

3. !** PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.) Why cannot the problem of paying workers according to their family needs be solved by giving men.com . (ADV.pdffactory. more than women? What solution does the author mention? Do not use more than 60 words. who usually have a family to support.

25
AMUSEMENTS

During the past hundred years, the railway, the motor-car, the gramophone, the radio, the cinema, and now television, have produced very great changes in the amusements with which people fill their free time.

A hundred years ago, people were in the habit of* making their own amusements. Both sexes read and wrote far more than their descendants do now: very long books, in several parts, were the fashion, '* and many 'people, especially ladies, kept diaries, in which they wrote long descriptions of their doings and feelings. Ladies did a lot of needlework, or went for long walks, and gentlemen went riding or shooting.

When a group of people were gathered together, they talked, played cards or other games, read aloud to each other, or went out riding, shooting or walking together. Most people could sing a little, or play some musical instrument reasonably well; so at a party the guests amused each other. Above all,

!*! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

conversation was an art: amusing conversation could keep people happy for hours.

As for games such as football and cricket, people were in the habit of playing them themselves, on the village green or in the local park. Most of them did not play very well, but they managed to amuse themselves and their friends.

Nowadays, we are amused by professionals. Why listen to your friends singing when you can hear the great singers of the world on the gramophone or the radio? Why read even a detective story if you can see one at the cinema? and why play football with players who are not very good when you can go, by train or car, to see some of the best players in your country playing an important match; or, if you have a television set, just sit comfortably at homes and watch the game without the trouble of going outside?

The art of conversation and the habit of reading and writing are dying; people are becoming more and more lookers and listeners, and less and less doers and talkers. This can only harm the individual: it is better to do something not very well

!*" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

oneself than always to sit and watch others doing it, however perfectly. (About 865 words.)

QUESTIONS

I. Choose SIX of the following words or phrases and give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that in the context. amusements free time descendants diaries reasonably conversation managed professionals individual

2. Explain the meaning of the following phrases, marked * in the piece: people were in the habit of were the fashion just sit comfortably at home

3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. Use your own words as far as possible, but base your answer only on the information in the piece.

!*# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

(a) What has caused amusements to change during the last hundred years. using not more than 60 words. according to the author? (b) Who was amused by the games played on village greens or in local parks? (c) What kinds of professionals of the present day are mentioned? (d) What opinion does the writer express in the last sentence? 4· Describe.pdffactory. the amusements of people living a hundred years ago. !*$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com .

what' can be better than to sit down at a table with my precious books. my mother began to collect for me. How do I get my stamps? I have never bought a single one from a shop-so my collection has really cost me nothing.* They were in four fat books. writing in the names of !*% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. I remember that it was on my fifteenth birthday that she first put them into my hands. sometimes brings me home stamps from many countries of the world.pdffactory. who works in a big office. arranging new stamps in them. Of course. But in the evenings. but since that time I have added three more. Now that I am working for my living.com . When I was still only a baby.26 MY HOBBY My hobby is collecting stamps. so that now I have a bigger collection than any of my friends. I do not have as much time as before to spend on my stamps. My father. And I have friends both here and in other lands who send me stamps in return for ones which I send to them. she did not let me touch the stamps until I was old enough not to spoil them.

Kings and presidents pass before my eyes. or. But my stamp collection does not make me think only of the past. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage. I see pictures of men and women. Just as my mother collected for me. if I am too tired. * and I can follow the history of nations-I can see Hitler's Germany spreading over Europe and then suddenly breaking into pieces. only looking through the stamps already in the books? Each stamp has a story to tell me of far countries and strange peoples.) QUESTIONS I.com . birds and animals that I have never seen. geography and languages.countries. so I too am collecting for my future child. and of making these subjects live for him instead of being only things in school books? If I can pass my hobby on* to him. he will bless me for it as I have blessed my mother for her wise action.pdffactory. What better way will there be of interesting him in history. The following words and phrases are printed above in italic. Pakistan is born before my eyes. (About 380 words. !*& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. countries rise and countries fall-and the whole time I remain comfortably in my armchair at home.

interesting. looking through. arranging. using short forms wherever possible: (a) How old was the writer when his stamp collection was started? (b) How many books had he when he was fifteen years old.pdffactory.let. future. Use your own words as far as possible. but base your answer only on information in the piece. and how many has he now? (c) Where does his father work? 4· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. (a) Why did the author's mother not let him touch his stamps before he was fifteen years old? (b) Why has his collection cost him nothing? !*' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. 2. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. rise.com . marked * in the piece: . first put them into my hands pass before my eyes pass my hobby on 3· Answer the following questions.

) Explain in a few sentences the different kinds of pleasure the author gets from his hobby.com . !*( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Do not use more than 75 words.(c) What docs he like to do in the evening? (d) What reason does he give for blessing his mother? 5· (ADV.pdffactory.

But if he tells us that he has a poor memory. they slowly become strong again.pdffactory. Everybody knows this. Yet there are many people who do not seem to know that the memory works in the same way. he really means that he does not give it enough opportunity to become strong. When someone else says that his memory is poor. and nobody would think of questioning this fact. one of whom exercises his arms and legs by playing tennis. and few of us realize that it is just as much his own fault as if it was his arms or legs that were weak. When someone says that he has a good memory.com .* or that he is just unlucky. while the other sits in a chair or a motor car all day. either consciously or unconsciously. he really means that he keeps his memory in practice by exercising it regularly. when you start using them again. many of us think that his parents are to blame. we know that it is his own fault.* they become weak. If a friend complains that his arms are weak. The position is exactly the same as that of two people. Not all of us !*) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.! MEMORY If you do not use your arms or your legs for some time.

) QUESTIONS I. !!* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. names. improve our strength and our memory by the same means* practice. because those who cannot read or write have to remember things: they cannot write them down in a little notebook. The following words and phrases are printed above in italic. learn from the poor and humble: practise remembering. again. times and prices.pdffactory.can become extremely strong or extremely clever. songs and stories. Have you ever noticed that people who cannot read or write usually have better memories than those who can? Why is this? Of course. complains. (About 324 words. Give for each of them another word or phrase of Similar meaning to that used in the passage.com . So if you want a good memory. so their memory is the whole time being exercised. if we have ordinary bodies and brains. They have to remember dates. have to. opportunity. but all of us can. exercising.

2. (a) What does the author suggest it means when someone says he has a good memory? (b) Who is to blame if someone complains that his memory is poor? (c) What are we told we can learn from the poor and humble? !!! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. marked * in the piece: for some time his parents are to blame by the same means 3· Answer the following questions using short-form answers wherever possible.pdffactory. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. Use your own words as far as possible. (a) What happens -if you do not use your arms or your legs? (b) How' do we improve our strength and our memory? (c) Which people have the best memory: those who can read and write or those who cannot? 4· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. Explain the meaning of the following phrases.com .

!!" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.(d) Explain why a person who cannot read or write usually has a better memory than one who can. (ADV. 5.) Write a short conversation between the author and someone who complains that his memory is bad.com .

His opposite. The man who tries to do as little as he can is always full of excuses: * if he has neglected to do something. But the peoples of the world have more points in which they are all like each other than points in which they are different. neither of these men thinks that he behaves at all strangely. Both these types are usually unconscious of their character. One type of person that is common in every country is the one who always tries to do as little as he possibly can and to get as much in return as he can.com . it was because !!# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the man who is in the habit of doing more than is strictly necessary and who is ready to accept what is offered in return. easy life. doing more than his share talks of "duties": he feels that the individual is in debt to society. and not society to the individual.pdffactory. The man who is always. is rare everywhere. The man who avoids effort is always talking about his "rights": he appears to think that society owes him a pleasant. As a result of their views.28 PUBLIC SPIRIT Each nation has its own peculiar character which distinguishes it from others.

In the long run he deceives only himself When his friends become cool towards him and he fails to make progress in his job. don't go to the man who has clearly not much to do.pdffactory. He soon becomes one of the discontented members of the society he lives in. At first. and that he is being unjustly treated.he had a headache.) !!$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. particularly if you are sure that he has not a spare minute in the week.* (About 4110 words.* Go to the busiest man you know. such as his friends and his employer. His public-spirited opposite is never too busy to take on an extra piece of work: that is the strangest thing about the whole business.com . He will probably have a dozen excellent excuses for not being able to help you. he will make time for it. other people. he is surprised and hurt. but soon they realize what kind of person he is. He blames every one and everything except himself He feels that society is failing in its duties towards him. or the weather was too hot-or too cold-or because he was prevented by bad luck. If your work is really important. generously accept his stories. If you want something done in a hurry. much as he claims he would like to.

Choose SIX of the following words and phrases and give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that in the context. pleasant. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each. peculiar rare unconscious neglected realize in the long run hurt unjustly take on 2. sure. Use your own words as far as possible. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. Write down a word or phrase opposite in meaning to each of the following words as used in the piece: ready. !!% PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. marked *: always full of excuses much as he claims he would like to make time for it 3.pdffactory. Explain the meaning of the following phrases.QUESTIONS I. 4. except.com . accept.

) What is the difference between "rights" and "duties"? !!& PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Explain the views about society held by the two kinds of people mentioned in this piece.(a) What kind of person is common and what kind uncommon. Use two paragraphs.com .pdffactory. in every country. you ought to go to a very busy man and not to one who clearly has not much to do? 5. 6. according to the author? (b) What does the man who tries to avoid effort seem to think about other people? (c) Who does this kind of man blame when he is discontented? (d) What is the strange thing about the public-spirited man? (e) Why does the author suggest that if you have something which needs doing very quickly. but not more than 90 words. and describe how these views affect their behaviour. (ADV.

for there are very important differences between the teacher's work and the actor's. using his arms. pleasing voice which is fully under your control.29 TEACHERS AND ACTORS To be a good teacher. he walks about. and you will see that he does not sit motionless before his class: he stands the whole time he is teaching. the quality and the musical note of his voice always changing according to what he is talking about. and you will hear the loudness.com . strong. Listen to him. hands and fingers to help him in his explanations. you must be a clear speaker. and you must be able to act what you are teaching. with a good. The fact that a good teacher has some of the gifts of a good actor does not mean that he will indeed be able to act well on the stage. The actor has to speak words !!' PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Watch a good teacher. in order to make its meaning clear.pdffactory. you need some of the gifts of the good actor: you must be able to hold the attention* and interest of your audience. and his face to express feelings.

even his movements and the ways in which he uses his voice are usually fixed before.pdffactory. (About 350 words. and if they do not understand something.which he has learnt by heart.* he has to repeat exactly the same words each time he plays a certain part.com . they obey orders.* I have known many teachers who were fine actors in class but were unable to take part in a stage-play because their brains would not keep discipline: they could not keep strictly to what another had written. they say so. The teacher there fore has to suit his act to the needs of his audience. !!( PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. The following words are printed above in italic. The good teacher works in quite a different way. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage. but must invent it as he goes along. which is his class. His audience takes an active part in his play: they ask and answer questions.) QUESTIONS I. He cannot learn his part by heart. What he has to do is to make all these carefully learnt words and actions seem natural on the stage.

pdffactory. Use your own words as far as possible. Explain the meaning of the following phrases. (a) What gifts of the actor needed by a teacher does the author mention? (b) What does a good teacher do with his voice as he is teaching? (c) What has an actor to do when he is on the stage? (d) How does a teacher's "audience" take part in his "play"? (e) Why must a teacher invent as he goes along? !!) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. marked * in the piece: hold the attention learnt by heart as he goes along 3· Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COMPLETE sentence for each.gifts clear motionless express indeed fixed needs invent strictly 2.com .

You must not use more than 7S words.pdffactory.com . !"* PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.4· Explain why a good teacher who has some of the gifts of an actor may be unable to act well on the stage.

If. for example? Money gives us a very useful means of measuring such relative values. 7 a week to my employer. for example. a means of exchanging such goods and services.pdffactory. and a way to store up buying power so that one can use it later. and so on. If I work in an office. and how am I to know how many loaves I should give for a pair of shoes or for the rent of my house.com .30 MONEY Money has various uses in the modern world: it is a measure of the value of goods and services. Money is also of very great use as a means of exchanging goods and services. how can my employer know what to pay me for my services if there is no generally recognized measure of value? He may decide to pay me a certain number of loaves of bread each week. As a measure of value. I am a shoemaker. it is of the very greatest use. a pair of shoes costs 1. but then I shall have to exchange some of these loaves for other things that I need. it will not be at !"! PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. let us say. My services are worth. my rent is thirty shillings a week.

pdffactory. the metal in each was really worth the amount stamped on the coin. It can more easily be kept a long time than such things as food. !"" PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. As a result. which rots. but I may not need medical care. which rust. But modern money has some very serious disadvantages as a means of storing up buying power. it is as safe as anything in this world can be. money has good and bad points. for example. But the paper in modern paper money and even the metal in most modem coins are worth very much less than in the amount written on them. when money was in the form of gold and silver coins. the tax-collector would come back to his office with an extraordinary collection of objects. which slowly fall to pieces. or look for another shoemaker who needs him. the buying power of modern money can change very greatly in a short time. Without money. or machines. so he will then have to find something else that I want. It takes up very little space. In the old days. and if you put it in a bank. Considered as a means of storing up buying power.com . or buildings. A doctor may want to buy a pair of shoes from me.all convenient to me always to have to exchange the shoes I make for other goods or services.

It has happened more than once this century that the buying power of a country's money has fallen to almost nothing in a few weeks. Give brief answers to the following questions using ONE COAIPLETE sentence for each.) QUESTIONS I.pdffactory. but your answer must be based only on the information in the piece. A man who had saved enough money to buy a large house in 1913 found that in 1919 this money would not buy even a loaf of bread. for example. (About 520 words. !"# PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. This happened in Germany after the First World War.com . Use your own words as far as possible. store up generally recognized relative means look for serious buying power ruining wisdom 2. ruining many thousands of people with savings. Choose SIX of the following words or phrases and give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that used in the passage. It is not surprising that some people are doubtful about the wisdom of saving money.

pdffactory. how modern money helps us to live. !"$ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. in the modern world. Do not use more than 75 words. (ADV.) Explain the difference between the following pairs: (a) goods and services. if there were no money? (c) How does modern money store up value more easily than other things? (d) Why is it possible for the buying power of present-day money to change very quickly? 3· Explain briefly. (b) gold money and paper money.com . in your own words. 4.(a) What would be the difficulty if we were paid in loaves instead of money? (b) Why would the tax-collector come back to his office with an extraordinary collection of objects.