Introduction Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply. The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.


ur pro!ect works on the following three basic principles. 1. ". #. Air can flow. Air can be compressed. $ifference in air pressure can cause movement.

The main ob!ectives of our pro!ect is to punch ob!ect with the help of air. %nitially we press the lever manually and the force is transmitted from the lever to the cylinder &'yringe(1) through a link. The air in the cylinder &'yringe(1) gets compressed and e*erts force through the pipe to the ne*t cylinder &'yringe(") where the punching tool is connected and hence the ob!ect is punched due to air pressure. Thus the pro!ect is easy to operate due to its simple mechanism.





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%t reduces the manual work %t reduces the production time /niform application of the load gives perfect removing of the bearing. . . . $amages to the bearing due to the hammering is prevented %t occupies less floor space 0ess skilled operator is sufficient 1 . .ADVANTAGES . .

6 . . . %nitial cost is high 2ylinder stroke length is constant 'pecific 'i3e punching operation only. Pressing peration in all industries Paper punching industries 0eather washer operation in all industries. 2an work only on thin papers 4 sheets. APPLICATIONS .LIMITATIONS . 'heet 5etal Punching. . . . .

mining. R(%i!*i%it$ Pneumatic systems tend to have long operating lives and require very little maintenance. and other areas. safer. and more reliable way than a large number of electric motors and actuators. 5ost industrial pneumatic applications use pressures of about 68 to 188 pounds per square inch &. Com !ri"on to #$dr!u%ic" 7oth pneumatics and hydraulics are applications of fluid power. :ydraulics applications commonly use from 1.PNEUMATICS Pneumatics is a section of technology that deals with the study and application of pressuri3ed gas to produce mechanical motion. Pneumatic systems are e*tensively used in industry. while hydraulics uses relatively incompressible liquid media such as oil. Pneumatics also has applications in dentistry. 9 .9 to #+ 5Pa).. where factories are commonly plumbed with compressed air or compressed inert gases. 5achines operate by simple < ( == type control.888 psi &-9 5Pa). more fle*ible.8 to -98 kPa). construction.888 psi &-. This is because a centrally located and electrically powered compressor that powers cylinders and other pneumatic devices through solenoid valves is often able to provide motive power in a cheaper. Pneumatics uses an easily compressible gas such as air or a suitable pure gas.. but speciali3ed applications may e*ceed 18.888 to . other components. Ad&!nt!'(" o) n(um!tic" • • 'implicity of $esign And 2ontrol 5achines are easily designed using standard cylinders .

whereas the fluid of hydraulics directly transfers force. S!)(t$ • • >ery low chance of fire &compared to hydraulic oil). consisting of primary logic units such as? • • • • • • • And /nits r /nits @Aelay or 7ooster@ /nits 0atching /nits @Timer@ /nits 'orteberg relay =luidics amplifiers with no moving parts other than the air itself Pneumatic logic is a reliable and functional control method for industrial processes. and other considerations outweigh the advantage of modern digital control. %n recent years. 5achines can be designed to be overload safe. safety. due to the smaller si3e and lower cost of electrical components. 18 . The gas in pneumatics absorbs e*cessive force. allowing the use of machines when electrical power is lost. these systems have largely been replaced by electrical control systems.7ecause gas is compressible. Stor!'( 2ompressed gas can be stored. Pn(um!tic %o'ic Pneumatic logic systems &sometimes called air logic control) are often used to control industrial processes. the equipment is less likely to be damaged by shock. Pneumatic devices are still used in processes where compressed air is the only energy source available or upgrade cost.

%n this case. the punch must be physically pulled back out of the hole while the work is supported from the punch side. All ductile materials stretch to some e*tent during punching which often causes the punch to stick in the workpiece. The punch press forces the punch through a workpiece. through the workpiece to create a hole via shearing. called a punch. and this process is known as stripping. rollover. and die break and must often be further processed. The hole walls will show burnished area. producing a hole that has a diameter equivalent to the punch. 11 . The punch often passes through the work into a die. but the clearance is always less than the thickness of the workpiece. Punching is often the cheapest method for creating holes in sheet metal in medium to high production volumes. $epending on the material being punched this slug may be recycled and reused or discarded.PUNCHING %ntroduction Punching is a metal forming process that uses a punch press to force a tool. The slug from the hole falls through the die into some sort of container to either dispose of the slug or recycle it. The clearance is also dependent on the hardness of the workpiece. and this is called hot punching. A scrap slug from the hole is deposited into the die in the process. The amount of clearance needed depends on the thickness. A die is located on the opposite side of the workpiece and supports the material around the perimeter of the hole and helps to locali3e the shearing forces for a cleaner edge. or slightly smaller after the punch is removed. When a specially shaped punch is used to create multiple usable parts from a sheet of material the process is known as blanking. with thicker materials requiring more clearance. There is a small amount of clearance between the punch and the die to prevent the punch from sticking in the die and so less force is needed to make the hole. %n forging applications the work is often punched while hot. Proc("" Punch tooling &punch and die) is often made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide.

commonly being metals and plastics. die posts. and die break on sidewall of the resulting hole.Punc#in' C#!r!ct(ri"tic" • • • • Punching is the most cost effective process of making holes in strip or sheet metal for average to high fabrication %t is able to create multiple shaped holes Punches and dies are usually fabricated from conventional tool steel or carbides 2reates a burnished region roll(over. and bed. 5a!or components of this mechanical press are the frame. 5aterials for the workpiece can vary. and the die is mounted to the bolster plate. or electrical power to press the shape with enough force to shear the metal. These machines use hydraulic. pneumatic. E+ui m(nt 5ost punch presses are mechanically operated. The punch and die themselves can have a variety of shapes to create an array of different shaped holes in the workpiece. %t houses punches and their corresponding dies in a revolving inde*ed turret. The punch is mounted into the ram. but simple punches are often hand( powered. motor. G(om(tr$ The workpiece is often in the form of a sheet or roll. bolster. The scrap material drops through as the workpiece is advanced for the ne*t hole. .orc(" The punch force required to punch a piece of sheet metal can be estimated from the following equation? 1" . A large computer controlled punch press is called a computer numerical controlled turret. 5ultiple punches may be used together to create a part in one step. ram.

1+ . C$%ind(r" B =orce C Pressure . $ie and punch shapes affect the force during the punching process. 0 is the total length sheared &perimeter of the shape). and /T' is the ultimate tensile strength of the material. -8 psi C 166 lbs D =orce while e*tending greater than while retracting B 5ain decisions? 0ength and diameter D $iameter based on required force D 0arger diameter? more force. /sing compound dies will generally slow down the process and are typically more e*pensive than other dies.1+ in" . A beveled punch helps in the shearing of thicker materials by reducing the force at the beginning of the stroke. Progressive dies may be used in high production operations. $ifferent punching operations and dies may be used at different stages of the operation on the same machine. :owever. Area D "E diameter piston D Area C #.1+ in" D Pressure C -8 psi D #. 2ompound dies allow multiple shaping to occur.Where t is the sheet metal thickness. The punch force increases during the process as the entire thickness of the material is sheared at once. but more air %ntroduction 2omponents 5echanisms Aesources 1# . 1" C #. beveling a punch will disort the shape because of lateral forces that develop.

These include the following? 1) =luids can be compressed ") =luids can flow #) Pressure differences can cause movement F=luids can flowE relates to my sub!ect because for pneumatic systems to work.T#( T#r(( Princi %(" There are three scientific principles involved in each type of fluid systems. 1+ . it needs the compressed air to flow through something in order to do a !ob right.

. -. . 1. #. ". +. .LIST O.ACCESSORIES USED IN THE PROJECT 1. Punching Tools Pneumatic 2ylinder 0ever 'procket Wooden 'urface 4 =rame 2lamp 4 $ies &5ale 4 =emale) 'pring 1. COMPONENTS .

the piston becomes displaced &moved) by the compressed air e*panding in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. in the mechanical puppets of the $isney Tiki Aoom. 1- . leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out and contaminate the surroundings. and do not require large amounts of space for fluid storage. pneumatic cylinders use the stored potential energy of a fluid. in this case compressed air. making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness is a requirement.?6. 0ike hydraulic cylinders. =or e*ample. compressed air enters into the tube at one end of the piston and. cleaner. 7ecause the operating fluid is a gas. pneumatics are used to prevent fluid from dripping onto people below the puppets. O (r!tion G(n(r!% nce actuated. Gngineers prefer to use pneumatics sometime because they are quieter. hence. imparts force on the piston. and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the ob!ect to be moved. The piston is a disc or cylinder. 2onsequently. This air e*pansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction.PNEUMATIC CYLINDER Pneumatic cylinders &sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion. and convert it into kinetic energy as the air e*pands in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. ?6.

remedyJremedyKK or abate any damage arising in such a situation. 5any studies have been completed on how the precision of a pneumatic cylinder can be affected as the load acting on the cylinder tries to further compress the gas used. T$ (" Although pneumatic cylinders will vary in appearance.!i% "!)( m(c#!ni"m" Pneumatic systems are often found in settings where even rare and brief system failure is unacceptable. this type of cylinder has limited e*tension due to the space the 11 . which is still within a satisfactory range but shows that the compressibility of air has an effect on the system. and a spring to return to the LhomeL position.Com r(""i*i%it$ o) '!""(" ne ma!or issue engineers come across working with pneumatic cylinders has to do with the compressibility of a gas. a case where the cylinder takes on the full load. thus. they generally fall into one of the specific categories shown below. :owever there are also numerous other types of pneumatic cylinder available. .!ctin' c$%ind(r 'ingle(acting cylinders &'A2) use the pressure imparted by compressed air to create a driving force in one direction &usually out). %n such situations locks can sometimes serve as a safety mechanism in case of loss of air supply &or its pressure falling) and. $ue to the leakage of air from input or output reduces the pressure and so the desired output. Sin'%(. /nder a vertical load. si3e and function. many of which are designed to fulfill specific and speciali3ed functions. concluded that the accuracy is about I #8mm. A study at the <ational 2heng Hung /niversity in Taiwan. 5ore often than not. the precision of the cylinder is affected the most.

compressed spring takes up. Dou*%(. Another downside to 'A2s is that part of the force produced by the cylinder is lost as it tries to push against the spring. 7ecause of those factors. ?69 16 . the piston rod is more vulnerable to buckling and bending. however. Addition calculations should be performed as well. They have two ports to allow air in.!ctin' c$%ind(r" $ouble(acting cylinders &$A2) use the force of air to move in both e*tend and retract strokes. single acting cylinders are recommended for applications that require no more than 188mm of stroke length ?6. one for outstroke and one for instroke. 'troke length for this design is not limited.

and differs from a pulley in that sprockets have teeth and pulleys are smooth. 'prockets are used in bicycles. track or other perforated or indented material. Garly automobiles were also largely driven by sprocket and chain mechanism. cars. 'prockets are of various designs. The name @sprocket@ applies generally to any wheel upon which are radial pro!ections that engage a chain passing over it. 'prockets and chains are also used for power transmission from one shaft to another where slippage is not admissible. tracked vehicles. motorcycles.SPROCKET A sprocket or sprocket(wheel is a profiled wheel with teeth. sprocket chains being used instead of belts or ropes and sprocket( wheels instead of pulleys. cogs. 'prockets typically do not have a flange. tape etc. Perhaps the commonest form of sprocket is found in the bicycle. They can be run at high speed and some forms of chain are so constructed as to be noiseless even at high speed. a ma*imum of efficiency being claimed for each by its originator. and other machinery either to transmit rotary motion between two shafts where gears are unsuitable or to impart linear motion to a track. %t is distinguished from a gear in that sprockets are never meshed together directly. 19 . a practice largely copied from bicycles. 'ome sprockets used with timing belts have flanges to keep the timing belt centered. or even sprockets that mesh with a chain. in which the pedal shaft carries a large sprocket(wheel which drives a chain which in turn drives a small sprocket on the a*le of the rear wheel.

or fulcrum. This allows the identification of three classes of levers by the relative locations of the fulcrum. This is known as the law of the lever. 2lass #? Gffort in the middle? the resistance is on one side of the effort and the fulcrum is located on the other side. "8 . the resistance and the effort? 2lass 1? =ulcrum in the middle? the effort is applied on one side of the fulcrum and the resistance on the other side. a wheelbarrow or a nutcracker or a bottle opener. a levant. A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force. for e*ample. cf. or pivot. a pair of twee3ers or the human mandible. 2lass "? Aesistance in the middle? the effort is applied on one side of the resistance and the fulcrum is located on the other side. The word comes from the =rench lever. Lto raiseL. the power into the lever equals the power out. %t is common to call the input force the effort and the output force the load or the resistance. for e*ample. The ratio of the output force to the input force is the ideal mechanical advantage of the lever. C%!""(" o) L(&(r 0evers are classified by the relative positions of the fulcrum and the input and output forces. a crowbar or a pair of scissors.LEVER A lever is a machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fi*ed hinge. %t is one of the si* simple machines identified by Aenaissance scientists. which is said to provide leverage. and the ratio of output to input force is given by the ratio of the distances from the fulcrum to the points of application of these forces. %n this case. The ideal lever does not dissipate or store energy. . which means there is no friction in the hinge or bending in the beam. called a fulcrum. for e*ample.orc( !nd %(&(r" A lever is a beam connected to ground by a hinge.

or pivot.These cases are described by the mnemonic Lfre 1"#L where the fulcrum is in the middle for the 1st class lever. points farther from this pivot move faster than points closer to the pivot. the power into the lever must equal the power out of the lever. because power is the product of force and velocity. and the effort is in the middle for the #rd class lever. L!/ o) t#( L(&(r The lever is a movable bar that pivots on a fulcrum attached to a fi*ed point. Therefore a force applied to a point farther from the pivot must be less than the force located at a point closer in. Assuming the lever does not dissipate or store energy. As the lever rotates around the fulcrum. "1 . the resistance is in the middle for the "nd class lever. The lever operates by applying forces at different distances from the fulcrum.

ICATION0 1) pen coil springs &or) 2ompression helical springs ") 2losed coil springs &or) Tension helical springs 23 HELICAL TENSION SPRINGS0 CHARACTERISTICS0 "" . square or rectangular CLASSI.SECTION0 2ircular. pulled.INITON0 %t is made of wire coiled in the form of heli*. springs are classified into the following ways? 'PA%<M' :G0%2A0 'PA%<M' 0GA= 'PA%<M' 'P%AA0 'PA%<M' TG<'% < :G0%2A0 'PA%<M T A'% < 'PA%<M 2 5PAG''% < :G0%2A0 'PA%<M I1 HELICAL SPRINGS0 DE. or stretched by some force. CROSS. CLASSI. SPRINGS0 7ased on the shape behavior obtained by some applied force.SPRINGS DE. %n other words it is also termed as a resilient member.OR SPRING0 'prings are elastic bodies &generally metal) that can be twisted.INITION .ICATION O. They can return to their original shape when the force is released.

A HELICAL E4TENSION SPRING "# . %t has some means of transferring the load from the support to the body by means of some arrangement. • • • %t stretches apart to create load.• =igure1 shows a helical tension spring. .IGURE1TENSION HELICAL SPRING . 7y applying load the spring elongates in action as it mainly depends upon the end hooks as shown in figure". The wire is coiled in a sequence that the turn is at right angles to the a*is of the spring. The gap between the successive coils is small. END HOOKS O.IGURE1TYPES O. • • The spring is loaded along the a*is.

the plain end type is less e*pensive to manufacture.. %t is made of round wire and wrapped in cylindrical shape with a constant pitch between the coils. There are mainly four forms of compression springs as shown in figure#.APPLICATIONS0 1) Marage door assemblies ") >ise(grip pilers #) carburetors 53 HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS0 CHARACTERISTICS0 • • The gap between the successive coils is larger. %t tends to bow sideways when applying a compressive load. • • 7y applying the load the spring contracts in action.IGURE1COMPRESSION HELICAL SPRING "+ . . They are as follows? 1) Plain end ") Plain and ground end #) 'quared end +) 'quared and ground end Among the four types.

so that if the ob!ect rotates around the center of the spring. 5ainly used for torque transmission The ends of the spring are attached to other application ob!ects. .APPLICATIONS0 1) 7all point pens ") Pogo sticks #) >alve assemblies in engines 63 TORSION SPRINGS0 CHARACTERISTICS0 • • • • %t is also a form of helical spring.IGURE1TORSION SPRING APPLICATIONS0 • • • 5ouse tracks Aocker switches $oor hinges ". %t releases the load in an arc around the a*is as shown in figure+. . but it rotates about an a*is to create load. it tends to push the spring to retrieve its normal position.

• • 2lipboards Automobile starters 73 SPIRAL SPRINGS0 CHARACTERISTICS0 • %t is made of a band of steel wrapped around itself a number of times to create a geometric shape as shown in figure.. "- . • • %t has a few rotations and also contains a thicker band of steel. %t releases power when it unwinds. • %ts inner end is attached to an arbor and outer end is attached to a retaining drum.

$ecorative punches may also be used to create a pattern or even form an image. or to form an impression of the tip on a workpiece. Punches and dies are necessities in a metal shop.ACCESSORIES A punch is a hard metal rod with a shaped tip at one end and a blunt butt end at the other. that are capable of punching through a variety of metals. 5ost woodworkers prefer to use a ball(peen hammer for using punches. which is usually struck by a hammer. "1 . Punches are used to drive ob!ects. such as nails. variety of punches and dies. Whether in need of a punch for a variety of metal work tasks or for more specific needs in auto body shops. They will help to make work more efficient in the realm of modular home construction to auto body repair and restoration.PUNCHING TOOLS .

The air in the cylinder &'yringe(1) gets compressed and e*erts force through the pipe to the ne*t cylinder &'yringe(") where the punching tool is connected and hence the ob!ect is punched due to air pressure. plastics etc.CONCLUSION ur team has made this pro!ect with utmost dedication which will help common people. This pro!ect has been made for the first time and this the pneumatic punching machine can easily punch the papers. Thus the pro!ect is easy to operate due to its simple mechanism. %nitially we press the lever manually and the force is transmitted from the lever to the cylinder &'yringe(1) through a link. "6 . metals.

world.technocrats.blown(film(machine.htm www.ERENCES • • • • • • "9!ects.com4mechanical(type(pneumatic(type(manual( www.edu4me www.com4pro!ects4mechanical(pro!ect4 www.