Contents

1. Understanding the Engineering Documents ............................. 4
1.1 Anchor Bolt Setting Plan
1.2 Cross Section
1.3 Roof Framing Plan
1.4 Roof Sheeting Layout
1.5 Sidewall & Endwall Sheeting & Framing
1.6 Other Drawings
1.7 Bill of Materials (BOM)
2. Preparation for Erection ....................................................................... 11
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Pre-Erection Checks
2.3 Receiving Materials at Site
2.4 Unloading Containers (for Overseas Shipments)
3. Erection of the Framing ........................................................................ 14
3.1 Preparation of the First Bay
3.2 Main Frames
3.3 Mezzanine Floors
3.4 Crane Beams
4. Sheeting & Trimming .............................................................................. 19
4.1 Sheeting Preparation
4.2 Sheeting the Walls
4.3 Sheeting the Roof
4.4 Miscellaneous Trimming
4.5 Fascia
5. Care & Handling of Sheeting ............................................................. 25
5.1 Handling & Installation of Sheeting
5.1.1 Unloading
5.1.2 Storage
5.1.3 Handling
5.1.4 Cutting & Fixing
5.1.5 Completion & Inspection
5.1.6 Paint Repair
5.2 Water Test Procedures for Roofing
5.3 General Tips
6. Maintenance Procedure ....................................................................... 29
6.1 Maintenance for Longer Life
6.2 Safety Notes
6.3 Exterior Maintenance Procedure
6.4 Maintenance of Accessories
6.5 Record of Maintenance
7. Safety Precautions ................................................................................... 32
8. Quality Control .......................................................................................... 33
9. Basic Erection Equipment .................................................................... 34
9.1 Main Erection Equipment ............................................................... 35
Mobile Crane
Forklift
Telescopic Handler
Scissor Lift
Lifting Beam
Slings
9.2 Electrical Equipment & Tools ......................................................... 37
Generator
Screw Gun
Nibbler
Grinder
Hammer Drill
Hole Cutter
Impact Wrench
Electric Shear
Heavy Duty Drill with Reamer
Reciprocating Saw
Drill 10 mm
Powder Actuated Tool
Pop Rivet Puller
9.3 Measuring & Surveying Equipment ........................................... 42
Plumb Bo
Theodolite
Automatic Level
Spirit Level
Measuring Tape & Square
9.4 Safety Equipment .............................................................................. 43
Welding Hood
Goggles
Gloves
Safety Harness & Fall Arrest
Safety Boots
Hard Hat
First Aid Box
Cones & Ribbons
Portable Fire Extinguisher
Ear Protection
9.5 Other Equipment ............................................................................... 44
Welding Machine
Oxy - Acetylene Cutting Outfit
10. Attachments ................................................................................................. 45
Glossary ........................................................................................................... 55
Commonly Used Abbreviations ............................................................. 58
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Guy Wires
Clamps, Shackles & Clips
Ratchet Puller
Light Duty Scaffolding
Ladders
Aviation Snips (Left & Right Cut)
Vise Grips
Torque Wrench (With Sockets)
Ratchet Spanne (With 19 mm Sockets)
Staple Applicator
Utility Knife
Hacksaw
Mastic Gun
Spud Wrench
Drift Pin
Miscellaneous Tools
Tool Belt & Bolt Bag
Chalk Line
Introduction
The primary goal of Zamil Steel is the satisfaction of
our customers. We design, detail and fabricate our
buildings using sound principles of engineering,
and fabricate every component with the utmost
attention to quality and detail. When work at the
factory is finished, only one final operation remains,
erection. The importance of following a specific
method of erection cannot be underestimated,
and the purpose of this manual is to facilitate and
ensure Quality Erection, thereby creating the finest
possible steel structure.
For purpose discussed here, erection refers to the
assembling of the various component parts that
make up the pre-engineered steel building. The
erection process entails much more than merely
installing the fabricated steel for the building. It
actually begins with the foundation and building
anchorage and continues to cleaning the job site
upon completion.
The methods and procedures suggested by this
Erection Guide represent basic, safe erection
practices. They can, and should, be modified
when necessary to adapt to special conditions or
circumstances.
Before beginning erection work, familiarize
yourself with the building details and the sequence
of erection. This will enable you to plan your work
efficiently and avoid unnecessary delays during
construction.
Zamil Steel’s policy of continuous product
improvement may necessitate changes in
materials, design specifications, and procedures
without prior notice.
Important notice: Zamil Steel recommends that
the erection work, be caried out by a Zamil Steel
certified builder. However, Zamil Steel accepts no
responsibility for erection quality, leakage, defects
or collapse due to negligence or failure to follow
proper erection procedures.
Understanding
the Engineering
Documents
1
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1.1 Anchor Bolt Setting Plan
1.2 Cross-Section
1.3 Roof Framing Plan
1.4 Roof Sheeting Layout
1.5 Sidewall & End wall
Sheeting & Framing
1.6 Other Drawings
1.7 Bill of Materials (BOM)
4
1. Understanding the Engineering Documents
Prior to beginning the erection work, it is essential
to have a clear understanding of the Engineering
Documents, especially the Erection Drawings and
Bill of Materials.
Erection Drawings to be used at site should be
labeled “Issued for Construction” and represent
the latest project revision. Approval Drawings
should never be used at the erection site.
1.1 Anchor Bolt Setting Plan
This drawing shows the layout of all anchor bolts, it
is normally presented on one sheet, but for relatively
large buildings, this layout may be represented on
two or more sheets. Erection drawings are not
made to scale, so do not attempt to scale any
dimensions. All dimensions appear in millimeters
unless otherwise noted on the drawings.
The Anchor Bolt layout also includes an anchor bolt
schedule, in table form, showing the, quantities
and sizes of the anchor bolts required.
The key plan specifies out-to-out the dimensions,
bay spacing dimensions, bolt setting details and
critical dimensions for the span. Critical distances
on the drawing should be respected at all times.
The details specify whether grout is required under
the columns. The grout thickness will be shown on
the drawings, as well as the bolt projection.
Adherence to anchor bolt setting tolerance is
important; deviation shall not exceed 6mm.
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CROSS SECTION
CROSS SECTION
1.2 Cross-Section
The cross-section drawing indicates columns
and rafter references, connection details, bolt
schedules, flange brace schedules and other
information as applicable, such as strut tubes and
flange brace details.
When reviewed in conjunction with the Bill of
Materials it is possible to determine the weight
of individual members, or a combination of
assembled members. This data is essential during
the planning of erection, and needed in order
to determine the capacity of the erection crane to
be used.
The cross section drawing may be typical
throughout in standard buildings but for more
complex jobs, there may be several cross sections,
identified by grid numbers.
6
ROOF FRAMING PLAN
ROOF FRAMING PLAN
1. Understanding the Engineering Documents
1.3 Roof Framing Plan
The roof framing plan illustrates the purlins, bracing
and related miscellaneous details. Part numbers
are indicated on this drawing for purlins, bracing,
sag rods (where applicable), strut tubes etc.
The drawings should be studied very carefully,
otherwise it is possible to overlook critical details
such as nested purlins, strut purlins, strut clips,
and purlins/girts at expanstion joints.
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ROOF SHEETING LAYOUT
ROOF SHEETING PLAN
1.4 Roof Sheeting Layout
The roof sheeting plan displays all the panels
including their length and part numbers. It also
shows the sky light distribution and downspout
positions.
Standard details of panel lap, fasteners, trims and
insulation are also included. It is very important to
note the starting dimension of the sheeting from
the steel line.
8
SIDWALL SHEETING
SIDWALLFRAMINGANDSHEETINGELEVATION
1.5 Sidewall & Endwall Sheeting & Framing
Depending upon the drawing and erection
requirements, sidewall framing and sheeting may
be represented on one drawing or more.
The framing elevation shows the position and
part numbers of girts, eave struts, bracing and
sag rods.
The sheeting elevations show the panel positions
with length and part numbers. Wall lights eave
trims, gutters and downspouts are also shown
along with part numbers. Related standard details
are included which indicate the number, size and
position of fasteners. Additional trimming details
are also included in the drawing. For side walls, it
is important to check the starting dimension of the
sheeting from the steel line.
End-walls are detailed in a similar manner.
1. Understanding the Engineering Documents
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1.6 Other Drawings
Other drawings may include crane beam layouts
and details; Mezzanine layouts and details;
and accessories such as Sliding Doors, Roll-up
doors, Staircase Cage Ladders, Personnel doors,
Windows, Louvers and Ventilators.
1.7 Bill of Materials (BOM)
The BOM supplied with the Erection Drawings is
the Customer BOM.
The BOM begins with a cover sheet indicating the
job number, building number and phase, customer
name, location, and building size. The cover sheet
also shows the number of phases in the building,
any revisions, and special notes.
The second page indicates the various sub-areas of
the phases. On the next page, the detailed BOM
list of the items included in each phase begins.
The sub total of weight and the total number
of items is shown at the end of each sub-area.
The last page indicates the total BOM quantity and
weight.
The BOM is a reference to the items shown on the
Erection Drawings and can be used to verify that all
items have been received at the site. It is also used
to identify frame weights for crane capacities.
The BOM has 9 columns indicating
1 - Line number
2 - Part number
3 - Quantity
4 - Revision number
5 - Description of part
6 - Colour
7 - Length of item
8 - Weight of item
9 - Total weight of line item
10
Preparation
for Erection
2
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Pre-Erection Checks
2.3 Receiving Materials at Site
2.4 Unloading Containers
(for Overseas Shipments)
11
2.1 Introduction
Erection of Pre-Engineered steel buildings is a
straightforward operation, provided some basic
principles are followed and common sense used.
The light weight of built-up and cold formed
members used in pre-engineered steel buildings
require less crane capacity but will need more
temporary bracing during the erection stages. Due
to the synergic design, temporary bracing should
be left in place until the braced bay components
are completely erected, aligned and tightened.
A clear understanding of the sequence of erection
is necessary together with careful planning.
The erection drawings and bills of material
provided by Zamil Steel should be studied before
commencement. Familiarize yourself with the
various components and their weights, evaluate
the site conditions, and decide where to start,
bearing in mind the stability of the building
during erection thence a braced bay must be
erected first.
The major components comprise of, rigid frame
columns and rafters, eave struts, purlins, girts,
flange braces, end-wall columns and bracing
systems which may be cables, rods, angles
or portals.
2.2 Pre-Erection Checks
Make sure that the building foot print, in addition
to 10m wide strip around it, is clear of obstructions,
level and compacted. Check the anchor bolt
settings for compliance with the details provided
on the Anchor Bolt Setting Plan. The allowable
tolerances are given in the General Notes on
the drawing.
Check the foundation levels. In buildings that
require grout, shim packs are placed in the
centre of the bolt pattern. Buildings without
crane systems generally do not require grout, but
variances inconcrete levels may necessitate the
use of shims if the concrete is outside the stated
tolerances. Due to design requirements on certain
buildings, double nuts may be used.
A comprehensive survey report should be made
and documented. A site take-over report from
the client will assure site accessibility and level for
cranes and trucks to maneuver freely.
The following dimentions must
be controlled:
A - Steel Line to outer bolt row
B - Diagonal distance between bolt groups
C - Distance from axis center line to bolt row
C - Distance between bolts
D - Distance between frame axis
E - Destance between Steel Lines Levels of
foundations Anchor Bolt protrusion
Anchor bolts in concrete foundations
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12
2.3 Receiving Materials at Site
Receiving and unloading of materials should take
place as near as possible to the place of erection.
The lay-down area should be clean and leveled. A
suitable forklift or telescopic handler is ideal for
unloading, but a mobile crane is equally suitable. In
either case, care needs to be exercised in handling
the various components and bundles, to minimize
damage to paint. Protect cold-formed members
such as purlins, girts, and channels from weather,
by storing the bundles with an inclination to permit
water drainage in case of rain or condensation. It is
advisable to lightly cover with a tarpaulin. Bundles
of sheets should be stored in the same way,
keeping the bundles clear of the ground. Check
materials against the Packing List and immediately
report shortage or excess material to Zamil Steel
representative.
2.4 Unloading Containers
(for Overseas Shipments)
Good Preparation will make container unloading
a straight forward operation. If possible select a
firm, level, asphalt, concrete or compacted area.
Unloading will be considerably easier if a small step
is made so that the inside base of the container is
level with the external ground.
Unload the container from the trailer using a mobile
crane and four leg slings or chains of the correct
capacity. Set the container on the ground, and
level it, open the doors before final positioning.
Sliding tracks are provided in the container for
withdrawing the skid. Pull out the tracks, lay them
on the leveled ground, and align them with the
inside tracks. Secure the tracks by nails or steel pins,
the tracks must be continuous from the container
to end of the runway, (Length of Container).
Attach chains to the front of the skid in the
container, and then attach to the pulling vehicle.
Take up the strain on the chains, and steadily pull
the skid from the container. When the materials
are clear of the container, remove the skids from
the container floor.
Unloading from trailer
Unloading to lay-down area
Stacking on wooden planks
Unloading containers
13
Erection of
the Framing
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3.1 Preparation of the First Bay
3.2 Main Frames
3.3 Mezzanine Floors
3.4 Crane Beams
14
Step 2
Step 3
3.1 Preparation of the First Bay
Prepare all materials for the first bay erection with
permanent bracing, (braced bay). Identify the rafter
sections required by part number, assemble the
rafter sections as near as possible to their intened
positions. The splice connections are made with
high strength bolts; the sizes are shown on the
drawing cross section, identified as S1, S2, and S3
etc. Tighten the splice bolts and check for correct
torque value using a calibrated torque wrench, or
by turn of nut method. Attach eave strut clips using
high strength bolts. Fix flange braces to the rafter
using machine bolts, the flange brace positions
and part numbers are shown on the drawing cross
section. Flange braces are fitted on one side of
the rafter only. For uniformity it is preferable to
maintain the same side throughout the building.
Attach temporary guy wires to the rafter, manila or
nylon ropes are not recommended for temporary
guying, they can stretch and break. They are also
unsuitable for aligning purpoes.
Prepare the mobile crane and Forklift for erection.
3.2 Main Frames
Erect the first four columns at the braced bay.
Verify the part number and orientation, and
position over the anchor bolts. Adjust the columns
for plumb by tightening or loosening the anchor
bolt nuts (Step 1).
Fix the wall girts to the columns for additional
stability. Girts are attached to the columns by mild
steel (MS) bolts.
Position the crane for lifting the assembled rafter
sections. Make sure that the ridge connection
is torque-tightened (Step 2). Check that slings,
chain and shackles are in good condition and of
adequate capacity for the weight to be lifted. The
chains or slings should be long enough to provide
sufficient spread, at an angle of not less than
45 degrees. The spread of the slings is normally
calculated by dividing the member length by
four, which will give the distance of the lifting
point from each end. This formula may require
some minor adjustment depending on the weight
3. Erection of the Framing
3.1 First frame of braced bay 3.2 Second frame of braced bay 3 1 First frame of braced bay 3 2 Second frame of braced bay 3.3 Roof purlins
Step 1
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Step 4
Step 5
distribution and configuration of the rafter. Refer
to image 3.1.
Flange clamps are a safe lifting device which also
minimizes damage to paint. When using clamps,
install temporary bolts in the purlins holes, or use
“G” clamps to prevent the clamps from sliding. If
clamps are not available, conventional slings may
be used, in which case timber or other protection
should be used on the flanges to prevent slipping
and damage.
Commence lifting the rafter (Step 3). Previously
attached hand ropes will help to guide the rafter
to its position. Carefully lower the rafter to the
column cap plates, and position it using spud
wrenches. Spud wrenches are an invaluable tool
for aligning members and holding in position
whilst bolting up.
Install the high strength bolts, nuts and washers
in the knee connection. The bolt is normally
placed from the top, with the nut and washer on
the underside. Hand-tighten the bolts. Ratchet
pullers are attached to the guy wires, which are
then connected to suitable stable objects, such as
anchor bolts. The rafter is now aligned by means
of the guy wires and ratchet pullers. Once all guy
wires are in place it is safe to release the crane
(Step 4).
Erect the second rafter and hold in place with the
crane, at the same time position the purlins and
bolt-up using mild steel bolts (Step 5). Connect
the previously attached flange braces to the purlins
with mild steel bolts (Step 6). The eave strut should
also be installed at this stage, but unlike the purlins
the eave strut requires high strength bolts. Refer
to image 3.2.
3.4 Roof bracing 3.5 Erect next bay 3.6 Erect remaining bays
Step 6
16
3. Erection of the Framing
Complete the purlin installation and then install
the diagonal bracing. Before tightening the
diagonal bracing, ensure that the lip of the hillside
washer is correctly seated in the web slot. Adjust
the tension of the bracing; at the same time adjust
the rafter alignment. The bracing shall be just
tight enough to eliminate visual sagging. In case
of portal bracing, it must also be erected before
proueding in the other bay. For high endwalls use
temporary bracing during erection. Refer to image
3.3 on the previous page.
The completed braced bay should now be aligned.
A theodolite should be used for plumbing, if
available, or for buildings of low eave height, a
spirit level or plumb-bob may suffice (Step 7).
A tolerance of 1:300 is allowable in low rise
buildings. Refer to image 3.4.
After completing the first bay alignment the high
strength bolts at the knee connection shall be fully
tightened. Time spent on correct alignment of the
first bay will reap benefits as work proceeds with
the remaining bays.
The remaining bays are erected following the
same procedure (Step 8). All components shall
be installed as work progresses, including crane
beams. Refer to image 3.5.
Multi-span frames provide a degree of flexibility in
erection in that partial spans may be erected if site
conditions dictate. Refer to image 3.6.
When the main frames are all completed, the
end-wall framing is erected. Pre-assembly of
columns and girts on the ground saves time and
is more efficient. End-wall posts are connected
to the purlins by post spanners using high
strength bolts.
The complete frame should be checked for plumb
and alignment. Adjustments can be made by
tightening or loosening bracing, or by ratchet
puller, to pull a misaligned frame into plumb.
After completion of all checking, bolt tightening
can commence. Air or electric impact wrenches
may be used and checked with a torque wrench,
or they can be tightened manually using the
“Turn of Nut Method” (preferred).
The Turn of Nut Method is achieved by bringing all
the bolts in the pattern to a snug tight position,
using a normal spud wrench. Match mark the
nuts against the connection plate, and then apply
a further one third turn to all the nuts.
Prior to sheeting, framed opening members for
sliding doors shall be installed; this includes door
jambs, brackets and header.
PLUMBING THE BRACED BAY
Step 8
Step 7
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3.3 Mezzanine Floors
When mezzanine floors are provided, they are
erected with the main frames, generally prior
to sheeting.
The mezzanine beams are first installed by
connecting to the columns with clips and high
strength bolts as indicated on the drawing details.
The joists are then placed between the beams and
connected as shown on erection drawings. An
edge angle is then screwed at the perimeter of the
mezzanine area, prior to laying and screwing the
decking panels.
The decking panels are attached by self drilling
fasteners without washers. Openings for stairs
and penetrations are framed before fixing the
concrete reinforcement.
It is important to advise the concreting crew about
placement of concrete, particularly if a pump is to
be used. The concrete should be evenly spread;
concentrated piles of wet concrete could cause
deformation in joists or decking, which could
lead to collapse. It is, sometimes advisable to use
temporary shoring at mid spans inorder to assure
straightness of finished concrete.
3.4 Crane Beams
Special care should be taken in buildings with
crane runways, the column supporting runway
beams should be erected on shims provided, or
double nuts in addition to grouting under the
base plates.
Alignment of crane beams i s very important, the
centerlines of the crane beam webs should matche
with the centerlines of the crane wheels, and the
maximum allowabletolerance is 10mm.
Alignment is achieved by setting each end of the
beam to the correct dimension as shown on the
drawing, and stretching a line from end to end,
alternately, a theodolite can be used if available.
The crane beam brackets have slotted holes to
assist in ease of alignment, if the building has been
carefully plumbed, adjustment will be minimal.
During alignment install the “T” brackets and shim
plates, and install the angle braces from column
to beam. Once final alignment is confirmed, fully
tighten all high strength bolts.
3.5 Important
No loads should be supported from the purlins
unless the building has been designed for those
additional loads. In such cases, the loads can be
supported from the purlins after the roof sheets
have been installed and fully screwed.
The following sketches show correct and incorrect
methods of support from rafters and purlins.
Rafters
Purlins
18
Sheeting &
Trimming
4
4.1 Sheeting Preparation
4.2 Sheeting the Walls
4.3 Sheeting the Roof
4.4 Miscellaneous Trimming
4.5 Fascia
19
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4.1 Sheeting Preparation
Touch-up any damaged paint on the main frame
prior to sheeting.
The base angle is fixed to the concrete slab by
means of masonry nails. Power actuated tools are
preferred for fixing. The fixings for the base angle
are provided by the erection contractor, to ensure
compatibility of nails and fixing tools.
The base angle should be set at the wall grit line
(steel line) which is 200mm from the column
flange in the case of by-pass girts.
There is a tendency for wall girts to sag under their
own dead load, especially in bays over 7.5 meters.
Girts are temporarily supported in a horizontal line
with vertical timber props from floor to girt, girt
to girt, and girt to eave strut. The props remain in
place until the wall panels are screwed. They can
then be removed and relocated to the next bay.
The girts will remain straight and horizontal once
the panels are installed. In bays over 8.5 meters
sag rods are provided and once adjusted there is
no requirement for temporary timber props.
Before commencing with sheeting check the
details on the drawings. A starting position will be
given in relation to the steel line. Mark the starting
position, and then mark out the gauge cover
width of the sheets along the concrete notch. This
will provide a check against “creep” or “bunching”
of the panels. An important point in order for the
corner trims to fit as detailed. Insulation is more
convenient to handle if unrolled on the ground
and pre-cut to the required lengths. A full length
piece is used from eave to floor, with an allowance
at top and bottom for folding over.
Tools Preparation on roof
20
A chalk line is essential for marking the girt position
and thus maintaining a straight screw line. All
screws are self drilling and require an electric
screw-gun with a speed of 2000 to 2500 RPM.
Depth sensitive or torque regulated screw-guns
should be used to control the screw tightness. The
EPDM washer should be compressed 1 mm wider
than the steel washer when correctly tightened.
4.2 Sheeting the Walls
The first “drop” of insulation is fixed using double
face tape on the eave strut and the base angle;
this is used to hold the insulation in place. The
insulation must be kept vertical, and pulled taught.
Remove the fibres from the allowance at top and
bottom and fold the white facing before placing
the wall panel. Place the panel in the pre-marked
position, plumb it and screw.
The second “drop” of insulation is fixed to the
double faced tape and then the side tabs are
stapled to the first “drop” at 300mm centres,
folded and stapled again in-between the previous
staples, thus providing a closed joint and vapour
barrier. Then, the second panel is installed in the
same manner and so on.
End-wall panels are pre-cut in the factory. The
panels are stepped, the steps being covered by
the gable trim. (Field cutting may be necessary on
steep slopes).
The preferred procedure is to complete all wall
sheeting before starting the roof, as the eave trim
covers the top of the wall panel and fits under
the roof panel. Outside foam closures are placed
between the wall panel and the eave trim to
provide a dust free junction.
If there is no wall insulation, foam closures are used
between the panel and eave strut / base angle.
Chalk Line
Wall Insulation
Multi-level Man-basket
4. Sheeting & Trimming
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4.3 Sheeting the Roof
Prepare the roof panels by segregating them by
their length shown on the roof sheeting plan. The
sequence of roofing is from eave to ridge on both
slopes finishing with the ridge panel.
To commence, it is advisable to temporarily fix
one run of panels accross the building to walk
on. The insulation can then be unrolled beside the
“walkway”.
Double faced tape is applied to the eave struts, or
an intermediate purlin if the roll does not cover
the full width of the building. The insulation is
lifted into place and is retained in place by the
double faced tape. Before placing the roof panel,
the insulation end should be folded over to be
concealed at the eave. It is necessary to scrape
away the fibres on the folded portion. The inside
foam closure is placed on the fold at the eave strut,
and the panel is then positioned.
Adjust the line of the panel for squareness to avoid
“saw-toothing” at the eave line. Use a nylon line
projected from the eave strut by 65mm to give the
correct distance and line.
Screw the panel and move progressively panel by
panel up to the ridge. After completing several
runs of panel, the temporary “walkway” can be
lifted, insulated, and sheeted.
Panel end-laps require bead mastic. The bead
mastic should be carefully unrolled from the release
paper, and placed over the panel corrugations. Do
not stretch the bead, otherwise it may break when
the panel is placed over it Ensure that the panel
end-laps are as per drawing details.
Make sure that the panel ribs are kept in a straight
line from eave to ridge. Use a chalk line tomark
the purlin location and maintain a straight line
of screws, thus avoiding mis-drilling and possible
leakage. End-laps have additional screws as
detailed on the drawing.
Proceed with the next run of insulation, stepling
the side tabs together, before placing the next run
of panels. When both slopes of the roof panel
have been fixed, the ridge panel or ridge cap
is laid, connecting both slopes. If a ridge cap is
used then outside foam closures are used to fill
the panel profile, if a ridge panel is used as with
Type’S’ panel, it nests without foam closures. Bead mastic
Double face tapes
Sheeting the roof
Direction of sheeting installation
Sheeting the roof
22
4.4 Miscellaneous Trimming
Upon completion of the roofing, gable trims are
installed. Outside foam closures are used against
the end-wall panel. The stitch screws securing the
gable trim also keep the foam closures in place.
Eave gutters are spliced using two runs of flowable
mastic and pop-rivets at 25 mm centres. The
gutter is then hung by means of gutter straps
which are screwed through the roof panel with
suitable screws.
Down spout connections are cut with aviation
snips in locations shown on the roof plan. The
down spouts are assembled in straight sections
and a shoe, the complete unit is then attached to
the gutter by pop rivets and to the wall panel by
straps and rivets.
Personnel doors are supplied in knock-down
form and are generally field-located. The frame
is assembled and installed. The wall panels are
carefully cut using an electric nibbler, final cutting
and fitting of head trim should be done with
aviation snips. The galvanized threshold support
is fitted and screwed to the concrete before
the frame is connected to the girt by clips, and
anchored to the floor with expansion bolts. Check
that the frame is plumb and square before final
fixing. Head trim, jamb trims and the door leaf are
now fitted.
4. Sheeting & Trimming
As work proceeds, it is important to keep the roof
area clean, a soft brush should always be readily
available to sweep off drill swarf, metal filings
or grinding dust, which will cause light surface
corrosion if not removed.
Stitch screws are fixed at panel side-laps at 500mm
centres, or as detailed.
Note: Roof panels are generally fixed in
the valley of the panels, unless
noted otherwise.
Fixing Trims Fixing Eave Trim
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Where interior liner panel is detailed, a base angle
is fixed to the floor as for the external panels.
It shall be positioned 200 mm away from the
exterior base angle. The liner panels are pre cut
to length, but may require cutting vertically at
columns, depending on the bay width. Closure
trims are fitted at columns, and a head trim along
the top of the panel. Trims are fixed with 4.8 x 20
stitch screws, the panels with 5.5 x 25 self drilling
screws. Sliding doors leafs are assembled on
the floor. The framing members are connected
by mild steel bolts and clips. The sheeting is fixed
before hanging the door. The trolley trucks are
located in the top member of the door leafs. The
adjusting nuts on the trolley trucks should be
set equally, final adjustments can be made after
hanging the doors.
Once the doors are hung and positioned over
the bottom door guide, the stoppers, the landles
and the door hood are installed. Note that there
are two types of hood trim. One fits behind the
sheeting in the door opening, and the other fits in
front of the sheeting on each side of the opening.
Complete details are on the drawing. Bottom
running doors are also available.
4.5 Fascia
Fascia posts are bolted to brackets. Fascia girts are
then attached to the posts. The girts consist of “C”
and “Z” sections, which must be correctly aligned
and levelled before commencing sheeting the
fascia. Use temporary props if necessary. Prepare
the sheeting by installing the sill trim on the
bottom girt.
Check the starting dimension from the corner of
the framing. Set up the first panel. Clamp it with
vice grips when adjusted to its correct position.
Mark the girt line with a chalk line and then screw
the panel to the girt.
Continue installing panels on each elevation
until sheeting is completed. The back-up panels
are installed next; they are attached to the top
girt, and overlap the valley gutter at the base.
The external corner trims are installed using 4.8
x 20 stitch screws. The Cap flashing can now be
installed using 4.8 x 20 stitch screws. Make sure
that the flashing slopes into the building as shown
on the drawing. The overlapping joints of the
flashing should be sealed with flowable mastic.
The soffit panel edge trim is fitted to the wall
panel, make sure that it is level with the sill trim,
and is levelled around the building. Starting the
soffit in the correct place is important, if the soffit
panel and wall/fascia sheets are the same type,
the ribs should be aligned. Align the ribs, and fix
the panels as shown in the detail. Corner panels
should be mitred equally.
24
Care &
Handling
of Sheeting
5
5.1 Handling & Installation
of Sheeting
5.1.1 Unloading
5.1.2 Storage
5.1.3 Handling
5.1.4 Cutting & Fixing
5.1.5 Completion &
Inspection
5.1.6 Paint Repair
5.2 Water Test Procedures
for Roofing
5.3 General Tips
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5.1 Handling & Installation of Sheeting
It is important to use correct sized drill bits and
screws for secure fastening of panels. During
fixing, the panel should be correctly aligned and
temporarily clamped to ensure the holes are
drilled correctly.
Drilling of holes produces very hot metal chips
(swarf), which should be brushed off the panel.
This should be done immediately, if possible, and
the work area should be swept with a soft broom
at the end of each day work.
Care should be taken in walking on roof panels.
Workers on the roof should use soft footwear.
Metal studs or heel tips will cause damage to the
painted panels.
It is important to walk in the correct place on roof
panels. Always step in the valley of the panel,
which is in contact with the purlin. Standing on
the high corrugations may result in deformation
of the panel.
For achieving a quality job, use a screwgun with a
depth locator or torque adjuster, this will ensure
correct fixing of fasteners.
When drilling use a rubber or leather thimble
on the drill bit to prevent the chuck of the drill
damaging the panel paint when the drill goes
through the material.
5.1.1 Unloading
Sheets are packed in bundles, and may be unloaded
by a suitable forklift truck or crane. Care must be
taken not to “break the back” of the sheets when
unloading. If chains or cable slings are used for
unloading, good protection must be provided for
the corners of the bundle.
Note: Long panels may be difficult to handle by
lifting the bundle from beneath.
Step in the valleys of the panel
Stand away from high corrugations
Brushing metal chips
26
5.1.2 Storage
Packs of sheets should be stored in a safe area
of the site. They should be stored clear of the
ground and elevated at one end to allow for water
drainage should they become wet. Preferably, the
bundles should be loosely covered with a tarpaulin;
this will afford additional protection but allow
air circulation.
5.1.3 Handling
Care should be taken when handling sheets.
Erectors should use clean gloves to avoid dirty
marks, oil or grease stains on sheets. When
handling individual panels from the stack, each
panel should be lifted clear, not dragged along,
which cause scratches.
5.1.4 Cutting & Fixing
Only proper tools should be used for cutting
profiled sheets. An electric nibbler should be
used for cutting across the ribs, an electric shear
for cutting longitudinally, and aviation snips for
small detail work. Never use a grinding desk for
cutting sheets
5. Care and Handling of Sheeting
Storage
Storage and handling
Handling individual panels
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5.1.5 Completion & Inspection
On completion, the sheeted area should be
inspected. Any ferrous objects such as pop-rivet
stalks, bolts, nails, screws etc. left on the roofing
should be removed.
Any accidental scratches or minor damage should
be touched-up with the appropriate paint. The
area should be left clean.
5.1.6 Paint Repair
For minor scratches, a small brush can be used
to apply touch-up paint of matching color to the
damaged area.
If damage has affected the galvanized coating,
then the damaged area should be coated with
special primer followed by a special polyurethane
finish coat.
5.2 Water Test Procedures for Roofing
There is really no better way of water testing a
roof than actual rainfall, as to simulate even fall or
wind blown rain is impossible.
If medium to heavy rain has fallen after completion
of roofing, and no leakage is visible then the roof
should be considered tested and satisfactory.
If the roofing has been completed during a dry
season, and testing is required, then the following
test can be carried out:
A 25 to 30mm diameter hose will be required with
sufficient mains pressure, or a tank and electric
pump. Two tests can be done.
1. The hose should be positioned on the ridge,
or highest point of the roof. The water should
then cascade down each slope, down each
valley between panel ribs. The hose should not
be deliberately directed at the panel end-laps
and side-laps.
2. The second and longer test can be carried out
if desired by attaching a rotary garden sprinkler
to the hose and allow the whole roof to be
systematically “watered”. This is the nearest
method of stimulating rainfall as the sprinkler
system causes the water to bounce, thus finding
any weakness in lap conditions.
5.3 General Tips
1. Erection shall start from a braced bay and
the bracing shall be fixed before proceeding
to the other bays.
2. Purlins and girts shall be immediately fixed
to each erected bay to maintain the building
stability during erection
3. Always check the starting position of roof
panels.
4. Panels should be plumbed and held in place
by Vice Grips before screwing.
5. The panel gauge should be marked on the
sheeting notch.
6. A line should be used to maintain a straight
sheeting line at the eave.
7. A chalk line should be used to ensure the
screws are installed in a straight line, and
avoid mis-drilling.
8. Roof sheets should be undamaged.
9. Bead mastic must be carefully placed over the
corrugations at end laps.
10. Insulation should be neatly folded at the
base angle and eave. It can never be neatly
cut off afterwards.
11. Pre-drilling is required when using stainless
steelfastner.
28
Maintenance
Procedure
6
6.1 Maintenance for Longer Life
6.2 Safety Notes
6.3 Exterior Maintenance
Procedure
6.4 Maintenance of Accessories
6.5 Record of Maintenance
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6.1 Maintenance for Longer Life
Now that your Zamil Steel Building is complete,
we recommend that you follow our simple
maintenance recommendations. By doing so
you will substantially enhance the life of your
investment.
The frequency of maintenance is dependent
upon the environmental zone in which the
building is located. The table below contains
the recommended maintenance frequencies for
different building locations.
Building Location
Maintenance
Frequency
Within 5 km of the sea Every 3 months
High pollution industrial area Every 3 months
Medium pollution industrial area Every 4 months
Areas of high humidity Every 4 months
Low pollution industrial area Every 6 months
Dry desert regions Every 6 months
6.2 Safety Notes
º Lxercise exIreme cauIion when working on
roofs.
º Use proíessional mainIenance sIaíí íor
maintenance works.
º Lnsure IhaI access ladders reach aI leasI one
meter above the step off poing.
º Secure ladders Io Ihe building and ensure IhaI
they are on a firm base.
º Do noI sIep on skylighIs.
º When walking on Ihe rooí, sIep in Ihe valleys,
of the panel, not on the ribs.
º Whenever possible, walk on Ihe purlin line, i.e,
screws line.
º ProIecI areas oí rooí, subjecI Io írequenI access,
by temporary or permanent walkways.
º When mainIaining overhead crane runways,
immobilize the crane before commencement of
work.
6.3 Exterior Maintenance Procedure
º PrevenIive mainIenance shall commence
immediately after a project is erected or
modified.
º Debris and small iIems such as screws, pop
rivets, drill bits or any ferrous object shall be
removed by sweeping with a soft nylon brush.
Large items such as sheet metal cut-offs shall be
removed by hand to avoid damaging the surface
of the roof panels. Such debris shall be removed
after any trade (e.g., electricians, plumbers, air
conditioning technicians, steel erectors, etc.)
has worked on the roof.
º Sand and dusI reIain salI and moisIure, which
will eventually breakdown the paint and zinc
layers, resulting in corrosion of the base metal.
Sand and dust shall be removed by washing
with clean potable water and a soft nylon brush,
working from the highest point to the lowest,
followed by a final rinse using a hose and clean
potable water.
º The mosI vulnerable areas oí Ihe building are
gutters, roof sheets, sheltered areas under eaves
or canopies and upper portions of walls or roof
extensions.
º lor buildings locaIed in high polluIion indusIrial
areas, or close to marine environments, water
alone may not be sufficient to remove saline
deposits that have become encrusted on the
panels.
In such cases, a mild detergent shall be added
to the initial washing water. Panels shall be
washed with the mild detergent solution and
a soft nylon brush. A final rinse with clean
potable water should follow. Oil, grease, tar,
wax or similar substances can be removed with
mineral spirits followed by a detergent solution
and a clean potable water rinse.
º Do noI use causIic or abrasive cleaners, Ihey
may damage the paint and zinc layers.
º Ground level shall be mainIained aI leasI
150mm below the base of the wall panel.
accoumulations of wind blown sand shall be
removed. Plants and shrubs surrounding the
building shall not touch the wall panel; They
may scratch the painted panels.
30
º Lave guIIers and valley guIIers shall be
thoroughly cleaned with a mild detergent
solution and a soft nylon brush, followed by
a rinse of clean potable water. Downspouts
shall be clear of blockage and the downspout
discharge shall have adequate drainage area.
º Minor damage Io sheeIing or Irims shall be
repaired as follows:
- Lightly abrade the affected area
- If base metal is exposed, apply one coat of
zinc chromate primer
- Apply one coat of matching touch-up paint
º LquipmenI, which is locaIed Ihrough or adjacenI
to roof or wall panels may cause moisture
build up on or near the panel. The following
conditions shall be avoided:
- Water run-off from air conditioning units
- Open water storage tanks adjacent to panels
- Steam outlets
- Acid storage
- Copper pipes fastened to steel panels
6.4 Maintenance of Accessories
º 8uildings wiIh Cranes
- Every 6 months check that all bracing is tight
- Check that all high strenght bolts in the crane
beams and the main frame connections are
tight
º Personnel Doors
- Lubricate hinges and lockset
- Remove dirt and girt from the threshould
- Ensure that the door cannor swing back and
strike the wall panels, as this will sprain the
hinges and damage the panel
º Sliding Door
- Regularly clean the bottom guide to recove
sand and stones
º Pollup Doors
- Clean and lubricate the chain and reduction
drive gears
º Power VenIs
- Clean fan blades to remove build-up of dust
and dirt
6.5 Record of Maintenance
A Periodic Maintenance Log Book shall be kept.
All maintenance dates shall be recorded and
signed by the maintenance staff.
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7
Safety
Precautions
For safety reasons there are precautions that need
to be taken during erection.
Make daily check on all lifting equipment.
Make daily checks on all lifting slings,
check forfraying and kinking.
Check that all access equipment is in
good condition, including scaffolding and
ladders.
Check weather conditions, strong winds
are dangerous during erection and
sheeting.
Check for overhead electric lines before
moving in with a crane.
Check that all erectors have the correct
personal safety equipment, hard hats,
boots, safety harness etc.
Check electric cables for hand tools,
discard frayed or split cables.
Ensure that there are sufficient guy wires
on site for temporary bracing.
Ensure that erection always starts at a
braced bay.
Ensure that permanent bracing and flange
stays are installed as work proceeds.
Ensure that high strength bolts are used
where indicated.
Ensure that high strength bolts are
correctly tightened.
Maintain a clean and tidy site, thus
avoiding material loss or accidents.
Tie down sheeting once the bundle is
opened.
Sweep roof sheeting at the end of each
day work, drill swarf will corrode the
panels if not removed.
When walking on the roof, step in the
valley of the panels, not the ribs.
If when waking on the roof step on the
purlinlines
Use the correct tools for the job, wrong
tools will damage materials and produce
poor quality.
Do not step on the skylights while working
on the roof
Finally, acquire contractors all Risk
Insurance;
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
32
8
Quality
Control
Erection Quality Plan
The safety and Quality of Erection should be
ensured by engaging experienced and qualified
Engineers, Supervisors and Technicians on the job.
The Quality Control should be effective at various
stages of erection starting from receipt inspection
till the final handing over. To ensure this, Standard
Inspection and Testing Program (ITP) / Quality
plan (or) a project specific Inspection and Testing
Program - ITP / Quality Plan shall be followed.
The Quality Plan as a minimum should contain
the following:
a. ITP - Inspection and Testing Program
(Attachment I, 2 pages)
b. Erection Inspection Check list - EICL
(Attachment II, 3 pages)
c. Method Statement
d. Procedures and Inspection Forms referred in
the ITP
e. Bolt Tightening Procedure
(Attachment III, 3 pages)
f. Paint Touch up Procedure
g. Site Organization chart including a dedicated
qualified person for QC and Safety
Erection shall not start without:
º The submission oí Ihe QualiIy Plan
º ldenIiíying a dedicaIed QualiIy and
Safety Person
º ConducIing a PrelnspecIion MeeIing PlM
See the Sample Quality Plan as attached.
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Basic Erection
Equipment
9
9.1 Main Erection Equipment
9.2 Electrical Equipment
& Tools
9.3 Measuring & Surveying
Equipment
9.4 Safety Equipment
9.5 Other Equipment
34
9. Basic Erection Equipment
9.1 Main Erection Equipment
Mobile Crane
Mobile Cranes are ideal for erecting pre-engineered steel buildings.
The required capacity of the crane varies. The capacity must be
calculated considering the heaviest member (or assemblies of
members), the building configuration and the site conditions.
Forklift
Forklift are ideal for unloading tralers, for meterial handling on site,
and in certain cases, for the erection of the main frames. Buildings
up to 6m eave height can be erected by rough terrain forklifts with
a 3-stage mast and a capacity of at least 3 MT. By attaching a man
platform, forklifts can be used for fixing wall sheeting, eave gutters,
trims, etc.
Telescopic Handler
Telescopic handlers are even more versatile than forklifts. They can
be used for many different operations of a construction site. Having
a wide range of accessories, they can be used for building erection
and other general construction work.
With a man platform attachment, telescopic handlers are suitable
for fixing wall sheeting and other external building accessories.
Scissor Lift
Scissor lifts are suitable for use on level, paved areas for fixing roof
liner panels. They are also very useful for other purposes such as
electromechanical works.
Lifting Beam
A purpose-made lifting beam (spreader bar) of 6 or 12 m long is
required for lifting long span rafters and frame assemblies.
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Slings
Purpose-made slings, used alone or in combination with lifting
beams, are used for lifting building components or assemblies.
One, two or four leg slings are available, with hooks or eyes, and
for different load capacities. They are available as a chain, wire or
polyester. The sizes and types of slings required shall be determined
by the weights of the components and assemblies to be lifted.
Guy Wires
Guy wires are steel wire ropes of 8 to 10 mm in diameter and
different lengths (length depends on building height). They are
used to provide temporary bracing for the building normally
used in combination with ratchet pullers. As a rule of thumb, the
minimum length guy wire should be at least 1.5 times the building
height. The guy wire should be attached to the rarter before it
is lifted into place and then tied-off to a fixed object to provide
temporary bracing during erection. The degree of bracing depends
on the size of the building and local weather conditions. Guy
wires are also used to achieve correct alignment of the building.
Important Note: Nylon ropes shall not be used for temporary
bracing.
Clamps
Clamps are used for attaching guy wires to rafters or holding
components (such as sheeting) in place prior to fixing.
Shackles
Shackles are used for connecting slings and / or guy wires. Note:
Shackles shall have the safe working load (S.W.L) clearly stamped
on them.
Clips
Clips are used for making eyes in guy wires or for adjusting their
lengths.
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Ratchet Puller
Ratchet & Tirfor pullers are used for tensioning the guy wires that
are used in temporary bracing and aligment of the building. Various
capacities of ratchet pullers are avialable.Normally one ton capacity
pullers are adequate for bracing and aligning most pre-engineered
buildings. Heavy duty pullers, Tirfors, are available when extra
capacity is required.
Light Duty Scaffolding
Access towers are mobile work platforms, useful for sheeting walls
and installing wall accessories and trims.
Ladders
Extension ladders are used to access roofs. mezzanines, catwalks,
etc. Step ladders are free standing ladders used for minor fixing and
trimmings.
9.2. Electrical Equipment & Tools
Generator
When a main electrical supply is not available, generators are
required for the power tools 5 KVA generators are suitable for most
electric hand tools.
Screw Gun
Electric screw guns are necessary for installing self drilling fastners
in roofs. In order to avoid over-tightening of the screws, screw guns
should have either torque or depth controls. The recommened
speed is 0 to 2000 RPM (revolutions per minute).
9. Basic Erection Equipment
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Nibbler
Electric nibblers are required to cut openings in profiled sheets.
Cutting with nibblers guaranees controlled maneuverability
and excellent cutting quality, preventing meterial distrotion and
eliminating the risk of corrosion at the cut edges.
Grinder
In pre-engineered building erection, grinders are used for cutting
mild steel angles such as base and gable angles.
Note: Sheeting shall not be cut with angle grinders. Angle grinders
produce rough and unsightly cuts, which will very quickly corrode.
Hammer Drill
Hammer drills are mainly used for the installation of expansion
bolts.
Hole Cutter
In pre-engineered buildings, all holes are prepunched. Should
circumstance dictate changes, then the hole cutter is the ideal tool
for making the required site modifications.
Impact Wrench
The impact wrench is used for tightening high strength nuts and
bolts of the main frames. Both pneumatic and electric models are
available. Pneumatic models are heavy duty wrenches and are
suibable for the large diameter bolts. An air compressor is required
when using a pneumatic model.
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Electric Shear
Electrical shears produce a clean cut in flat sheet. They are not
suitable for cutting over corrugations of panels.
Heavy Duty Drill with Reamer
A heavy duty slow speed drill with a tapered reamer is used for
enlarging holes in steel members, if needed. The recommended
speed of the drill is 0 to 500 RPM (revolutions per minute).
Reciprocating Saw
A reciprocating saw is ideal for cutting insulated roof and wall
sandwich panels (Zamil Steel Tempcon panels).
Drill 10 mm
A 10 mm drill, with a speed of 0 to 2400 RPM (reolutions per
minute), is required for pre-drilling holes for pop rivets and any
other bolts that require field drilled holes.
Powder Actuated Tool
Powder actuated tools are used for fixing base angles to floor slabs
or tie beams. They can also be used to fix steel decking panels to
mazzanine joists.
Pop Rivet Puller
Pop rivet pullers are used for fixing pop rivets in trims and gutter
joints.
9. Basic Erection Equipment
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Aviation Snips
(Left & Right Cut) Aviation snips are used for cutting trims and
small openings in sheet panels. This method of cutting produces a
very clean cut, which will not rust. They provide a fine control for
intricate cuts.
Vice Grips
Vice grips have many uses as a “third hand” and are essential to
clamp sheets and trims while fixing the screws or rivets.
Torque Wrench
(With Sockets) Zamil Steel recommends that high strength bolts
are tightened by the “turn-of-nut method” (see Chapter 3 of Zamil
Steel Erection Guide). If the torque requires checking, a torque
wrench (with different sockets sizes) should be used on which the
torque value is preset perior to checking.
Ratchet Spanner
(With 19 mm Socket) For quick tightening of purlin and girt bolts
and other machine bolts.
Staple Applicator
They are used for stapling tabs on fiberglass insulation.
Utility Knife
Utility Knives are used for cutting fiberglass insulation
Hacksaw
Hacksaws are used for cutting light gauge metal.
40
Mastic Gun
Mastic guns are required for the application of the flowable mastic,
which is commonly used for sealing gutter joints and overlapping
flashing.
Spud Wrench
Spud wrenches are used during erection to align holes in two steel
members and to tighten the bolts. Various sizes of spud wrenches
are required that would suit the bolt sizes.
Drift Pin
Drift pins are used to align holes in two steel members. They can be
hammered if additional force is needed.
Miscellaneous Tools
Hammers Wood saws Screwdrivers Comination spanner sets
Sweeping brooms
Tool Belt & Bolt Bag
A tool belt & bolt bag provides a safe and convenient way of
carrying tools and bolts.
Chalk Line
Chalk lines are used for marking staight lines on the panel along the
position of purlins and girts. The marked line identifies the position
of the screws.
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9.3. Measuring & Surveying Equipment
Plumb Bob
Plumb bobs are used for plumbing vertical members up to a height
of 6 m.
Theodolite
Theodolites are used in setting out the building foundations and
anchor bolts. They are also used for checking the vertical alignment
of columns and the alignment of crane beams.
Automatic Level
Automatic levels are used to check the elevation of anchor bolts,
the finished floor level and the base plates of columns.
Spirit Level
Spirit levels are used for leveling individual components and for
plumbing.
Measuring Tape & Square
Measuring tapes are used for miscellaneous checking, setting out
and general easuring. A right angle square is used for setting out
90* angles.
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9.4. Safety equipment
Welding Hood
Welding hoods shall be used during welding.
Goggles
Goggles shall be used whilst cutting or grinding.
Gloves
Gloves shall be worn when handling steel components. Clean
gloves should be worn while handling sheets.
Safety Harness & Fall Arrest
Safety harnesses shall be worn when working over 2 meters above
the ground levels.
Safety Boots
Protective footwear shall be worn at all times while on working site
to avoid toe, sole or ankle injuries.
Hard Hat
Personal head protection shall be used be on site at all times.
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First Aid Box
First aid boxes should be on site at all times under a qualified
first aid person. All contents shall be maintained and expiry dates
checked periodically.
Cones and Ribbons
Cone and warning ribbons are used to indicate danger areas on
sites.
Portable Fire Extinguisher
Fire extinguishers shall be installed on vehicles and in areas where
welding or burning works are executed.
Ear Protection
Ear protection shall be used where noise is higher than 85 dB.
9.5. Other Equipment
Welding Machine
Electric welding machines are used for light duty welding such as
tack welding of light guage steel members.
Oxy-acetylene Cutting Outfit
Oxy-acetylene is used for cutting steel members.
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Attachments
10
10.1 Inspection and Testing
Program (ITP-Standard Jobs)
10.2 Erection Inspection List
(EICL)
10.3 Tightening and Inspection
of High Strength Bolts
10.4 Anchor Bolt
Installation Guide
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Attachment I
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10. Attachments
Attachment I
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Attachment II
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10. Attachments
Attachment II
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Attachment II
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10. Attachments
Attachment III
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Attachment III (Continuation)
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10. Attachments
Attachment III (Continuation)
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Anchor Bolt Installation Guide
Prior to pouring of concrete, anchor bolts may in the manner shows below.
Anchor Bolts whenever not supplied by Zamil should be of the sizes shown on Zamil’s Anchor Bolt Erection drawing and of a
quality to resist column reactions given.
Material should conform to ASTM A 36M (or Equivalent) (36 KSI=2500 kg/am2 Min, yeld) of equivalent, unless otherwise
specified. Embedment lengths are base on a minimum concrete compressive strength of 3 KSI = 200 kg/cm2 at 28 days.
Anchor bolts shall be accurately set as shown on Anchor Bolt plan with a tolerance of 2mm within a set.
Note:
1. All reinforcing steel for foundation walls and footings, tie rods, plywood template, mesh or any materials used
specifically for concrete application shall be designed by professional foundation engineer and supplied by others.
2. Foundation contractor shall fill all voids in concrete slab perimeter wall prior to erection of building. Placed fill shall
be properly compacted in layers and controlled moisture.
Attachment IV
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Accessories
: Additions to the basic building, such as doors, windows, louvers, ventilators etc.
Anchor Bolts
: Hooked bolts cast in concrete foundations for anchorage of structural members.
Base Angle
: Countinuous angle fixed to floor slab or grade beam for attachment of all panels.
Base Plate
: The plate of a column or beam which rests on the supporting surface.
Beam
: Horizontal Structural Member.
Brace Rods
: Rods placed diagonally in roof and walls for transferring wind loads to
foundations and stabilizing the building.
Bridge Crane
: Overhead travelling crane supported on beams and rails.
Built-up Member
: (B.U.) Structural member formed by welding together web and flange plates.
Caulking
: Sealant used in making watertight joints.
Clear Span
: Building without internal columns.
Closure
: (Foam Closure) Profiled foam material used inside or outside profiled roof or
wall panels to form weathertight seal.
Cold Formed
: Various steel shapes manufactured by roll-forming or pressing.
Column
: Vertical structural member.
Crane Beam
: Support for overhead travelling bridge crane.
Crain Rails
: Rails welded or bolted to crane beams to form the track for bridge crane wheels.
Curb
: Raised flashing around roof openings to form waterproof opening.
Damper
: Baffle plate in a ventilator.
Dead Load
: Weight of the structure.
D.S.D
: Double slide door.
Eave
: Top of the sidewall.
Eave Height
: Height from top of eave strut to finished floor level.
Eave Strut
: Structural member at the eave which supports roof and wall panels.
Expansion Joint
: A break in the construction to allow for thermal expansion.
Flange Brace
: An angle from the flange of columns or rafters to girts and purlins to provide
lateral support and stability.
Girt
: Secondary horizontal member to which wall panels are attached, usually cold
formed “Z”.
Grout
: Non-shrinking sand cement mixture used under base plates to obtain uniform
bearing surface.
Glossary
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Haunch
: Intersection of column and rafter.
Header
: Horizontal member over and opening in a wall.
H.S.B.
: High strength bolts.
Hot Rolled
: Steel shapes formed while the steel is semi-molten.
Jack Beam
: A beam used to support a rafter instead of a column.
Jamb
: Vertical member at the side of a wall opening.
Joist
: Horizontal members for supporting floor or roof decking.
Knee
: See Haunch.
Liner Panel
: Interior wall sheeting.
Live Load
: Any variable temporary load on the structure.
Main Frame
: Primary members which support secondary members.
Mastic
: See Caulking - Sealant.
M.B
: Machine Bolt.
Mazzanine
: Intermediate floor between ground floor and first floor or roof.
Mono-Slope
: Single slope roof.
Multi-Span
: Building with intermediate columns.
Parapet
: Vertical wall extension above the eave line.
Partition
: Internal wall.
Pitch
: Slope of the roof.
Pop Rivet
: Used for joining flashing and light guage metal trims.
Portal Frame
: Column and beam bracing used in lieu of standard rod bracing to prvide
clear access.
Post & Beam (P&B)
: Light end wall framing.
Primer Paint
: Factory applied paint to structural members providing protection during
shipping and erection.
Purlin
: Secondary horizontal member to which roof panels are attached usually
cold formed “Z”.
Rafter
: Primary member supported on columns.
Ridge
: Peak of a gabled building.
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Glossary
Rigid Frame (R.F.)
: Main frame of the building comprising columns and rafters
Sag Rod
: Tie rods used to support flanges of girts or purlins.
Sealant
: See Mastic - Caulking.
Secondary Framing
: Secondary members of framing such as girts, purlins, eave struts etc.
S.D.S.
: Self drilling screw - used for attaching panels and trims to girts and purlins.
Pre-drilling is not necessary.
S.T.S.
: Self tapping screw. Same function as S.D.S. but needs pre-drilled holes.
Shims
: Small steel plates used for levelling base plates or packing between
structural members.
Sill
: The bottom horizontal member of a door or windows opening.
Skylight
: Translucent fibreglass panel used in the roof to transmit natural light.
S.S.D.
: Single Slide Door.
Soffit
: Underside of canopy, fascia or roof extension.
Span
: Distance from out to out of wall girts.
Splice Plate
: Plate used to connect two members.
Stiffener
: Plate welded to a member to prevent buckling.
Stitch Screw
: Used to fasten side laps of panels.
Truss
: Structural member made up of several individual parts welded or
bolted together, the completed unit acting as a beam.
V.G.
: Valley Gutter.
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Commonly Used Abbreviations
ASSY : Assembly
BT PLT : Bent Plate
BOTT’M : Bottom
CC : Center to Center
CONC : Concrete
CL : Centre Line
DET : Detail
DRG : Drawing
DSD : Double Slide Door
EW : End Wall
EXP’N : Expansion
FO : Framed Opening
FNB : Fin Neck Bolt
HSB : High Strength Bolt
INT : Internal/Interior
LG : Long
MB : Machine Bolt
NS/FS : Near Side / Far Side
OA : Overall
OC : On Centre
O/O : Out to Out
PL-PLT : Plate
P & B : Post and Beam
R.F. : Rigid Frame
RUD : Roll-Up Door
SHT : Sheet
SHT’G : Sheeting
SDS : Self Drilling Screw
STS : Self Tapping Screw
SSD : Single Slide Door
STIFF : Stiffener
SW : Sidewall
TC : Tempcon
THK : Thick
TYP : Typical
TYP UN : Typical Unless Noted
ZS : Zamil Steel
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