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TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR VISUAL-PERCEPTUAL SKILLS

ACTIVIDADES DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE HABILIDADES VISO-PERCEPTIVAS


Figure-Ground (Basic Level) Figura-Fondo (Nivel Bsico)

Authors Rodn-Gonzlez, Antonio Vidal-Lpez, Joaqun Javaloyes-Moreno, Beatriz Muios-Durn, Mnica Rif-Giribet, Montserrat Garca-Montero, Mara Gimeno-Galindo, Patricia Codina-Fossas, Marta

TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR VISUAL-PERCEPTUAL SKILLS


ACTIVIDADES DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE HABILIDADES VISO-PERCEPTIVAS

Figure-Ground (Basic Level) Figura-Fondo (Nivel Bsico)

Authors Rodn-Gonzlez, Antonio Vidal-Lpez, Joaqun Javaloyes-Moreno, Beatriz Muios-Durn, Mnica Rif-Giribet, Montserrat Garca-Montero, Mara Gimeno-Galindo, Patricia Codina-Fossas, Marta

TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR VISUAL-PERCEPTUAL SKILLS Figure-Gound (Basic Level) ACTIVIDADES DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE HABILIDADES VISOPERCEPTIVAS Figura-Fondo (Nivel Bsico)

Authors: Rodn-Gonzlez, Antonio; Vidal-Lpez, Joaqun; Javaloyes-Moreno, Beatriz; Muios-Durn, Mnica; RifGiribet, Montserrat; Garca-Montero, Mara; Gimeno-Galindo, Patricia; CodinaFossas, Marta Editors: Rodn-Gonzlez, Antonio; VidalLpez, Joaqun

Copyright 2009. Saera. Solutions for Learning and Research, S.L. (www.saera.es)

ISBN-13: 978-84-692-4351-0

TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR FIGURE-GROUND SEGREGATION

The term visual perception makes reference to the capacity that brain has to understand and to interpret that eyes see (Gardner, 1986; Scheiman, 1997). Along with the basic visual functions and motor skills, visual perceptual skills allow us to carry out many activities of daily life (Chaikin and Downing-Baum, 1997; Erhardt and Duckman, 2005; Van Waelvelde, De Weerdt, De Cock and Smits-Engelsman, 2004), and guide our actions (Goodale and Milner, 2009; Jeannerod, 2006). In our daily lives we do not perceive a world composed of isolated visual stimuli. Usually we work in an environment with multiple stimuli, and sometimes, these are presented in dynamic conditions. Figure-ground segregation is a visual perceptual ability that enables us to detect, differentiate and select visual stimuli (figure) within an environment (ground) to be able to discriminate or distinguish these as separate or isolated. These stimuli can be faces, figures and objects, landscapes, letters, numbers, etc. The segregation of the figure with respect to the ground takes place from the visual discrimination of certain features such as color, brightness, depth, orientation, texture, movement or time information (Fahle, 1993). Figure-ground segregation is an important part of visual information processing, and participates in many academic and daily life activities. In fact, some authors (Bernspang, Asplung, Ericsson and Fugl-Meyer, 1987) have reported the importance of some skills in high-level visual processing, such as discrimination or segregation of figure-ground to enable us to organize our knowledge about the environment. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the segregation of figure-ground is important for object recognition, so that this ability occurs before recognition of the object itself (Peterson and Gibson, 1994). Other authors have postulated that factors such as memory (Petersen and Wikoff, 1983, Peterson and Gibson, 1994), fixation or visual attention (Driver, Baylis and Rafal, 1992; Lagreze, Meigen and Bach, 1994; Peterson and Gibson, 1994; Rock and Mitchener, 1992) have an important role in the perception of figure-ground. Some studies have reported the great importance of the primary visual cortex in the segregation of figure-ground. Supr and Lamme (2007) reported that after the removal of extraestriate areas of visual cortex in primates, there is a decrease in the perception of figure-ground. Furthermore, it has been reported that during the process of visual perceptual segregation of figure-ground, there are involved different cortical regions responsible of visual perceptual processes, such as object recognition or visual spatial orientation, as well as the extraction and detection of the object from its background (Peterson and Gibson, 1994; Vecera and O'Reilly, 1998). It has also been seen that the visual spatial attention acts as an operator in the process of visual perceptual skills, so the lack of visual spatial attention could negatively affect the discrimination or segregation of figure-ground (Vecera, Flevaris and Filapek, 2004). Another factor that could be decisive not only in the figure-ground discrimination, but in other visual perceptual skills, such as visual memory or visual closure is the visual tracking (Warren, 1990). This author reported that the presence of deficits in

visual tracking could significantly interfere with the performance of these visual perception skills. Visual perceptual skills of children are not at the same level as for the adult, but their perception of the world is also good (Arterberry, 2008). It has been estimated that the segregation or discrimination of figure-ground develops rapidly between 3 and 5 years of age, and stabilizes between 8 and 10 years (Atkinson and Braddick, 1989; Williams, 1983). However, any factor that interferes with the child's exploration of the environment can impede the learning of visual perceptive process (Tsai, Wilson and Wu, 2008), adversely affecting the ability to perform activities of daily live, such as games or recreational activities, school work or other developmental tasks related to their age, especially in school-age children (AOTA, 1991; Dankert, Davies and Gavin, 2003; Kovacs, 2000; Loikith, 2005). It has also been seen that performance in reading, writing and maths can be affected negatively (Cornoldi, Venneri, Marconato, Molin and Montinari, 2003; Schneck and Lemer, 1993; Solan and Ciner, 1989; Weil and Amundson, 1994). In the academic context, child usually works with shapes, numbers, letters, and especially with words. Subjects who have deficiencies in the visual perceptual ability of segregation of figure-ground may have problems to locate, identify and select relevant information or certain details of a visual scene or a context, with the omission, repetition or replacement of some visual information (numbers, syllables, words, figures, and even lines or paragraphs) when copy or read a text. Therefore, deficits in this ability could lead to problems in maintaining attention, organization and selection of visual information in tasks that contain a specified number of visual stimuli, not only in academic activities but also of everyday life. Poor performance in tasks of discrimination of figure-ground has been clinically assessed in persons with brain vascular lesions (Baylis and Baylis, 1997), especially in the right hemisphere (Shah, Holmes and Leisman, 2007; Su et al., 2000), in cortical degeneration (Kartsounis and Warrington, 1991), in children with low birth weight (Davis, Burns, Wilkerson and Steichen, 2005) in epileptic children with learning disabilities (Morgan, Groh and Wurst, 1980) in patients with deficits in the development of the coordination (Hulme, Biggerstaff, Moran and McKinlay, 1982; Hulme, Smart and Moran, 1982; Lord and Hulme, 1987, 1988; Schoemaker et al. 2001; Tsai et al., 2008) or in schizophrenic patients (Eimon, Eimon and Cermak, 1983; Loas, 2004; Malaspina et al., 2004). Schizophrenia has also been associated with other deficits in visual perception, as the low speed in the visual discrimination (Chen et al., 1999), the difficulty in segmentation of moving objects and shapes on a background (Allman, Meizin and McGuiness, 1985; Born, Groh, Zhao and Lukasewycz, 2000; Kim, Doop, Blake and Park, 2005; Nakayama and Loomis, 1974; Schwartz, Maron, Evans and Winstead, 1999) and in alteration in the perception of 3D shapes (Buracas and Albright, 1996; Xiao, Raiguel, Marcar, Koenderink and Orban, 1995). It has also been seen that patients with visual agnosia or cortical blindness associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and defects in embryonic development of the corpus callosum, have difficulty in the discrimination of figure-ground, object recognition, discrimination of faces and construction tasks (Mendez, 1988). One study (Koeda, Watanabe, Kimura, Nishi and Takeshita, 1990) conducted with patients with cerebral palsy (spastic dysplasia) reported that after the assessment of different visual perceptual abilities using the Developmental Test of Visual Perception

(Frostig, Maslow, Lefever and Whittlesey, 1963), the ability of the figure-ground in such subjects showed the worst results. Delays in visual maturation, particularly in the development of extraestriate cortical structures, can also produce problems in the work of segregation of figureground and other visual tasks that are processed by the attentional pathways, as seen Harris and colleagues (Harris, Kriss, Shawkat, Taylor and Russell-Eggitt, 1996) in infants between 2 and 4 months old. Moreover, Tseng and Chow (2000) have observed that children with low achievement in the writing speed had lowest scores on tasks of segregation of figureground. Age appears to be another factor in the ability of discrimination of the segregation of figure-ground, so that older people have worse performance than younger adults in tasks related with this perceptual ability (Bieliauskas, Newberry and Gerstenberger, 1988; Roper, Fiengo, Holker and Bieliauskas, 2001). Some authors have shown that some children with amblyopia have difficulty in performance of discrimination tasks with shapes and texture-defined motion (Wang, Ho and Giaschi, 2007), attributing these visual perceptual deficits to defects in the processes of segregation of figure-ground. Often, occupational therapists and other health professionals assess and treat the problems of visual perception that occur in school-age children (Kalb and Warshowsky, 1991; Todd, 1993; Wright, Bowen and Zecker, 2000) or in people of other ages, in order to assess the presence and impact of the visual perceptual dysfunction in these patients (Brown, 2008). Ruf-Bchtiger (1989) has suggested the enormous importance of the assessment of some domains of visual perception such as visual discrimination and figure-ground discrimination, to better understand children with visual perception and to develop most effective treatment methods. Davis et al. (2005) also found that the visual perceptual assessment should be a vital part of the routine evaluation in preschool children born prematurely, because early identification of visual perceptual deficits could facilitate treatment, achieving an improvement in skills or visual perceptual domains in these children at high risk. Furthermore, it has been reported that tests of visual perceptual discrimination of figure-ground are good indicators of neuronal dysfunction, which can be used to examine cognitive changes associated with aging in elderly, in patients with brain vascular lesions and in subjects with neurodegenerative disorders (Roper, Bieliauskas, Basso and Colman, 1995; Bieliauskas, Roper, Trobe and Lacy, 1998). In another study, Tsai et al. (2008) have considered that assessment of visual perceptual skills is very important in children with deficits in development of motor coordination and it has great significance for the processing and implementation of strategies for better performance on tasks of daily life. However, it is convenient that, before assessing some of the visual perceptual skills, such as visual memory, visual closure and figure-background discrimination, another basic visual functions such as ocular motility, were assessed, as these functions are important to conduct tests of this type (Warren, 1990). In a similar way, Cate and Richards (2000), have also argued that there is a high correlation between the performance of some basic visual functions (such as visual acuity, visual field, ocular motility, tracking and visual attention) and some high-level visual perceptual

processing abilities (such as figure-ground and visual closure) in patients with brain injury. The ability of discrimination of figure-ground can be assessed by some visual perceptual tests, such as the Closure Flexibility Test (Thurstone and Jeffrey, 1982) or by other tests that assess different abilities, including the figure-ground, among them: Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (Ayers, 1966) Embedded figures test EFT (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin and Karp, 1971) Hidden Figures Test HFT (Ekstrom, French, Harman and Dermen, 1976) The Hooper Visual Organization Test, Manual HVOT (Hooper, 1983) Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment LOTCA (Itzkovich, Arerback and Belazar, 1990) Birmingham Object Recognition Battery BORB (Riddoch and Humphreys, 1993) Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Second Edition DTVP-2 (Hammill, Pearson, Voress and Frostig, 1993) Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Third Edition MVPT-3 (Colarusso and Hammill, 2003) Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (non-motor), Third Edition TVPS-3 (Martin, 2006)

Once one or more of these tests was applied it is possible to determine if this visual perceptual ability is within the level expected for the chronological age of the subject. In cases where the results were below the expected values for age, it is possible to train this skill by means of exercises, like the presented in this activity book. Tsai et al. (2008) have reported that learning of visual perceptual skills can be improved through practical experience in the same way a child learns to extract relevant information from their environment in certain activities. Although few works have studied the ability to improve the figure-ground discrimination, Sivak et al. (Sivak, Hill and Olson, 1984) investigated the improvement of some perceptual abilities in subjects with brain damage using a computer training program. The skills trained were: right-left discrimination, visual scanning, lines orientation, discrimination forms, visual memory, visual motor coordination and ocular pursuits. This training produced improvements in some patients trained. On the other hand, Yi, Olson and Chun (2006) have suggested that training visual perceptual segmentation of shapes can increase the activity of sensory neurons responsible for this ability and the performance of the trained task, but learning does not was completely transferred to locations or shapes without training. The authors suggest that improving the segmentation of the figure-ground requires perceptual skills beyond shape recognition only. Su et al. (2000) have also reported the importance of this training in patients with brain vascular accidents, and the importance of visual perception and planning strategies in order to facilitate the success of certain activities in their daily lives. In a study realised by Mazer et al. (2003) the performance of driving in patients with brain vascular lesions of the right hemisphere was improved by using speed training in visual perceptual processing programs. This book of exercises is recommended for occupational therapists, optometrists, educators, learning specialists and other health professionals. It allows to train figure-

ground segregation skills in those who need to improve this ability (mainly patients with learning difficulties or neurological damage, both congenital and acquired), and people who want to enhance their performance in carrying out these activities, for example, athletes or students who are preparing an opposition. This book consists of 200 plates containing different figures. In each of the plates appears at the upper half page a picture that will serve as a reference stimulus, and that patient must observe in order to identify what single stimulus is exactly the same between the possible answers given in the bottom of the page. Both the reference stimuli (figure) and the contents of each of the possible responses (bottom) increase in the level of difficulty, so the demand to segregate figure from the bottom increases in each plate of the book.

ACTIVIDADES DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE LA SEGREGACIN FIGURA- FONDO

El trmino de percepcin visual se refiere a la capacidad que tiene el cerebro para comprender e interpretar lo que los ojos ven (Gardner, 1986; Scheiman, 1997). Junto con las funciones visuales bsicas y y las funciones motoras, las habilidades viso-perceptivas nos permiten llevar a cabo numerosas actividades de nuestra vida diaria (Chaikin y Downing-Baum, 1997; Erhardt y Duckman, 2005; Van Waelvelde, De Weerdt, De Cock y Smits-Engelsman, 2004), as como guiar nuestras acciones (Goodale y Milner, 2009; Jeannerod, 2006). En nuestra vida cotidiana no percibimos un mundo formado por estmulos visuales aislados. Normalmente, nos rodeamos y nos desenvolvemos en un entorno que presenta mltiples estmulos, y en ocasiones, estos se presentan en condiciones dinmicas. La segregacin figura-fondo es una habilidad viso-perceptiva que nos permite detectar, diferenciar y seleccionar estmulos visuales (figura) dentro de un entorno (fondo) determinado, para as poder discriminar o diferenciar estos de forma independiente o aislada. Estos estmulos pueden ser rostros, figuras y objetos, paisajes, letras, nmeros, etc. La segregacin de la figura respecto al fondo se lleva a cabo a partir de la discriminacin visual de determinadas caractersticas, tales como el color, la luminosidad, la profundidad, la orientacin, la textura, el movimiento o la informacin temporal (Fahle, 1993). La segregacin figura-fondo es una parte importante del procesamiento de la informacin visual, y participa en un gran nmero de actividades acadmicas y de la vida cotidiana de las personas. De hecho, algunos autores (Bernspang, Asplung, Ericsson y Fugl-Meyer, 1987) han informado de la importancia que tienen algunas habilidades de procesamiento visual de alto nivel, como la discriminacin o segregacin de la figura-fondo, para poder organizarnos en el entorno que nos rodea. Adems, se ha sugerido que la segregacin de la figura-fondo es importante para el reconocimiento de objetos, de manera que esta habilidad se produce antes que el propio reconocimiento del objeto (Peterson y Gibson, 1994). Otros autores, han postulado que algunos factores como la memoria (Petersen y Wikoff, 1983; Peterson y Gibson, 1994), la fijacin o localizacin y la atencin visual (Driver, Baylis y Rafal, 1992; Lagreze, Meigen y Bach, 1994; Peterson y Gibson, 1994; Rock y Mitchener, 1992) tienen un importante papel en la percepcin de la figura-fondo. Algunos estudios han informado de la gran importancia que tiene la corteza visual primaria en los procesos de segregacin de la figura-fondo. En una investigacin llevada a cabo por Supr y Lamme (2007) se ha visto que, tras la extirpacin de las reas extraestriadas del crtex visual en primates, se produce una disminucin en la percepcin de la figura-fondo en el hemicampo del cerebro lesionado. Adems, se ha visto que durante el proceso viso-perceptivo de la segregacin de la figura-fondo, intervienen regiones corticales encargadas en diferentes procesos viso-perceptivos, como en el reconocimiento del objeto o en la orientacin visoespacial, as como en la extraccin y deteccin del objeto de su fondo (Peterson y Gibson, 1994; Vecera y OReilly, 1998). Tambin se ha visto que la atencin viso-

espacial acta como un operador en los procesos de esta habilidad viso-perceptiva, de manera que la falta de atencin viso-espacial podra afectar negativamente a la discriminacin o segregacin de la figura-fondo (Vecera, Flevaris y Filapek, 2004). Otro factor que podra ser determinante no solo en la discriminacin de la figurafondo, sino en otras habilidades viso-perceptivas, como la memoria visual o el cierre visual, es el rastreo visual (Warren, 1990). Este autor inform que la presencia de dficits en el ratreo visual podra interferir significativamente en el rendimiento de estas habilidades viso-perceptivas. Las habilidades viso-perceptivas del nio no estn en el mismo nivel que las del adulto, pero su percepcin del mundo sigue siendo buena (Arterberry, 2008). Se ha estimado que la segregacin o discriminacin de la figura-fondo se desarrolla rpidamente entre los 3 y 5 aos de edad, y se estabiliza entre los 8 y 10 aos (Atkinson y Braddick, 1989; Williams, 1983). Sin embargo, cualquier factor que interfiera en la exploracin del entorno del nio puede impedir el proceso de aprendizaje viso-perceptivo (Tsai, Wilson y Wu, 2008), afectando negativamente a la capacidad para llevar a cabo actividades de la vida diaria, como juegos o actividades recreativas, trabajos escolares u otras tareas de desarrollo relacionadas con su edad, especialmente en nios en edad escolar (AOTA, 1991; Dankert, Davies y Gavin, 2003; Kovacs, 2000; Loikith, 2005). Adems, se ha visto que en el mbito escolar el rendimiento de la lectura, la escritura y las matemticas puede verse afectado negativamente (Cornoldi, Venneri, Marconato, Molin y Montinari, 2003; Schneck y Lemer, 1993; Solan y Ciner, 1989; Weil y Amundson, 1994). En el contexto acadmico, habitualmente se trabaja con figuras, nmeros, letras, y sobretodo con palabras. Los sujetos que tienen deficiencias en la habilidad visoperceptiva de la segregacin de la figura-fondo pueden tener problemas asociados para ubicar, localizar y seleccionar la informacin revelante o determinados detalles de una escena visual o de un contexto, producindose la omisin, repeticin o sustitucin de cierta informacin visual (nmeros, slabas, palabras, figuras, e incluso renglones o prrafos) al copiar o leer un texto escrito. Por tanto, los dficits en esta habilidad podran dar lugar a problemas para mantener la atencin, la organizacin y la seleccin de informacin visual en tareas especficas que contienen un nmero determinado de estmulos visuales, no solo en actividades acadmicas, sino tambin de la vida cotidiana. El bajo rendimiento en las tareas de discriminacin de la figura-fondo ha sido valorado clnicamente en personas con lesiones cerebro-vasculares (Baylis y Baylis, 1997), especialmente en el hemisferio derecho (Shah, Holmes y Leisman, 2007; Su y cols., 2000), en degeneraciones corticales (Kartsounis y Warrington, 1991), en nios con bajo peso al nacer (Davis, Burns, Wilkerson y Steichen, 2005), en nios epilpticos con dificultades de aprendizaje (Morgan, Groh y Wurst, 1980), en pacientes con dficits en el desarrollo de la coordinacin DCD (Hulme, Biggerstaff, Moran y McKinlay, 1982; Hulme, Smart y Moran, 1982; Lord y Hulme, 1987,1988; Schoemaker y cols., 2001; Tsai y cols., 2008) o en pacientes esquizofrnicos (Eimon, Eimon y Cermak, 1983; Loas, 2004; Malaspina y cols., 2004). La esquizofrenia tambin ha sido asociada a otros dficits en la percepcin visual, como la baja velocidad en la discriminacin visual (Chen y cols., 1999), la dificultad en la segmentacin de objetos y formas en movimiento sobre un fondo (Allman, Meizin y McGuiness, 1985; Born, Groh, Zhao y Lukasewycz, 2000; Kim, Doop, Blake y Park, 2005; Nakayama y Loomis, 1974;

Schwartz, Maron, Evans y Winstead, 1999) y la alteracin en la percepcin de formas en 3D (Buracas y Albright, 1996; Xiao, Raiguel, Marcar, Koenderink y Orban, 1995). Tambin se ha visto que pacientes con agnosia visual o ceguera cortical asociada a la intoxicacin de monxido de carbono y defectos en el desarrollo embrionario del cuerpo calloso, presentan dificultad en la discriminacin de la figurafondo, el reconocimiento de objetos, la discriminacin de caras y las tareas de construccin (Mendez, 1988). En un estudio (Koeda, Watanabe, Kimura, Nishi y Takeshita, 1990) llevado a cabo con pacientes con parlisis cerebral (displejia espstica), se vio que tras la evaluacin de diferentes habilidades viso-perceptivas con el Developmental Test of Visual Perception DTVP (Frostig, Maslow, Lefever y Whittlesey, 1963), la habilidad de la figura-fondo en este tipo de sujetos era la que mostraba peores resultados. El retraso en la maduracin visual, concretamente en el desarrollo de estructuras corticales extraestriadas, tambin puede suponer problemas en las tareas de segregacin de la figura-fondo y en otras tareas visuales que son procesadas por las vas atencionales, tal y como han visto Harris y colaboradores (Harris, Kriss, Shawkat, Taylor y Russell-Eggitt, 1996) en bebs de 2 a 4 meses de edad. Por otro lado, Tseng y Chow (2000) han observado que los nios con bajo rendimiento en la velocidad de escritura tienen resultados ms bajos en tareas de segregacin de la figura-fondo. La edad parece ser otro factor determinante en la habilidad de discriminacin de la segregacin de la figura-fondo, de manera que las personas mayores presentan peores resultados que los jvenes adultos en tareas de sta habilidad viso-perceptiva (Bieliauskas, Newberry y Gerstenberger, 1988; Roper, Fiengo, Holker y Bieliauskas, 2001). Algunos autores han revelado que algunos nios con ambliopa tienen dificultades en el rendimiento de tareas de discriminacin de formas con textura y movimiento definido (Wang, Ho y Giaschi, 2007), atribuyendo estos dficits visoperceptivos a defectos en los procesos de segregacin de la figura-fondo. Con frecuencia, los terapeutas ocupacionales y otros profesionales de la salud evalan y tratan los problemas de percepcin visual que se producen en nios en edad escolar (Kalb y Warshowsky, 1991; Todd, 1993; Wright, Bowen y Zecker, 2000) o en personas de otras edades, con el fin de valorar la presencia y el impacto de las disfunciones viso-perceptivas en este tipo de pacientes (Brown, 2008). Ruf-Bchtiger (1989) ha sugerido la enorme importancia que tiene la evaluacin de algunos dominios de la percepcin visual, como la discriminacin visual y la discriminacin de figura-fondo, para entender mejor a los nios con trastornos de percepcin visual y poder desarrollar de manera ms eficaz los mtodos de tratamiento. Davis y cols. (2005), tambin han considerado que el examen visoperceptivo debe ser una parte imprescindible de la evaluacin rutinaria en nios de edad preescolar nacidos prematuramente, ya que la identificacin temprana de los dficits viso-perceptivos podran facilitar su tratamiento, logrando una mejora en las habilidades o dominios viso-perceptivos en estos nios con alto riesgo. Adems, se ha informado de que las pruebas viso-perceptivas de la discriminacin de la figura-fondo son buenos indicadores de algunas disfunciones neuronales, por lo que pueden ser usados para examinar cambios cognitivos relacionados con la edad en personas mayores, en pacientes con lesiones cerebro-vasculares y en sujetos con desrdenes

neuro-degenerativos (Roper, Bieliauskas, Basso y Colman, 1995; Bieliauskas, Roper, Trobe y Lacy, 1998). En otro estudio, Tsai y cols. (2008) han considerado que la valoracin del rendimiento viso-perceptivo en nios con dficits en el desarrollo de la coordinacin motora DCD, tiene una gran importancia de cara al tratamiento y a la aplicacin de estrategias para un mejor rendimiento en las tareas de su vida diaria. No obstante, es conveniente que antes de evaluar algunas de las habilidades viso-perceptivas, como la memoria visual, el cierre visual y la discriminacin de la figura-fondo, sean valoradas algunas de las funciones visuales bsicas, como la oculomotricidad, ya que estas funciones son importantes para llevar a cabo las pruebas de este tipo de habilidades perceptivas, tal y como ha sugerido Warren (1990). De forma similar, Cate y Richards (2000), tambin han afirmado que existe una correlacin elevada entre el rendimiento de algunas funciones visuales bsicas (como la agudeza visual, el campo visual, la oculomotricidad, el rastreo y la atencin visual) y en algunas habilidades de procesamiento viso-perceptivo de alto nivel (como la figurafondo y el cierre visual en personas con lesin cerebro-vascular), adems, recomiendan la evaluacin previa de las funciones visuales bsicas. La habilidad de discriminacin de la figura-fondo se puede evaluar mediante algunas pruebas viso-perceptivas especficas, como el Closure Flexibility Test, Concealed Figures (Thurstone y Jeffrey, 1982), o mediante otras pruebas que valoran distintas habilidades, entre ellas la figura-fondo, entre ellas destacan: Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (Ayers, 1966) Embedded figures test EFT (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin y Karp, 1971) Hidden Figures Test HFT (Ekstrom, French, Harman y Dermen, 1976) The Hooper Visual Organization Test, Manual HVOT (Hooper, 1983) Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment LOTCA (Itzkovich, Arerback y Belazar, 1990) Birmingham Object Recognition Battery BORB (Riddoch y Humphreys, 1993) Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Second Edition DTVP-2 (Hammill, Pearson, Voress y Frostig, 1993) Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Third Edition MVPT-3 (Colarusso y Hammill, 2003) Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (non-motor), Third Edition TVPS-3 (Martin, 2006)

Una vez que se haya administrado una o varias de estas pruebas, se puede determinar si esta habilidad viso-perceptiva se corresponde o no con el nivel de rendimiento esperado para la edad cronolgica del sujeto. En aquellos casos en los que los resultados obtenidos estuvieran por debajo de los valores esperados para su edad, es posible entrenar esta habilidad viso-perceptiva mediante ejercicios como los que aparecen en el presente cuaderno de actividades. Tsai y cols. (2008) han informado de que el aprendizaje de las habilidades visoperceptivas pueden mejorarse mediante la experiencia prctica, de la misma manera que un nio aprende a extraer la informacin relevante de su entorno en determinadas actividades cotidianas. Aunque no son muchos los estudios que han evaluado la mejora de la habilidad de discriminacin de la figura-fondo, Sivak y colaboradores (Sivak, Hill y Olson, 1984)

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investigaron la mejora de algunas habilidades perceptivas en sujetos con dao cerebral, a partir de un programa de entrenamiento computerizado. Las habilidades entrenadas fueron la discriminacin derecha-izquierda, el rastreo visual, la orientacin de lneas, la discriminacin de formas, la memoria visual, la coordinacin viso-motora y los seguimientos oculares, vindose ciertas mejoras en algunos de los pacientes entrenados. Por otro lado, Yi, Olson y Chun (2006) han sugerido que el entrenamiento visoperceptivo de la segmentacin de formas puede incrementar la actividad de neuronas sensoriales responsables en esta habilidad, as como el rendimiento de la tarea entrenada, aunque el aprendizaje no fue transferido completamente para localizaciones o formas sin entrenar. Los autores sugieren que la mejora de la segmentacin de la figura-fondo requiere otras habilidades perceptivas ms all del nico reconocimiento de formas. Su y cols. (2000), tambin han informado sobre la importancia que tiene en pacientes con accidentes cerebro-vasculares, el entrenamiento temprano de este dficit viso-perceptivo y la planificacin de estrategias especficas que faciliten el xito de determinadas actividades de su vida cotidiana. En un estudio llevado a cabo por Mazer y cols. (2003), se ha visto la mejora del rendimiento de la conduccin en pacientes con lesiones cerebro-vasculares del hemisferio derecho, utilizando programas de entrenamiento de velocidad de procesamiento viso-perceptivo, as como de atencin visual dividida y selectiva. El libro de ejercicios que presentamos a continuacin est recomendado para ser utilizado por terapeutas ocupacionales, optometristas, educadores, especialistas del aprendizaje y otros profesionales de la salud. Permite entrenar la habilidad de la segregacin figura-fondo en aquellas personas que necesiten mejorar esta habilidad (principalmente pacientes con dificultades de aprendizaje o con daos neurolgicos, tanto congnitos, como adquiridos), y en personas que quieran aumentar su rendimiento al realizar estas actividades, por ejemplo, deportistas o estudiantes que se estn preparando una oposicin. Este cuaderno est compuesto por 200 lminas que contienen distintas figuras. En cada una de las lminas aparece una figura en la parte superior que servir de estmulo de referencia, y que la persona debe observar para poder identificar un nico estmulo exactamente igual dentro de las posibles respuestas dadas en la parte inferior de la lmina. Tanto los estmulos de referencia (figura), como los contenidos de cada una de las posibles respuestas (fondo) aumentan en el nivel de dificultad, de manera que la demanda para segregar la figura del fondo se incrementa conforme se supera cada lmina del cuaderno.

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ADMINISTRATION NORMAS DE APLICACIN

In the following pages, in the upper half of each plate a figure is presented. You must to find the IDENTICAL figure (in shape, size and orientation) among the responses that are displayed on the bottom half. Please, do the same in other plates. There is only one correct answer in each plate.

A continuacin, aparece en la parte superior de la lmina una figura. Trate de buscar otra TOTALMENTE IDNTICA (en forma, tamao y orientacin) entre las diferentes respuestas que se muestran en la parte inferior. Haga lo mismo en el resto de lminas. Solamente existe una nica respuesta correcta para cada lmina.

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FF - 10

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a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

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a aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
2

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa a


3

FF - 33

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaa a a aaa aa aaaa a aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

FF - 34

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa a aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

FF - 35

aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa a aa aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa a aa aaaaaaaa a aa aaaaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaaa


1

aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa a aa aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa a aa aaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaaa


2

aaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaa a aaaa aaaaaa a aaaa aaaaaa aaaa a aaaaaa a aaaa aaaaaa a aaaa aaaaaa aaaa a aaaaaa aaaa a a aaaaaaaaa
3

FF - 36

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

FF - 37

FF - 38

FF - 39

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

FF - 40

aa a a aaa a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a aa

a aa a a aa a aaaa
1

a aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aa a a aaa a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a

a aa a a aa a aaaa
3

FF - 41

FF - 42

FF - 43

9
1

7
2

3
1

FF - 44

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

FF - 45

aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa

aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa

aaaaaa aaaaaa

aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa

aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa aaaa
4

FF - 46

aaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaa aaaaaaaaaa a aa aaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa
1 2

a aa aa a a aa aa a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a aa a a

FF - 47

FF - 48

FF - 49

FF - 50
aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa

FF - 51

aaa aaa aaa


aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa

aaa aaa aaa


1

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa

aaa aaa aaa


2

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa

aaaa aaaa aaaa


3

FF - 52

a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aaa a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a
1

a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a aaa aaa aaa aaa aa


2

a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a aaa aaa aaa aaa aa


3

FF - 53

FF - 54

FF - 55

aaaaa aa aaa aaaa a aaaaa aaaaa aa aaa aaaa a aaaaa a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a aa
1

a aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaa a a a a aa aa aa aa aa aa aaa aa aa a a a a aaaaaaaa aaa aaaa aa aaa a a aaaaaaa aa aaa aa aa aa aa aaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa a a a a a a a aa
2

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a
3

FF - 56

FF - 57

aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
1

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
2

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
3

FF - 58

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

FF - 59

FF - 60

aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaa a aaa aa aa aa aaaa a aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaa aaaaaaaa a aaaa aaaaaa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

FF - 61

FF - 62

FF - 63

FF - 64

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
1

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
2

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
3

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
4

FF - 65

FF - 66

FF - 67

FF - 68

FF - 69

FF - 70

FF - 71

FF - 72

FF - 73
aaaaaa aa aa aaaa aa a aa a aa aa a a aaaa aa aa a aaaa a aa a a aaaaaa aa a a aa aa aa aa a a a a a aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa a a a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaa a a aaa aa a aa aaaa aaaa a a a a aa a aa aa a a a a a aaaa a a a a a aa a aa aaaaaa a a aa aa a aa a aa a aaaa a a a a aaaaaa a a a a aa aa aaa aaa a a aaaa a a a aa a aa a aaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a aaaa a a a a a aaaaaa a a a aa a aa aa aa a aaaa aa aa a aa a a aaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a a aaaa a a a a a aaaaaa a a aa aa a aa a aa a aaaa a aa aa aa a a a a aaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a aaaa a a a a a aaaaaa a a a a aa a aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a aaaaa

aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa aa aa a aaaaa a a a aa a aa aaa a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a aaaaa a a a a a aa a a a a a aa a aa a aaaaaa aaaaa a a a aa a a a a aa aaaaaa a a aa a aa aa a aaaaa a a a a a a a a a aaaa aaa aa aa aa aaaaa a a a a a a a aa aa a a a aa aaa aaaaa aa aa aa a aa a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a aaaaa a a a a a aaa a a a a a a a a a a aaaa aa a a a a aaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a aaa aa aa aaaaa aa a aa aa aa aaa a a a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa a aa a a aaaa a a a aa a aa a aaaaaaa a a a aa aa a a a a a aaaaa aaaaaaa a a a a aa aa aa a a aaaaa a a a a a a a aaaaaaa a a a aa a a aa a a a a a a a a aaaaaaa a a a aa a a aaaaa a a a a a a a a a a aaaaa aaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a aa a aa a a a a a aaaaaaa a a a a a a aaa a aaaaa a a a a a a aaaaaaa a a a aa aaa a aa a a a a a a aaaaaaa a a a aa a a aaaaa a a a a a a a aa a a aaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a aa aaa a aa aaa aaaaaaa aa a aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a aaaaaaa

FF - 74

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa a aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

FF - 75

FF - 76

FF - 77

FF - 78

FF - 79

FF - 80

FF - 81

FF - 82

FF - 83

FF - 84

FF - 85

FF - 86

FF - 87

FF - 88

FF - 89

FF - 90

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aaaaa a

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa a

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a
1

a aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aaaaa a
2

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa a

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a aa
3

FF - 91

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaa a a aaa aa aaaa a aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaaaaa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a

FF - 92
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa a

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaa a

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aa

a
aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa
1

FF - 93

a a a
aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa
2 3

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa

FF - 94

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa


1

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa


2

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa


3

FF - 95

FF - 96

FF - 97

FF - 98

FF - 99

FF - 100

FF - 101

FF - 102

FF - 103

FF - 104

FF - 105

FF - 106

FF - 107

FF - 108

FF - 109

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa a


1

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa a


2

a aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa


3

a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa a


4

FF - 110

aaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaa

aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa
1

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa
2

aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa
3

FF - 111

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

FF - 112

a a

a a

a a aa a a a a a a aa a a aa aa a a a a a a a a a aa aa a aa aa a aa a a aa a a a aa aa aa aa a a a aa a a aa aa aa aa a a a aa a a a a a
1

a a aa a a a a a a aa a aa aa a a a a aaa a a a a a a aa a aa aa a a a aaa aa a a aa aa a aa a a a a a aa a a a a a a aa a aa aa a a a aa aa a a a a a
2

a a aa a a a a a a a aa a a aa a a aa a a a a a a aaaaa a a a a a aa a a a aa a a a a aa a aa a a aa a a a aa a a a a aa aa aa aa a a a aa a a a a a
3

FF - 113

FF - 114

FF - 115

aa aa aa a a aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa a a aa

aaaaaaaa aa aaa aaa aa a a a a a a a a aa a a aaaaaaaa a aaaa a a a a aa a a aaaaaaaa a aaaa a a a a aaaaaaaa a a aaaa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaa a a aa aa a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaa aa aaa aaaa a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a aa
1

a aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaa aaa aaa aaaaaaaa a aaa a a aaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a aaa a a aaaaaaaa aa a a aa aa a aaa a a aaaaaaaa a a a a aa a a aaa a a aa aa aa aa aa a a aaa a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a aa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
2

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aa aa aaaaa aaaa aa aa a a a a a a a a aaaaa aa a aaaaaaa aa a a a a aaaaa aaaaaaa aa a a a a a aaaaa a a aaaaaaa aa a a a a a a a aaaaaaaa aa aa aa aa a a a a aa a aaaaaaaa a a aaaa a a a a aaaaaaaaa aa a a aa aa aaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a a a a a a a a
3

FF - 116

FF - 117

FF - 118

FF - 119

FF - 120

FF - 121

y
1 2 3 4

FF - 122

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

FF - 123

FF - 124

FF - 125

FF - 126

FF - 127

FF - 128

FF - 129

FF - 130

FF - 131

FF - 132

FF - 133

FF - 134

FF - 135

FF - 136

FF - 137

FF - 138

FF - 139

FF - 140

FF - 141

FF - 142

aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
1

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
2

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
3

FF - 143

aaa aaa aaa aaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
1

aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaa aaaaa aaa aaa aaa aaa


2

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
3

aaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aaaaa aa aa aa

FF - 144

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
1

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
2

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
3

FF - 145

FF - 146

FF - 147

FF - 148

FF - 149

aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa
1

aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa
2

aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa
3

aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa
4

FF - 150

FF - 151

FF - 152

FF - 153

FF - 154

FF - 155

FF - 156

FF - 157

FF - 158

FF - 159

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

FF - 160

FF - 161

FF - 162

FF - 163

FF - 164

FF - 165

FF - 166

FF - 167

FF - 168

FF - 169

FF - 170

FF - 171

FF - 172

FF - 173

FF - 174

aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

FF - 175

FF - 176

FF - 177

FF - 178

FF - 179

FF - 180

FF - 181

FF - 182

FF - 183

FF - 184

FF - 185

FF - 186

FF - 187

FF - 188

aaaa aaaa aaaa a a


1

aaaa aaaa aaaa a a


2

aaaa aaaa aaaa a a


3

FF - 189

FF - 190

FF - 191

FF - 192

FF - 193

FF - 194

FF - 195

FF - 196

FF - 197

FF - 198

FF - 199

FF - 200

TABLE OF ANSWERS PLANTILLA DE RESPUESTAS


The correct answers are shown below. If the correct answer is the first figure of the plate, the number 1 is shown; if the correct answer is the second figure, a number 2 will be shown, and so on. A continuacin se muestra la plantilla de correccin, que contiene el nmero de cada una de las lminas y la respuesta correcta para cada una de ellas. Si la respuesta correcta es la primera figura de la lmina el nmero mostrado es un 1; si la respuesta correcta corresponde con la segunda figura aparece un 2, y as sucesivamente.

ITEM # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

CORRECT ANSWER 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 1 1 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 1

ITEM # 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

CORRECT ANSWER 4 1 1 4 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 3 1 3 3 4 4 2 3 3 2

ITEM # 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

CORRECT ANSWER 1 3 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 1 3 1 3 3 2

ITEM # 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

CORRECT ANSWER 2 3 3 2 4 4 2 3 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 3 4

TABLE OF ANSWERS PLANTILLA DE RESPUESTAS


(CONTINUATION CONTINUACIN)

ITEM # 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125

CORRECT ANSWER 2 4 3 4 3 4 2 2 4 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 1 4 4 3

ITEM # 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150

CORRECT ANSWER 2 4 3 3 1 1 4 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 4 2 4 2

ITEM # 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175

CORRECT ANSWER 3 2 4 1 3 3 4 4 1 1 2 2 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 2 3 3

ITEM # 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200

CORRECT ANSWER 1 3 1 3 3 4 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 4 1 4 2 2 3 4 2 3 4