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Weld Joints

(a) Butt joint

(b) Corner joint

(c) T joint

(d) Lap joint

(e) Edge joint

FIGURE 12.1 Examples of welded joints.

Ease of Maintenance

Design Variability

Large Parts

Visual Inspection 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 3

Small Parts

Tolerances

Strength

Relibility

Method Arc welding 1 2 3 1 Resistance welding 1 2 1 1 Brazing 1 1 1 1 Bolts and nuts 1 2 3 1 Riveting 1 2 3 1 Fasteners 2 3 3 1 Seaming, crimping 2 2 1 3 Adhesive bonding 3 1 1 2 Note: 1, very good; 2, good; 3, poor.

3 3 3 2 1 2 3 3

1 3 1 1 1 2 1 2

2 3 3 1 3 2 3 3

Cost 2 1 3 3 2 3 1 2

TABLE 12.1 Comparison of various joining methods.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

General Summary
Joining Process Shielded metal arc Submerged arc Gas metal arc Gas tungsten arc Flux-cored arc Oxyfuel Operation Manual Automatic Semiautomatic or automatic Manual or automatic Semiautomatic or automatic Manual Advantage Portable and exible High deposition Works with most metals Works with most metals High deposition Portable and exible Works with most metals Skill Level Required High Low to medium Low to high Low to high Low to high High Medium to high Welding Position All Flat and horizontal All All All All All Current Type ac, dc ac, dc dc ac, dc dc Distortion 1 to 2 1 to 2 2 to 3 2 to 3 1 to 3 2 to 4 3 to 5 Cost of Equipment Low Medium Medium to high Medium Medium Low High

Electron Semiautomatic beam, laser or automatic beam 1, highest; 5, lowest

TABLE 12.2 General characteristics of joining processes.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Oxyfuel Gas Welding


2100C (3800F) 1260C (2300F) Outer envelope (small and narrow) Acetylene feather

Inner cone 3040 to 3300C (5500 to 6000F) (a) Neutral flame

Outer envelope

Inner cone (pointed) (b) Oxidizing flame

Bright luminous inner cone

Blue envelope

(c) Carburizing (reducing) flame

Gas mixture

Filler rod Molten weld metal Base metal (d)

Welding torch Flame Solidified weld metal

FIGURE 12.2 Three basic types of oxyacetylene ames used in oxyfuel gas welding and cutting operations: (a) neutral ame; (b) oxidizing ame; (c) carburizing, or reducing, ame. (d) The principle of the oxyfuel gas welding operation.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Pressure Gas Welding


C2H2 + O2 mixture Torch withdrawn Torch Flame heating of surfaces Upsetting force Clamp (a) (b)

FIGURE 12.3 Schematic illustration of the pressure gas welding process; (a) before, and (b) after. Note the formation of a ash at the joint, which can later be trimmed off.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Heat Transfer in Welding


Material Aluminum and its alloys Cast irons Copper Bronze (90Cu-10Sn) Magnesium Nickel Steels Stainless steels Titanium Specic Energy, u J/mm3 BTU/in3 2.9 41 7.8 112 6.1 87 4.2 59 2.9 42 9.8 142 9.1-10.3 128-146 9.3-9.6 133-137 14.3 204

Heat input H VI =e l v Welding speed VI v=e uA

TABLE 12.3 Approximate specic energy required to melt a unit volume of commonly welded materials.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Shielded Metal Arc Welding


Welding machine AC or DC power source and controls Work cable Arc Electrode holder Electrode Work Base metal Electrode cable Weld metal Arc Solidified slag

Coating Electrode Shielding gas

FIGURE 12.4 (a) Schematic illustration of the shielded metal arc welding process. About one-half of all large-scale industrial welding operations use this process. (b) Schematic illustration of the shielded metal arc welding operation.

7 5 1 4

FIGURE 12.5 A weld zone showing the build-up sequence of individual weld beads in deep welds.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

2 6 8 3

Submerged Arc Welding


Electrode-wire reel Flux hopper Voltage and current control Unfused-flux recovery tube Wire-feed motor Electrode cable Contact tube Workpiece Weld backing Ground

Voltage-pickup leads (optional)

FIGURE 12.6 Schematic illustration of the submerged arc welding process and equipment. Unfused ux is recovered and reused.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Gas Metal Arc Welding


Solid wire electrode Current conductor Travel Shielding gas

Nozzle Shielding gas Arc Base metal (a)

Wire guide and contact tube Solidified weld metal Molten weld metal

Feed control Control system Gas out Gun control Workpiece Gun

Wire Gas in

Shielding-gas source

Voltage control Wire-feed drive motor Contactor control (b) 110 V supply Welding machine

FIGURE 12.7 (a) Gas metal arc welding process, formerly known as MIG welding (for metal inert gas). (b) Basic equipment used in gas metal arc welding operations.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Flux-Cored Arc Welding


Current-carrying guide tube Arc shield composed of vaporized and slag-forming compounds protects metal transfer through arc Solidified slag Molten slag Solidified weld metal Arc Base metal Metal droplets covered with thin slag coating forming molten puddle Insulated extension tip

Powdered metal, vapor-or gas-forming materials, deoxidizers and scavengers

Molten weld metal

FIGURE 12.8 Schematic illustration of the ux-cored arc welding process. This operation is similar to gas metal arc welding.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Electrogas & Electroslag Welding


Power source Control panel

Drive rolls Electrode conduit Gas


Wire-feed drive Wire reel

Welding wire

Oscillator Welding gun Water Gas Water out Welding wire Water in Fixed shoe Primary shielding gas Gas Water out Water in Gas box Supplementary shielding gas Moveable shoe

Electrode lead Oscillation (optional) Consumable guide tube Work Workpiece (ground) lead

Molten slag Molten weld pool Retaining shoe Water in

Water out

FIGURE 12.9 Schematic illustration of the electrogas welding process.

FIGURE 12.10 Equipment used for electroslag welding operations.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding


Travel Electrical conductor Tungsten electrode Gas passage Shielding gas Filler wire Molten weld metal (a) Arc Solidified weld metal

Cooling-water supply Torch Filler rod Drain Workpiece Foot pedal (optional) (b)

Inert-gas supply

or DC welder
AC

FIGURE 12.11 (a) Gas tungsten arc welding process, formerly known as TIG welding (for tungsten inert gas). (b) Equipment for gas tungsten arc welding operations.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Plasma Arc Welding


Tungsten electrode Power supply + Plasma gas Shielding gas Power supply

+ (a) (b)

FIGURE 12.12 Two types of plasma arc welding processes: (a) transferred and (b) nontransferred. Deep and narrow welds are made by this process at high welding speeds.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Weld Bead Comparisons

Laser welds

(a)

(b)

FIGURE 12.13 Comparison of the size of weld beads in (a) electron-beam or laser-beam welding with that in (b) conventional (tungsten arc) welding. Source: American Welding Society, Welding Handbook, 8th ed., 1991.

FIGURE 12.14 Gillette Sensor razor cartridge, with laser-beam welds.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Original structure

Fusion zone (weld metal)

Heat-affected zone

Fusion Weld Characteristics

Base metal

Molten weld metal Temperature Melting point of base metal Temperature at which the base-metal microstructure is affected Original temperature of base metal

(a)

(b)

FIGURE 12.15 Characteristics of a typical fusion weld zone in oxyfuel gas welding and arc welding processes.
0.1 mm 0.43 mm

FIGURE 12.16 Grain structure in (a) a deep weld and (b) a shallow weld. Note that the grains in the solidied weld metal are perpendicular to their interface with the base metal.
1 mm 145 155 260 330 355 Hardness (HV) Heat-affected zone Melt zone

(a)

(b)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 12.17 (a) Weld bead on a cold-rolled nickel strip produced by a laser beam. (b) Microhardness prole across the weld bead. Note the lower hardness of the weld bead as compared with the base metal. Source: IIT Research Institute.

Fusion Defects
FIGURE 12.18 Intergranular corrosion of a weld joint in ferritic stainless-steel welded tube, after exposure to a caustic solution. The weld line is at the center of the photograph. Source: Courtesy of Allegheny Ludlum Corp.

Weld

Weld

FIGURE 12.19 Examples of various incomplete fusion in welds.

Weld Base metal B Incomplete fusion from oxide or dross at the center of a joint, especially in aluminum (b) Incomplete fusion in a groove weld

Incomplete fusion in fillet welds. B is often termed !bridging" (a)

(c)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Defects in Welded Joints


Underfill Inclusions Crack Base metal Incomplete penetration (a)

Good weld Overlap Porosity Lack of penetration (b) (c) Undercut

FIGURE 12.19 Examples of various incomplete fusion in welds.

Toe crack Longitudinal crack Underbead crack

Weld Transverse crack Base metal

Crater cracks

FIGURE 12.20 Examples of various defects in fusion welds.

Weld Weld Longitudinal crack Base metal (a) (b) Transverse crack Base metal Toe crack

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Weld Crack

FIGURE 12.22 Crack in a weld bead, due to the fact that the two components were not allowed to contract after the weld was completed. Source: Courtesy of Packer Engineering.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Distortion in Welds
Weld Weld Transverse shrinkage Weld Weld

Neutral axis

Angular distortion (a)

Longitudinal shrinkage (b)

(c)

(d)

FIGURE 12.23 Distortion and warping of parts after welding, caused by differential thermal expansion and contraction of different regions of the welded assembly. Warping can be reduced or eliminated by proper weld design and xturing prior to welding.

Residual stress Compressive Tensile

Base metal

FIGURE 12.24 Residual stresses developed in a straight butt joint. Source: Courtesy of the American Welding Society.
Weld

(a)

(b)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Distortion of Welded Structures


Rigid frame Hot zone (expanded) Contraction

Melt (pushed out) No shape change (a) (b)

Internal (residual) tensile stress Distortion (c)

FIGURE 12.25 Distortion of a welded structure. (a) Before welding; (b) during welding, with weld bead placed in joint; (c) after welding, showing distortion in the structure. Source: After J.A. Schey.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Tension-Shear Testing
Root bend

Longitudinal tension-shear Clamp Roller Weld Face bend

Transverse tension-shear (a) (b)

Side bend (c)

FIGURE 12.26 (a) Types of specimens for tension-shear testing of welds. (b) Wraparound bend test method. (c) Three-point bending of welded specimens. (See also Fig. 2.21.)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Tension-Shear Test of Spot Welds

(a)

1. Raised nugget

(b)

2.

Hole left in part Button diameter indicates quality 3. (c) (d)

FIGURE 12.27 (a) Tension-shear test for spot welds; (b) cross-tension test; (c) twist test; (d) peel test.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Roll Bonding & Ultrasonic Welding


Force

Mass

Cladding metal Base metal


Coupling system Transducer
DC

Transducer Toolholder Roller

polarization supply

Rolls
Tip Workpiece Anvil Direction of vibration
AC

Workpiece power supply

FIGURE 12.28 Schematic illustration of the roll-bonding, or cladding, process.

(a)

(b)

FIGURE 12.29 (a) Components of an ultrasonic welding machine for lap welds. (b) Ultrasonic seam welding using a roller.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Friction Welding
1. 2. Speed Speed, Force, Upset length 3. Flash Force Beginning of flash Force increased

Force

4.

gth Upset len

Total upset length

Time

FIGURE 12.30 Sequence of operations in the friction welding process. (1) The part on the left is rotated at high speed. (2) The part on the right is brought into contact under an axial force. (3) The axial force is increased, and the part on the left stops rotating; ash begins to form. (4) After a specied upset length or distance is achieved, the weld is completed. The upset length is the distance the two pieces move inward during welding after their initial contact; thus, the total length after welding is less than the sum of the lengths of the two pieces. If necessary, the ash can be removed by secondary operations, such as machining or grinding.

FIGURE 12.31 Shapes of the fusion zone in friction welding as a function of the force applied and the rotational speed.

(a) High pressure or low speed

(b) Low pressure or high speed

(c) Optimum

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Friction Stir Welding

Shouldered non-consumable tool Probe Weld

FIGURE 12.32 The principle of the friction stir welding process. Aluminum-alloy plates up to 75 mm (3 in.) thick have been welded by this process. Source: TWI, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Resistance Spot Welding


Electrodes Weld nugget Lap joint

1. Pressure applied

2. Current on

3. Current off, pressure on (a)

4. Pressure released

Electrodes
Electrode Electrode tip Weld nugget Indentation Sheet separation

Workpiece (a)
Heat-affected zone Electrode (b)

Workpiece (b)

FIGURE 12.33 (a) Sequence in the resistance spot welding operation. (b) Cross-section of a spot weld, showing weld nugget and light indentation by the electrode on sheet surfaces.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 12.34 Two types of electrode designs for easy access in spot welding operations for complex shapes.

Seam & Resistance Projection Welding


Electrode wheels Electrode wheels Weld nuggets Weld Sheet Weld

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

FIGURE 12.35 (a) Illustration of the seam welding process, with rolls acting as electrodes. (b) Overlapping spots in a seam weld. (c) Crosssection of a roll spot weld. (d) Mash seam welding.
Flat electrodes Sheet

Force Weld nuggets Product Workpiece Projections Force (a) (b)

FIGURE 12.36 Schematic illustration of resistance projection welding: (a) before and (b) after. The projections on sheet metal are produced by embossing operations, as described in Section 7.5.2.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Flash & Stud Welding


Arc

FIGURE 12.37 Flash welding process for end-toend welding of solid rods or tubular parts. (a) Before and (b) after.

(a)

(b)

Push

Pull

Push

FIGURE 12.38 Sequence of operations in stud arc welding, used for welding bars, threaded rods, and various fasteners on metal plates.

Stud Ceramic ferrule Workpiece (base metal) 1. 2. Arc Molten weld metal Weld

3.

4.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Explosion Welding
Detonator Explosive Clad metal (flyer) Constantinterface clearance gap Base plate (a) (b) Detonator Explosive Buffer Clad metal Angular-interface clearance gap

Base plate

FIGURE 12.39 Schematic illustration of the explosion welding process: (a) constant interface clearance gap and (b) angular interface clearance gap.

FIGURE 12.40 Cross-sections of explosion welded joints: (a) titanium (top) on low-carbon steel (bottom) and (b) Incoloy 800 (iron-nickelbase alloy) on low-carbon steel. The wavy interfaces shown improve the shear strength of the joint. Some combinations of metals, such as tantalum and vanadium, produce a much less wavy interface. If the two metals have little metallurgical compatibility, an interlayer may be added that has compatibility with both metals. {\it Source:} Courtesy of DuPont Company.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

(a)

(b)

Diffusion Bonding
Stop off Bonding pressure

1. Core sheet Gas pressure for forming Die 3. Superplastic forming

2. Diffusion bonding

Die

4. Final structure

FIGURE 12.41 Sequence of operations in diffusion bonding and superplastic forming of a structure with three at sheets. See also Fig. 7.46. Source: After D. Stephen and S.J. Swadling.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Brazing & Braze Welding


n Te
Joint strength
Base metal Torch Brass filler metal Base metal Flux Filler metal (a) (b)

Sh gth ear stren gth


Joint clearance

FIGURE 12.42 (a) Brazing and (b) braze welding operations.

FIGURE 12.43 The effect of joint clearance on tensile and shear strength of brazed joints. Note that unlike tensile strength, shear strength continually decreases as clearance increases.

sile

en str

TABLE 12.4 Typical ller metals for brazing various metals and alloys.

Base Metal Aluminum and its alloys Magnesium alloys Copper and its alloys Ferrous and nonferrous alloys (except aluminum and magnesium) Iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-base alloys Stainless steels, nickel- and cobaltbase alloys

Filler Metal Aluminum-silicon Magnesium-aluminum Copper-phosphorus Silver and copper alloys, copper-phosphorus Gold Nickel-silver

Brazing Temperature ( C) 570-620 580-625 700-925 620-1150 900-1100 925-1200

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Furnace Brazing & Brazed Joints


Filler-metal wire Filler metal

FIGURE 12.44 An application of furnace brazing: (a) before and (b) after. Note that the ller metal is a shaped wire.

(a)

(b)

FIGURE 12.45 Joint designs commonly used in brazing operations.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Solder Joints
(a) Flanged T (b) Flush lap (c) Flanged corner (d) Line contact

Bolt or rivet

(e) Flat lock seam

(f) Flanged bottom

(g) Gull wing

FIGURE 12.46 Joint designs commonly used for soldering.

Crimp

PC board

Wire (i) Crimped (j) Twisted

(h) Through hole

TABLE 12.5 applications.

Types of solders and their

Solder Tin-lead Tin-zinc Lead-silver Cadmium-silver Zinc-aluminum Tin-silver Tin-bismuth

Typical Application General purpose Aluminum Strength at higher than room temperature Strength at high temperatures Aluminum; corrosion resistance Electronics Electronics

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Soldering for Circuit Boards


Squeegee Tensioned screen Screen material Paste

FIGURE 12.47 Screening solder paste onto a printed circuit board in reow soldering. Source: After V. Solberg.
Paste deposited on contact area Emulsion Contact area
Copper land Copper land Plating or coating Wetted solder coat Oil or air

FIGURE 12.48 (a) Schematic illustration of the wave soldering process. (b) SEM image of a wave soldered joint on a surface-mount device. See also Section 13.13.

Flux Residues Turbulent zone (oil prevents dross) Oil mixed in Turbulent zone (dross formed in air) (a) (b)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Adhesive Bonding

Simple

Simple

Single taper

Single

Beveled

Beveled

Double taper

Double

Radiused (a)

Radiused (b)

Increased thickness (c)

Beveled (d)

FIGURE 12.49 Various congurations for adhesively bonded joints: (a) single lap, (b) double lap, (c) scarf, and (d) strap.

Peeling force

FIGURE 12.50 Characteristic behavior of (a) brittle and (b) tough and ductile adhesives in a peeling test. This test is similar to peeling adhesive tape from a solid surface.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

(a)

(b)

Properties of Adhesives
Impact resistance Tension-shear strength, MPa (103 psi) Peel strength , N/m (lb/in.) Substrates bonded Epoxy Poor 15-22 (2.2-3.2) < 523 (3) Most Polyurethane Excellent 12-20 (1.7-2.9) 14,000 (80) Most smooth, nonporous Modied Acrylic Good 20-30 (2.9-4.3) 5250 (30) Most smooth, nonporous Cyanocrylate Poor 18.9 (2.7) < 525 (3) Most nonporous metals or plastics -55 to 80 (-70 to 175) No Anaerobic Fair 17.5 (2.5) 1750 (10) Metals, glass, thermosets -55 to 150 (-70 to 300) No Excellent Good 0.60 (0.025) Mild Low Low

Service temperature -55 to 120 -40 to 90 -70 to 120 range, C ( F) (-70 to 250) (-250 to 175) (-100 to 250) Heat cure or mixing Yes Yes No required Solvent resistance Excellent Good Good Good Moisture resistance Good-Excellent Fair Good Poor Gap limitation, mm None None 0.5 (0.02) 0.25 (0.01) (in.) Odor Mild Mild Strong Moderate Toxicity Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Flammability Low Low High Low Note: Peel strength varies widely depending on surface preparation and quality.

TABLE 12.6 adhesives.

Typical properties and characteristics of chemically reactive structural

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Rivets and Stapling

Standard loop (a)

Flat clinch (b)

Nonmetal Metal channel (c) (d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

FIGURE 12.51 Examples of rivets: (a) solid, (b) tubular, (c) split, or bifurcated, and (d) compression.

FIGURE 12.52 Examples of various fastening methods. (a) Standard loop staple; (b) at clinch staple; (c) channel strap; (d) pin strap.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Seams & Crimping

FIGURE 12.53 Stages in forming a doublelock seam. See also Fig. 7.23.
1. 2. 3. 4.

FIGURE 12.54 Two examples of mechanical joining by crimping.

(a)

(b)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Snap Fasteners
Spring clip Nut

Rod-end attachment to sheet-metal part (a) (b) (c)

Push-on fastener

Deflected Sheet-metal cover (d) Sheet-metal cover (e) (f) Integrated snap fasteners (g)

Rigid

FIGURE 12.55 Examples of spring and snap-in fasteners to facilitate assembly.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Design Guidelines for Welding


Poor
Load Load (a) (b)

Good

Poor

Good

Cut not square 90 (c)

Burr

Deburred edge

(d)

Surface to be machined

(e)

(f)

FIGURE 12.56 Design guidelines for welding. Source: Bralla, J.G. (ed.) Handbook of Product Design for Manufacturing, 2d ed. McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Weld Designs
Poor Good

FIGURE 12.57 welding.

Design guidelines for ash

Moment, M Continuous weld Intermittent welds

3M

Welds

(a)

(b)

Weld Base metal

FIGURE 12.58 Weld designs for Example 12.7.


Single V groove (c) Double V groove

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Brazing Designs
Good Poor Comments
Too little joint area in shear

Improved design when fatigue loading is a factor to be considered

Insufficient bonding

FIGURE 12.59 Examples of good and poor designs for brazing.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Design for Adhesive Bonding


Poor
Adhesive

Good

Very good

(a)

(b)

(c)

Adhesive

Adhesive

Rivet (d) Combination joints

Spot weld

FIGURE 12.60 Various joint designs in adhesive bonding. Note that good designs require large contact areas for better joint strength.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Design for Riveting

Poor

Good
(a) (b) (c) (d)

FIGURE 12.61 Design guidelines for riveting. Source: Bralla, J.G. (ed.) Handbook of Product Design for Manufacturing, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Case

Study: Monosteel

Pistons

Oil gallery

Friction welds

(a)

(b)

FIGURE 12.62 The Monosteel piston. (a) Cutaway view of the piston, showing the oil gallery and friction welded sections; (b) detail of the friction welds before the external ash is removed by machining; note that this photo is a reverse of the one on the left.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian !Schmid 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7