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S5atial cate6ories are f7nctions of the social cli8ate and 8ay th7s reflect chan6es in society4 Man is nat7rally able to str7ct7re the 9orld aro7nd hi8, b7t the s5ecific s5atial cate6ories inherent in a historical e5och are 5rod7cts of that ti8e4 $ In his 9ork on the cate6ories of 8edieval c7lt7re, :7revich" describes the f7nda8ental 8ateriality of s5ace in 8edieval E7ro5e4 Conce5ts that are today 5erceived as belon6in6 to a 57rely abstract re6ion of thinkin6 9ere very 8aterial in early 8edieval E7ro5e4 Ti8e 9as 8aterial! Days of feastin6 and reli6io7s holidays 9ere i8b7ed 9ith a certain ;7ality 9hich set the8 a5art fro8 the rest of the year4 The c7lt7re of 8edieval E7ro5e did not differentiate bet9een the 8anifest and the 7n8anifest or bet9een the abstract and the concrete4 :7revich re6ards these s5atial conce5ts as 5arts of a c7lt7ral syste8 9here 8an and nat7re interact, th7s for8in6 the conte<t of a 9orld 8odel # Weltbild&4 =ccordin6 to this vie9, 8an and nat7re 9ere intert9ined 9ith each other 8ore inti8ately before the co8in6 of ind7strialis8 and lar6e(scale 7rbani>ation4
In the conce5t7ali>ation of s5ace as a sacral(8aterial cate6ory, t9o different 8odels are 7s7ally a55lied! the centre 8odel and the bo7ndary 8odel4 The first syste8 is based on centres! the 9orld is seen as several concen( tric circles 6ro75ed aro7nd central 5laces #far8steads, 57blic asse8bly 5laces&4 The second syste8 is based on bo7ndaries! the 9orld is seen as re6ions 9ith societal bo7ndaries
The 9all and its 6ates 9ere the leadin6 attrib7tes of the early 8edieval city4 These to5o6ra5hical ele8ents
:7revich $% 5, 54 "'? Hallo9ell $%55, 54 $ @("A"? Hastr75 $% 5, 54 5A? Be :off $% ? T7an $%'@? $%''4 " =.Y. Gurevich, Categories of Medieval Culture. London, Boston, Melbourne, Henley 198 4 =4C4 :7revich, Medieval Do57lar C7lt7re! Droble8s of Eelief and Derce5tion4 Ca8brid6e $% 4
and 6ates #5ortae& 5rovided 9hole . GSocial and Econo8ic Str7ct7re and To5o6ra5hy in the Early Medieval CityG.occ75ied an i85ortant 5art of the 9orld 8odel of a 8edieval city(d9e$ler4 F The 9all 9as re6arded as an i85ortant bo7ndary. Sett CIS=M "$ ( To5o6rafia 7rbana e vita cittadina nellMalto 8edioevo in Occi( dente4 S5oleto $%'@4 4 @ E4S4 Eachrach. and 9alled cities 9ere the 6oals of any attacker4 JEachrach $%'A @? Warner $%L 45K F E7llo76h.7arters 9ith their na8es and so8eti8es defined the ne9 intra(7rban divisions4 Daintin6 of cities d7rin6 the Middle =6es overe85hasi>ed the 9alls and the to9ers4 Jthere 9as a belief thatK =n invisible 9all s7rro7nds holy 5laces and kee5s the 9icked o7t4 We see this ha55enin6 at city 6ates and at the entrances to ch7rches and at the city 6ates and the ch7rch entrance4 The s75ernat7ral 9all 9as 5ersonified by the saints and 9as for8ed by their 5rotection! They defended the city a6ainst its ene8ies4 The city 9as conceived of as a 7nit e<istin6 9ithin a clear bo7ndary ( and 9hen so8ethin6 ha55ened to e<ist o7tside the 9alls. G=ni8als and Warfare in Early Medieval E7ro5eG. Sie6es of the Middle =6es4 Bondon $%L . beco8e focal 5oints of attention4 The nor8al kind of 9arfare consisted of raids and sie6es. it is inevitable that cities. In a conte<t of 9ar. Sett CIS=M F$ ( BM7o8o di fronte a$ 8ondo ani8ale nellMalto 8edioe7o4 S5oleto $% 54 5 D4 Warner. and often a 5lace 9as described as bein6 prope murum civitatis #Gclose to the 9all of the cityG&4F$ The 6ates of the city 9ere also an i85ortant feat7re in the conte<t of desi6nation and descri5tion of cities4 The centrality of the 9alls and the 6ates 9as Ha lo6ical o7tco8e considerin6 the i85ortance of 9alls as defences a6ainst sie6es4I This 9as clearly reflected in 5o57lar 8entality! the 9alls infl7enced the 5sycholo6ical cli8ate 9ithin the city. and on a second level the castra. this 9as sho9n by 5re5ositions like foris or e<tra45@ In 8edieval chronicles.
Die heili6e Stadt4 No8a .7adrata. hi88lisches Jer7sale8 7nd die Mythe 7o8 Weltnabel4 St7tt6art $%L$4 .Werner M7ller has constr7cted a 5ict7re of the city as a 7niversal sy8bol 9here certain 5atterns reflect a co88on archety5al 9orld 8odel4 L L W4 M7ller.