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Titration of HCl with NaOH C12- -1!

Introduction:
Neutralization reactions involve the reaction of an acid and a base to produce a salt (ionic compound) and water. Acid Example: + Base Salt + Water

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)

NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

(Net quation! H+(aq) + OH"(aq) H2O(l)) #itration is a process of neutralization #itration is commonl$ used to determine the concentration of an acid or base in a solution. #his process involves a solution of %nown concentration (the titrant or standard solution) delivered from a buret into the un%nown solution (the anal$te) until the substance bein& anal$zed is 'ust consumed. #he moles of H+ ( moles of OH" at this point (called the equivalence point). )nformation about the anal$te (i.e. concentration) can be calculated at the equivalence point. #he volume of titrant is recorded and the moles of titrant can then be calculated usin& n ( C *+ where n ( , of moles+ C ( concentration in mol-. and * ( volume in .. #he moles of titrant can then be used to calculate the moles of anal$te consumed+ and thus its concentration as well. #he end point in a titration is often si&naled b$ the color chan&e of an indicator and occurs 'ust sli&htl$ past the equivalence point. /n indicator is a substance (wea% acid) that has distinctivel$ different colors in acidic and basic media. 0Not all indicators chan&e color at the same pH+ so the choice of indicator for a particular titration depends on the stren&th of the acid and base. /n indicator is chosen whose end point ran&e lies on the steep part of the titration curve. #he pro&ress of an acid"base titration is often monitored b$ plottin& the pH of the solution bein& anal$zed as a function of the amount of titrant added (called a titration curve).

#$pes of #itrations! 1. 2. 7. 2tron& /cid - 2tron& 3ase pH at equivalence point ( 4 5ea% /cid - 2tron& 3ase pH at equivalence point 64 2tron& /cid - 5ea% 3ase pH at equivalence point 84

0Note! wea% acid - wea% base titrations are too complicated and are almost never carried out.

"ur#ose:
1. 2. #o determine the concentration of an un%nown solution of HCl b$ titratin& with a 9.1 mol-. solution of NaOH. #o plot a &raph of pH as a function of the volume of NaOH added and &enerate a titration curve.

$aterials:
2tandardized NaOH solution (9.1 mol-.)0 :n%nown HCl solution00 ;henolphthalein indicator solution 2"<9 m. 3urets :niversal 2tand #itration Clamp 2<9 m. rlenme$er flas% =istilled water 2< m. &raduated c$linder =i&ital pH meter 0;repare the NaOH solution accuratel$ usin& a volumetric flas%. /llow 299"2<9 m. per &roup. 00>or best results+ use between 9.? and 1.2 mol-.@ prepare accuratel$ usin& a volumetric flas%+ but do not inform the students of the actual concentration. NOT%: &our teacher will de'onstrate the titration techni(ue )efore *ou #erfor' the la)+ A ,reat titration si'ulation e-#eri'ent .)* To' /reen)owe0 can )e #erfor'ed as a de'onstration1 or as a la) )efore students #erfor' their own 2wet3 la)+ See lin4s )elow: http!--www.chem.iastate.edu-&roup-Areenbowe-sections-pro'ectfolder-flashfiles-stoichiometr$-acidBbase.html The followin, lin4 is si'ilar )ut includes a #H 'eter throu,hout the titration . http!--www.chem.iastate.edu-&roup-Areenbowe-sections-pro'ectfolder-flashfiles-stoichiometr$-aBbBphtitr.html

"rocedure:
1. Cinse0 and fill a buret with standardized 9.1 mol-. NaOH. Open the stopcoc% briefl$ to allow an$ air bubbles to pass throu&h. (5h$ is this importantD) Cecord the initial volume of NaOH in the buret to the nearest 9.9< m.. 0#o rinse the buret+ add 2"7 m. of the NaOH solution and allow it to run throu&h the buret. Cepeat 7 times. 2. Cinse0 and fill a second buret with the un%nown HCl solution. Open the stopcoc% briefl$ to allow an$ air bubbles to pass throu&h. (/&ain+ wh$ is this importantD) 0#o rinse the buret+ add 2"7 m. of the HCl solution and allow it to run throu&h the buret. Cepeat 7 times. 7. /dd 2<.99 m. of un%nown HCl solution (delivered from the buret) into an 2<9 m. rlenme$er flas%. /dd 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. 5h$ is indicator requiredD 5hat is its functionD #hen add 2< m. of distilled water to this solution. 5hat is the purpose of addin& waterD 5ould the titration be different if <9 m. of water was added insteadD E. Cecord the initial colors of both the NaOH and HCl solutions. /lso+ draw dia&rams of the flas% and buret+ showin& the molecules present in each solution prior to the titration. <. ;redict what the pH of the un%nown HCl solution will be. Fplain $our prediction. #hen+ usin& the di&ital pH meter+ record the initial pH of the HCl solution in the rlenme$er flas%. Note! #he pH will be recorded ever$ 2 m.+ continuin& past the equivalence point until E<"<9 m. of NaOH have been added. (However+ when a lar&e chan&e in pH is observed+ record the pH after ever$ 9.2 m. until it levels off a&ain). 5h$ is it necessar$ to record the pH past the equivalence pointD G. Araduall$ dispense some of the NaOH solution drop"b$"drop from the buret into the solution in the rlenme$er flas%. 2wirl the flas% constantl$ as the drops are added. Note an$ color chan&es observed+ and do so constantl$ as NaOH is added to the HCl solution. Continue to record the pH after ever$ 2 m. of NaOH have been added. 4. /s the NaOH is bein& added to the HCl+ what is happenin& at the molecular levelD =raw dia&rams of the flas% and buret at this point+ showin& the molecules present in each solution. /lso+ s$mbolicall$ write the equation for the chemical reaction that is ta%in& place. ?. /s the NaOH is bein& added+ $ou will notice that the pH is increasin& &raduall$. /t the molecular level+ describe wh$ there is a chan&e in pH. /lso describe the chan&e in pH usin& a chemical equation. H. /s the equivalence point is approached+ a pin%ish color will appear and dissipate more slowl$ as the titration proceeds. 5h$ does this occurD Now add the NaOH drop"b$ drop until the endpoint of the titration is reached (this is the point at which a ver$ li&ht pin% color is obtained after 29 seconds of swirlin& the flas%). /lso+ be&in measurin& the pH more often (after ever$ 9.2 m. of NaOH added). 5h$ is it necessar$ to swirl for 29 secondsD 19. Cecord the volume of NaOH required to reach the endpoint of the titration. ;redict what the pH of the solution in the rlenme$er flas% will be and then record the pH at this point. #his value is eFtremel$ important. 5h$D /lso+ is the endpoint the same as the equivalence pointD Fplain.

11. /t the molecular level+ illustrate the species present in the flas% at the equivalence point. /s the titration pro&ressed+ which chemical species increased in number and which decreasedD 12. Continue to add NaOH to the HCl solution until E<"<9 m. of NaOH has been added. Continue to record the pH ever$ 2 m. and also record an$ observations. ;redict whether the final solution will be acidic+ basic or neutral. Cecord the final pH. 17. =raw a molecular representation of the species in the rlenme$er flas% at this point. 1E. Cepeat the titration until 7 accurate trials have been completed. #he volumes of NaOH required to reach the endpoint should a&ree within +-" 9.1 ml. 1<. ;repare a data table of $our results+ includin& the initial+ final and total volumes of NaOH required for each titration. 1G. ;lot the pH as a function of the volume of NaOH added for one &ood trial. 14. #he equivalence point can be found b$ ta%in& the midpoint of the steep part of the titration curve. 5hat is the pH at the equivalence point for this titrationD 5hat does this value tell $ou about the stren&th of the acid and the base involved in the titrationD Clearl$ mar% and label this point on $our &raph. 1?. )s the un%nown HCl solution acidic basic or neutral at the equivalence pointD 1H. Calculate the IH+J at the equivalence point+ usin& IH+J ( invlo&("pH). 29. 5rite a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of HCl with NaOH. /lso write the net ionic equation and indicate which two species are under&oin& a chemical reaction. 5hich species are spectator ionsD 21. :sin& $our data and the balanced chemical equation from ,29 above+ calculate the concentration of the un%nown HCl solution. :se either the volume of NaOH from $our best trial+ or avera&e the three best trials and use this avera&e volume of NaOH. 22. Compare $our result with the actual concentration of the HCl solution revealed b$ $our teacher. 5hat are some possible reasons for the discrepanciesD 2u&&est some wa$s to reduce the errors. 27. ;redict what the volume of NaOH at the equivalence point would have been if the concentration of the un%nown HCl solution was eFactl$ 9.19 mol-.. 2E. =escribe the theor$ and process of titration in as much detail as possible. 3e sure to use molecular and s$mbolic representations. )nclude the terms titration+ neutralization+ titrant+ end point+ equivalence point+ indicators+ anal$te and titration curve.

Su''ar*:
#itration is a process of neutralization whereb$ a titrant (a solution of %nown concentration) is delivered into an un%nown solution (the anal$te) until the un%nown solution is completel$ neutralized. #his allows information about the un%nown solution to be determined. /n indicator is a wea% acid that is placed into the un%nown solution to determine the endpoint of the titration (the pH at which the indicator chan&es color). #he equivalence point of the titration is the point when the moles of H + are equal to the moles of OH" in a titration. / titration curve is a plot of pH as a function of the volume of titrant added.