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Objective : INTRODUCTION TO ARDUINO (Ardunio AtMega 2560) and AVR Microcontroller. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: Arduino Board and its software, Computer/laptop, Hardwires, Bread board

Basic Concept about AVR Micro Controller
The AVR is a modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single chip microcontroller which was developed by Atmel in 1996. The AVR was one of the first microcontroller families to use on-chip flash memory for program storage, as opposed to one-time programmable ROM, EPROM, or EEPROM used by other microcontrollers at the time (source Wikipedia)

Device overview
The AVR is a modified Harvard architecture machine where program and data are stored in separate physical memory systems that appear in different address spaces, but having the ability to read data items from program memory using special instructions.

Lower powered operation usually requires a reduced clock speed. All recent (Tiny. processing and specification MCU speed The AVR line can normally support clock speeds from 0 to 20 MHz.Basic families  Tiny AVR  Mega AVR  XMEGA  Application-specific AVR  FPSLIC (AVR with FPGA)  32-bit AVRs Varies according to Size. allowing the clock speed to be optimized. This prescaler can be reconfigured by software during runtime. removing the need for external clocks or resonator circuitry. Mega. Some AVRs also have a system clock prescaler that can divide down the system clock by up to 1024. AVR Architecture . and Xmega. with some devices reaching 32 MHz. but not 90S) AVRs feature an on-chip oscillator.

) The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled.g. It's an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board. or they can communicate with software running on your computer (e. and other physical outputs. which is based on the Processing multimedia programming environment. and controlling a variety of lights. It runs on Windows. Flash. motors. Processing. a similar physical computing platform.AVR Pin Diagram What is Arduino? Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. . Arduino projects can be stand-alone. the open-source IDE can be downloaded for free. About Arduino Software The open-source Arduino environment makes it easy to write code and upload it to the I/O board. taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors. The environment is written in Java and based on Processing. and other open source software. MaxMSP. and Linux. avr-gcc. Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects. The Arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring. and a development environment for writing software for the board. Mac OS X.

and others are available for use as sensor inputs or output to other devices. Hardware: The processing unit on the Arduino is the ATmega328 microcontroller integrated circuit. Some of the microcontroller's inputs and outputs are connected to peripherals and other electronic components on the board itself. It uses input and output ports/pins to communicate with the outside world.Software Screen Shot . The microcontroller can be programmed using an open source programming platform based on the C programming language and a \wiring" language that is very easy to use. .

based on the MAX3421e IC. Summary Microcontroller Operating Voltage Input Voltage (recommended) Input Voltage (limits) Digital I/O Pins Analog Input Pins DC Current per I/O Pin DC Current for 3. a USB connection. a power jack. 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports). The ADK is based on the Mega 2560.3V Pin Flash Memory SRAM EEPROM Clock Speed ATmega2560 5V 7-12V 6-20V 54 (of which 15 provide PWM output) 16 40 mA 50 mA 256 KB of which 8 KB used by bootloader 8 KB 4 KB 16 MHz Pin Diagram . a 16 MHz crystal oscillator. 16 analog inputs. and a reset button. an ICSP header. It has a USB host interface to connect with Android based phones.Understanding Arduino Mega The Arduino ADK is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs).

Question 1: What is a microcontroller? Write some famous microcontrollers ? Question 2: Write the names of the founders of Arduino Question 3: Define AVR Microcontroller and Define Arduino ? Question 4: Write some applications that can be made through Arduino? Question 5: Write some bio medical applications that’s can be made through Arduino ? .