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A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating

infrastructures wh ile protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existin g infrastructures that have been neglected. Originally, a civil engineer worked on public works projects and was contrasted with the military engineer,[citation needed] who worked on armaments and defense s. Over time, various branches of engineering have become recognized as distinct from civil engineering, including chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering, while much of military engineering has been absorbe d by civil engineering. In some places, a civil engineer may perform land surveying; in others, surveyin g is limited to construction surveying, unless an additional qualification is ob tained.