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READING WELL BY THIRD GRADE

Presenter: Barb McMahon

District Elementary Literacy Coach

WHAT IS READING WELL BY THIRD GRADE?
In 2010 Minnesota updated its reading intervention legislation to require all school districts to create a literacy plan.
The statue requires literacy plans to have the following: *a process to assess students’ level of reading proficiency, *notification and involvement of parents, *interventions for students who are not reading at or above grade level, *and a system to identify and meet staff development needs.

WHAT IS A PROFICIENT READER?

District 112 defines a proficient reader as a student who demonstrates proficient performance on the MCA III Reading Assessment administered at the end of third grade.  Our literacy plan measures proficiencies in all students starting in Kindergarten through third grade and beyond.

DISTRICT 112 LITERACY PLAN ASSESSMENTS
Kindergarten

NWEA Primary MAP

Kindergarten District Assessment

Running Records (starting in Jan.)

FIRST GRADE
NWEA Primary MAP

Running Records

Common Assessments

First Grade District Assessment

Fluency Checks

(starting in Jan.)

SECOND – FIFTH GRADE
NWEA MAP

Running Records

Common Assessments

Fluency Checks

QPA, if needed

NWEA MAP FALL GRADE NORMS
Kindergarten First grade Second grade Third grade Fourth grade Fifth grade 143 160 176 190 200 207

* It’s important to look at each individual strand score, not just the overall RIT score.

RUNNING RECORDS
What are running records?
Marie Clay created running records in An Observational Survey of Early Literacy Achievement in 1993. She developed running records to determine a child’s reading competence at a given moment in time with a specific level and type of book. A running record is a method of assessing reading that can be done quickly and frequently. It is an individually conducted formative assessment, which is ongoing and curriculum based.

WHAT DO RUNNING RECORDS MEASURE?
Reading Levels
Matching students to appropriate text is a critical component of a successful, balanced reading program.

Decoding Strategies
Documenting student errors/miscues guides teacher instruction.

Fluency
Fluent readers are better able to devote their attention to comprehension.

Comprehension
Students give an oral retelling of the story so teachers can analyze comprehension or teachers can use benchmark book comprehension questions.

TWO TYPES OF RUNNING RECORDS
Teachers have a copy of the text and make notes directly on it. Teachers do not have a copy of the text and make notes on a recording sheet. Another option is to record the student reading and make notes on a FREE app – Record of Reading.

RUNNING RECORD WITH TEXT

RUNNING RECORD WITHOUT TEXT

HOW TO ADMINISTER A RUNNING RECORD
Materials needed:
*Text/benchmark book at approximately the student’s reading level with 100 – 150 words *Running record sheet *Pencil

*Calculator or FREE Running Record Calculator app
*Quiet location

TAKING A RUNNING RECORD
Select a book or passage of 100-150 words that approximates the student’s instructional
reading level. Find a quiet location. Explain to the student that she/he will read aloud to you as you record their reading skills.

Sit next to the student so that you can see the text and the student’s finger and eye
movements while they read. As the student reads, mark each word on the running record by using the symbols and marking conventions shown below. Intervene as little as possible while the student is reading. Running Record Demo--Level K - YouTube

RUNNING RECORD SYMBOLS AND MARKING CONVENTIONS
Accurate Reading
If using a running record with text, make a check mark above each correct word. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

Can you see my eyes?
If you are using a running record without text, make a check mark for each correct word read. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

SUBSTITUTION ERRORS

Student substitutes another word for a word in the text. Substitutions are the most common error. Write child’s error above the word in the text. ✔ ✔ ✔ the ✔ Can you see my eyes? Multiple substitutions for one word = one error child: little/some/him text: his

OMISSION ERRORS

Student skips/omits a word. Write a dash above the word left out. ✔ ✔ ✔ --✔

Can you see my eyes?

INSERTION ERRORS

Student adds a word not in the text.

Insert the added word and place a dash below it (or use a caret). ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔big ✔
Λ

Can you see my eyes?

APPEAL ERRORS

Student asks for help. For example, if they ask “What is this word?” Tell the student, “You try it.” If they read the word incorrectly, it is an error. If they read the word correctly, it is not an error. Write A above the appealed word. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ A Can you see my eyes?

TEACHER TOLD ERRORS

When a student gets “stuck” on a word, give them 5-10 seconds wait time. Write T beside the word supplied for the reader. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ T

Can you see my eyes?

OTHER ERROR EXAMPLES
*If the student mispronounces the word, it is an error.

*If a student makes an error on a name or proper noun, it is only counted as an error once, even if the name or proper noun is repeated later in the text.

*Contractions are one error. child: It’s
text: it is

child: do not
text: don’t

NOT ERRORS
Self-Corrections
Self corrections are not errors. Write SC after the corrected word. ✔ ✔ ✔ the/SC ✔ Can you see my eyes?

NOT ERRORS
Repetitions
Write R after the repeated word/phrase and draw an arrow back to the beginning of the repetition. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔R ✔ Can you see my eyes?

*If the student repeats more than once, write the number of the times they repeated next to the R. For example, if they repeated twice, write R 2.

NOT ERRORS

*Skipping a full page – redirect; tell them to read the page. *Student loses their place – ask them to start over at a good starting point and begin coding again. *Sounding out words followed by correct reading.

MARKING CONVENTIONS

THREE CUEING SYSTEM
The cueing system is the internal thinking that goes on in our heads when we strive to gain meaning from text.
Meaning

Structural

Visual

MEANING MISCUES AND SELF-CORRECTIONS

Meaning (M) – Does it make sense?
Students that make meaning errors are thinking about the story background, information from pictures and checking meaning. They are using context. √ √ √ √ √ √ woods Example: There are many trees in the forest. Circle the M for Meaning on the recording sheet.

STRUCTURAL MISCUES AND SELF-CORRECTIONS

Structural (S) – Does it sound right?
Structure refers to the structure of the language or syntax. √ √ √
woods

√ √

Example: There are many trees in the forest. The above example would be a meaning and a structural error because along with making sense, the error sounds right. Circle both the M and a S on the recording sheet.

VISUAL MISCUES AND SELF-CORRECTIONS
Visual (V) – Does it look right?
The student uses visual information as they study the beginning sound, word length, etc. Pay attention to where the visual errors occurs. Are they leaving off the final sound? Incorrect medial sound? √ √ √ √ poor Example: I swim in a pool. Circle the letter V on the recording sheet for visual errors.

COMPLETED RUNNING RECORD

WHAT CAN MISCUES TELL US?
Miscues and a child’s behavior can tell us a lot about how they are decoding. We can use this information to drive our instruction.
Examples: If the reader is making a lot of self-corrections, are they reading too fast? This often happens with older readers when you are timing them to measure their fluency. If the reader is making a lot of insertions, are they reading too fast? If the reader is omitting a lot of words, do they have weak visual tracking? Does using their finger, a book mark, etc. help them? If their omissions do not affect meaning, are they not focused or reading too fast? It could also mean that their sight vocabulary is weak. If the reader is making a lot of repetitions, the text may be too difficult for them. They could be repeating to try to make sense of the passage.

AFTER THE READING
Comprehension
Ask student to retell the story. Prompt by saying “Tell me what happened in the story.” or “Tell me what you learned in this story.” The idea is to open a conversation that will allow you to see what the text has made the student think.

Do not suggest to the student that they look back in the book but if they initiate looking back or ask if they can, then allow them.
When assessing a child’s retelling, listen for a general understanding of the story. Check for an accurate reporting of event, in order, as well as story elements, effective vocabulary, supporting details (nonfiction) and connections. Using a rubric can be helpful. Comprehension Quick Checks start with Level C books in Reading A-Z.

WHAT IS GOOD COMPREHENSION?

Teachers can use retelling rubrics for fiction and nonfiction to help measure a student’s comprehension. Using benchmark assessments that have Comprehension Conversation scoring keys like the Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System or Benchmark Quick Checks like Reading A-Z, helps teachers measure key understandings.

FICTION RETELLING RUBRIC

NONFICTION RETELLING RUBRIC

FOUNTAS & PINNELL COMPREHENSION SCORING KEY
0
1

*Reflects unsatisfactory understanding of the text. Either does not respond or talks off the topic.
*Reflects limited understanding of the text. Mentions a few facts or ideas but does not express the important information or ideas. *Reflects satisfactory understanding of the text. Includes important information and ideas but neglects other key understandings. *Reflects excellent understanding of the text. Includes almost all important information and main ideas.

2

3

READING A-Z BENCHMARK QUICK CHECK EXAMPLE

SCORING RUNNING RECORDS
Accuracy Rate
Calculate the percent of accuracy for a record by subtracting the number of errors made from the total number of running words in the text. The answer will then be divided by the number of running words. To find the percent, multiply by 100. For example: If a student read 117 words and made 6 errors, 117 – 6 = 111 111 ÷117 = 0.95 0.95 x 100 = 95% 95% accurate There is a FREE app for a Running Record Calculator.

SCORING RUNNING RECORDS
Self-Corrections
Also determine the Self-Correction Rate for a record. The Self-Correction Rate indicates how well a child self-monitors his or her reading. Calculate this rate by adding the total number of errors to the total number of self-corrections and dividing this sum total by the total number of self-corrections. For example, six total errors plus two self-corrections equals eight. If you divide eight by the total number of self-corrections, the answer is four. The self-correction rate is then recorded as 1:4, which shows the child self-corrected one time for every four words misread. A Self-Correction Rate of up to 1:5 shows the child is self-monitoring and using decoding strategies.

READING LEVEL INDEPENDENT
* Grades K – 2 Fountas & Pinnell levels A-K Reading A-Z aa- L Lexiles 25 – 375
* Grades 3+ Fountas & Pinnell levels L+ Reading A-Z M+ Lexiles 375+

95 – 100% accuracy with good comprehension

98 – 100% accuracy with good comprehension

READING LEVEL INSTRUCTIONAL
* Grades K-2 Fountas & Pinnell Levels A-K Reading A-Z aa-L Lexile 25 – 375
* Grades 3+ Fountas & Pinnell Levels L+ Reading A-Z M+ Lexiles 375+

90-94% accuracy with good comprehension

95 – 97% accuracy with good comprehension 98-100% accuracy with limited comprehension

READING LEVEL FRUSTRATION
* Grades K-2 Fountas & Pinnell levels A-K Reading A-Z aa – L Lexiles 25 – 375
*Grades 3+ Fountas & Pinnell levels L+ Reading A-Z M+ Lexiles 375+ Below 90% or 90-95% accuracy and limited comprehension

95% accuracy or 95-97% accuracy and limited comprehension

HOW OFTEN SHOULD WE ADMINISTER RUNNING RECORDS?
Running records are taken with greatest frequency at the earlier states of reading. Students who are below grade level should be assessed even more frequently than the schedule below suggests. Emergent Readers (Reading A-Z levels aa – G): every 2 to 4 weeks
Upper Emergent Readers (Reading A-Z levels H – K): every 4 to 6 weeks Early Fluent Readers (Reading A-Z levels L – O): every 6 to 8 weeks

Fluent Readers (Reading A-Z level P –Z): every 8 to 10 weeks

RUNNING RECORD VS. FLUENCY CHECK
Running Records
Not timed Count and code miscues – M S V Timed Assess accuracy and rate to determine correct words read per minute (cwpm)

Fluency Checks

Determine student’s reading level – independent, instructional, frustration
Observe accuracy and reading behaviors On going, measure progress

Grade level material
Observe accuracy, rate and prosody 3 times a year, compare to grade level

Both running records and fluency checks give teachers necessary information to drive reading instruction. **Beginning at Level J, you can calculate fluency rate while doing a running record.

FLUENCY CHECKS
Requirements, rubrics, benchmarks for the beginning of the year, mid-year and end of the year and more can all be found on the //L// drive. Curriculum Elementary Grade Language Arts Teacher Resources Fluency Assessments

WHICH LEVELING SYSTEM SHOULD I USE?

WHERE DO I START?

This is A LOT of information! Start simple. Start with becoming familiar with taking running records. When you feel ready, add coding miscues. Next, form small groups to instruct students with similar miscues.

HOW DO I KNOW WHAT LEVEL TO START WITH?
When students take NWEA Primary and NWEA MAP assessments, Lexile ranges are given. Teachers can use correlation charts to help find an approximate Reading A-Z or Fountas & Pinnell level. One of our goals is to electronically replace the beloved purple folders. The goal is to be able to pass on information from the previous year’s teacher to each new teacher.

SOURCES
Books:
 An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement, Marie M. Clay, 1993  Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children, Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell, 2001  A Guide to Benchmark Assessment, Irene C. Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell Articles:  Adams, M.J. (1998). “The Three-Cuing System”. In F. Lehr and J.Osborn  Literacy for All Issues inTeaching and Learning pp. 73-99, New York Guildford Press  Shea, M & Cole, A. (1997). “Assessing Reading Growth with Running Records”. In Taking Running Records pp. 9-10, Scholastic

Websites:
 www.reading a-z.com  www.forsythcountyschools.com

THANK YOU

Feel free to contact me with questions! mcmahonb@district112.org