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Parallelism.doc

Parallelism.doc

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ENGLISH GRAMMAR PARALLELISM.

In grammar, parallelism, also known as parallel structure or parallel construction, is a balance wit in one or more sentences o! similar p rases or clauses t at a"e t e same grammatical structure. Parallel structure means using t e same patter o! wor#s to s ow t at two or more wor#s or i#eas are o! e$ual importance an# to elp t e rea#er compre en# w at is being written. It is grammaticall% correct to ensure t at p rases, clauses an# items on a list a!ter a colon use t e correct parallel structure. Parallel structure, parallelism, grammatical similarit% between elements in a sentence or in a passage t at pla% similar roles wit in t e sentence or passage, eg& He liked swimming and sailing. ' e two wor#s swimming an# sailing, (oine# b% t e con(uction and, a"e similar roles because t e% are bot ob(ects o! t e "erb liked, an# t e% are grammaticall% similar because bot are gerun#s )present participle*. He liked swimming and to sail. ' e gerun# swimming an# t e in!initi"e to sail still a"e similar roles, but t e% are not grammaticall% similar+ t e sentence is not, strictl% speaking, !ault% grammar, since bot & He liked swimming / He liked to sail are grammaticall% correct, but it is !ault% parallelism. He liked to swim and to sail. He liked to swim and sail. Let,s c eck ot er e-amples& 1.- I got home, had something to eat, sat down in an armchair and falling asleep. I got home, had something to eat, sat down in an armchair and fell asleep. 2.- When talking to the group, he spoke sincerely and with passion. When talking to the group, he spoke sincerely and passionately. When talking to the group, he spoke with sincerity and passion. 3.- he cafeteria was messy, noisy and it was cowded. he cafeteria was messy, noisy and crowded. !.- rying desperately to find his keys, he looked in his "edroom, the sofa, and on the kitchen counter. rying desperatley to find his keys, he looked in his "edroom, under the sofa, and the on the counter.

and it is used "y teachers to deli%er homework. "usiness people use it to hold %ideo conferences. 5e!ore s e lea"es !or work. =* GER1N7 PHRASES. . /* N01NS. Sara writes poetr% an# s ort stories. . s e usuall% eats break!ast an# as a cup o! co!!ee. As soon as I arri"e ome. I put on m% s oes an# go !or a run. <* A74ER5IAL PHRASES. and teachers use it to deli%er homework assignments. ' e class is not onl% !un but also elp!ul. He en(o%s pla%ing tennis an# working out. 8* A74ER5S. Peter #ri"es $uickl% an# aggressi"el%. 0ur neig bours a"e mo"e# an# a"e sol# t eir ouse. /@* PAR'I. :ork is as necessar% as pla%.#.LA1SES. "usiness people use it to hold %ideo conferences.ASES. 6* A72E. S e sai# t at s e was a"ing !un but not t at s e was meeting people.IPIAL PHRASES. Peter an# 'im will probabl% arri"e in less t an an our an# in time !or t e meeting. Peter !elt t at e a# ma#e an e-cellent #eal an# t at e a# boug t a masterpiece. ' e% work care!ull% an# e!!ecti"el%.$ni%ersity students use the internet to research essay topics. PARALLELISM . 7isco"ering er !inancial losses an# not knowing enoug about t e current market is e #eci#e# to stop in"esting. >* IN?INI'I4E PHRASES. Apples are as goo# !or %ou as oranges. ' e% #on. M% sister walks or ri#es er bike to work. $ni%ersity students use the internet to research essay topics.t min# waiting an# talking w ile %ou get rea#%.* 4ER5 PHRASES. //* N01N . S e is not onl% strong but also !ast.'I4ES. 2ack eats !is an# c icken. 2ackson opes to "isit is parents an# to see is ol# !rien#s w en e goes ome. 9* N01N PHRASES. 3* 4ER5S..

pronunciations. he scientists disputed not only the newspaper article "ut also the uni%ersity's official statement. (ither I like the )o" or I don't. he scientists disputed not only the newspaper article "ut also they disputed the uni%ersity's official statement. and a "icycle. S0ME PARALLELISM R1LES. pronunciations.. /6* A74ER5 . &he saw a %an.. /* 1se parallel structure wit elements (oine# b% coor#inating con(unctions.. +aulty* . %ou can use t e wor# wit t e !irst item. As e #i#n..0N21N. stamina. (ither I like the )o" or I don't like it. an#+ not onl% . &he saw a %an.. -orrect* . a. her. w o seems #istracte#. S e is a woman w o is intelligent an#.'1RE :I'H . &he saw a %an. his... car. (ither I like the )o" or I not. and their style. He liked their courage.'I4E . at t e same time. correct spellings. ' is is a pro#uct t at is eas% to use an# t at is simple to clean.LA1SES. ' e sentence structure !ollowing t e secon# al! o! t e correlati"e con(unction s oul# mirror t e sentence structure !ollowing t e !irst al!. Errors in parallel structure o!ten occur wit correlati"e con(unctions& Eit er . he dictionary can "e used to find these* word meanings.our company and what its potential is are of great %alue to me. or. and "icycle. a car.. a car. He liked their courage. t e% let im go. stamina. t us a"ing it appl% to all t e items+ or %ou can repeat it wit eac item.. it sol# "er% well. and their style.. ./3* A72E.LA1SES. He liked their courage. or+ neit er .t un#erstan# an# because e re!use# to tr%.'I0NS. correct spellings. and looking up irregular %er"s. Since it was eas% to use an# because it was c eap. : en %ou use wor#s suc as to.our company and its potential are of great %alue to me. nor+ bot . or their wit items in a series.but also+ w et er . "icycle. and.0L0N& he dictionary can "e used to find these* word meanings. 3* 1se parallel structure wit elements in list or in a series. PARALLEL S'R1. PARALLEL LIS' A?'ER A .0RRELA'I4E . their stamina. and style. and irregular %er"s. an.

?ault%& .?ault%& ' e tribes emp asiAe# collecti"e sur"i"al.orrect& ' e tribes emp asiAe# collecti"e sur"i"al. . . an# being responsible !or one anot er. . . an# responsabilit% !or one anot er.orrect& I like swimming better t at #i"ing.lara not onl% wants mone% but also wants !ame.lara wants not onl% mone% but also !ame.orrect& 'o succe# is to open a new opportunit%. 6* 1se parallel structure wit elements being compare#. mutual ai#. 9* 1se parallel structure wit elements (oine# b% a correlati"e con(unction.lara not onl% wants mone% but also !ame. ?ault%& 'o succe# is opening a new opportunit%.orrect& . . 8* 1se parallel structure wit elements (oine# b% a linking "erb. ?ault%& I like swimming better t an to #i"e. mutual ai#. .

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