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An Introduction to Optical Fiber Communication

An Introduction to Optical Fiber Communication

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Published by engrauyon
A very basic introduction on communication, communication medium and optical fiber communication
A very basic introduction on communication, communication medium and optical fiber communication

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Published by: engrauyon on Oct 28, 2009
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07/08/2013

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Fundamental Ideas

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What is Communication ??

Exchange Of Information

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What is Communication??

Exchange Of Information

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Transfer of information from one place to another
Audio Data Video Signal

I get it !!!!!!!!!!!! My Information. Transmission Medium

Source
Free Space Copper Fiber Optic
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Destination

How to transfer information??
Through Some Carrier Some carrier is required to carry information over long distances…. Why??? Limitation: Information cannot go beyond certain distance without the aid of a carrier

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Carrier
• Should be capable of carrying information • Can take it through long distance • Should have good speed

• Which is the most suitable carrier??
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Electromagnetic Wave

• Highest Known speed 3x108m/s • Can carry any information through modulation • Energetic - Can go through long distance • Supports multiple media Eg: Free space/Copper/Fiber etc..
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Electromagnetic Wave

 In electromagnetic wave electrical and magnetic fields vary harmonically  Harmonic oscillations at atomic level gives oscillating electric field  Electromagnetic wave generation

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Relation between electric and magnetic field
Changing electric field gives rise to changing magnetic field & vise versa

(Perpendicular)

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So in electromagnetic wave electric and magnetic fields oscillate perpendicular to each other and electromagnetic energy transmits perpendicular to both

λ

Figure of a wave

Wavelength = distance travelled in one cycle(λ ) Velocity(v) = λ x ν
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Frequency = Number of cycles per second(ν )

Electro Magnetic Spectrum
Velocity of all the electromagnetic wave is same, 3 x 108m/s

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Block Diagram of a Telecommunication System

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Media…..

What is the other thing required apart from carrier for transmitting signals over longer distances?? Some medium for carrying signals from transmitter to the receiver
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Different types of media used for transmitting signals….
•Wired : Twisted Pair Co-axial cable Optical fiber

Tx

Carrier
MEDIA

Rx

•Wireless(Free space/air):Microwave Satellite

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Twisted Pair

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Twisted Pair
 Twisted pair is made of two copper wires which are covered by plastics or materials that are similar  The insulated wires are twisted to form the communication line,the purpose of twisting the wires is to avoid electrical interference  Twisted pair can be combined into a cable that may consist of two,four,fifty or hundreds of pairs
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 Twisted pair is the basis of transmission media(Telephone)

Coaxial Cable

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Coaxial Cable
 Coaxial cable contains two conductors which are insulated from one another  The inner conductor is covered by the dielectric and the outer conductor is covered by a shield  Coaxial cable has many applications,for instance cable TV,local networks,short run computer system links and long distance telephone transmission  In local network coaxial cable can support different type of traffic and data  By using FDM,it can carry more than 10,000 channels at a time
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Optic Fiber

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Optic Fiber(Physical Appearance)

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Optic Fiber
Optic fiber is made up of 3 parts : Core,Cladding and jacket  The inner most part is the core which contains one or more thin fibers that are made up of plastic or glass  Each of the fiber in the core is covered by a cladding which has different optical properties from the core  The outer most part of the optical fiber is made up of plastic or other materials ,which is called the jacket
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Optic Fiber

 Because of greater performance and higher data rate,the application of optic fiber has dramatically increased in long distance communication and military applications

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Microwave

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Microwave
 In terrestrial microwave transmission a pair of towers mounted on top of the towers will transmit signals through air  Microwave antennas are equipped in higher place in order to achieve better transmission effect  Voice transmission,television transmission and the short point to point links will be the major application of microwave transmission
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Satellite Communication

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Satellite
 A satellite consists of several transponders which receive signal from one frequency band,this action is called uplink  The satellite will amplify or repeat the signal to other frequency band,this action is called downlink  A satellite link is called a microwave link  The most application of satellite communication will be long distance telephone transmission  Private business networks and television distribution
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Comparison of Twisted Pair,Coaxial Cable and Optic fiber
Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optic Fiber

Data Rate/ Bandwidth Repeater Spacing

4Mbps

500Mbps

Upto 100Gbps 10-100Km

1-10Km

1-10Km

Electromagnetism Affected

Affected

Not affected
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Comparison of Satellite and Optic Fiber
Optic Fiber Reconfiguration Bandwidth Not possible Practically upto 10 GHz Satellite Possible 36-72MHz

Weather Condition Affected by storm Not affected by storm
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Electromagnetic Interference

Not affected

Affected

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