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Table of Contents

1 2 Background information on Gamuda Berhad ...................................................... 1 Background information on YTL Corporation Berhad.......................................... 1 2.1.1 2.2 3 Syarikat Pembinaan YTL ........................................................................ 2

Scope for the report ...................................................................................... 2

Financial statements of the companies (balance sheet and income statements) 3 3.1 3.2 Balance sheet ............................................................................................... 4 Income statement.......................................................................................... 5

Financial ratio analysis ........................................................................................ 6 4.1 Types of financial ratios ................................................................................ 6 Quick ratio (QR) ...................................................................................... 7 Current ratio (CR) ................................................................................... 7 Debt to equity ratio ................................................................................. 8 After tax profit margin ............................................................................. 8 Gross profit margin ................................................................................. 8 Current assets to total assets ratio ......................................................... 9 Assets to revenue ratio ........................................................................... 9 Current liabilities to net worth ratio ....................................................... 10 Return assets ....................................................................................... 10 Return on equity ................................................................................ 10

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 5

Financial ratio calculation for the two companies .............................................. 11 5.1 SECTION A YTL Corporation Bhd ......................................................... 11 Quick Ratio (QR) .................................................................................. 11 Current Ratio (CR) ................................................................................ 11 Debt to equity ratio ............................................................................... 11 After tax profit margin ........................................................................... 12 Gross profit margin ............................................................................... 12

5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5

5.1.6 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 5.2

Current assets to total assets ratio ....................................................... 12 Assets to revenue ratio ......................................................................... 12 Current liabilities to net worth ratio ....................................................... 12 Return on assets .................................................................................. 13 Return on equity ................................................................................ 13

Section B Gamuda Bhd .......................................................................... 13 Quick Ratio (QR) .................................................................................. 13 Current Ratio (CR) ................................................................................ 13 Debt to equity ratio ............................................................................... 13 After tax profit margin ........................................................................... 14 Gross profit margin ............................................................................... 14 Current assets to total assets ratio ....................................................... 14 Assets to revenue ratio ......................................................................... 14 Current liabilities to net worth ratio ....................................................... 14 Return on assets .................................................................................. 15 Return on equity ................................................................................ 15

5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.2.8 5.2.9 5.2.10 6 7

Comparison of financial health between the two companies ............................. 15 Advantages and limitations of financial statement analysis ............................... 21 7.1 7.2 Advantages of Financial statement analysis ............................................... 21 Limitations of financial statement analysis .................................................. 22

Recommendations/suggestions to improve the financial performance of the

companies ................................................................................................................ 24 9 10 Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 25 Reference ....................................................................................................... 26

1 Background information on Gamuda Berhad


Gamuda Bhd is one of the most prestigious construction companies in Malaysia. Founded in 1976 by Lin Yun Ling and incorporated that same year, the company made it to the main board of Bursa Malaysia in 1992. The Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) graded the company as a grade 7 contractor. Grade 7 is thus far the highest grade of the CIDB grading system. Gamuda Bhd focusses on three core businesses, namely; 1. Engineering and construction 2. Infrastructure concessions, and 3. Property development Gamuda Bhd executed many major projects not only in Malaysia, but also in the entire Asian continent and the Middle East regions. Among the top most projects the company completed are: Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) in Malaysia, Kaohsiung Metropolitan Mass Rapid Transit (KMRT) in Taiwan, New Doha International Airport (NDIA) in Qatar, and many more, Durgapur and Panagarh-Palsit Expressways in India, Sitra Causeway Bridges in Bahrain, and many more

This report however, will focus on the financial health of Gamuda Bhd. Data will be obtained from the Gamuda Bhd annual report for the financial year ending 31st July 2013, to analyse some of the financial ratios of the company which are to be compared with the ratios of YTL Corporation Bhd.

2 Background information on YTL Corporation Berhad


YTL Corporation Bhd is one of the elite construction companies in Malaysia. Founded in 1955 by Tan Sri Dato Seri Yeoh Tiong Lay, hence the acronym for the company YTL, has been one of the largest companies liste d by Bursa Malaysia. Over the past 19 years, the company had experienced a growth of over 55%, and in the process, served more than 12 million customers in over three continents. The Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) graded

the company as a grade 7 contractor. Grade 7 is thus far the highest grade of the CIDB grading system. Moreover, due to the diversity of many construction companies today, YTL as a corporation has many subsidiaries under it. These subsidiaries include; 1. YTL Power international 2. YTL cement 3. YTL Land and development 4. YTL hotels 5. YTL e-solutions 6. Syarikat Pembenaan YTL, and Apart from the above mentioned subsidiaries, YTL has made many other acquisitions not only in Malaysia, but also elsewhere abroad. This report however will only be focussing on Syarikat Pembenaan YTL which is the YTL flagship construction arm.

2.1.1 Syarikat Pembinaan YTL


YTL Corp's flagship construction arm is 100%-owned Syarikat Pembenaan Yeoh Tiong Lay Sdn Bhd (SPYTL), which has successfully completed approximately RM7.25 billion (US$2.1bn) worth of contracts on schedule and on budget (Ytl.com, 2014). SPYTL is a "Class A" Malaysian Turnkey contractor, which has built up a strong reputation for high quality construction of buildings ranging from schools, army barracks, hospitals, hotels and high-rise office blocks and large scale infrastructure projects on time and on budget. It has won many awards for technological innovation in the building industry (Ytl.com, 2014).

2.2 Scope for the report


Haven chosen the two companies to be evaluated and compared per financial health, this report will focus mainly on the following ratios; 1. Quick ratio (QR) 2. Current ratio (CR) 3. Debt to equity ratio 4. After tax profit margin 2

5. Current liabilities to net worth ratio 6. Current assets to total assets ratio 7. Assets to revenue ratio 8. Gross profit margin 9. Return on assets 10. Return on equity Based on the above mentioned ratios, a comparison will be made between the two chosen companies so as to answer the following questions; Is the company able to meet its financial obligations on time? How much is on hand that can be converted to cash to pay the bills How effective are the operations of the firm Is the firm yielding favourable return or results? How profitable is a company in relation to the assets and the sales that made its profits possible. All these questions will be adequately answered from each of the calculation made for each ratio. From that, all other conclusions and recommendations will be driven.

3 Financial statements of the companies (balance sheet and income statements)


Financial statement can be defined as the end products of the accounting process which summaries the financial position and performance of a business concern in an organized manner (Ross and Williams, 2013). Financial Statements deliver a concise interpretation of the operations of the business. They serve as a vital medium in communicating accounting information to various users of accounts. The major components of a financial statement are: 1. Balance sheet, and 2. Income statement. The two selected companies will be mainly evaluated and analysed based on the above mentioned components of financial statement. The following are the definition of both balance sheet and income statement 3

3.1 Balance sheet


Balance Sheet is a financial statement that summarizes a companys assets, liabilities and shareholders equity at a specific point in time. These three balance sheet segments give investors an idea as to what the company owns and owes, as well as the amount invested by the shareholders. The balance sheet show: Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders Equity A balance sheet thus, provides full information about a companys assets, liabilities and shareholders equity. Assets are possessions that a company owns that have value. This usually means they can either be sold or used by the construction company to make products or provide services that can be sold. Assets include physical property, such as plants, trucks, equipment and inventory. It also includes things that cant be touched but nevertheless exist and have value, such as trademarks and patents. And cash itself is an asset. So are investments a company makes. Liabilities are amounts of money that a company owes to others. This can include all kinds of obligations, like money borrowed from a bank to launch a new product, money owed to suppliers for materials, payroll a company owes to its employees, taxes owed to the government. Liabilities also include

obligations to provide goods or services to customers in the future. Shareholders equity is sometimes called capital or net worth. Its the money that would be left if a company sold all of its assets and paid off all of its liabilities. This leftover money belongs to the shareholders, or the owners, of the company. The purpose of a Balance Sheet is to report the financial position of a company at a certain point in time. It is divided into two columns. The first column shows what the company owes (liabilities and net worth). The second shows what the company owns (assets) on the right. At the bottom of each list is the total of that column. As the name implies, the bottom line of the balance sheet must always balance. In other words, the total assets are equal to the total liabilities plus the net worth.

The balance sheet is one of the most important pieces of financial information issued by a company. It is a snapshot of what a company owns and owes at the point in time. The income statement, on the other hand, shows how much revenue and profit a company has generated over a certain period.

3.2 Income statement


The income statement, also called an earnings statement or a profit and loss statement, is an accounting statement that matches a companys revenues with its expenses over a period of time, usually a quarter or a year. The components of the income statement involve a companys recognition of income and the expenses related to earning this income. Revenue less expenses results in a profit or loss (Tracy, 1999). The income statement is a flow measure statement meaning that each value on an income statement represents the cumulative amount of that item through the given accounting period. Thus, the revenue on a first quarter income statement equals the cumulated amount of all sales during the first three months of the firms fiscal year. The revenue on the second quarter income statement equals the cumulated amount of all sales during the second three months of the firms fiscal year. The same applies to expenses and therefore profits. Therefore, each of the companys balance sheet and income statement can be found in APPENDIX A

4 Financial ratio analysis


Ratio analysis is an integral and very important method or technique used for financial analysis. The purpose of financial analysis is to diagnose the information content in financial statements so as to judge the profitability, financial soundness of the firm and chalk out the way to improve existing performance (Gopal, 2008). This analysis is very important as it allows a company to measure its financial health or make a comparison with other market competitors. Moreover, the use of financial analysis is not only limited to firms or companies. Other entities such as Trade creditors use financial analysis to be sure that a construction company is in a position to pay their dues, in a short period of time. Suppliers of long-term debt also use this technique to ensure that the company would be able to generate sufficient liquid funds to pay the loan instalment and interest before they lend out money. Furthermore, shareholders and investors, employees and management, and government regulatory agencies also use financial for various reasons and purposes.

4.1 Types of financial ratios


As financial analysis deemed very important for any companys survival, there are different types of ratios on which the financial health of a company could be analysed. These categorisation of ratios serve different purposes, depending on the purposes on which it is meant to be used. According to (Gopal, 2008), the following are the types of ratios used for financial analysis; 1. Liquidity ratios: they measure the firms ability to meet current obligations. 2. Leverage ratios: these ratios show the proportion of debt and equity in financing the firms assets. 3. Activity ratios: they reflect the firms efficiency in utilising the assets, and 4. Profitability ratios: these ratios measure overall performance and effectiveness of the firm. However, for the purpose of these report, only a chunk of the above mentioned ratios are selected to be calculated for the comparison in financial health of the two selected companies. Therefore, as the definitions of each selected ratio will be given, its category will be clearly mentioned from the above mentioned types or category of ratios. The following are the definitions; 6

4.1.1 Quick ratio (QR)


QR also known as the Acid test ratio, and also under the liquidity ratios, is the measurement of companys ability to pay short term liabilities with cash or other near cash assets. Another view is that, provided creditors and debtors are paid at approximately the same time, a view might be made as to whether the business has sufficient liquid resources to meet its current liabilities (Wood and Sangster, 2005). The formula to calculate QR is: (Cash + Account Receivable) / Current Liabilities From the above definition, QR can thus be understood as a ratio that looks only at a companys most liquid assets and compares them to the liabilities. This tests whether the construction company or any other business can meet its obligations even if adverse circumstances arise. It is important to notice that cash is the most liquid asset a company could have, and so therefore, a company should have a bit of a high QR ratio in order for the company to cater for its current liabilities. But too much cash shouldnt also be encouraged in a company as that excess cash can be invested elsewhere to earn the company more profit.

4.1.2 Current ratio (CR)


Current ratio which also known as working capital ratio, falls under the category of liquidity ratios. It is defined as the link between current assets and current liabilities. In other words, CR measures companys ability to use current assets to pay for current liabilities. Therefore, the formula to calculate current ratio is; Current Assets / Current Liabilities Moreover, the interpretation of current ratio can thus be: CR of 2:1 is considered satisfactory. The arbitrary ratio of 2:1 should not be, blindly, followed. Firms with less than 2:1 ratio may be meeting the liabilities, without difficulty, though firms with a ratio of more than 2:1 may be struggling to meet their obligations to pay (Gopal, 2008). Another interpretation can be, if the companys CR is less than 1:1, then it is an indication that the company does not expect to receive enough revenue to pay its current liabilities. Therefore, the company needs to sell long term assets or raise cash through debt or shareholder-investor financing.

4.1.3 Debt to equity ratio


This ratio falls under the leverage ratios. It is also known as External-Internal Equity ratio. It can be defined as the measurement that shows the relative claims of outsiders and owners against the firms assets (Gopal, 2008). The formula to calculate debt to equity ratio is; Total Liabilities / Net Worth Its main interpretation can be to indicate the extent to which debt financing has been used in business. The preferred range for this ratio should be less than 2:1. High debt to equity ratio can have a great impact of a company as one begins to wonder whether that company can service its debt. Gopal 2008, emphasise that high debt to equity ratio may be unfavourable as the firm may not be able to raise further borrowing, without paying higher interest, and accepting stringent conditions. He further stress that, the situation creates undue pressures and unfavourable conditions to the firm from the creditors.

4.1.4 After tax profit margin


This ratio fall under the profitability ratios. As the name implies, it can be defined as the percentage of revenue that becomes profit after taxation. The formula to calculate this ratio is; Net profit after Tax / Revenues The interpretation can thus be; after tax profit margin indicates the overall efficiency of a companys management in construction, administering and selling the products. It also has a direct relationship with the return on investment. If net profit is high, with no change in investment, return on investment would be high. However, if there is fall in profits, return on investment would also go down (Gopal, 2008).

4.1.5 Gross profit margin


This ratio is also under profitability ratio. The only difference it has with after tax profit margin is that gross profit margin is the percentage of the revenue left after paying construction costs, rent, labour, material, maintenance, and equipment costs before taxation. The formula for calculating this ratio is; Gross profit / Revenue 8

According to Gopal, 2008, a company can have high gross profit margin if: High sales price, cost of goods remaining constant Lower cost of goods sold, sales price remaining constant A combination of factors in sales price and costs of different products, widening the margin. Etc. Gopal, 2008 also asserts that, a company may have fall in gross profit margin if: Purchase of raw materials, at unfavourable rates Over investment and/or inefficient utilisation of plant and machinery, resulting in higher cost of production Excessive competition, compelling to sell at reduced price.

4.1.6 Current assets to total assets ratio


This is the measurement of how much current assets from the total assets do construction company have. In other words, how liquid a construction companys assets are. The formula to calculate this ratio is; Current Assets / Total Assets Therefore, if a construction company have a high current assets to total assets ratio, then it can be translated as that company have most of its assets in form of current assets and would be very liquid. This ratio also falls under the liquidity ratios.

4.1.7 Assets to revenue ratio


This is the measurement of how efficiently a construction company is using its assets. The formula to calculate this ratio is; Total Assets / Revenues Assets are used to make sales. If the company manages the assets well, sales would more and likewise profits would be up. A companys capacity to make sales show its operating performance. However, this ratio should be interpreted carefully. Between two firms, a firm having old assets, with lower depreciated book value of fixed assets, may generate more sales compared with a firm, with new fixed assets purchased recently (Gopal, 2008). 9

4.1.8 Current liabilities to net worth ratio


This ratio indicates the amount due to creditors within a year as a percentage of owners' (or stockholder's) capital. In other words, it contrasts the funds that creditors temporarily are risking with the funds permanently invested by the owners. The smaller the net worth and the larger the liabilities, the less security for the creditors. The formula to calculate this ratio is thus; Current Liabilities / Net Worth So again, if the companys current liabilities are greater than the companys net worth, the short term creditors would have more capital at risk.

4.1.9 Return assets


The Return on Assets Ratio is the relationship between the profits of your company and your total assets. It is a measure of how effectively you utilized your companys assets to make a profit. It is a common ratio used to co mpare how well you performed in relationship to your peers in your industry (Auerbach, 1995). The formula to calculate this ratio is; Net profit after Tax / Total assets Therefore, if a company is run efficiently, then that company will have a high return on assets. Likewise, if a company is run inefficiently, then that company will have a low return on assets. Moreover, a rise in return on assets may at first seem good, but turn out to be unimpressive if other companies in the construction industry have been posting higher returns and better

enhancements in return on assets.

4.1.10 Return on equity


This is the 'final measure' of profitability to evaluate overall return. This ratio measures return relative to investment in the company. Put another way, Return on Net Worth indicates how well a company leverages the investment in it. The formula to calculate this ratio is; Net profit after Tax / Equity Furthermore, this ratio can simply tell the investor how well a company has used the capital from its shareholders to make profits. 10

5 Financial ratio calculation for the two companies


The following calculations are to find out the various ratios mentioned earlier. However the ratios are to be categorised into two sections. The first section is for company A (YTL Corporation Bhd). The second section will be for company B (Gamuda Bhd). All data presented herein are obtain from the respective companies 2013 annual reports, specifically the financial statements which comprises the income statement and balance sheet. Also some ratios will be expressed in percentage (%), while others would be expressed as in normal ratios e.g. 1:1 Therefore, the calculations are as follows:

5.1 SECTION A YTL Corporation Bhd


5.1.1 Quick Ratio (QR)
Formula = (Cash +Account Receivable) / Current Liabilities Cash = 668,315 Account Receivable = 3,537,001 Current Liabilities = 8,109,706 Therefore, QR = (668,315 + 3,537,001) / 8,109,706 = 0.5:1

5.1.2 Current Ratio (CR)


Formula = Current Assets / Current Liabilities Current Assets = 20,719,379 Current Liabilities = 8,109,706 Therefore, CR = 20,719,379 / 8,109,706 = 2.55:1

5.1.3 Debt to equity ratio


Formula = Total Liabilities / Net Worth Total Liabilities = 38,061749 Net Worth = 15,557,745 Therefore, 38,061749 / 15,557,745 = 2.4:1

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5.1.4 After tax profit margin


Formula = Net profit after tax / Revenues Net profit after tax = 1,845,782 Revenue = 19,972,948 Therefore, 1,845,782 / 19,972,948 = 0.09 or 9 %

5.1.5 Gross profit margin


Formula = Gross profit / Revenue Gross profit = 4,156,379 Revenue = 19,972,948 Therefore, 4,156,379 / 19,972,948 = 0.2 or 20 %

5.1.6 Current assets to total assets ratio


Formula = Current Assets / Total Assets Current Assets = 20,719,379 Total Assets = 53,619,494 Therefore, 20,719,379 / 53,619,494 = 0.38:1

5.1.7 Assets to revenue ratio


Formula = Total assets / Revenues Total Assets = 53,619,494 Revenue = 19,972,948 Therefore, 53,619,494 / 19,972,948 = 2.7 or 27 %

5.1.8 Current liabilities to net worth ratio


Formula = Current Liabilities / Net Worth Current Liabilities = 8,109,706 Net Worth = 15,557,745 Therefore, 8,109,706 / 15,557,745 = 0.5:1

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5.1.9 Return on assets


Formula = Net profit after tax / Total Assets Net profit after tax = 1,845,782 Total Assets = 53,619,494 Therefore, 1,845,782 / 53,619,494 = 0.3 or 3%

5.1.10 Return on equity


Formula = Net profit after tax / Equity Net profit after tax = 1,845,782 Equity = 15,557,745 Therefore, 1,845,782 / 15,557,745 = 0.1 or 10 %

5.2 Section B Gamuda Bhd


5.2.1 Quick Ratio (QR)
Formula = (Cash +Account Receivable) / Current Liabilities Cash = 1,230,210 Account Receivable = 1,915,986 Current Liabilities = 2,480,759 Therefore QR = (1,230,210 + 1,915,986) / 2,480,759 = 1.2:1

5.2.2 Current Ratio (CR)


Formula = Current Assets / Current Liabilities Current Assets = 5,716,548 Current Liabilities = 2,480,759 Therefore, CR = 5,716,548 / 2,480,759 = 2.3:1

5.2.3 Debt to equity ratio


Formula = Total Liabilities / Net Worth Total Liabilities = 4,702,317 Net Worth = 5,106,848 13

Therefore, debt to equity ratio = 4,702,317 / 5,106,848 = 0.9:1

5.2.4 After tax profit margin


Formula = Net profit after tax / Revenues Net profit after tax = 550,059 Revenues = 3,883,120 Therefore, 550,059 / 3,883,120 = 0.1 or 10%

5.2.5 Gross profit margin


Formula = Gross profit / Revenue Gross profit = 512,187 Revenues = 3,883,120 Therefore, 512,187 / 3,883,120 = 0.1 or 10 %

5.2.6 Current assets to total assets ratio


Formula = Current Assets / Total Assets Current Assets = 5,716,548 Total Assets = 9,809,165 Therefore, 5,716,548 / 9,809,165 = 0.6:1

5.2.7 Assets to revenue ratio


Formula = Total assets / Revenues Total Assets = 9,809,165 Revenues = 3,883,120 Therefore, 9,809,165 / 3,883,120 = 2.5 or 25%

5.2.8 Current liabilities to net worth ratio


Formula = Current Liabilities / Net Worth Current Liabilities = 2,480,759 Net Worth = 5,106,848

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Therefore, 2,480,759 / 5,106,848 = 0.4:1

5.2.9 Return on assets


Formula = Net profit after tax / Total Assets Net profit after tax = 550,059 Total Assets = Therefore, 550,059 / 9,809,165 = 0.1 or 10%

5.2.10 Return on equity


Formula = Net profit after tax / Equity Net profit after tax = 550,059 Equity = 5,106,848 Therefore, 550,059 / 5,106,848 = 0.1 or 10%

6 Comparison of financial health between the two companies


Having calculated all the financial ratios that are mentioned in the scope for this report, with all the variations of ratios seen from the calculations made for the two selected CIDB grade 7 construction companies, at this stage, it is now deemed essential that, a comparison be made, to evaluate the financial health for the two companies, so as to see which company performed best in the financial year 2013. The comparison however, is only limited to the ratios calculated earlier. However, before the comparisons are drawn, it is important to see clearly, in table format, all the final ratios calculated for the two companies, and the required range and average at which each ratio is considered financially healthy. Table 1 illustrate all the findings of the calculate ratios for the two companies and the range and average requirement for each ratio. Table 1. Calculated ratios for the two companies S/N 1. 2. Ratio Quick Ratio (QR) Current Ratio (CR) 15 YTL 0.5:1 2.55:1 Gamuda 1.2:1 2.3:1 Average 1.5:1 1.2:1 Range 3.1:1 to 1.2:1 2.1:1 to 0.6:1

3.

Debt to equity ratio

2.4:1

0.9:1

1.3:1

0.5:1 to 2.7:1

4.

After tax profit margin

9%

10%

2.2%

8.7% to 0.6%

5.

Gross profit margin

20%

10%

17%

6.

Current assets to total asset ratio

0.38:1

0.6:1

0.70:1 and 0.80:1

7.

Assets to revenue ratio

27%

25%

29%

19% to 55%

8.

Current liabilities to net worth ratio

0.5:1

0.4:1

1.12:1

0.32:1 to 2.4:1

9. 10.

Return on assets Return on equity

3% 10%

6% 10%

6.5% 16.7%

21.7% to 2.0% 53% to 5.4%

From the above table, difference in ratio can be seen clearly between the two companies. Therefore, based on the averages and range for the ratios indicated in the table above, a comparison can be drawn in Table 2 as thus; Table 2: Comparison for the two companies S/N Ratios 1. Quick Ratio (QR) YTL Corporation Bhd Gamuda Bhd Comments Bhd can be

YTL with QR of 0.5:1 Gamuda has a QR of Gamuda means there is RM 0.5 in 1.2:1. quick assets to Which

means considered more liquid than

pay there is RM 1.2 in quick YTL. But since the range is up

every RM 1.00 of current assets to pay every RM to 3.1:1, then there is also a liabilities. This however 1.00 of current liabilities. room for Gamuda to increase should not be This is good because its QR so as to become even is even more liquid. As for YTL, they need to convert considered good as a Gamudas

company is considered greater than the required might liquid when it has a QR minimum of ratio 1:1 of 1:1 or greater.

inventory and other current and long term assets to cash or raise cash through debt so as to meet the required range.

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2.

Curre nt Ratio (CR)

YTL with CR of 2.55:1 Gamuda

with

CR

of Both companies do not meet

means there is 2.55 in 2.3:1 it has 2.3 current the required range of 2.1 to current assets to pay assets to pay every RM 0.6. Their CRs are to be every RM 1.00 in current 1.00 of its current considered good since they the can both pay for their current is liabilities. However, each of

liabilities. The required liabilities. range is between 2.1 to required

Since range

0.6. YTL therefore is a bit between 2.1 to 0.6, and the companies should strive to higher than the required Gamuda has 2.3, this attain the required CR range range but also should be can be considered good in order to be more secured considered good since because the company and avoid risk of not being YTL can pay its current can still be able to pay able to pay for their current liabilities. 3. Debt to equity ratio for its current liabilities. liabilities.

YTL with debt to equity Gamuda Bhd has a debt Gamuda takes the age here. ratio of 2.4:1 means that to equity ratio of 0.9:1. As for YTL, even though they the creditors have put Meaning that, creditors are within the required range, RM 2.4 in the business have put RM 0.9 in the they indeed need to be more for every RM 1.00 the business for every RM cautious so as to give

owners have put in. The 1.00 the owners have creditors more confidence. range is between 0.5 put in. The range is and 2.7. YTLs ratio of between 0.5 and 2.7. 2.4 should be Gamudas ratio is

considered good as it considered very good as falls within the range. But it falls within required also it is important to range, and just slightly notice that YTLs ratio is below average of 1.3. above the average mark Therefore, this can be a of 1.3. Therefore, YTL strong should be cautious as creditors they can easily indication that for the

go company can service its

beyond the border line of debt. 2.7 which will let one begins to wonder

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whether the company can service its debt. 4. After tax profit margi n YTL with after tax profit Gamuda have a 10% Both the companies

margin of 9% means that after tax profit margin. performed well in the financial 9% means that 9% of its Meaning that, after the year 2013, although Gamuda revenue becomes profit deduction of tax, 10% of earns a bit higher, but all are after deduction of tax. its revenue becomes considered generally good.

This is good because the profit. This indicates that company performed Gamuda performed very

very well in 2013 as it is well in the financial year within range. 5. Gross profit margi n YTL with 20% gross Gamuda has 10% gross YTL performed better here. As profit margin mean that profit margin. Meaning for Gamuda, the company for every RM 1.00 of that for every RM 1.00 of according to Gopal, 2008, project financing, there is project financing, there is should have high gross profit RM 0.20 in gross profit. RM 0.10 in gross profit. margin if high sales price, cost This is very good as it is However this should be of goods remaining constant. just above the average considered as good as it Also lower cost of goods sold, line of 17% is below the 17% sales mark. constant. price And remaining finally a the required 2013.

average

Therefore, the company combination of factors in sales should look for ways to price and costs of different increase margin. its profit products, margin. Etc. widening the

6.

Curre nt

YTL has current assets Gamuda, with current Gamuda is far more liquid to total assets ratio of assets to total assets than YTL. Therefore, YTL

assets 0.38:1. This is however ratio of 0.6:1 comes very should consider selling some to total lower than the required close to the required of its long-term assets in order asset ratio range. Therefore most of range of 0.7 and 0.8. to gain cash which is the most YTLs assets are not in Meaning that, most liquid asset, and thus current assets form, and Gamudas assets are in increasing its liquidity.

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so

therefore is

the form of current assets not and therefore

company

considered very liquid. 7. Assets YTL to reven ue ratio with assets

considered very liquid. to Gamuda has 25% of Both companies are efficiently

revenue ratio of 27% assets to revenue ratio. using their assets. means that the company Meaning the company is is efficiently using its efficiently using its

assets. This is because assets as the ratio falls the ratio falls within the within the required range required range of 19% to and just below average. 55%.

8.

Curre nt liabiliti es to net worth ratio

YTL

has

current Gamuda has a current Both companies meet the

liabilities to net worth liabilities to net worth requirement on which short ratio of 0.5:1. Since this ratio of 0.4:1. Since this term creditors should put their ratio falls within the ratio falls within the basis on towards extending required range of 0.32 to required range of 0.32 to each of the companys credit. 2.4, then short can credit term 2.4, then short can credit term Therefore, both companies easily have greater net worth than to the their respective current

creditors extend

easily creditors to the extend

company without taking company without taking liabilities. any risk. 9. any risk.

Return YTL has a 3% of return Gamuda has a 6% of Both companies are efficient on on assets. Meaning that return on assets. in using their Gamuda assets. Bhd

assets there is RM 0.30 in profit Meaning that there is RM However,

for every RM 1.00 in 0.60 in profit for every seems better in efficiency. assets employed in the RM 1.00 in in assets YTL should improve further as the it ratio is below average.

business. And since this employed

falls within the required business. And since this However it is considered good range of 21.7% to 2.0%, falls within the required anyway. it means the company is range of 21.7% to 2.0%, efficiently using its it means the company is using its

assets. However, there efficiently is a room

for assets. Therefore this is

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improvement since the considered very good as average is at 6.5%. it is very well on top of the average mark of 6.5% 10. Return YTL has a 10% of return Gamuda has a 10% of Both companies have the on equity on equity, meaning that return on equity, same percentage of return on

there is RM 0.10 in profit meaning that there is RM equity. As though 10% is for every RM 1.00 in 0.10 in profit for every considered good, the two equity invested in the RM 1.00 in equity companies should try

business. 53% to 5.4% is invested in the business. increase return on equity and the required range, with 53% to 5.4% is the at least meet the average level average of 16.7%. required range, of with or maybe even higher.

Therefore this is to be average considered good

16.7%.

as Therefore this is to be good as

there is a return on considered investment shareholder.

for there is a return on However, investment for However,

the company should try shareholder.

increase their return on the company should try equity at least to the increase their return on average level. equity at least to the average level.

Therefore, from the comparison made, it is easier and clearer now for one to understand and see the differences between the two giant construction companies. The comments made however, are simply an understanding, and in way, a judgement on each of the ratio comparison made.

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7 Advantages and limitations of financial statement analysis


Financial statement analysis or simply financial ratio analysis is an important technique to measure the financial health of a company, or making a comparison between two or more companies to analyse the financial health of the companies to be financially evaluated and analysed. As important as this might seem, this technique has so many advantages as we all can agree on. However, it also comes along with so many limitations. These limitations sometimes can hinder the investor or any other user of financial ratio analysis from being accurate in analysing the financial health of a particular company. Therefore, this report will now describe the advantages of financial ratio, and its limitations alike.

7.1 Advantages of Financial statement analysis


Ratio analysis is necessary to establish the relationship between two accounting figures to highlight the significant information to the management or users who can analyse the business situation and to monitor their performance in a meaningful way (Periasamy, 2010). The following are the advantages of ratio analysis as described by Periasamy, 2010: 1. It facilitates the accounting information to be summarized and simplified in a required form. 2. It highlights the inter-relationship between the facts and figures of various segments of business. 3. Ratio analysis helps to remove all type of wastages and inefficiencies. 4. It provides necessary information to the management to take prompt decision relating to business. 5. It helps to the management for effectively discharge its functions such as planning, organizing, controlling, directing and forecasting. 6. Ratio analysis reveals profitable and unprofitable activities. Thus, the management is able to concentrate on unprofitable activities and consider to improve the efficiency. 7. Ratio analysis is used as a measuring rod for effective control of performance of business activities.

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8. Ratios are an effective means of communication and informing about financial soundness made by the business concern to the proprietors, investors, creditors and other parties. 9. Ratio analysis is an effective tool which is used for measuring the operating results of the enterprises. 10. It facilitates control over the operation as well as resources of the business. 11. Effective co-operation can be achieved through ratio analysis. 12. Ratio analysis provides all assistance to the management to fix responsibilities. 13. Ratio analysis helps to determine the performance of liquidity, profitability and solvency position of the business concern.

7.2 Limitations of financial statement analysis


Ratio analysis is a useful tool to raise relevant questions on a number of managerial issues. It provides clues to investigate those issues, in detail, further (Gopal, 2008). Therefore, ratios by themselves mean nothing as they have severe limitations. While using the ratios, care has to be taken in respect of the following. Gopal, 2008 describes the limitations as follows: 1. Absence of identical situations: Ratios are useful in judging the efficiency of business, only when they are compared with the past results of the firm, with identical circumstances, or with the results of similar businesses. It is difficult to obtain identical situations for different firms. Circumstances do not remain the same, even, for the same firm between two different periods. Comparison becomes difficult due to lack of uniformity of situation between two companies. 2. Change in accounting policies: Management has a choice about the accounting policies. The management of different companies may adopt different accounting policies regarding valuation of inventories, depreciation, research and development expenditure and treatment of deferred revenue expenditure etc. The differences between the definitions of items in the balance sheet and profit and loss statement make the interpretation of the ratios difficult. Comparison would be meaningful and valuable if their base is similar. 22

3. Based on historical data: The ratios are calculated from past financial statements, and thus no indicators of future. Such ratios may provide information about the past. But, for forecasting the future, there are many factors that may change, in future. Market conditions and management policies may not remain the same, as they were earlier. 4. Qualitative factors are ignored: Ratios are expressed in quantitative form only. Qualitative factors are ignored. A high current ratio may not guarantee liquidity, as current assets may be high due to inclusion of obsolete inventory and non-paying debtors. 5. Ratios alone are not adequate: Ratios are means of financial analysis and they are not end in themselves. They are indicators. They cannot be taken as final regarding good or bad financial position of the business. 6. Over use could be dangerous: Over use of ratios as controls on managers could be dangerous. If too much reliance is placed on ratios, management may concentrate in improving the ratios, rather than dealing with significant issues. For example, reducing assets rather than increasing profits can improve the return on capital employed. 7. Window Dressing: The term window dressing means manipulation of accounts in a way so as to conceal the actual facts and present the financial statements, in a way, to show better position than what actually it is. For example, a high current ratio is considered as an indicator of satisfactory liquidity position. To show an impressive current ratio, firm may postpone credit purchases. 8. Problems of Price level Changes: Financial analysis based on accounting ratios will give misleading results, if effects of change in price level are not taken into account. For example, two companies that have set up plant and machinery in two different periods, with a long gap, may give misleading results. Firm that has purchased the plant and machinery, very earlier, would have lower amount towards depreciation when compared with the firm that has set up the machinery, quite later. So, the operating results of both the firms vary substantially. The financial statements of the two firms cannot be compared, without making suitable changes to the price level changes.

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9. No fixed Standards: No fixed standards can be laid down for ratios. Though current ratio 2:1 is normally required, firms those enjoy adequate arrangements with banks to provide additional credit, as and when needed, may be able to manage with lesser current ratio. It is, therefore, necessary to avoid any rule of thumb

8 Recommendations/suggestions to improve the financial performance of the companies


The recommendation as already made in the comparison section of this report based on each ratio are as follows: 1. QR: Gamuda Bhd can be considered more liquid than YTL. But since the range is up to 3.1:1, then there is also a room for Gamuda to increase its QR so as to become even more liquid. As for YTL, they might need to convert inventory and other current and long term assets to cash or raise cash through debt so as to meet the required range. 2. CR: Both companies do not meet the required range of 2.1 to 0.6. Their CRs are to be considered good since they can both pay for their current liabilities. However, each of the companies should strive to attain the required CR range in order to be more secured and avoid risk of not being able to pay for their current liabilities. 3. Debt to equity ratio: Gamuda takes the age here. As for YTL, even though they are within the required range, they indeed need to be more cautious so as to give creditors more confidence. 4. After tax profit margin: Both the companies performed well in the financial year 2013, although Gamuda earns a bit higher, but all are considered generally good. 5. Gross profit margin: YTL performed better here. As for Gamuda, the company according to Gopal, 2008, should have high gross profit margin if high sales price, cost of goods remaining constant. Also lower cost of goods sold, sales price remaining constant. And finally a combination of factors in sales price and costs of different products, widening the margin. Etc.

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6. Current assets to total assets ratio: Gamuda is far more liquid than YTL. Therefore, YTL should consider selling some of its long-term assets in order to gain cash which is the most liquid asset, and thus increasing its liquidity. 7. Assets to revenue ratio: Both companies are efficiently using their assets. 8. Current liabilities to net worth ratio: Both companies meet the requirement on which short term creditors should put their basis on towards extending each of the companys credit. Therefore, both companies have greater net worth than their respective current liabilities. 9. Return on assets: Both companies are efficient in using their assets. However, Gamuda Bhd seems better in efficiency. YTL should improve further as it ratio is below average. However it is considered good anyway. 10. Return on equity: Both companies have the same percentage of return on equity. As though 10% is considered good, the two companies should try increase return on equity and at least meet the average level or maybe even higher.

9 Conclusion
In conclusion, it is important to note that the use of financial ratios is a time tested method of analysing a business. Financial ratio analysis is neither sophisticated nor intricate. It is just a simple comparison between specific pieces of information obtained from the companys balance sheet and income statement. Moreover, Ratios are meaningless, if detached from the details from which they are derived. Ratios are based on the data of the company concerned. So, ratios are relevant to that particular company only, which are based on the circumstances and policies of that company. If those ratios are compared to any other company, where the circumstances and policies adopted are totally different, conclusions drawn based on the divergent data would be meaningless. It may, therefore, be concluded that the ratio analysis, if done mechanically, is not only misleading but, equally, dangerous (Gopal, 2008). To say a final word on ratio analysis, conclusions on study of single ratios, in isolation, are dangerous.

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10 Reference
Auerbach, A. 1995. Healthy Business Guide, Zions First National Bank Cash Flow Analysis. 5th ed. Utah: Financial Proformers, Inc. Gopal, C. C. R. 2008. Financial management. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers. lincoln indicators. 2014. Standing up for shareholders. [online] Available at: http://www.lincolnindicators.com.au/content/filestore/research/top-15financial-ratios.pdf [Accessed: 23 Mar 2014]. Periasamy, P. 2010. A Textbook of Financial Cost and Management Accounting. New Delhi: Himalaya Pub. House. Ross, A. and Williams, P. 2013. Financial management in construction contracting. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Tracy, J. A. 1999. How to read a financial report. New York: Wiley. Van Horne, J. C. and Wachowicz, J. M. 2009. Fundamentals of financial management =. Bei jing: Qing hua ta xue chu ban she. Wood, F. and Sangster, A. 2005. Frank Wood's business accounting 1. Harlow, England: FT/Prentice Hall.

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