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SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

(An autonomous institute affiliated to the University of Mumbai) DESIGN OF PRE ENGINEERED WAREHOUSE By REBECCA ACHUMI BHAVANA BANSOD NUPUR BOBADE VIJAY PATIL POOJA THAKUR MAYUR WAKADE

GUIDE Mrs. MITTAL LAD

Year 2012-2013

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the following students have satisfactorily completed the project report on “DESIGN OF PRE-ENGINEERED WAREHOUSE” is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering In Civil Engineering Submitted by, REBECCA ACHUMI BHAVANA BANSOD NUPUR BOBADE VIJAY PATIL POOJA THAKUR MAYUR WAKADE

Mrs. Mittal Lad GUIDE

Prof. Dr.P.Srivastava H.O.D

Dr. P.H Sawant PRINCIPAL

External examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With a deep sense of gratitude, we express our sincere thanks to our respected guide Mrs Mittal Lad of this institution, for her guidance as well as her keen interest in course of our initial investigation in finalisation this report and her guidance in the form of going through manuscript, making useful alteration and offering valuable comments are gratefully acknowledged. We would like to show our gratitude towards Mr. Malekar, from Steerling India Pvt.Ltd for giving us his valuable time from his busy schedule and tremendously providing us with his help in the project. We sincerely thank Dr. P.S. Shrivastava, Head of Civil Engineering Department, S.P.C.E. for extending relevant facilities during this work. We are also thankful to all staff members of the Civil Department and Structure Department, SPCE for their help. We would also like to express our heartfelt gratitude to Prof. Harsmita Phatak for her constant guidance and help. We would also like to take this opportunity to thank our dear friend, Rajesh Gadkar for his support and encouragement throughout this project.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The project is raised with the objective to design a single storey pre engineered warehouse according to limit state method. The deigned single storey warehouse is erected by several steel members and is arranged in a regular geometrical form, where in they can interact between them throughout structural connections or joint to support loads and maintain the structure under equilibrium or stability. The project includes the design of a factory warehouse which is assumed to be in the outskirts of Mumbai. Through this project we have tried to get understanding of designing the structure by STAAD PRO software and manual design. We have designed all the members by IS 8002007 and IS 875-1987.

ABBREVIATIONS

IS 800 IL DL LR BS SL WL EL SLS ULS ISA ISLC ISMC

Indian standard Imposed load Dead load Roof load British standard Snow load Wind load Earthquake load Serviceability limit state Ultimate limit state Indian standard angle Indian standard light channel Indian standard medium channel

NOMENCLATURE

BM Z L 1 2 k

Bending moment Elastic section modulus Actual length of member Actual stress Allowable stress Yield stress Ultimate stress of the material Permissible bending stress in tension Cross section area of connected leg of angle section Cross section area of unconnected leg of angle section Area reduction factor for angle section when acts in tension Permissible axial tensile stress Permissible axial compression stress Elastic critical stress in compression Permissible shear stress in weld Length of weld Bending moment about major bending axis Loading about Major Bending Axis Partial factor of safety for loads Partial factor of safety for ultimate strength Partial factor of safety for material strength Partial factor of safety for structural performance Partial factor of safety for variability of loading Maximum deflection

Ø

Plastic section modulus about major axis Plastic section modulus about minor axis
Reduction factor for moment of resistance Ultimate stress Tensile strength as governed by tearing at net section. Minimum gross in shear along the direction of force Minimum net area in shear block shear plane force Minimum gross area in tension from hole to the toe of the angle perpendicular to the direction of force Minimum net area in tension from hole to the toe of the angle perpendicular to the direction of force Design stress in compression Euler bucking stress Imperfection factor depending upon section type Design wind speed at any height Basic wind speed at any site Probability factor Terrain, height and structure size factor Topography factor Design wind pressure in N/ 2 Design wind pressure in N/ 2 at height z External wind pressure coefficient Internal wind pressure coefficient

α 1 2 3

LIST OF CONTENT
SR NO TOPICS PART 1: STUDY OF PRE-ENGINEERED BUILDINGS PAGE NO

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2

INTRODUCTION General History of PEB Advantages and Disadvantages Comparison between Conventional buildings and Pre-engineered buildings Applications First PEB introduction in India LITERATURE REVIEW PART 2: DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL SHED

3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

INTRODUCTION OF WAREHOUSE LOADING AND BASIC LOAD CASES DESIGN OF PURLIN DESIGN OF CLAD RUNNER DESIGN OF GANTRY GIRDER DESIGN OF A TYPICAL FRAME DESIGN OF BASE PLATE DESIGN OF PEDESTAL CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL Construction industry has witnessed immense innovation in technology application resulting in speed and quality of construction work. We now see huge structure coming into existence in just few months which otherwise took years to get completed. To-day both in terms of applying the tools, as well as the material used to construct, the industry is now applying newer methods and material for fast and vast construction of buildings, whether it is hi-rise, airport, metro rail, multi-storeyed car parking or mall etc. This is possible due to revolution brought by the Pre-Engineering Building popularly known as PEB. Pre-Engineering Buildings origin can be traced back to 1960’s; however its potential has been felt only during the recent years. This was mainly due to the development in technology, which helps in computerizing the design and the application of design. Though initially only off the shelf products were available in this configurations aided by the technological development, but to-day tailor made solutions are now made using this technology in very short durations. According to a recent survey that about 60% to 70% of the non residential low rises building in USA are Pre Engineered Buildings. Although PEB system is extensively used in industrial and many other non residential constructions worldwide, it is relatively a new concept in India. These concepts were introduced to the Indian markets lately in the late 1990’s with the op ening up of the economy and a number of multi nationals setting up their projects. To-day the market potential of PEB’s is 1.2 million tonnes per annum. The current pre engineered steel buildings manufacturing capacity is .35 million tonnes per annum. The industry is growing at the compound rate of 25% to 30%. Indian manufacturers are trying to catch up with international standards and aesthetics but India is still lagging behind with respect to design of the structure and aesthetic appearance. However in fabrication and other areas of PEB India is coming up compared to other developing countries. The Indian codes for building design are stringent and emphasises safety. The IS standards are upgraded continuously. To-day PEB are extensively used in WAREHOUSES, FACTORIES, WORKSHOP OFFICES, GAS STATION, VEHICLE PARKING SHEDS, SHOWROOMS, AIRCRAFT HANGARS, METRO STATIONS, SCHOOLS, RECREATIONAL, INDOOR STADIUM ROOFS, OUTDOOR STADIUM CANOPIES.

1.2 HISTORY OF PEB

The origins of the metal building history date back nearly 100 years. Early in the 20th century, steel products companies began to appear. Their products were generally agricultural – water troughs, feed bins, grain bins, etc. These were mass-produced and traditionally of a single size. Therefore, they could be “pre-fabricated” – a ready inventory to be delivered when the customer needed it. As time progressed, rudimentary building designs began to emerge, such as the pre-fabricated garage. Again, this was a limited product offering dimensionally, which allowed the garage to be carried in an inventory. During World War II, a need arose for structures such as barracks and maintenance facilities that could be containerized and shipped – ready to erect. This was a perfect outlet for steel products companies. Buildings were produced that required no welding. They were bolted-up, lending themselves to simple, quick construction as the war advances and occupations unfolded. By the end of the war, it was clear that the industry would not return to its pre-war product offerings. Metal buildings were here to stay. The post-war construction boom offered an ideal opportunity to mass produce buildings for a variety of non-residential industries. Metal building companies learned that partnerships with local contractors across a region or even the entire country were an effective way to deliver an erected building structure to the end customer. Buildings during this time were still pre-fabricated as the marketplace adapted to the limited, set sizes that were available. However, structural engineers began to design more and more standard-size offerings to meet demand and soon pre-fabrication was no longer possible. At this time, still well before the computer age, the process came to be known as the “pre engineered” metal build ings industry.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 1.3.1 ADVANTAGES

1.

REDUCED CONSTRUCTION TIME: Buildings are typically delivered in just a few weeks after approval of drawings. Foundation and anchor bolts are cast parallel with finished, ready for the site bolting. Our study shows that in India the use of PEB will

reduce total construction time of the project by at least 50%. This also allows faster occupancy and earlier realization of revenue. 2. LOWER COST: Due to the systems approach, there is a significant saving in design, manufacturing and on site erection cost. The secondary members and cladding nest together reducing transportation cost. FLEXIBILTY OF EXPANSION: Buildings can be easily expanded in length by adding additional bays. Also expansion in width and height is possible by pre designing for future expansion. 4. 5. LARGE CLEAR SPANS: Buildings can be supplied to around 80M clear spans. QUALITY CONTROL: As buildings are manufactured completely in the factory under controlled conditions the quality is assured. 6. LOW MAINTENANCE: Buildings are supplied with high quality paint systems for cladding and steel to suit ambient conditions at the site, which results in long durability and low maintenance coats. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROOFING AND WALL SYSTEMS: Buildings can be supplied with polyurethane insulated panels or fibre glass blankets insulation to achieve required “U” values. ARCHITECTURAL VERSTALITY: Building can be supplied with various types of fascias, canopies, and curved eaves and are designed to receive pre cast concrete wall panels, curtain walls, block walls and other wall systems. SINGLE SOURCE RESPONSIBILTY: As the complete building package is supplied by a single vendor, compatibility of all the building components and accessories is assured. This is one of the major benefits of the pre engineered building systems.

3.

7.

8.

9.

1.3.2 DISADVANTAGES 1. EXPENSIVE: Cost of steel and its requirement in PEB is very high so the overall cost of materials in construction is increased.

2. TRANSPORTATION: Materials used in PEB are pre-fabricated so they have to be transported from manufacturing factory to the site and as the location of site is generally not situated near the factory, transportation is difficult as well as expensive. 3. CORROSION: Materials like steel is used in high quantity which gets corroded easily so preventive measures for it and as well as its maintenance is essential. Faulty design leads to the corrosion of iron and steel in buildings. 4. MAINTENANCE: As the life of the structure is less, lifetime maintenance is required.

COMPARISON 1.4.1 DESIGN EFFICACY
PEB BUILDING PEB have evolved after years of process of elimination and with PEB been partially applied alongside with conventional buildings. With the passage of time gradually the whole PEB structure came into existence with specialized computer analysis design program and optimizes material selection. Today from concept to completion the PEB projects are computerized using standard detail that minimizes the use of project custom details. With this applications speed and efficiency is arrived since PEB are mainly formed by standard sections and connections design. Also with more and more standardization there is greater optimization as the production skill is enhanced and the cost has reduced. Today design shop detail sketches and erection drawings are supplied free of cost by the manufacturer and the approval drawing is usually prepared in short time. PEB designers design and detail PEB buildings are build almost every day of the year resulting in improving the quality of design every time they work. Outstanding architectural design can b achieved at low cost using standard architectural details and interfaces. There is greater amount of choices available with array of material, shapes and sizes of components. Designed to fit the system with the standardized and inter changeable parts. Including pre designed flashing and trims are easy and feasible in no time. Building accessories are mass produced for economy and are available with the building. All the project records are safely and orderly kept in tectonic format which makes it easy for the owner to obtain a copy of his building record at any time.

FUTURE EXPANSION IS VERY EASY AND SIMPLE. All components have been specified and design specially to act together as a system for maximum efficiency, precise and peak performance in the field. Experience with similar buildings in actual field conditions worldwide, has resulted in design improvements over time, which allow dependable prediction of performance. Single source of responsibility is there because the entire job is being done by one supplier.

CONVENTIONAL BUILDING Conventional steel structure is designed from scratch with fewer design aids that are available to the engineers. Substantial engineering and detailing work is required from the very basic by the consultant with fewer design aids. Again there is extensive amount of consultant time is devoted to the alterations that have to be done while arriving at consensus. Since each project is a new project engineers need more time to develop the designs and details of the unique structure. All this is time consuming exercise and needs patience and tenacity. Special architectural design and features must be developed for each project which often requires research and thus resulting in higher cost. Every project requires different and special design or accessories and special sourcing for each item e.g. flashing and trims must be uniquely designed and fabricated. Preservation and recalling of the records and designs is extremely cumbersome .It would be difficult to obtain project records after a long period of time and sometimes is required to contact more than one number of parties. FUTURE EXPANSION IS MOST TEDIOUS AND MORE COSTLY. Components are custom designed for a specific application on a specific job. Design and detailing errors are possible when assembling the diverse components into unique buildings. Each building design is unique, so predication, of how components will perform together is uncertain. Materials which have performed well in some climates may not do well in other conditions. Multiple responsibilities can result in question of who is responsible when the components do not fit in properly, insufficient material is supplied or parts fail to perform particularly at the supplier/contractor interface.

1.4.2 STRUCTURE EFFICACY
PEB BUILDING Right from the foundation work to the progressive work in attending the height and the width of the building it is easy to construct with simple light weight and referral design aids available handy. The low weight flexible frames offer higher resistance to seismic forces calamity the damage control is easy and faster. CONVENTIONAL BUILDING the foundation requires heavy material in nature like steel, cement, sand ,bricks and mortar is extensive amount and needs reasonable manpower for logistics and construction of the durable foundation. The material used in the foundation work reinforces rigidly with other heavy frames and hence do not perform well in seismic zones where it requires suppleness to absorb the shocks. These days with frequent earthquakes all around the world foundation work has come under microscopic observation meticulous work. and in case of

1.4.3 DELIVERY AND LOGISTICS
PEB BUILDING Once the design is finalised the entire building material is supplied completely with all accessories including erection from a single “ONE STOP SOURCE” In phase manner as the building progresses. With fair amount of standardization in manufacturing based on the clients need PEB manufactures usually stock a large amount of material that can be flexibly used in many types of PEB projects .Hence precise ordering is easily possible .Also arrangements can be made with the manufacturer to take back the unused material after the project is completed . CONVENTIONAL BUILDING Since there are many sources of supply it becomes difficult to co ordinate and handles the supply in time frame. Change orders are easily accommodated at all stages of the order fulfilment process. Little or no material is wasted even if a change order is made after fabrication.

1.4.4 ERECTION COST AND TIME
PEB BUILDING

Both costs and time of erection are accurately known based upon extensive previous experiences with similar buildings .Also the erection process is faster and much easier with very less requirement of equipment. CONVENTIONAL BUILDING Conventional steel buildings are 20% more expensive than PEB in most of the cases, the erection costs and time are not predicted accurately as it depends on many variables of materials and human resources. Erection process is also slow and extensive field labour is required. Sometimes heavy equipment is also required and thus the co-ordination is difficult task.

1.4.5 COST EFFICIENCY
PEB BUILDING Price per square meter may be as low as by 30% than the conventional building. CONVENTIONAL BUILDING The prices are higher per square meters compared to peb building. 1.4.6 VERSATALITY PEB BUILDING COST OF CHARGE ORDER PEB manufacturers usually stock a large amount of that can be flexibly used in many types of PEB projects. Change orders are easily accommodated at all stages of the order fulfilment process .Little or no material is wasted even if a change order is made after fabrication starts. CONVENTIONAL BUILDING Substitution of hot rolled sections infrequently rolled by mills is expensive and time. Change orders that are made after dispatch of hot rolled sections result in increasing the time and cost involved in the project.

1.4.7 BUILDING ACCESSORIES
PEB BUILDING Designed to fit the system with standardized and interchangeable parts. Including pre designed flashing and trims. Building accessories are mass produces for economy and are available with the buildings.

CONVENTIONAL BUILDING Every project requires different and special design for accessories and special sourcing for each item. Flashing and trims must be uniquely designed and fabricated.

1.4.8 FUTURE EXPANSIONS
PEB BUILDING All project records are safely and orderly kept in electronic format which make it easy for the owner to obtain a copy of his building record at any time. Future expansion is very easy and simple. CONVENTIONAL BUILDINGS It would be difficult to obtain project records after a long period of time. It is required to contact more than one number of parties. Future expansion is more tedious and costly.

1.4.9 PERFORMANCE
PEB BUILDING All components have been specified and designed specially to act together as a system for maximum efficiency, precise fir and peak performance in the field. Experience with similar buildings, the actual field conditions worldwide, has resulted in design improvements overtime, which allows dependable prediction of performance. CONVENTIONAL BUILDING Components are custom designed for a specific application on a specific job. Design and detailing errors are possible when assembling the diverse components into unique buildings. Each building design is unique, so predication, of how components will perform together is uncertain. Materials which have performed well in some climates may not do well in other conditions.

1.4.10 SAFETY AND RESPONSIBILITY
PEB BUILDING Single source of responsibility is there because the entire job is being done by one supplier. CONVENTIONAL BUILDING

Multiple responsibilities can result in question of who is responsible when the components do not fit in properly, insufficient material is supplied or parts fail to perform particularly at the supplier/contractor interface.

1.5 APPLICATIONS
In view of the many advantages of PEBs over other types of buildings & structures, they are ideally suited for almost all types of medium to large size steel buildings. Whenever and wherever one or more factors like faster occupancy, large clear spans, excellent aesthetics, corrosion resistance, better load bearing capacity against high wind/ seismic loads, etc are important, then PEBs are the most obvious and preferred choice world over. Here are some of the popular applications of PEBs.

WARE HOUSES LARGE FACTORIES/ MANUFACTURING PLANTS ENGINEERING WORKSHOPS SMALL INDUSTRIAL SHEDS OFFICES GAS STATIONS VEHICLE PARKING SHEDS SHOW ROOMS SUPERMARKETS AIRCRAFT HANGERS SCHOOLS & COLLEGES SPORTS AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES HOSPITALS LABOUR CAMPS LOW COST HOUSING.

1.6 FIRST PEB INTRODUCTION IN INDIA Interarch Building Products Pvt Ltd commenced its operations in 1984 and pioneered the high-end metal interior products market in India. Today, 25 years later, Interact is a leading turnkey Pre-engineered Steel Construction Solution provider in India with integrated facilities for design, manufacture, logistics, supply and project execution capabilities for preengineered steel buildings.

Interarch has been the first mover in India, right from metal ceilings, to blinds, metal roofing to pre-engineered buildings. The key achievements for Interarch include the building of the largest greenfield Automobile plant for Tata Motors at Pantnagar, execution of the largest steel framed office building for Reliance, commissioning of over 900 canopies for Reliance Petroleum all over India. Interarch proved a pivotal cog in bringing up the largest preengineered building structural system for Delhi International Airport – IGI Terminal 3 and completed it in a record time. In the sector of PEB, it stand apart in providing end-to-end scalability to their clients to enhance their project execution capacities," Some of the major construction solutions offered by Interarch are their advanced PreEngineered Steel Buildings and structural systems, Interarch Light – Light Building & Framing Systems, and Tracdek Roof & Wall Systems that are used in industrial, commercial and residential building construction. Interarch also offers false ceiling systems for commercial spaces under the Trac brand. All Interarch products speak for their fine quality and are designed to withstand harsh climatic conditions. Interarch is certified as an ISO 9001:2000 company since 1999 by UL Inc. USA.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

K .K. Mitra- Lloyd Insulations (India) Limited: Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings use a combination of built-up sections, hot rolled sections, cold formed elements and profiled steel sheets which provide the basic steel frame work with a choice of single skin sheeting with added insulation or insulated sandwich panels for roofing and wall cladding or brick wall. The concept is designed to provide a complete building envelope system which is air tight, energy efficient, optimum in weight and cost and, above all, designed to fit user requirement like a well fitted glove. PEB concept has been very successful and well established in North America, Australia and is presently expanding in U.K and European countries. PEB construction is 30 to 40% faster than masonary construction. PEB buildings provides good insulation effect and would be highly suitable for a tropical country like India. PEB is ideal for construction in remote & hilly areas.

Donald H. pratt (ASCE- American society of civil engineers): In 1964, pre-engineered metal buildings accounted for 24% of new non-residential, low-rise construction. By 1981, that figure had jumped to 56%. Behind that rapid growth are some very attractive advantages to PEB, which are highlighted in this article. Among the key advantages are competitive initial pricing, cost predictability, rapid construction, efficiency of structural design, low-maintenance requirements, and expansion flexibility. With the variety of architectural finishes available, these buildings can be quite attractive for a wide range of enduse applications, from factories and warehouses, to shopping centers and community buildings.

Syed Firoz, Sarath Chandra Kumar B, S.Kanakambara Rao / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) : Prefabricated Tubular steel Structure: The Tabular section has more torsional resistance than other sections including the solid round one. These tubular sheds are entirely prefabricated and can be transported to site in knock down condition. No welding is required at site. Preengineered buildings are generally low rise buildings; however the maximum eave heights can go up to 25 to 30 metres. Low rise buildings are ideal for offices, houses, showrooms, shop fronts etc. The application of pre-engineered concept to low rise buildings is very economical and speedy. Buildings can be constructed in less than half the normal time especially when complimented with other engineered sub-systems. CMAA-Southern California Chapter: Pre engineered buildings (PEB) steel parts are required to be installed in a specific order due to structural safety requirements and to the logical sequence of erection. However, shipping ,

transportation, unloading and on-site storage does not take into account the erection order of the assembly. As a result, considerable time is consumed locating, sorting, and identifying steel components. Integrating promising information technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID), mobile computing devices and wireless technology can be useful in improving the effectiveness and convenience of information flow in construction projects. Preengineered buildings require repetitive operations and assembly of many structural elements. Current information and communication technology may be incorporated in the operational process for efficient assembly at the job site. An information flow diagram for Pre-Engineered process from shipping the steel materials till erection on the construction site is developed. Then, a proposed improved steel process is modelled and presented.

BIM-J.P.RAMMANT (NEMETSCHEK SCIA): This paper concentrates on industrial steel buildings, with a focus on pre-engineered metal buildings (PEB). The metal building industry dates back to the early 1900s with the production of small buildings for use of garages, tools sheds and shelters for men and equipment. Later it moved on to build warehouses, aircraft hangars and utilitarian storage buildings. In the 1960’s the metal building industry developed further with the boom in agricultural and industrial buildings, leisure in-door halls (tennis), car sales outlets and shopping centers. To reduce the costs, the manufacturers adopted the “pre-engineering” concept, where they choose to design, detail and fabricate a defined group of standard buildings of set widths, heights and loadings. The majority of pre-engineered buildings are chosen from a specific combination, offered by the manufacturer, by varying the span, height, bay size, loading systems and foundations with limited set of choices. From a catalogue of standard parts, the manufacturer quickly interpolates in between existing designs to work out a new proposal. By this, metal building systems have evolved through the years into assemblages of structural elements that work together as an efficient structural system. While there are many variations on the theme, the basic elements of the metal building system are constant: primary rigid frames, secondary members (wall grits and roof purlins), cladding and bracing. All major metal building system manufacturers utilize computer tools to custom design a building system and all building components, based on the customer’s specifications.

CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL WAREHOUSE Any structure used by industry to store raw materials or for manufacturing products of the industry is known as industrial building. Industrial maybe categorised as normal type industrial buildings and special industrial type buildings. Normal types of industrial buildings are shed type buildings with simple roof structures on open frame. These buildings are used for workshop, warehouses, etc. These buildings require large and clear areas unobstructed by the columns. The industrial buildings are constructed with adequate headroom for the use of overhead travelling crane. Special types of industrial buildings are steel mill buildings used for manufacture of heavy machines, production of power, etc. The function of industrial building dictates the degree of sophistication. 4.1 Functions of shed  Used to store goods, spare components such as electric motors, gear boxes, coupling etc.  Prevent rain penetration from the roof and the wall that might spoil the component kept inside the warehouse.  Safety and reliability under service life.  Distribution point of material and goods between manufacturer to costumer and all points in between.

1) Design of roof truss by (IS 875-2007)

Design of steel roof having effective span and pitch. The building is situated in Mumbai.
1. 2. 3. 4. Spacing of truss = 8m Plan area = 21.86 x 8 m = 174.88m2 Pitch = 100 Sloping length = 21.86m

Dead load analysis
1. Weight of roofing = 0.085 kN/m2 2. Weight of fixtures = 0.025 kN/m2 3. Weight of purlin = 34.4 kN 4. Self weight of truss = 0.386 kN/m2

Total dead load = 239.64 kN Panel load = 6 kN End panel load = 3 kN

Live load analysis
1. Live load intensity = 0.75 kN/m2 Total live load = 258 kN Panel load = 6.5 kN End panel load = 3.25 kN

Wind load analysis
5. Design wind speed (Vb) in m/s :-

1. Vz = Vb x k1 x k2 x k3 Where , Vb = basic wind speed = 44 kN/m2 k1 = risk factor = 1.0 k2 = terrain factor = 1.0 k3 = topography factor = 1.0 2. Design wind pressure (Pd)

Pd = 1.2KN/m2

Wind Angle

Pressure coefficient Windward Leeward -1.2 -0.4 -0.8 -0.6

Cpi

Cpe±Cpi Windward Leeward -17 -0.7 -1.3 -0.3

A*Pd (KN)

Wind Load Windward Leeward

0o 90o

-0.5 +0.5 -0.5 +0.5

-0.9 +0.1 -1.1 -0.1

209.86 209.86

-335.78 -125.92 -272.82 -62.96

-230.85 -20.99 -230.85 -20.99

h/w=16/43 =0.37

CRANE LOADS Lifting Capacity= 200 KN Self weight of crane =200 KN Weight of crab = 30 KN Crane Load 1 (when crab is on left side for one bay): Reaction on R.H.S = 125.88 KN Reaction on L.H.S = 304.125 KN Crane Load 1 (when crab is on right side for one bay): Reaction on R.H.S = 608.25 KN Reaction on L.H.S = 251.76 KN

LOAD CASES 1. Dead Load 2. Live Load 3. Crane Load 1 4. Crane Load 2 5. Wind Load left to right 6. Wind Load right to left 7. Wind Load parallel to ridge LOAD COMBINATIONS 101 1.0 [D + L + CL L.H.S] 102 1.0 [D + L + CL R.H.S] 103 1.0 [D + WL LR] 104 1.0 [D + WL RL] 105 1.0 [D + WL PR] 106 1.0 [D + CL L.H.S ] + 0.5 WL LR]

107 1.0 [D + CL R.H.S ] + 0.5 WL LR] 108 1.0 [D + CL L.H.S ] + 0.5 WL RL] 109 1.0 [D + CL R.H.S ] + 0.5 WL RL] 110 1.0 [D + CL L.H.S ] + 0.5 WL PR] 111 1.0 [D + CL R.H.S ] + 0.5 WL PR] 112 1.0 [D + WL LR ] + 0.5 CL L.H.S ] 113 1.0 [D + WL LR ] + 0.5 CL R.H.S ] 114 1.0 [D + WL RL ] + 0.5 CL L.H.S ] 115 1.0 [D + WL RL ] + 0.5 CL R.H.S ] 116 1.0 [D + WL PR ] + 0.5 CL L.H.S ] 117 1.0 [D + WL PR ] + 0.5 CL R.H.S ] 201 1.35 [D + L + CL L.H.S] 202 1.35 [D + L + CL R.H.S] 203 1.2 [D + WL LR] 204 1.2 [D + WL RL] 205 1.2 [D + WL PR] 206 1.2 [D + CL L.H.S ] + 0.6 WL LR] 207 1.2 [D + CL R.H.S ] + 0.6 WL LR] 208 1.2 [D + CL L.H.S ] + 0.6 WL RL] 209 1.2 [D + CL R.H.S ] + 0.6 WL RL] 210 1.2 [D + CL L.H.S ] + 0.6 WL PR] 211 1.2 [D + CL R.H.S ] + 0.6 WL PR] 212 1.2 [D + WL LR ] + 0.6 CL L.H.S ] 213 1.2 [D + WL LR ] + 0.6 CL R.H.S ] 214 1.2 [D + WL RL ] + 0.6 CL L.H.S ] 215 1.2 [D + WL RL ] + 0.6 CL R.H.S ] 216 1.2 [D + WL PR ] + 0.6 CL L.H.S ] 217 1.2 [D + WL PR ] + 0.6 CL R.H.S ] Wind load

Gantry Girders

Loads acting on gantry girder 1. 2. 3. 4. Vertical loads Weight of crane girders Weight of trolley or crab car Self weight of girder and rail

Design Step 1: determination of loads:i. ii. Wc =weight of crane ((udl)= 200 KN Wheel load (W1) =Wc/4 = 200/4 = 50 KN Maximum wheel load due to trolley and tilted load:Wheel load (W2) = Wt (B-g)/2B B= 20 m Wt =200+30= 230 g = 1.5 m W2 = 230(20-1.5)/(2X20) = 106.37 KN W1 = Wc/4 =200/4 =50 KN Maximum static wheel load,

=W= W1+W2= 50+106.37= 156.37 Step 2: Determination of B.M due to vertical B.M Static wheel load = 156.37 KN Add impact allowance 25% = 39.1 KN Therefore W = 156.37 + 39.1 = 195.47 KN Wheel base b =3 m Span of girder L = 8m 0.586 l = 0.586 x 8 = 4.69 m Since (b< 0.586 L) maximum BM will occur when at centre of span is midway between C.G of loads and one wheel load. Hence distance of one wheel from centre of span = b/4 = ¾ = 0.75 m Let, (W1) self weight of girder = 2W/250 = 2X195.47/ 250 = 1.56 KN/m Assume, (W2) weight of rail = 0.3 KN/m Total W= W1 +W2 = 1.56 +0.3 = 1.86 KN/m Maximum BM will occur under wheel load (F) which is nearer to the centre of span. Now, = [ (1.86 X 8 X ) + 195.47 (1.75+ 4.75)]
8 2 1 8

= 166.25 KN = 239.57 KN Check total = 405.82 KN Mx @ F = 166.25 X 3.25 – 1.86X 3.252 /2 = 530.49 KNm Loading and bearing M. Calculation Data       c/c distance between columns (span of girder) = 8m cone capacity = 200 KN self weight of crane girder = 200 KN self weight of trolley (crab) = 30 KN Minimum hook approach = 1.2 m Distance between wheel cranes = 3.5 m

  

c/c distance between gantry rails = 20 m Assuming, self weight of rail section = 300 N/m yield stress of steel = 250 MPa

Load calculations i. Vertical loading Maximum static wheel load due to weight of crane = 200/4 = 50 KN Maximum static wheel load due to crane load, (−1) 200+30 (20 −1.5) W1= = = 106.375 KN 2 2 20 Total load due to weight of crane and the crane load = 50 +106.375 = 156.375 KN To allow for impact etc. This load should be multiplied by 25% Design load = 156.375 x 1.25 = 195.47 KN Wc = factored design load = 293.2 KN Lateral surge load 10% ( + ) 0.1 (200+30) Lateral load = = = 5.75 KN 4 4 Factored actual load = 8.63 KN Total lateral load = 2 x 8.63 = 17.26 KN Longitudinal (horizontal) braking load Horizontal force along rails = 5% of wheel load = 0.05x 195.47 = 9.77 KN Factored load (Pg) = 14.67 KN

ii.

iii.

Maximum bending moment I. Vertical maximum B.M (without considering self weight) M1 = Wc x L/4 = 293.2 X 8/4 = 586.4 KN m
2 (2 −4 )2 2 293.2 (2 −4)2 M2= = = 774.23 KNm 8 Therefore, taking greater moment M = 774.23 KN m Assume self weight of gantry as 1.6 KN/m Total dead load = 1600 +300 = 1.9 KN/m Factored dead load = 1.9 x 1.5 =2.85 KN/m BM DUE TO DEAD LOAD = W 2 /8 =2.85 x 82 /8 = 22.8 KN m
8 3

II.

Horizontal BM

III.

= 45.58 KN m 8 BM due to drag (assuming the rail height as 0.2 m and depth of girder as 0.6 m) Reaction due to drag force = Pg X e/L = 14.67(0.3+0.15)/8 = 0.825 M3 = R(L/2-C/4)= 0.825 (8/2-3/4) = 2.68 KN m Total design BM M2 =774.23+45.58+2.68 = 823 KN m
Moment due to surge load (My) =

2 17.26(2 −4)2

8 3

Shear force i. Vertical shear force Shear force due to wheel load = Wc(2-l/c) = 993.2( 2-3/8) = 476.45 KN SF due to dead load = Wl/2=2.85 x 8/2 = 11.4 KN Maximum ultimate shear force ( )= 476.45 +11.4 = 487.85 Lateral shear force due to surge load ( )= (2-3/8)x 17.26 = 28.05 KN Reaction due to drag force = 0.825 KN And maximum ultimate reaction ( )= 487.25 +0.825 =488.675 KN

ii.

Preliminary selection of girder Since L/12 = 8000/12= 666.67 mm We choose depth as 600 mm Approximate width of beam = L/30 =266.67 mm Since deflection govern the design choose I , using the deflection limit of L/150 I=
15.6 195.47 (8000 −3000)(2 8000 8000+2 8000 3000 −3000 3000)10 3 8000 2 10 5

= 1.59 X103 m3
6 6 3 Zp= 1.4xM/ = 1.4 x 823 x 10 / 250 = 4.61x 10

Choose ISWB 600 @145.1 Kg/m A= 18486 2 B= 250 mm =23.6 mm

= 11.8 mm = 1156.26 x 106 4 = 5298 x 104 4 = 3854.2 x 103 3 = 18 ISMC 400 @ 49.4 Kg/m A= 6293 2 h= 400 m B= 100 mm = 15.3 mm = 8.6 mm = 24.2 mm = 15082.8 4 =504.8 4 =754.1 3

1. Elastic properties of combined section Total area = 18486+ 6293 = 24779 2 The distance of NA of built up section from the extreme fibre of tension flange

=

1+ + 2 +

=

18486 300+8.6 +6293 24.2 18486+6293

= 236.37 mm

= 363.63 mm = of I section + AI x ( + ) + of channel + Ac ( − ) =1156.26 x 106 +18486 (236.37 − 308.6)2 + 504.8 x 104 + 6293 (236.37-24.2) =1541.03 x 106 4

Section modulus = =
1541.03 10 6 236.37 1541.03 10 6 363.63

= 6519 X 103 3

= 4237.904 X 103 3

combined = 5298.3 x 104 + 15082.8 x 104 = 203.811 x 106 = =
1541.03 10 6 236.37 1541.03 10 6 363.63

= 6519.57 X 103 3 = 4237.91 X 103
3

for tension flange about y-y axis =
24.2 250 3 12

= 31.51 X 106 4

For compression flange @ y-y axis = + channel = 31.51 x 106 + 15082.8 x 104 =182.34 x 106 4 (from top flange alone)=
182.34 10 6 200

= 911.7 X 103 3

Calculation of plastic modulus Plastic neutral axis divides the area into two equal area i.e 18486 +6293 = = 12389.5 2 2 =
6293 2 11.8

= 266.65 mm

Ignoring fillets, the plastic section modulus below the equal area axis is ∑AῩ = 23.6X 250(566.65-23.6/2) +(566.65-23.6)X 11.8X(566.65-23.6/2) = 6829.09 X103 3 Above the equal area axis ∑AῩ = 6293 X(41.95-23.6)+ 250X 23.6(41.95-8.6-23.6/2)+9.75X11.8X9.75/2

= 243.743 X 103 2 =7072.83 x 103 2 (from top flange only) = 23.6x 250x 250/4 +(400 − (2 15.3)/4)2 X 8.6 +2X 100 X 15.3 X (400/2-15.3/2) = 2281.35 X 103 3 Check for moment capacity Check for plastic section

= 5.04 <9.4Ԑ 23.6 b/t of flange of channel=(100-8.6)/15.3 = 5.97<9.4Ԑ d/t of web of I section = (600-2x23.6)/11.8 =46.84< 84
b/t of flange of I beam= Local moment capacity
1.2 1.2 4237.91 10 3 250

(250 −11.8)/2

1.1 1.1 M = 1155.79 KNm Hence take = 1155.79 For M : M = (Top flange) 1.1 =250/1.1 x 2281.35 x103 x 10−6 =518.48 KNm 1.2 1.2 911.7 10 3 250 = = 1.1 1.1

=

=248.62 KNm <

Combined local capacity check

=0.89<1 1155.79 248.64 choice
+

823

45.58

Check for buckling resistance Bending strength = β=1.0 h=600+8.6=608.6mm KL= 8000mm Ԑ=200 x 103 /2 = 23.6+8.6= 32.3 mm = 1541.03 x 106 4 = 203.81 x 106 4

=

=

203.81 10 6 18486 +6293

= 90.7 mm

=

1 2 € 22

1+

1 20

/ / 1 8000 /90.7

=

1.132 2 200 10 3 203.8 10 6 608.6 2 8000 2

1+

20 608.6/32.2

= 3129.55 KN-m ℷ =

=

7072.83 250 3129.55 10 6

= 0.752

Along the Z-direction = 0.5 1 + − 0.2 2 = 0.5 1 + 0.21 0.752 − 0.2 0.7522 = 0.841 Channel will normally be connected by intermittent weld to I-section value Has been taken as 0.21.Its heavy welded = 0.49

ʋ = = =

1 + 2 − 1 0.841+ 0.8412 −0.752 2
0.5 2 0.5

<1

=0.81
ʋ 250 0.818 ɤ

=

1.1

=185.9 N/2

=
=1.0 X7072.83X103 X185.9 = 1314.83 > 823 KNm Thus the beam is satisfactory under vertical loading. Now it is necessary to check it under biaxial loading. For top flange only,

=

1.1 250 = x2281.35X103 1.1 =518.48 KNm 1.2 911.7 10 3 250 1.1

x

=

=248.64 KNm < 518.48 KNm

a. Check for biaxial bending

+

not greater than 1.0
45.58

823 1314.33

+

248.64

= 0.809 not greater than 1

Therefore beam is safe  Check for shear capacity for vertical load = 487.85 KN Shear capacity =

3 1.1

=

600 11.8 250 3 1.1

= 929.00 KN > 487.85 KN

0.6 X 929 > 487.85 557.4 > 487.85 Maximum shear force is 487.85 which is less than 0.6 times shear capacity.

*Weld design: Required shear capacity of weld is given by,

q=

Ῡ = 236.37
A = 6293 2 = 487.85 KN = = 1541.03 X 106 4 q=
487.85 10 3 6293 236.37 1541 .03 10 6

= 470.81 N/mm
This shear is taken by welds. Hence use a minimum weld of 4mm (470.89 N/mm) per weld. Connecting the channel to top flange of I- beam. *For lateral shear force

= = 28.05 KN Shear capacity = =

= 3 1.1

250 23.6+400 8.06) 250 3 1.1

= 1225.56> 28.05 KN

Hence it is safe for resisting lateral shear.

 Web buckling 1 = 100 mm 1 = 600/2 + (2X8.6) = 317.2 mm Effective length = 0.7 X D = 0.7 X 608.6 KL= 426.02 mm

ɤ = =

12

=

11.8 12

= 3.401 =
250 ( 3.406 )2 2 10 5 2
426 .02

(

2 ) 2 €

= 1.98

= = 0.5 1 + 0.49 1.98 − 0.2 1.982 = 2.89

Ҳ=

1 + −ℷ
2 2

= 0.2

=

250 0.2 1.1

= 45.45 N/2

= Buckling resistance = (1 + 1 ) = (100+317.2) X11.8X45.45 = 223.77 KN > = 293.2 KN Maximum wheel load Therefore safe  Web bearing (crippling) Load this portion at support with 1:2:5 dispersion Minimum shift bearing =
1.1

Design of Purlin Span=8m Spacing=2.14m Loads θ=10degree

LL = 0.75 KN/ 2 DL = 0.696 KN/ 2 WL = 1.86 KN/ 2 WDL L L= 0.75 x 2.14=1.605 KN/m DL = 0.696 x 2.14=1.489 KN/m WL = 1.8682.14=3.98 KN/m Load combination 1.5(DL+LL) = 1.5(1.489+1.605) = 4.64 KN/m Assume b =1(plastic s/c) A. Load Combination(DL+LL)1.5 W = 1.5(1.489+1.605) = 4.64 KN/m Wx = 4.6481010 = 4.569 KN/m Wy = 4.64 x sin10 = 0.8057 KN/m Mx = 4.569 x (b)2/10 = 29.24 KN/m SF = B=1
4.569 8 2

= 18.28 KN

(plastic s/c)

Md=Bb[ Zp x250]/1.1

29.24 x 103 =[1 x zp]/1.1 x 250 Zp = 128.66 x 103 Zp/ze = 1.12 Ze = 128.66 x 103 /1.12= 114.88 x 103 3 Try s/c. ISMC-200 A = 282 x 2 B = 75 Tf = 11.4 Tw = 6.1 Cy = 2.17 Ixx = 1819.3 x 104 Iyy = 140.4 x 104 Zxx = 181.9 x 103 Zyy = 26.3 x 103

Zpz = 211.15 x 103 3  S/c classification b/Tf = 75/11.4=6.57<9.4 d/Tw = 177.2/6.1=29.04<42 S/c is plastic  Check for shear capacity Clause 8.4 of 15800

Av = (200 x 6.1)=12202

3

=

1220 250 3 1.1103

= 160.5 KN > 18.28 KN Safe  Check for moment capacity Mdz =

= 47.98 x 106 KNm

Mdz should be less than
1.2 181.9 10 3 1.1 250

= 49.6 KNm

Mdz > 1.2mdz Safe. Zpy = y x A=19 x 28.21 =53.59 x 103 3 Mdy =
1.2 250 53.59 10 3 1.1 10 6 1.2250 26.3 103 1.1 106

=12.18 KN

Mdy =

=7.17 106
 Check for biaxial binding

+

=

29.24 48

+

5.156 12.18

= 1.03 less than or equal to 1

Unsafe Use next s/c ISMC 250 A = 3867 Zex = 305.3 x 103 Zey = 38.4 x 103 Tf = 12.4 Tw = 6.4 Moment capacity only Zpx = y x a = 92.50 x 3867 = 357.703 x 103 3 Zpy = y x a = 20 x 3867 = 77.34 x 103 3 Tvy = 3816.8/104

Mde =

1.2 305.3 10 3 250 1.1 10 6

Mdz <= 83.26km Safe. Mdy =
1 77.34 103 250 1.1 106

= 17.57.1KN m > 5.156 KN m Mde = 
1.238.4 103 250 1.1 106

=10.47

Check for biaxial binding

+

=

29.24 81.29

+

5.156 17.57

= 0.65 less than or equal to 1

Safe.

Deflection W = 4.64 x 1.5 = 3.938 = 24.74 KN δ=
5 24.74 8000 384 2 10 5 3816 .84 10 4

= 21.60mm < L/180 = 44.44mm

Safe. B. Load Combination 1.5(DL+WL) = 1.5(1.489-3.98) =-3.73km/m Wx = 3.73 X 10510 =3.679 KN/m Wy = (1.489 X sin10)1.5 =0.387 KN/m Mx =
3.679 82 = 23.54 KNm > 81.29 KNm 10

My =

0.387 82 = 2.4 KN m > 17.57 KNm 10

S/c is Safe

+

=

23.54 81.29

+

2.48 17.57

= 0.43 less than or equal to 1

Safe.

DESIGN OF CLAD RUNNER Length of Runner = LOAD ON GRIT:Load of Cladding = Wt. of Grit Total = 0.085 x 1.5 ISMC250 0.3445 kN/m 0.1275 KN/m 0.217 kN/m 8m

Wind pressure /m run Ww = 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.5 = 2.16 kN/m

We considered , Dead + Wind load combination as a critical

Factored =

3.75675

Design Bending Moment Mz = (Wx) x l²/10 = 24.0432 kN.m

By considering sag rod in another direction, L= 3.0 m

My = (Wy) x l²/10 =

2.20

kN.m

Selection of Section ISMC 250 3816.8 Zxx (cm3) = 219.1 Zyy (cm3) = Zpz=y1xA =92.00*3867 Zpz= 357700mm4 305.3 Area (cm2) 38.4 38.67

Ixx (cm4)= Iyy (cm4)=

Zpy=y2xA

=20*3867 Zpy= 77340mm4 Mdz= 357.7x10^3x250/1.1x10^6 Mdz = 81.29KNm Mdze = 1.2x305.7x10^3x250/1.1x10^6 Mdze = 8 3.26 KNm greater than Mdz so its safe..

Mdy= 77.37x10^3x250/1.1x10^6 Mdy = 17.81.29KNm Mdye = 1.2x38.11x10^3x250/1.1x10^6 Mdye = 10.26 KNm

check for biaxial bending Mz/Mdz +My/Mdy < 1 24.01/81.29 + 2.22/17.57 Check for Deflection :δx = ( 5x 2.5x8x10^3x8000^3)/(384x2x10^5x3816.18x10^4) TRUE

δx =

17.46 mm

δallowable = L/180 =44mm

SAFE

DESIGN OF BASE PLATE FOR INDUSTRIAL SHED

(For Column MB500)

Load Combination 101 1.0 [D + L + CL L.H.S] 104 1.0 [D + WL RL]

H ( kn ) 28.24 79.33

P ( kn ) 865.44 -683.38

M ( kn-m ) 0 0

NODE NO. for maximum compressive force 97 for maximum tensile force 97

Fck = 30

N/mm^2

Column size : ISMB500 The overall column cross section in plan IS 500 x 180 Base plate dimensions are =600 x 400 Let 'X' be the depth of NA from A Provide 6 Nos 30dia anchor bolts 0f 4.6grade

Capacity of Bolts 1) Tension = 2) Shear = 152.5 kN 103.8 kN

Actual tension per bolt = 683.384 =113.897 kN

Actual shear per bolt =

79.326 =

13.221 kN

Tension ratio = Cal. Tension

=113.897

=0.747

Perm. Tension =152.5

Shear ratio = Cal. Shear =13.221 =0.127

Perm. Shear=103.8

( As per Cl.10.3.6, of IS 800 - 2007 , pg no 76 )

Combined Shear & Tension ratio =

0.558009

+

0.016129

=

0.574138

1.0

Hence OK

Forces on base plate

1) Base pressure = 2) Max Tension in bolt =

0.45 x 30 113.897

= kN =

14

N/mm^2

113897 N

A) Due to base pressure

w =

Base pressure =

3.61

N/mm^2

a= 110mm b= 50mm

ts=

[2.5w(a2-0.3b2)ƴm0/fy]

ts=

[2.5x3.61x(1102-0.3x502)x1.1/250]

ts=

21.220 mm

Thickness of Base Plate Required due to Base pressure = 21.22 mm

B) Due to bolt tension

BM = 113897 x 50 x 3

=

17084550

Nmm

Md = fy =

1.2 x Ze x fy / ɣmo 250 Mpa

ɣmo = 1.1

17084550 =

1.2 x 66.67 x t^2 x 250 1.1

Ze = b x t ² = 66.67 X t² b = 400 6

17084550 =

18182.727

t =

17084550 18183

t=

30.653 mm

Thickness of Base Plate Required due to Tension in Bolt = 30.653 mm

Provide 32 mm thk. Base plate

Base plate 600 x 400 x 32 thk

DESIGN OF PEDESTAL
Node - 2215 LOAD CASE :104 1.0 [D + WL RL]

Material Reinforcement Grade = 415 Mpa Concrete Grade = 30 Mpa Load at Top of Pedestal -

Fx (kN) = 22.9 Fy (kN) = 865.45 Fz (kN) = 9.6

Mx (kN.m)= Mz (kN.m)=

0 0

Column Size = (0.5 x0.75)m Load at Bottom of Pedestal at 1.4 m depth

Fx (kN) = 22.9 Fy (kN) = 878.575 Fz (kN) = 9.6

Mx (kN.m)= Mz (kN.m)=

13.44 32.06

Factored Force Fx (kN) = Fy (kN) = Fz (kN) = 34.35 1317.86 14.40 Mx (kN.m)= Mz (kN.m)= 20.16 48.09

DESIGN OF COLUMN -

Assume % of steel in pedestal (p) =

0.15

%

p/ fck = 0.005

Uniaxial moment capacity of the section about major axis -

d'/D = 0.1

Pu / fck b D =

(1317862.5)/(30x500x750)

=

0.117143333

Hence from chart 44 , ( Mu / fck b D2 ) =

0.1

Muz1 = 0.1x30x750x500^2=

562500000

N.m

=

562.5 kN.m

Uniaxial moment capacity of the section about minor axis -

d'/D = 0.067

Pu / fck b D =

(1317862.5)/(30x500x750)

=

0.117143333

Hence from chart 44, ( Mu / fck b D2 ) =

0.1

Mux1 = 0.1x30x500x750^2=

843750000

N.m

=

843.75 kN.m

Referring Chart - 63 of SP- 16

Puz /Ag =

16

N/mm2

Puz =

16x500x750=

6000000

N

=

6000

kN

Pu /Puz =

1317.86/6000=

0.220

Muz/ Muz1 =

48.09/562.5=

0.085

Mux / Mux1 = 20.16/843.75=

0.024

Referring Chart - 64 of SP- 16

By taking above value of Pu/Puz and Mux / Mux1

Muz / Muz1 = 0.78

> SAFE

0.024

Column Link spacing = B Column = D 750 500 666 416

Core dimension =

Cover = 50

Link = 8

Ash = 0.18 x S x h x fck / fy x [(Ag / Ak) -1]

S = 1/4 of min. dimension =

125

or

100 100

Striupps spacing (S) will be smaller of above value =

Provide overlapping OR single loops

h is spacing between bar = 100 mm

Ag =

375000 mm2

Ak= fck=

277056 mm2 30

fy=

415

Ast (req.) =

46.00 mm2

Ast (prov.) =

50.24 mm2

Bibliography
1. IS 800:2007 – Revised code of practice for general construction in steel. 2. IS 875(part 1, 2, 3 and 5):1987 – Code for practice for design of loads(other than earthquake) for the building and the structure. 3. IS 456-2000 –Revised code of practice for general construction in RCC. 4. Duggal, S.K. :”Design of Steel Structures” , Tata McGraw -Hill Publication Company limited 2000. 5. N. Subramanian : “Design of Steel Structures “,Oxford Higher Education. 6. Dr. B.C.Punmia , Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun Kumar Jain: “Design of Steel Structure”, Lakshmi Publication. 7. Dr. V.L.Shah and Dr.S.R.Karve. :”Limit State Theory and Design of Reinforced Concrete”.