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Velikovsky Earth in Upheaval

Velikovsky Earth in Upheaval


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There is a

"certainty beyond challenge that when the

icecap of the last Glacial

period covered a

large part of

the northern

hemisphere, at least three

great rivers flowed
from west to east across the whole width of the [Arabian]

Peninsula." So wrote

Philby in his book Arabia.1


was also a

large lake in Arabia that

disappeared in some

geological or climatal



present, from Palmyra to Mecca and beyond, the
Arabian Peninsula is a waterless desert, interspersed with

volcanoes active not so

long ago, but now extinct, the last

eruption having taken

place in 1253.8

There were also,

sometime in the

past, numerous geysers all likewise ex-

tinct now.

Twenty-eight fields of burned and broken stones, called

harras, are found in Arabia, mostly in the western half

of the

great desert. Some single fields are one hundred

miles in diameter and

occupy an area of six or seven


square miles, stone

lying close to stone, so

densely packed that

passage through the field is almost


The stones are

sharp-edged and scorched

8 A. Berthelot, L'Afrique saharienne et soudanaise (1927) , p. 85.

1H. St.

J. B. Philby, Arabia (1930), p. xv.

2 Described by Bertram Thomas; cf. C. P. Grant, The Syrian Desert

(1937), p. 53.

8 B. Moritz, Arabien, Studien zur phystkalischen und historischen Geo-

graphic des Landes (1923).

4 Described by C. M. Doughty and by B. Moritz. The letter's book,

Arabien, contains a

close-up photograph of a harra.



black. No volcanic

eruption could have cast scorched

stones over fields as

large as the harras; neither would

the stones from volcanoes have been so

evenly spread.

The absence, in most cases, of lava the stones lie free


speaks against a volcanic

origin of the stones.


appears that the blackened and broken stones of the
harras are trains of meteorites, scorched in their


through the

atmosphere, that broke during their fall, as
bolides do, or on reaching the ground. Billions of stones

in a

single harra indicate that the trains of meteorites
were very large and can be classed as comets.



exposure to the thermal action of the hot desert

sun and the cool desert

night, the

sharp edges of the

stones have been

preserved, which shows that

they fell in

a not too distant

period of time. Following the


adopted in this

book, literary references to the harras of
Arabia in ancient Hebrew and Arabic literatures will not

be dealt with here.

Meteorites that fall on the earth are of two kinds. One

consists of iron with an admixture of nickel; by means

of this admixture and the characteristic

pattern seen in the
cut surface of such stones, their meteoric origin can be

easily established. The other

group, probably larger than


first, does not differ in its

composition from the rocks
of the earth and cannot be distinguished unless the fall

has been observed, or, as in the case of the stones of the

harras, their scorched and broken condition, together with

their occurrence in

large fields, speak for their extra-



Larger bodies than the stones of the harras fell on

Arabia, too. In Wobar in the desert there is a meteoric

crater with meteoric iron and silica

glass spread around


Large rivers that

disappeared, numerous volcanoes that
burned and were extinguished, blackened stones that fell

in areas each of them a hundred times larger than any


eruption could have covered, and meteoric iron

spread around a

large crater all of these

bespeak great

upheavals in nature in recent as well as earlier ages, to

5 R. Schwinner, Physikalische Geologic (1936), I, 114, 163; L. J.

Spencer, "Meteoric Iron and Silica Glass from the Craters of Henbury

(Central Australia) and Wobar (Arabia)," Mineralogical Magazine,
XXIII (1933), 387-404.



which the vast

peninsula of Arabia was more than once


In the southern

part of the

great Arabian desert, an-


ruins, almost

entirely obliterated

by time and the

elements, and

vestiges of cultivation are silent witnesses
of the time when the land there was hospitable and fruit-

ful; it was as

copiously watered and luxuriously forested
as India on the same latitude. Orchards covered Hadhra-

maut and Aden. It was a land of

plenty, paradise on

earth, but

following a sudden

catastrophe, Arabia Felix
turned to a barren land. Arabia Petraea, the western


of the

desert, is a

dusty rock of lava that is broken

by the
Great Rift, with the Dead Sea, an inner lake, on its bot-


Sulphurous springs flow into it, and asphalt rises
from its floor and floats on it.

Like the Sahara and Arabian deserts, other great deserts

of the world disclose the fact that

they were inhabited and

cultivated sometime in the

past. On the Tibetan


and in the Gobi Desert remains of

early prosperous civi-

lizations were found with occasional ruins surviving from

those times when the

great barren tracts were cultivated.
In the Gobi Desert, as in the Arabian and Sahara deserts,


impression is

gained that in a tectonic disturbance the

subterranean water

dropped to a

great depth, the sources

became sealed, and the rivers dried

up completely. Some

changes in

ground structure or in

ground currents also

affect the clouds, which pass over such lands without un-

burdening themselves.

The Carolina Bays

Peculiar elliptical depressions, or "oval craters," locally

called "bays," are

thickly scattered over the Carolina

coast of the United States and more sparsely over the

entire Atlantic coastal

plain from southern New Jersey

to northeastern Florida. These marshy depressions are

numbered in the tens of thousands and, according to the

latest estimate, their number may reach half a million.1


Douglas Johnson, The Origin of the Carolina Bays (1942): W F.

Prouty, "Carolina Bays and Their Origin." Bulletin of the Geological

Society of America, LXIII (1952), 167-224.



Measurements made on more prominent ones, seaward

Darlington, show that the larger bays average 2200

feet in

length, and in

single cases exceed 8000 feet. A

remarkable feature of these

depressions is their


ism: the

long axis of each of them extends from north-

west to

southeast, and the

precision of the

parallelism is

"striking." Around the

bays are rims of earth, invariably
elevated at the southeastern end. These oval


may be seen

especially well in aerial

photographs. Any

theory as to their

origin must

explain their form, the

ellipticity of which increases with the size of the



parallel alignment; and the elevated rims at their

southeastern ends.

In 1933 a

theory was

presented by Melton and

Schriever of the

University of Oklahoma, according to

which the

bays are scars left

by a "meteoric shower or

colliding comet." 2

Since then the

majority of the authors

who have dealt with the

problem have

accepted this view,

and it has found its

way into textbooks as the usual in-


The authors of the

theory stress the fact

that, "Since the

origin of the bays apparently cannot be

explained by the well-known

types of geological activity,


extraordinary process must be found. Such a

process is

suggested by the

elliptical shape, the

parallel alinement,

and the

systematic arrangement of elevated rims."
The comet must have struck from the northwest. "If

the cosmic masses

approached this

region from the north-

west, the

major axes would have the desired alinement."

The time when the

catastrophe took

place was estimated
as sometime during the Ice Age. The bays are "filled to a

considerable extent

by the

deposition of sand and silt, a

process which doubtless occurred while the region was

by the sea

during the terrace-forming marine in-

vasion of the Pleistocene

[glacial] period." 4

But the


sibility was also

envisaged that "the collision took


through "the shallow ocean water during the marine in-
vasion." The swarm of meteorites must have been large

enough to hit an area from Florida to New Jersey.
Some critics

disagree with the idea that the

bays orig-

2 F. A. Melton and W. Schriever, "The Carolina Bays Are They

Meteorite Scars?" Journal of Geology, XLI (1933).

8 Cf. Johnson, The Origin of the Carolina Bays, p. 4.

4 Melton and Schriever, Journal of Geology, XLI (1933), 56.



inated in the Ice

Age or "are

relatively ancient," and



origin in a more recent time.6

The craters were


duced by meteoric

impact, either

by direct hits or

by ex-

plosion in the air close to the

ground, thus

causing the

formation of vast numbers of

depressions. Some of the

bays, it is

assumed, are on the bottom of the ocean. It
was also stressed that "a very large number of meteorites

have been discovered in the southern

Appalachian region,


Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,

Kentucky, and Tennessee." 6

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