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Indeterminate beams

Prof Schierle

1

Indeterminate beams

1 2 Simple beam (determinate) Fixed end beam (indeterminate) M = WL/24 (mid-span) M = -WL/12 (supports) 3 Continuous beam (2-bays) 4 Continuous beam (3-bays) Indeterminate beams cannot be analyzed by static analysis. However, bending coefficients are available for common conditions, such as beams with uniform load or equally spaced point loads, and supported by equally spaced supports. Using coefficients, bending moments are: M=CWL M = bending moment C = Coefficient W = w L (total load) L = span between supports

Indeterminate beams Prof Schierle 2

**Fixed end beams
**

Usually have moment resistant Connections to columns Fixed ends create negative bending at the supports that reduces the positive bending between supports The combined bending is equal to that of an equivalent simple beam but the separate smaller bending moments allow smaller beams

Indeterminate beams

Prof Schierle

3

Bending coefficients for fixed end beam Examples Assume: L = 30’, W = 60 k = 2klf x 30’ 1

\

Fixed end beam with uniform load M = -.083 (60) 30 M = -149 k’ M = .042 (60) 30 M = 76 k’ Fixed end beam with 1 point load M = -.125 (60) 30 M = -225 k’ M = .125 (60) 30 M = 225 k’ Fixed end beam with 2 point loads M = -.111 (60) 30 M = -200 k’ M = .056 (60) 30 M = 101 k’ Fixed end beam with 3 point loads M = -.104 (60) 30 M = -187 k’ M = .063 (60) 30 M = 113 k’

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2

3

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Indeterminate beams

Prof Schierle

Dead load

Live load Bending coefficients for continuous beams Since dead load (DL) is always applied but live load (LL) may or may not be applied: • Beams at left are fully loaded with DL • Beams at right have LL on all or alternate bays, whichever gives the greatest results

Indeterminate beams

Prof Schierle

5

Dead load

Live load

**Dead Load Coefficients
**

Assume: L = 30’, W = 60k / bay (W = w L) 1 Beam with uniform DL 2-bay beam Bay M = .070 (60) 30 Support M = -.125 (60) 30 3-bay beam End bay M = .080 (60) 30 Mid bay M = .025 (60) 30 Support M = -.100 (60) 30 2 Beam with 1 point DL per bay 3-bay beam End bay M = .175 (60) 30 Mid bay M = .100 (60) 30 Support M = -.150 (60) 30 3 Beam with 2 point DL per bay 3-bay beam End bay M = .122 (60) 30 Mid bay M = .033 (60) 30 Support M = -.134 (60) 30

**M = 126 k’ M = -225 k’ M = 144 k’ M = 45 k’ M = -180 k’ M = 315 k’ M = 180 k’ M = -270 k’ M = 220 k’ M = 59 k’ M = -241 k’
**

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Indeterminate beams

Prof Schierle

Dead load

Live load

Live Load Coefficients Assume: L = 30’, W = 60k / bay (W = w L) 4 Beam with uniform LL 2-bay beam Bay M = .096 (60) 30 Support M = -.125 (60) 30 3-bay beam End bay M = .101 (60) 30 Mid bay M = .075 (60) 30 Support M = -.117 (60) 30 5 Beam with 1 point LL per bay 3-bay beam End bay M = .213 (60) 30 Mid bay M = .175 (60) 30 Support M = -.175 (60) 30 6 Beam with 2 point LL per bay 3-bay beam End bay M = .144 (60) 30 Mid bay M = .100 (60) 30 Support M = -.156 (60) 30

Prof Schierle

**M = 173 k’ M = -225 k’ M = 182 k’ M = 135 k’ M = -211 k’ M = 383 k’ M = 315 k’ M = -315 k’ M = 259 k’ M = 180 k’ M = -281 k’
**

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Indeterminate beams

Gerber Beam

The Gerber beam, named after its 19th century inventor, the German engineer Gerber, was in response to railroad bridge failures caused by uneven support settlements. 1 2 3 4 Large bending moment of simple beams Reduced bending of continuous beam Increased settlement bending causes failure Gerber beam with hinges at inflection points allows settlement without bending increase

Indeterminate beams

Prof Schierle

8

Gerber beams are used for glue-lam warehouse roof beams to reduce bending moments and beam size

Hinge detail

Indeterminate beams

Prof Schierle

9

Beam diagrams • Typical V M diagrams without computing • Visualize deflection as a flexible ruler • Draw shear and bending diagrams left to right; starting and ending with zero beyond the beam • Uniform load cause downward sloping shear • Point loads cause downward shear offset • Upward reactions cause upward shear offset • Estimate shear area to draw bending diagrams 1 Cantilever beam with point load 2 Cantilever beam with uniform load 3 Cantilever beam with mixed load 4 Simple beam with point loads 5 Simple beam with uniform load 6 Simple beam with mixed load 7 Beam with 1 overhang and point load 8 Beam with 1 overhang and uniform load 9 Beam with 1 overhang and mixed load 10 Beam with 2 overhangs and point loads 11 Beam with 2 overhangs and uniform load 12 Beam with 2 overhangs and mixed load

Indeterminate beams Prof Schierle 10

Shear effect 1 2 3 4 5 Beam with square mark to study stress Shear stress on square Equivalent split shear stress Shear stress as tension/compression stress Equivalent tension/compression stress cause diagonal tension cracks at beam supports

Isostatic lines combine bending and shear stress (compressive ”arch” lines and tensile “cable” lines)

Indeterminate beams Prof Schierle 11

Shear and bending distribution 1 2 3 4 5 A Beam diagram Shear diagram Bending diagram Shear stress Bending stress Best location of possible pipe hole: • Zero shear force at mid-span • Zero bending stress at mid-depth

**The diagrams reveal an interesting paradox: • • • •
**

Indeterminate beams

Linear shear force over beam length Parabolic shear stress over beam depth Parabolic bending moment over beam length Linear bending stress over beam depth

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Prof Schierle

Girder optimization

1 Stepped bending diagram used to optimize:

2 Steel girder with plates welded outside flanges

3 Steel girder with plates welded inside flanges

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4 Concrete girder with rebar lengths as required

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5 Parabolic girder reflecting bending moment

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**6 Tapered girder approximates bending moment
**

Prof Schierle 13

Indeterminate beams

Overhang effect

1 Simple beam

2 Beam overhangs reduce bending moment ~1/3 overhangs equalize positive and negative bending Overhangs can provide synergy with architectural design Overhangs reduce bending up to ~ 600%

Indeterminate beams Prof Schierle 14

happy end

Indeterminate beams

Prof Schierle

15

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