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By Rohit Mehta

Mechanical Engineering Department Bradley University Faculty: Dr. Sam Kherat

1

Notations:

L = Length (m) M = Mass (kg) E = Modulus of Elasticity (N/2 ) D = Average Diameter (m) m‟ = Mass per unit length (kg/m) I = Cross-sectional Moment of Inertia (4 ) w = Natural frequency of the bat. ρ = Density of the bat (kg/3 ) ν = Poisson‟s Ratio

**Values from experimental data:
**

L = 0.835 m ρ = 600 kg/3 M = 0.840 kg E = 1.22e10 N/2 ν = 0.371 Diameter at Barrel end = 0.064 m Diameter at Handle end = 0.0254 m Average Diameter = 0.0447 m Favg = 18,436 N (Time of contact with the bat = 0.007s)

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Index:

Title Abstract Page No. 4

Introduction

5

Assumption

5

Calculations based on the model assumed

6

Solution

10

Analysis in Ansys

12

Conclusion

14

References

14

3

Abstract:

The purpose of this project is to analyze the amount of vibrations on a baseball bat. The bat is assumed to be fixed at one end and the impact of the ball is recorded at the other locations. The amount of vibrations created in the bat is calculated by mathematical formulae. The mode shapes are determined by certain mathematical relations. A baseball bat when struck by a ball is subjected to transverse vibrations. Hence, to analyze this, the bat is modeled and analyzed in ANSYS and loads are applied at four locations. The sweet spot region is determined where the amount of vibrations is the least. The maximum amplitude achieved is assumed to be the value at which the bat should experience a lot of vibrations.

4

Introduction:

Without widespread interest in the game and the curiosity to analyze the behavior of a bat subjected to various forces during a game, the bat wouldn‟t have been a topic of research. A lot of people are involved in analyzing the amount of vibrations due to different types of forces and have been close but not accurate with results .The collision between a baseball bat and ball is a non trivial problem in mechanics that has been difficult to unravel experimentally and difficult to model theoretically. A lot of research is being done in this field as to why a bat breaks during a match. This has been a problem for various players when a bat suddenly cracks during the match and a nice shot is missed due to it. Wooden bats have been a favorite for most of the players as it produces a better shot as compared to a composite bat or a metallic bat. But the problem with wooden bats is failure. Hence, aluminum as well as composite bats are being used in matches nowadays to reduce the cost of the game and the disappointment and hindrance caused by wooden bats. Researchers have also analyzed the portion of the bat where vibrations are least and where vibrations are maximum. Such intense work in this field has led to improvisation in the game where the batter can get the maximum output from the bat and can get a homerun. The following project is a simple analysis of a wooden bat which is subjected to transverse vibrations due to the collision with a ball.

Assumption:

1. The bat is considered to be a cantilever beam fixed at one end. 2. The bat is uniform and not subjected to shear forces and bending moment. 3. The model of the bat is a beam with a circular cross section with a uniform average diameter. 4. Energy losses during a bat ball collision are neglected. 5. The calculations are based on the free vibrations of a bat with boundary conditions.

5

Calculations:

Bat Model based on the Euler- Bernoulli equation: The transverse vibrations of a continuous beam can be determined by a differential equation of the order four which is given by: 2 4 ′ 2 + 4 = (, )

Assuming free vibrations:

, = 0

2 4 2 + =0 2 4

2 = /′

By the separation of variables, let y(x,t) = Y(x)q(t) is a function of space and time.

To separate x and time t we need to assume a constant

Substituting y(x,t) in the differential equation and equating it with we get ,

2 4 2 = − = 4 2

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Hence we get two separate equations 4 − 4 = 0 4 and 2 + 2 = 0 2 4 = 2 ′ 2 = 2

The general solution is given by Y(x) = 1 sin() + 2 cos() + 3 sinh + 4 cosh() and q(t) = 5 sin()+6 cos() Boundary conditions: 1. Displacement and slope at fixed end are zero. 2. Moment and shear force on the beam at free end are zero.

Therefore, 0, = 2 3 0, = 2 , = 3 , = 0

also,

2 3 0, = 0, = 2 , = 3 , = 0

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Hence, = (1 cos − 2 sin + 3 cosh + 4 sinh ) 2 = 2 (−1 sin − 2 cos + 3 sinh + 4 sinh ) 2 3 = 3 (−1 sin + 2 sin + 3 cosh + 4 sinh ) 3

From the three equations above we get,

2 + 4 = 0

1 + 3 = 0

Substituting x = L −1 sin − 2 cos − 1 sinh − 2 sinh = 0 −1 sin + 2 sin − 1 cosh − 2 sinh = 0

The above equations can be written in matrix form as

11 21

12 1 0 22 2 = 0

11 = sin + sin ℎ 12 = cos + cos ℎ 21 = cos + cos ℎ 22 = −sin + sin ℎ

8

For a non-trivial solution, the determinant of the matrix „a‟ must be 0. Hence,

cos cos ℎ + 1 = 0

This equation can have infinite roots. To keep the solution simple only six roots were obtained. = 1.8751, 4.6941, 7.8548, 10.9955, 14.1372, 17.2788…………….. 2 = 4 4 4 = ′ ′4 ′4

= ()2

4 = 64 I = 1.9597e10-7 Substituting the values of , E, I, m‟ and L The first six frequencies are given by, 1 = 39.3 2 = 246.49 3 = 690.25 4 = 1349.435 Hz 5 =2230.74 Hz 6 =3332.34 Hz The system has infinite frequencies because it is a continuous system 2 sin + sin ℎ =− 1 cos + cos ℎ For non-trivial solution 1 is arbitrary and assumed to be equal to 1

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Therefore, ( ) = sin − sin ℎ + 2 (cos − cos ℎ ) 1

Solution:

We can find the values of Y by varying the value for x = 0 to 0.835 Plotting Y vs x we get the following mode shapes for the first six frequencies Frequency value: . Frequency value: 246.49 Hz

Frequency value: 690.25 Hz

Frequency value: .

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Frequency value: 2230.74 Hz

Frequency value: 3332.34 Hz

Combination of the 6 graphs:

The region marked by the black ellipse is the “Sweet Spot” of the baseball bat where the node points are located. In this region, when the ball comes in contact with the bat, the amount of vibrations felt by the batter is the least.

11

Analysis in Ansys:

An analysis was done in Ansys where the force of 18436 N was applied for 7ms in the downward direction at four locations on the bat at distances of 0.0835 m, 0.2505 m, 0.4175 m and 0.501m respectively from the barrel end. The load was applied in steps. The following graphs were obtained from the Analysis.

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The response from the collision at 1st location is too high. The response from the 2nd and 3rd locations is optimum. The 4th location is near the handle. The batter wouldn’t be looking to hit the bat from that region as he wouldn’t get the optimum output. Hence from the analysis and the graphs plotted, the region of the barrel as marked in the combination graph is the location at which the amount of vibrations is the least.

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Conclusion:

From the time response curves from Ansys it was observed that if the bat is confronted with a ball at a high velocity and the impact force is large then the ball should hit at a distance away from the barrel end and not close to it or else the bat may break at a location where the handle and the barrel junction which is assumed to be a weak point. Hence, a batter should be aware of the fact that if he wants a proper hit, then he should be hitting the ball at around the middle of the bat. The sweet spot region is the portion of the bat where the amount of vibrations is least and the output is maximum. Also, the vibrations felt when the ball comes in contact in this region is less. Hence, the comfort zone is what the batter should be looking for.

References:

1. Theory of Vibration with Applications, Fifth Edition, William T. Thomson and Marrie Dillon Dahleh. 2. Impact of a ball with bat or racket, Rod Cross, Physics Department, University of Sydney. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler%E2%80%93Bernoulli_beam_theory 4. http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/IT/Transient/Transient.html

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