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Dr.Mgs. Roni Saleh, SpB. SpBP
The organ transplantation or human tissue is a medical action which is very beneficial for the patient having hindrance in the function of the heavy organ of the body. It is the best alternative therapy to assist the patient with the broken organ because it’s result is more satisfied than conservative therapy.
The Problem Eventhough nowadays medical action is after done but it cannot be done as we want because there are many non medical side must be considered such as religion. ethics and moral. . culture. law.
society leader ) with private and government. medical. sociology. it is needed supporting cooperation among related experts (law.The Problem (Cont’) The problem faced by the Indonesia nowadays in determining transplantation therapy is limited amount of living related donor and donation of corpse organ. . therefore. leader. religion.
Isograft. network and organs of the body as follows: 1. that is the movement from one body to another who are identical for instance: identical twins. 4. 3. that is the movement from one body to another who have the same species. .Kinds of Transplantation There are many kinds of transplantation whether it is cell. Xenograft. that is the movement from one body to another who have different species. that is the movement of body network from one place to another from the patient him / herself. Allograft. Autograft. 2.
. Organ or body network that will be moved can be taken from living donor or corpse of the person who just died.
pancreas. kidney. liver. cornea. All of the efforts in body transplantation and human cell tissues certainly need the view from law and medical ethics side. . lungs and brain cell. kidney. Recently can be done transplantation for the arteria mamaria interna for surgery among coronaries and cell transplantation substansia nigra from baby who has died to the patient who has Parkinson. The organs or tissues that can be taken from the living donor are skin. The organs or tissues that can be taken from corpse are heart. bone marrow and blood.
Prothese or replacement material can be descended from metal such as titan. The using of the replacement material is matched by the need likes on the broken bones or disablement. ceramic. stainless steel. . polimer likes silicon.
But because of there is reason for the punishment exception or fighting law materially. In PP No. so that action is not threatened criminal and can be accepted.The Law Aspects of Transplantation From the law side. organs transplantation or tissues are considered as a lofty effort to make people healthy and welfare : eventhough this case is am action which fight criminal law that is mistreatment criminal action. 18 1981 stated some articles about transplantation as follows: .
d) Donor is person who gives the tool or his/her organ tissue to another for the healthy need.Article I: a) Human parts of body is drove of body tissues which is formed by kinds of cell and has deed form for the body. c) Transplantation is series of medical action for the movement of tool and or human body tissue that is form another person in doing the treatment to change the tool and or the organ network which is not functioned well. and or heart beat have stopped. respiration. . e) Pass away is the condition of someone that is made sure by the medical expert that when the function of his / her brain. b) Body Tissue is drove of cells which has the same form and deed.
336/PB IDI/a. .A. The definition of pass away is clarified by SK PB IDI No.4 in March 15th 1988 that followed by SK PB IDI No.4/07/90 that is meant by death is when automatically function of respiration and heart has surely been stopped or irreversible or has been proved that the brain stem has been died. 231/PB.
that is must with written agreement for the patient and or his / her closed family after the patient has passed away. . Article 11 Transplantation for tool and or human tissue may only be done by doctors asked by the minister of health Transplantation for tool and or human tissue may not be done by doctors who take care or cure the donor.The following in PP consist of the articles : Article 10 by giving Transplantation of tool and or human tissue is done attention to the stipulations meant in article 2a and b. Article 12 In transplantation. the determining the death time is determined by two doctors who have no medical relationship with doctors who do transplantation.
include of consultant doctor about surgery. candidate donor informed earlier by the doctor who takes care of him / her. Article 14 Removal tool or human tissue for the transplantation need or eyes bank from an accident victim who pass away done by written closed agreement family. Article 14 and 15 are made in stamp paper with two witnesses. Article 15 Before the agreement about transplantation tool and or human tissue by the living donor. Article 16 Donor or donor’s family who pass away has no right for material compensation as transplantation repayment Article 17 It is forbidden to buy and sell tool or human tissue Article 18 it is forbidden to send and receive tool or human tissue in any of form into or out to country . the effect and possibilities will be happened. Doctor meant in verse I must really believe that candidate donor has realized about the agreement well.Article 13 The written agreement meant in article 2a.
In UU No. 23. cooperation and mutual help in certain condition. The delivery tool or human tissue into or out to country must be limited in science research. 1992 about health : .
. blood transfusion. medicine implant and or health tool.Article 33 In curing the disease and recovering health can be done organ or body tissue transplantation. . plastic surgery and reconstruction. Organ and or body tissue transplantation also blood transfusion meant in verse I done only for humanity objective and forbidden for commercial objective.
In health constitution is also clarified that the organ transplantation or body tissue and blood transfusion only can be done for the humanity aim. The removal of the organ and or body tissue from a donor must concern the donor’s health and also there is agreement from the heir or family The stipulation about requirement and the way. .. is for bidden to be object to look for profit. how to do transplantation as meant in verse 1 and 2 is firmed up by the government regulation. buy and sell and another form of commercialization.Article 34 Organ and body tissue transplantation only can be done by medical team who has skill and right and done in certain health facility.
buy and sale and another form of comercialization . In health coonstituantion is also clarified that the organ transpalantation or body tissue and blood tranfusion only can be done for the humanity aim. is for-bidden to be object to look for profit.
Article 2 A doctor must always do his / her profession according to the highest measurement. From the medical ethics side. based on some articles in KODEKI that are: .Article 11 Every doctor must be honest and straight forward and uses his / her knowledge and skill for the patient need. this action must be done if the there is indication. .The Ethics Aspects of Transplantation Transplantation is the last way to assist the patient who has the failure of the function of one of his / her organ. Article 10 Every doctor must always remember and his / her duty to protect someone’s life. .
develop and exploit the transplantation science and technology for the patient’s and his / her family benefit. Based on the articles above. so a doctor must master. .
But raise the question. The articles about transplantation in PP No. if it may not be sold and bought or be given compensation. how to increase the amount of donor? May non-material repayment for example ask for the prisoners to be donor and they are given decreasing of remission time as repayment it seems that this activity is not impossible to do because there is no weaknesses and even give mutual benefit. 18 1981 in fact. . especially about the for bidden of buying and selling tool or body tissue for transplantation objective or ask for the material compensation. has included the aspects of ethics.
This is closed to the success of transplantation. there is no respiration as well as the heart beat has stopped spontaneously. Another thing needs to be cared is the determining when someone passed away whose organs will be taken away by two doctors who have no medical relationship with the doctors who will do transplantation. the determining when the patient die in the modern hospitals can be sure by electroensefalografi check up and it is said die when the brain stem is not functioned well anymore. because the fresher the organs and tissues are the better the result is. But it may Not be happened deviation where the patient almost die but has not died yet. This check up is done by another doctors who are not the doers of transplantation so the decision is really objective. his / her organs have been taken away. .
Thank You .
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