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Frisian Coast Bartholomae

Frisian Coast Bartholomae

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Published by Patricia Dillon
Natural and anthropogenic impact at
the East Frisian coast - last 1000
years and future perspectives
Natural and anthropogenic impact at
the East Frisian coast - last 1000
years and future perspectives

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Published by: Patricia Dillon on Apr 12, 2014
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05/27/2015

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Natural and anthropogenic impact at the East Frisian coast - last 1000 years and future perspectives

Alexander Bartholomä Senckenberg Institute

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Past, Present and Future
Past: Past:
- development of the barrier island system - land relamation and dike construction

Present: Present:
- Dyke maintainance, maintainance, preservation of the modern Wadden Sea system - Hazard analysis and risk managemant

Future: - Intergrated Coastal Zone Managment
with alternative concepts in coastal zone protection and ecosystem conservation
Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

1

Past: Past: East Frisian coast 800 AD

Without dike line (based on historical maps, by Homeier 1969)

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Past: Past: East Frisian coast 1300 AD

with dikes - land reclamation - reduction of tidal prism - loss of accommodation space

without dikes - southward migration by transgression - tidal flats with natural salt marshes

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

2

Past: Past: East Frisian coast 1800 AD

with dikes - land reclamation - reduction of tidal prism - loss of accommodation space

without dikes - southward migration by transgression - tidal flats with natural salt marshes

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Present and Future: East Frisian coast

with dikes - land reclamation - reduction of tidal prism - loss of accommodation space

without dikes - southward migration by transgression - tidal flats with natural salt marshes

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

3

Past to present: present: SeaSea-level rise

Discontinuous sea-level rise with transgressive and regressive phases

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Energy gradients in the Wadden Sea
coarse

Examples of energy gradients
Spiekeroog

53° 46' N

2.0 1.5
1.4

Langeoog
fine

2.0 2.0 2.0 1.4 1.0

Mando M

yy == - 0.04x ++ 1.28 - 0.04x 1.28 r= 0.92 r= 0.92

1.0

1.4 1.4
53° 42' N

settling velocity [cm/s] at 5°C and S=3%

Baltrum 1.4 2.0 1.0 1.0

0.5 0.0
Denmark

Pellworm Pellworm

yy == - 0.04x ++ 1.07 - 0.04x 1.07 r= 0.91 r= 0.91

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

mainland
0 5 km 007° 40' E

007° 20' E

007° 30' E

Sediment belts along the East Frisian coast Sea-level rise results in: - coarsening of sediments - sediment lag effects close to the dike line - Elevation of tidal flats - Wadden Sea squeeze (all below breakpoint)

Schleswig-Holstein

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0
East Frisland

0.0
yy == -0.08x ++ 1.24 -0.08x 1.24 r= 0.75 r= 0.75

Langeoog Langeoog

P sample point R regression line V confidence interval 95% V prediction interval 95%

Rottumeroog Rottumeroog

yy == -0.05x ++ 0.81 -0.05x 0.81 r= 0.90 r= 0.90

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

West Frisland

0.0 island

[km]

dike

back-barrier tidal flat of Spiekeroog island

other regions of the Wadden Sea

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

4

Wadden Sea squeeze and sea level rise

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Reconstruction of the fully developed tidal system without dike constructions
N

Spiekeroog

W

E

S

Langeoog

sand flats
present dike line

mixed flats

mud flats

mud content total sediment (in %)
100 75

saltmarsh
53° 36'N

mean high water level (1.4 m above chart datum)

50 25 10

53° 34'N

pleistocene sands
007° 30'E

0

007° 25'E

0 km

5 km

- lost area: more than 50 % of the entire tidal system - mud flat and salt marsh deposits landward of the present day dike line

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

5

SaltSalt-marsh erosion
Preditecd salt-marsh erosion along the coastal dike line

With summer dikes or dammed retention pits Under certain wave & water-level conditions, broken-wall construction patters can prevent salt-marsh erosion

Mai & Zimmermann (2002)

Wittig et al. (2004)

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Human responses to the expected seasea-level rise
Risk analysis: - storm-flood risks - hydraulic boundary conditions at coastal constructions - risk assessment for local environments Risk and Coastal Zone Management: e.g. by the „Coastal Protection and Sea-level Group (CPSL) Policies, Strategies, Management Projekts and Activities:
COMRISK (Common Strategies to reduce the risk of storm floods in coastal lowlands) DEKLIM (German Climate Change Research Program) KRIM (Climate change and preventive risk and coastal zone management along the German North Coast) ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management ENCORA (Initiative for Coordination Action within European coastal research and practitioners communities) LOICZ (Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone)

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

6

Breakpoint analysis (CPSL 2001/2005)
Moderate increase in sea level : ≤ 3mm/year for large basins ≤ 6 mm/year for small basins ≤ 8.5 mm/year for salt marshes 3 – 6 mm/ year pioneer zone
- present dynamic equillibrium still active - Increase of duration of tidal inundation implies stronger sediment accumulation on tidal flats and salt marshes (longer settling period) - Elevation of tidal flats; and expansion of salt marshes

Major sea-level rise:
- massive erosion of salt marshes - in sandy areas, erosion rate increases between 250% (6mm/yr) and 330% (8.5mm/yr) - fore-shore erosion, retreat of barrier islands

Changes in wave and /or tide-domminated sections are not considered

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Main topics of coastal protection and management
Sand nourishment Sea dikes
Dike strenghening over the last centuries
1200: 1.0 m / 5.5 m / 3 m³

1600: 3.0 m / 19 m / 32 m³

time: height / lenght / volume 1900: 4.8 m / 33 m / 82 m³

1955: 5.9 m / 56 m / 149 m³ 2000: 7.8 m / 105 m / 325 m³

2100: 8.5 m / 150 m / 500 m³ ????

Dune management Habitat maintenance Salt-marsh management Outbanking of summer polders

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

7

Däne mark

Nordsee
Helgol and

Niederlande

Deutschland

Reinundation of sommer dikes - Salt marsh accretion in protected areas (Langeoog island)

accumulation rate 5 cm/month

by courtesy of Freund (2006), ICBM Marine Lab.

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Concept of creating artificial tidal basins in the shelter of the dikes
 Sea
- controlled tidal range - slow infilling with clay - new salt marsh formation - ideal breeding conditions - new clay resource - ideal for aquaculture - tourismus

Land

Dike

low dike

mean high-tide level
tidal basin

♣♣ ♣
new salt marshes

tidal flat

tidal channel

mean low-tide level

Sluice

Schematic drawing of an artificial tidal basin with multiple and sustainable usages, including tourism.
Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

8

Subdivision of an artifical tidal basin in the shelter of the dikes by multiple usage concepts

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

Summary and Outlook
Land reclamation and dike constructions already reclaimed more than 50 % of the former fully devoloped tidal system In order to the predicted sea level rise, rise, to preserve the modern system and/or prevent further changes in the Wadden Sea environment individual solutions for a Integrated Coastal Zone Managment are essential: - Increase of accommodation space - salt marsh, marsh, dune and habitat management on individual scales - dike strenghening and retreat, retreat, reinundation of summer dike areas, areas, - outbanking summer polders, polders, reactivation of retention pits Therefore we need: need: - Individual case studies for individual sites - Collaboration between dike protection and environmental protection

Development of the East Frisian Islands over the last 1000 years

9

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