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Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It
is a relatively recent term since in previous centuries the jobs available to a
particular person were often predetermined by the occupation of that person’s
parent. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of job
satisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the
perceived fairness o the promotion system within a company, the quality of the
working conditions, leadership and social relationships, the job itself (the variety of
tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, and the clarity of the
job description/requirements).

The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to
be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job
design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job
rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction
include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment
and autonomous workgroups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which
is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement
is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs.
Questions relate to relate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks,
promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask
yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1 – 5 scale 9where 1
represents “not all satisfied” and 5 represents “extremely satisfied”).


Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state

resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an
attitude towards one’s job. Weiss (2007) has argued that job satisfaction is an
attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of
cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This
definition suggests that we from attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account
our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors.

Affect Theory

Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most

famous job satisfaction model. The main premises of this theory is that
satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and
what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a
given facet of work (e.e. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how
satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/are not met. When a
person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted
both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations
are not met), compared to one who does not value that facet. To illustrate, if
Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent
about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that
offers a high degree of autonomy compared to Employee B. this theory also
states that too much of a particular facet will produces stronger feelings of
dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

Dispositional Theory

Another well known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is

a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that
cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of
one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light
evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and

jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job

A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory

was the core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timorthy A. Judge in 1998.
Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s
disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of
control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the
value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own
competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control
(believing one has control over her/his own life, as opposed to outside forces
having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism
lead to higher job satisfaction.

Two – Factor Theory (Motivation – Hygiene Theory)

Fredrick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene

Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This
theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors
motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects
of the job that make people want o perform, and provide people with satisfaction.
These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work
carried out. Motivating factors include aspects of the working environment such as
pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.

While Herzberg’s model has stimulated much research, researchers have

been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham
suggesting that Herzberg’s original formulation of the model may have been a
methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual
differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner
to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised in
that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.

Measuring Job Satisfaction

There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most
common method for collecting data regarding job satisfacting is the Likert scale
(named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job
satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems,
checklist, forced choice answers.

The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969),
job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five
facets: pay, promotions and opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work
itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or decide in
response to whether given statements accurately describe one job.

The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It

was an improvement to the job Descriptive Index because the JDI focused too
much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general.

1.1 Objective of the study

The objective of the study is as follows

 To assess the satisfaction level of employees in orient glass pvt ltd.

 To identify the factors which influence the job satisfaction of


 To identify the factor which improves the satisfaction level of


 To know the employee satisfaction towards the facilities.

 To offer valuable suggestions to improve the satisfaction level of


1.2 Scope of the study

This study emphasis in the following scope:

 To identify the employees level of satisfaction upon that job.

 This study is helpful to that organisation for conducting further research.

 It is helpful to identify the employer’s level of satisfaction towards welfare


 This study is helpful to the organization for identifying the area of

dissatisfaction of job of the employees.

 This study helps to make a managerial decision to the company.

1.3 Research Methodology

Research methodology is the systematic way to solve the research

problem. It gives an idea about various steps adopted by the researcher in a
systematic manner with an objective to determine various manners.

1.3.1 Research Design

A research design is considered as the framework or plan for a study that

guides as well as helps the data collection and analysis of data. The research
design may be exploratory, descriptive and experimental for the present study.
The descriptive research design is adopted for this project.

1.3.2 Research Approach

The research worker contacted the respondents personally with well-
prepared sequentially arranged questions. The questionnaire is prepared on the
basis of objectives of the study. Direct contract is used for survey, i.e., contacting
employees directly in order to collect data.

1.3.4 Sample size

The study sample constitutes 100 respondents constituting in the

research area.

1.3.5 Sampling Area

The study is conducted in employees of Orient Glass Pvt Ltd.

1.3.6 Sampling Design

The researcher has used probability sampling in which stratified random

sampling is used.

1.3.7 Collection of Data

Most of the data collected by the researcher is primary data through

personal interview, where the researcher and the respondent operate face – to –

1.3.8 Research Instrument

The researcher has used a structured questionnaire as a research

instrument tool which consists of open ended questions, multiple choice and
dichotomous questions in order to get data. Thus, Questionnaire is the data
collection instrument used in the study. All the questions in the questionnaire are
organized in such a way that elicit all the relevant information that is needed for
the study

1.3.9 Statistical Tools

The statistical tools used for analyzing the data collected are percentage
method, chi square, bar diagrams and pie diagrams.

1.3.10 Analysis of Data

The data are collected through survey and books, reports, newspapers and
internet etc., the survey conducted among the employees of Orient Glass Pvt Ltd.
The data collected by the researcher are tabulated and analyzed in such a way to
make interpretations.

Various steps, which are required to fulfill the purpose, i.e., editing, coding,
and tabulating. Editing refers to separate, correct and modify the collected data.
Coding refers to assigning number or other symbols to each answer for placing
them in categories to prepare data for tabulation refers to bring together the
similar data in rows and columns and totaling them in an accurate and meaningful

The collected data are analyzed and interrupted using statistical tools and

1.4 Research period

The research period of the study has from 1st February to May 1st 2008
having 18 weeks of duration.

1.5 Limitations of the study

 The survey is subjected to the bias and prejudices of the respondents.

Hence 100% accuracy can’t be assured.

 The researcher was carried out in a short span of time, where in the
researcher could not widen the study.

 The study could not be generalized due to the fact that researcher adapted
personal interview method.

1.6 Chapter scheme

This project is summarized into five different chapters.


Consists of an Introduction, statement of the problem, objectives of the

study, Rrsearch methodology and limitations of the study


Contains Industry Profile, which contains of world scenario, national

scenario, and state scenario.

Chapter -3

Consists of company profile, which states about the promoter of the

company and a brief history about the company.


Consists of analysis and interpretation of the collected data.


Consists of findings of the study.


It includes suggestion and recommendations.

A copy of questionnaire is included as appendix at the end of this report.




Glass in the common sense refers to a hard, brittle, transparent solid, such as
used for windows, many bottles, or eyewear, including soda-lime glass, acrylic
glass, sugar glass, isinglass (Muscovy-glass), or aluminium oxynitride.

In the technical sense, glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has been
cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Many glasses contain silica as
their main component and glass former.

In the scientific sense the term glass is often extended to all amorphous solids
(and melts that easily form amorphous solids), including plastics, resins, or other
silica-free amorphous solids. In addition, besides traditional melting techniques,
any other means of preparation are considered, such as ion implantation, and the
sol-gel method.[6] However, glass science commonly includes only inorganic
amorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer
science, biology and further scientific disciplines.

The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such
as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory
equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced
plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art.

Ordinary glass is prevalent due to its transparency to visible light. This

transparency is due to an absence of electronic transition states in the range of
visible light. The homogeneity of the glass on length scales greater than the
wavelength of visible light also contributes to its transparency as heterogeneities
would cause light to be scattered, breaking up any coherent image transmission.
Many household objects are made of glass. Drinking glasses, bowls and bottles
are often made of glass, as are light bulbs, mirrors, aquaria, cathode ray tubes,
computer flat panel displays, and windows.

In research laboratories, flasks, test tubes, and other laboratory equipment are
often made of borosilicate glass for its low coefficient of thermal expansion, giving
greater resistance to thermal shock and greater accuracy in measurements. For
high-temperature applications, quartz glass is used, although it is very difficult to
work. Most laboratory glassware is mass-produced, but large laboratories also
keep a glassblower on staff for preparing custom made glass equipment.

Sometimes, glass is created naturally from volcanic lava, lightning strikes, or

meteorite impacts (e.g., Lechatelierite, Fulgurite, Darwin Glass, Volcanic Glass,
Tektites). If the lava is felsic this glass is called obsidian, and is usually black with
impurities. Obsidian is a raw material for flintknappers, who have used it to make
extremely sharp glass knives since the stone age.

Glass sometimes occurs in nature resulting from human activity, for example
trinitite (from nuclear testing) and beach glass.

Glass in buildings

Glass is commonly used in buildings as transparent windows, internal glazed

partitions, and as architectural features. It is also possible to use glass as a
structural material, for example, in beams and columns, as well as in the form of
"fins" for wind reinforcement, which are visible in many glass frontages like large
shop windows. Safe load capacity is, however, limited; although glass has a high
theoretical yield stress, it is very susceptible to brittle (sudden) failure, and has a
tendency to shatter upon localized impact. This particularly limits its use in
columns, as there is a risk of vehicles or other heavy objects colliding with and
shattering the structural element. One well-known example of a structure made
entirely from glass is the northern entrance to Buchanan Street subway station in

Glass in buildings can be of a safety type, including wired, heat strengthened

(tempered) and laminated glass. Glass fibre insulation is common in roofs and
walls. Foamed glass, made from waste glass, can be used as lightweight, closed-
cell insulation. As insulation, glass (e.g., fiberglass) is also used. In the form of

long, fluffy-looking sheets, it is commonly found in homes. Fiberglass insulation is

used particularly in attics, and is given an R-rating, denoting the insulating ability.

Technological applications
Uses of glass for scientific purposes range from applications such as DNA
microarrays to large sized neodymium doped glass lasers and glass fibres

The Hubble Space Telescope orbiting above earth, containing optical instruments

Pure SiO2 glass (the same chemical compound as quartz, or, in its polycrystalline
form, sand) does not absorb UV light and is used for applications that require
transparency in this region. Large natural single crystals of quartz are pure silicon
dioxide, and upon crushing are used for high quality specialty glasses. Synthetic
amorphous silica, an almost 100 % pure form of quartz, is the raw material for the
most expensive specialty glasses, such as optical fiber core. Undersea cables
have sections doped with erbium, which amplify transmitted signals by laser
emission from within the glass itself. Amorphous SiO2 is also used as a dielectric
material in integrated circuits due to the smooth and electrically neutral interface it
forms with silicon.

Optical instruments such as glasses, cameras, microscopes, telescopes, and

planetaria are based on glass lenses, mirrors, and prisms. The glasses used for
making these instruments are categorized using a six-digit glass code, or
alternatively a letter-number code from the Schott Glass catalogue. For example,
BK7 is a low-dispersion borosilicate crown glass, and SF10 is a high-dispersion
dense flint glass. The glasses are arranged by composition, refractive index, and
Abbe number.

Glass polymerization is a technique that can be used to incorporate additives that

modify the properties of glass that would otherwise be destroyed during high
temperature preparation. Sol gel is an example of glass polymerization and
enables embedding of organic and bioactive molecules, to add a new level of
functionality to glass.

Glass production
Oldest mouth-blown window-glass from 1742 from Kosta Glasbruk, Småland,
Sweden. In the middle the mark from the glass blowers pipe

Glass production history

Glass melting technology has passed through several stages.

• Glass was manufactured in open pits, ca. 3000 B.C. until the invention of
the blowpipe in ca. 250 B.C.

• The mobile wood-fired melting pot furnace was used until around the 17th
century by traveling glass manufacturers.

• Around 1688, a process for casting glass was developed, which led to
glass becoming a much more commonly used material.

• The local pot furnace, fired by wood and coal was used between 1600 and

• The cylinder method of creating flat glass was used in the United States of
America for the first time in the 1820s. It was used to commercially produce

• The invention of the glass pressing machine in 1827 allowed the mass
production of inexpensive glass products.

• The gas-heated melting pot and tank furnaces dating from 1860, followed
by the electric furnace of 1910.

• Hand-blown sheet glass was replaced in the 20th century by rolled plate

• The float glass process was invented in the 1950s.


Glass ingredients

Pure silica (SiO2) has a "glass melting point"— at a viscosity of 10 Pa·s (100 P)—
of over 2300 °C (4200 °F). While pure silica can be made into glass for special
applications (see fused quartz), other substances are added to common glass to
simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the melting
point to about 1500 °C (2700 °F) in soda-lime glass; "soda" refers to the original
source of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants.
However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable,
so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), some
magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide are added to provide for a better
chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74 percent silica by
weight and is called a soda-lime glass. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90
percent of manufactured glass.

As well as soda and lime, most common glass has other ingredients added to
change its properties. Lead glass, such as lead crystal or flint glass, is more
'brilliant' because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more
"sparkles", while boron may be added to change the thermal and electrical
properties, as in Pyrex. Adding barium also increases the refractive index.
Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion, and was
formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has
been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern glasses. Large amounts of iron are
used in glass that absorbs infrared energy, such as heat absorbing filters for
movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV
wavelengths (biologically damaging ionizing radiation).

Besides the chemicals mentioned, in some furnaces recycled glass ("cullet") is

added, originating from the same factory or other sources. Cullet leads to savings
not only in the raw materials, but also in the energy consumption of the glass
furnace. However, impurities in the cullet may lead to product and equipment
failure. Fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxide
are added to reduce the bubble content in the glass.

A further raw material used in the production of soda-lime and fiber glass is
calumite, which is a glassy granular by-product of the iron making industry,
containing mainly silica, calcium oxide, alumina, magnesium oxide (and traces of
iron oxide).

For obtaining the desired glass composition, the correct raw material mixture
(batch) must be determined by glass batch calculation.

Contemporary glass production

Following the glass batch preparation and mixing the raw materials are
transported to the furnace. Soda-lime glass for mass production is melted in gas
fired units. Smaller scale furnaces for specialty glasses include electric melters,
pot furnaces and day tanks.

After melting, homogenization and refining (removal of bubbles) the glass is

formed. Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glass
process, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington and
Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers, which created a continuous
ribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows
unhindered under the influence of gravity. Container glass for common bottles and
jars is formed by blowing and pressing methods. Further glass forming techniques
are summarized in the table Glass forming techniques.

Once the desired form is obtained, glass is usually annealed for the removal of

Various surface treatment techniques, coatings, or lamination may follow to

improve the chemical durability (glass container coatings, glass container internal
treatment), strength (toughened glass, bulletproof glass, windshields), or optical
properties (insulated glazing, anti-reflective coating).

Glassmaking in the laboratory

A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific
Northwest National Laboratory.

Failed laboratory glass melting test. The striations must be avoided through good

New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initially

investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials for
laboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in mass
production because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly pure
chemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted
with moisture or other chemicals in the environment (such as alkali oxides and
hydroxides, alkaline earth oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxide), or that the
impurities are quantified (loss on ignition). Evaporation losses during glass melting
should be considered during the selection of the raw materials, e.g., sodium
selenite may be preferred over easily evaporating SeO2. Also, more readily
reacting raw materials may be preferred over relatively inert ones, such as Al(OH)
3 over Al2O3. Usually, the melts are carried out in platinum crucibles to reduce
contamination from the crucible material. Glass homogeneity is achieved by
homogenizing the raw materials mixture (glass batch), by stirring the melt, and by
crushing and re-melting the first melt. The obtained glass is usually annealed to
prevent breakage during processing.

Silica-free glasses

Besides common silica-based glasses, many other inorganic and organic

materials may also form glasses, including plastics (e.g., acrylic glass), carbon,
metals, carbon dioxide (see below), phosphates, borates, chalcogenides,
fluorides, germanates (glasses based on GeO2), tellurites (glasses based on
TeO2), antimonates (glasses based on Sb2O3), arsenates (glasses based on
As2O3), titanates (glasses based on TiO2), tantalates (glasses based on Ta2O5),
nitrates, carbonates and many other substances.

Some glasses that do not include silica as a major constituent may have physico-
chemical properties useful for their application in fibre optics and other specialized
technical applications. These include fluorozirconate, fluoroaluminate,
aluminosilicate, phosphate and chalcogenide glasses.

Under extremes of pressure and temperature solids may exhibit large structural
and physical changes which can lead to polyamorphic phase transitions.[13] In
2006 Italian scientists created an amorphous phase of carbon dioxide using
extreme pressure. The substance was named amorphous carbonia(a-CO2) and
exhibits an atomic structure resembling that of Silica.

The physics of glass

The amorphous structure of glassy Silica (SiO2). No long range order is present,
however there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement of
Oxygen (O) atoms around the Silicon (Si) atoms.

The standard definition of a glass (or vitreous solid) requires the solid phase to be
formed by rapid melt quenching. Glass is therefore formed via a supercooled
liquid and cooled sufficiently rapidly (relative to the characteristic crystallisation
time) from its molten state through its glass transition temperature, Tg, that the
supercooled disordered atomic configuration at Tg, is frozen into the solid state.
Generally, the structure of a glass exists in a metastable state with respect to its
crystalline form, although in certain circumstances, for example in atactic
polymers, there is no crystalline analogue of the amorphous phase. By definition
as an amorphous solid, the atomic structure of a glass lacks any long range
translational periodicity. However, by virtue of the local chemical bonding
constraints glasses do possess a high degree of short-range order with respect to
local atomic polyhedra. It is deemed that the bonding structure of glasses,
although disordered, has the same symmetry signature (Hausdorff-Besicovitch
dimensionality) as for crystalline materials.

Glass versus a super cooled liquid

Glass is generally treated as an amorphous solid rather than a liquid, though both
views can be justified. However, the notion that glass flows to an appreciable

extent over extended periods of time is not supported by empirical research or

theoretical analysis (see viscosity of amorphous materials). From a more
commonsense point of view, glass should be considered a solid since it is rigid
according to everyday experience.

Some people believe glass is a liquid due to its lack of a first-order phase
transition where certain thermodynamic variables such as volume, entropy and
enthalpy are continuous through the glass transition temperature. However, the
glass transition temperature may be described as analogous to a second-order
phase transition where the intensive thermodynamic variables such as the thermal
expansivity and heat capacity are discontinuous. Despite this, thermodynamic
phase transition theory does not entirely hold for glass, and hence the glass
transition cannot be classed as a genuine thermodynamic phase transition.

Although the atomic structure of glass shares characteristics of the structure in a

super cooled liquid, glass is generally classed as solid below its glass transition
temperature.[21] There is also the problem that a super cooled liquid is still a liquid
and not a solid but it is below the freezing point of the material and will crystallize
almost instantly if a crystal is added as a core. The change in heat capacity at a
glass transition and a melting transition of comparable materials are typically of
the same order of magnitude indicating that the change in active degrees of
freedom is comparable as well. Both in a glass and in a crystal it is mostly only the
vibrational degrees of freedom that remain active, whereas rotational and
translational motion becomes impossible explaining why glasses and crystalline
materials are hard.

Behavior of antique glass

The observation that old windows are often thicker at the bottom than at the top is
often offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a matter of
centuries. It is then assumed that the glass was once uniform, but has flowed to
its new shape, which is a property of liquid. The likely source of this unfounded
belief is that when panes of glass were commonly made by glassblowers, the
technique used was to spin molten glass so as to create a round, mostly flat and
even plate (the Crown glass process, described above). This plate was then cut to
fit a window. The pieces were not, however, absolutely flat; the edges of the disk
would be thicker because of centripetal force relaxation. When actually installed in
a window frame, the glass would be placed thicker side down for the sake of
stability and visual sparkle. Occasionally such glass has been found thinner side
down or on either side of the window's edge, as would be caused by carelessness
at the time of installation.

Mass production of glass window panes in the early twentieth century caused a
similar effect. In glass factories, molten glass was poured onto a large cooling
table and allowed to spread. The resulting glass is thicker at the location of the
pour, located at the center of the large sheet. These sheets were cut into smaller
window panes with nonuniform thickness. Modern glass intended for windows is
produced as float glass and is very uniform in thickness.

Several other points exemplify the misconception of the 'cathedral glass' theory:

• Writing in the American Journal of Physics, physicist Edgar D. Zanotto

states "...the predicted relaxation time for GeO2 at room temperature is 10
years. Hence, the relaxation period (characteristic flow time) of cathedral
glasses would be even longer".
• If medieval glass has flowed perceptibly, then ancient Roman and Egyptian
objects should have flowed proportionately more — but this is not
observed. Similarly, prehistoric obsidian blades should have lost their edge;
this is not observed either (although obsidian may have a different viscosity
from window glass).

• If glass flows at a rate that allows changes to be seen with the naked eye
after centuries, then the effect should be noticeable in antique telescopes.
Any slight deformation in the antique telescopic lenses would lead to a
dramatic decrease in optical performance, a phenomenon that is not
• There are many examples of centuries-old glass shelving which has not
bent, even though it is under much higher stress from gravitational loads
than vertical window glass.

Some glasses have a glass transition temperature close to or below room

temperature. The behavior of a material that has a glass transition close to room
temperature depends upon the timescale during which the material is
manipulated. If the material is hit it may break like a solid glass, however if the
material is left on a table for a week it may flow like a liquid. This simply means
that for the fast timescale its transition temperature is above room temperature,
but for the slow one it is below. The shift in temperature with timescale is not very
large however as indicated by the transition of polypropylene glycol of -72 °C and
-71 °C over different timescales. To observe window glass flowing as liquid at
room temperature we would have to wait a much longer time than the universe
exists. Therefore it is safe to consider a glass a solid far enough below its
transition temperature: Cathedral glass does not flow because its glass transition
temperature is many hundreds of degrees above room temperature. Close to this
temperature there are interesting time-dependent properties. One of these is
known as aging. Many polymers that we use in daily life such as rubber,
polystyrene and polypropylene are in a glassy state but they are not too far below
their glass transition temperature. Their mechanical properties may well change
over time and this is serious concern when applying these materials in

Physical properties

The following table lists some physical properties of common glasses. Unless
otherwise stated, the technical glass compositions and many experimentally
determined properties are taken from one large study. Unless stated otherwise,
the properties of fused silica (quartz glass) and germania glass are derived from
the SciGlass glass database by forming the arithmetic mean of all the
experimental values from different authors (in general more than 10 independent
sources for quartz glass and Tg of germanium oxide glass). Those values marked
in italic font have been interpolated from sililar glass compositions (see
Calculation of glass properties) due to the lack of experimental data.


Common soda-lime float glass appears green in thick sections because of Fe2+

Colors in glass may be obtained by addition of coloring ions that are

homogeneously distributed and by precipitation of finely dispersed particles (such
as in photochromic glasses). Ordinary soda-lime glass appears colorless to the
naked eye when it is thin, although iron(II) oxide (FeO) impurities of up to 0.1 wt%
produce a green tint which can be viewed in thick pieces or with the aid of
scientific instruments. Further FeO and Cr2O3 additions may be used for the
production of green bottles. Sulfur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used to
form iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almost
black. Manganese dioxide can be added in small amounts to remove the green
tint given by iron(II) oxide.

Roman glass

Naturally occurring glass, especially obsidian, has been used by many Stone Age
societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and, due to its
limited source areas, was extensively traded. According to Pliny the Elder,
Phoenician traders were the first to stumble upon glass manufacturing techniques
at the site of the Belus River. Agricola, De re metallica, reported a traditional
serendipitous "discovery" tale of familiar type:

"The tradition is that a merchant ship laden with nitrum being moored at this place,
the merchants were preparing their meal on the beach, and not having stones to
prop up their pots, they used lumps of nitrum from the ship, which fused and
mixed with the sands of the shore, and there flowed streams of a new translucent
liquid, and thus was the origin of glass."

This account is more a reflection of Roman experience of glass production,

however, as white silica sand from this area was used in the production of Roman
glass due to its low impurity levels. But in general archaeological evidence
suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or
Old Kingdom Egypt. Due to Egypt's favourable environment for preservation, the
majority of well-studied early glass is found in Egypt, although some of this is
likely to have been imported. The earliest known glass objects, of the mid third
millennium BC, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of
metal-working slags or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreous
material made by a process similar to glazing.

During the Late Bronze Age in Egypt and Western Asia there was an explosion in
glass-making technology. Archaeological finds from this period include coloured
glass ingots, vessels (often coloured and shaped in imitation of highly prized
wares of semi-precious stones) and the ubiquitous beads. The alkali of Syrian and
Egyptian glass was soda ash, sodium carbonate, which can be extracted from the
ashes of many plants, notably halophile seashore plants: (see saltwort). The
earliest vessels were 'core-wound', produced by winding a ductile rope of metal

round a shaped core of sand and clay over a metal rod, then fusing it with
repeated reheatings. Threads of thin glass of different colours made with
admixtures of oxides were subsequently wound around these to create patterns,
which could be drawn into festoons with a metal raking tools. The vessel would
then be rolled flat ('marvered') on a slab in order to press the decorative threads
into its body. Handles and feet were applied separately. The rod was
subsequently allowed to cool as the glass slowly annealed and was eventually
removed from the centre of the vessel, after which the core material was scraped
out. Glass shapes for inlays were also often created in moulds. Much early glass
production, however, relied on grinding techniques borrowed from stone working.
This meant that the glass was ground and carved in a cold state.

By the 15th century BC extensive glass production was occurring in Western Asia
and Egypt. It is thought the techniques and recipes required for the initial fusing of
glass from raw materials was a closely guarded technological secret reserved for
the large palace industries of powerful states. Glass workers in other areas
therefore relied on imports of pre-formed glass, often in the form of cast ingots
such as those found on the Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey.

Glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late Bronze
Age civilisations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt. It picked up again
in its former sites, in Syria and Cyprus, in the ninth century BC, when the
techniques for making colourless glass were discovered. In Egypt glass-making
did not revive until it was reintroduced in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Core-formed
vessels and beads were still widely produced, but other techniques came to the
fore with experimentation and technological advancements. During the Hellenistic
period many new techniques of glass production were introduced and glass
began to be used to make larger pieces, notably table wares. Techniques
developed during this period include 'slumping' viscous (but not fully molten) glass
over a mould in order to form a dish and 'millefiori' (meaning 'thousand flowers')
technique, where canes of multi-coloured glass were sliced and the slices
arranged together and fused in a mould to create a mosaic-like effect. It was also
during this period that colourless or decoloured glass began to be prized and
methods for achieving this effect were investigated more fully.

During the first century BC glass blowing was discovered on the Syro-Palestinian
coast, revolutionising the industry and laying the way for the explosion of glass
production that occurred throughout the Roman world. Over the next 1000 years
glass making and working continued and spread through southern Europe and

South Asia

Indigenous development of glass technology in South Asia may have begun in

1730 BCE. Evidence of this culture includes a red-brown glass bead along with a
hoard of beads dating to 1730 BCE, making it the earliest attested glass from the
Indus Valley locations. Glass discovered from later sites dating from 600-300 BCE
displays common color.

Chalcolithic evidence of glass has been found in Hastinapur, India. Some of the
texts which mention glass in India are the Shatapatha Brahmana and Vinaya
Pitaka. However, the first unmistakable evidence in large quantities, dating from
the 3rd century BCE, has been uncovered from the archaeological site in Taxila,

By the beginning of the Common Era, glass was being used for ornaments and
casing in South Asia. Contact with the Greco-Roman world added newer
techniques, and Indians artisans mastered several techniques of glass molding,
decorating and coloring by the early centuries of the Common Era. Satavahana
period of India

Early modern glass in England

The early modern period in England (c. 1500-1800) brought on a revival in local
glass production. Medieval glass had been limited to the small-scale production of
forest glass for window glass and vessels, predominantly in the Weald. The
organisation of production evolved from the small-scale family-run glass houses
typical of forest glass-making to large monopolies granted by the Crown. The
influx of immigrants from Europe brought changes in furnace technology and raw
materials, creating a better quality glass. Monastic decrees later banned the use

of wood fuel which was then replaced by the less expensive alternative of coal.
The development of lead glass in the late 17th century propelled England to the
forefront of the glass industry and paved the way for advancements in the
Industrial Revolution

Chemical composition

Glass has three major components: a network former (silica), a network modifier
(flux), and a network stabilizer (predominantly lime). In the early 16th and 17th
centuries glassmaking (the manufacture of glass from raw materials) and
glassworking (the creation of objects from glass) occurred within the same
glasshouse. Glass was also recycled at this time in the form of cullet.

In the early modern era, network formers were obtained from fine or coarse sands
which were usually located near the area of production or from silica based

Network modifiers were used to alter the chemical composition of the the network
former and reduce the melting temperature of the batch. These fluxes varied
depending on the type of glass. Potassium oxide (K2O) based alkalis were used
extensively in glass production.

The type of flux selected heavily influenced the quality of the glass produced. In
England, beech wood and oak were preferred for forest glass. For soda glasses
(Na2O), alkalis were often found in the form of marine plants – either local kelp or
imported plants from the Mediterranean and the Near East (barilla, polverine,
rochetta, sevonus, natron).

Network stabilizers in early modern England continued to be lime sources. Lime

occurs as a natural contaminant in most sands, and may also be intentionally
added to the melt.

Compositional groups

Five glass compositional groups have been identified through analysis of

archaeologically recovered glass from this period. These have been further
reduced into two types, ‘green glass’ and ‘white glass’. The groups include:

• Potash-lime-silica glass (forest or green glass), typically has an excess of

10% wt oxide K20
• High Lime Low Alkali, HLLA (green glass) usually has <10% Na2O,K20, 15-
20% CaO
• Soda-lime glass (white glass/ ‘ordinary glass’) with low MgO, CaO, high
• Mixed alkali glass (white glass/ crystallo) Na2O K2O and CaO levels are too
low for this glass to be incorporated in the other categories.
• Lead glass (white glass/ façon de venise) has on average 25-35% PbO

The following table represents the mean compositional data derived from the
analysis of materials at the Old Broad Street furnace in London, dated to the early
17th century. and those recovered from Phase Two (circa 1680-1700 AD)
Silkstone, Yorkshire. This information was gathered from Dungworth's compilation
and analysis. The data is represented in wt% oxides and those below the
detection limits (0.2% or less) are shown by '-'.


There are numerous factors that may influence colouration during glass
production. These include contaminants in raw materials, furnace conditions, and
deliberate additives that would provide known colour variations.

Iron existing as a contaminant in sands, produced either a green or brown colour

depending upon the oxidation state. Coal fumes provided a carbon contaminant,
which could create a dark brown or black colour. Manganese present in wood ash
may have contributed to the lighter, translucent green colour. Other trace
elements present in alkalis (such as MnO in beech ash) undoubtedly influenced
the finished product.

Other metal oxide colorants were known from earlier periods in antiquity.

Early post-medieval glass

Medieval glasshouse traditions continued in the Weald, which was becoming

deforested by the early 17th century; local glassmaking spread elsewhere, where
timber was available to fire furnaces, to Hampshire, Gloucestershire, North
Staffordshire and the Scottish Borders. At Bagot's Park, Staffordshire, one such
glasshouse has been recovered, which dates from circa 1535; it contained an
early melting furnace and a smaller annealing furnace. The melting furnace had
two siege benches for the placement of three crucible pots, each with a central
flue cut into the floor to create a draught that would allow the furnace to achieve
1200oC in order to melt the glass. Fritting, and the preheating of crucibles may
have occurred in the upper areas of the main furnace. Annealing (glass) and glass
blowing probably occurred using a smaller furnace. Cullet heaps of broken glass
residue were found on either side, suggesting the use of a flux to reduce melting
temperatures. Some crushed white pebbles were recovered in the bottom of pots,
and this may reflect the silica source used at this site. The glass recovered from
Bagot's Park was badly weathered, yet the ends of broad glass and crown glass
suggest that window and vessel glass were produced.

Glass technology

The majority of glass at this time was blown or mould blown into a variety of
vessel shapes. This was enhanced by decorative styles, including optic
decoration and trailing the glass, sometimes with pre-fabricated glass canes, to
replicate Venetian traditions.

Influences from the Continent

In 1567, Jean Carré arrived in London from Antwerp and obtained a crown-
sanctioned patent for the production of window glass. This patent was awarded to
Carré on the condition that prices remained low and that glassmaking and blowing
would be taught to native Englishmen to promote the craft. He brought many

Venetian craftsmen to his London workshop and opened a second furnace

outside the city to produce vessel and green glass.

Later in 1574, Jacob Verzelini, a Venetian who worked for Carré was granted a
monopoly over Venetian-style vessel glass. This effectively banned most of the
imports from Venice and promoted glass made locally in England. Verzelini's goal
was to produce clear crystallo glass as well as decorative glass façon de venise
("in the Venetian mode"), which he achieved by importing barilla from Spain. This
effectively helped to lower the price of clear glassware and made it available to a
wider range of the gentry and middle class.

Utilitarian green glass production remained on a small scale and was made by
numerous glasshouses in different areas for local consumption, in the tradition of
forest glass.

Technological changes

With the new influx of immigrants from the European Continent in the mid 16th
century, technological changes affected the quality of English glass. This was
possibly the combined result of experience and the selection/importation of purer
raw materials.

Winged furnaces

Additionally, glass furnaces constructed from the mid 16th century began to reflect
continental styles. This trend, identifiable in the archaeological record, supports
the documentary evidence for immigrant glassmakers. Wing-like additions were
added to the late 16th-early 17th century furnace remains at two glass producing
sites, Hutton and Rosedale in York, as well as at Vann Copse in the Weald. The
Hutton furnace had two wings added in the northeast and southeast corners of the
original rectangular melting furnace. A smaller nearby furnace was abandoned
around the same time as the addition of the wings, suggesting that they provided
an area for either annealing or pre-heating pots.

Rosedale and Vann Copse were constructed in similar styles but with four wings,
one in each corner, which were built integral to the original furnace. The wings

showed evidence of heating which again suggested these were areas for fritting
or glassworking. The glass produced at Rosedale was generally cleaner and of a
better quality than that of Hutton, although the reasons for this are still unclear.
Production at Rosedale appeared to have a higher output than that of Hutton, as
two additional smaller furnaces indicate that the operation had expanded. It is
thought that these furnaces are similar to those of the Lorraine style, and research
in the Netherlands suggests that contemporary continental furnaces were made in
this fashion.

Change to coal

From 1581-1584, Parliament became increasingly concerned over the wood

supply in the country. At this time, a large number of high temperature industries
were dependent on wood for fuel, and this began to diminish the country‘s forests.
The original decree in this time prohibited the use of wood fuel unless it was from
one’s own land. By 1609, Sir Edward Zouche was granted a patent to experiment
with coal as the main fuel for a furnace at Winchester and by 1615 Parliament had
banned the use of wood fuel.

Adopting coal as the main source of fuel created numerous problems for glass
production. Burning coal produced short flames which shifted the location of the
hearth from the far ends of the furnace to the center. Air draughts are also
necessary to create a regenerative heating system for glassmelting. Early coal
furnaces, such as at Bolsterstone, contain underground flues to provide an easy
way to remove ash. Additionally, the carbon from the coal fumes contaminated the
glass in the uncovered pots which created a dark and often uneven colour. Lids,
such as those found at Bolsterstone, needed to be implemented to prevent these
impurities. Glass bottles from this initial transition are often dark in color.

Charles Mansell

Before 1616, Charles Mansell bought out the patent and company started by
Zouche. He began many ventures and set up a successful glasshouse near a coal
source in the attempts to save money and to more easily meet the demands of
London. His crystallo furnace at Broad Street, London, had fared successfully.
Some of his earlier attempts to set up new a furnace to produce glass for the
growing needs of London failed, as transportation costs proved to be too high. Yet
the furnace Mansell set up at Newcastle was successful.

Another winged furnace was set up at Kimmeridge using local sources of oil shale
as fuel. Unlike other wing furnaces, the one at this site had deep flues and a
centrally located hearth, illustrating the adaptation to a new fuel source. This
furnace was demolished in 1623 as being in violation of Mansell’s monopoly.

Conical furnaces

The conical glasshouses of England of the late 17th century introduced to

furnaces the use of a chimney and a new plan shape. This development possibly
drew off the idea of earlier wind furnaces and the beehive-shaped Venetian style
furnaces, known only from historical documents in England. The addition of the
chimney both created a strong draught and acted to extract the coal fumes. The
earliest examples appear in Bristol and at Gawber, Yorkshire.

These furnaces had underground flues and chimneys with air holes to provide a
strong air draught to control heat. Fritting, pre-heating pots and annealing
processes were undertaken in different sections of the furnace, elevated above
the heat source.

The Expansion of the Industry

In 1763, George Ravenscroft developed flint glass, a colourless and translucent

glass with many desirable working properties. The original recipe was subject to
crizzling. Later batches had the addition of lead oxide (PbO) which combatted this
problem and produced a superior glass that was more suitable for to engraving

and etching. Lead glass was widely adopted by the Glass seller’s guild when
Ravenscroft’s patent expired.

Lead glass helped to propel England to the front of the glass industry. Bottles for
wine and phials began to be produced and exported on a large scale. The
archaeological remains of the Albion shipwreck off Margate in 1765 contained 11
lead glass ingots, which are thought to be meant for trade with China. Although
little is known about these materials, it does suggest that lead glass contributed to
England's exports.

The 19th century brought new developments with synthetic materials, such as gas
fuel. Additionally, continuous melting production with tank furnaces helped mark
the end of the early modern period and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

English glass objects

Vessel glass

The evolution of vessel glass became more elaborate and specific to its intended
use throughout the early modern period. Mirror glass and glass objects also
began to be produced on larger scales during the early modern period. Types of
objects include:

• Phials
• Goblets
• Drinking Glasses
• Beakers
• Tankards
• Jugs
• Bottles
• Bowls
• Jars
• Urinals
• Flasks
• Mirror glass

Window glass

Window glass was produced throughout the period on a small scale, in the form of
crown glass and broad glass. This was predominantly made from green glass
throughout the 16th century. While rare in the early 16th century, glass windows
soon became a symbol of increasing wealth and status. Larger sheets were in
demand for domestic and public buildings.

Stained glass

Stained glass in the earliest part of the early modern period was imported into
England from France. With the Protestant Reformation in England, ecclesiastic
buildings increasingly used the more expensive 'white' glass.




From a small beginning way back in 1981, we have grown to be what we are now
a sthe leading glass producers in the country converting all types of flat and
curved glass, namely clear float, tinted, reflective, laminated safety, and bullet
proof, tempered and heat strengthened glasses.

Reputed local constructions companies as well as many foreign construction

companies who have undertaken building construction have found working with
us for their requirements and services are concerned a very satisfying experience.

We do think of ourselves as yet another glass supplier, instead we see ourselves

as specialists, and this specialization has earned for us a multitude of satisfied
customers among them global top constructing companies, developers, house
builders, furniture manufactures, interior decorators, equipment manufactures etc.

Our commitment to excellence has been the key to our growth and we will always
continue to provide our customers with best products and services.

Our processing facilities are in a picturesque factory at Royapuram in a land area

of over 100, 000 sq ft.


It is a special heat treating process which increases the strength up to four/five

times of the normal glass. This glass is custom made are processed to any size or
any shape as required. It is suitable for store front, residential window, doors,
sloped glazing, curved architectural glass, solar panels, balustrades, elevators;
shower cubicle/tub enclosures etc in float or bend type.

This includes canopies, building facades, suspended glass assemblies are all
unique applications, is manufactured to customers specification. Tempered glass
reduces the likelihood of injury in the unlike event of breakages.


Heat strengthened glass is two/three times harder than normal annealed sheet
glass, which is highly suitable for building facades, sky lights , arch domes and
many flexible application to architectural dreams, second to none in the world of


A wide range of glass doors available in nearly unbreakable tempered glass clear,
tinted glass doors with many different (or personalized) etched patterns, there is
also opaque and ceramic color versions used in living rooms, hotels, commercial
premises, showers and bath tubs.


Automotive glass is made by heating quality glass just below its softening
temperature giving it the required shape & suddenly chilling it with jets cold air.

It results the outer skin coming under powerful compressive stress and the interior
with severe tensile stress. In consequence, the impact applied to the glass will be
overcome by compression force on the surfaces to ensure safety in formed.


Orient with its mixture of bent & latest formed glass technique has come to create
unique crystal clear glass for counters sophisticated as well as totally
personalized work of art suit your taste and requirement. We offer a total package
of planning, designing, supplying, or on demand unto installation.

Glass are stylistic and a willing instrument for modern architecture we could make
absolutely anything ranging from elegant partition to exotic glass tops to sky lights
whether at commercial building or homes with full control of transparencies to full
opacity. These glasses are produced in thickness of 2mm – 12mm.


We manufacture glass furniture in any thickness with edges polished to, many
profile such as flat, pencil, bevel, ogee, etc.

Furniture glass and table tops should be tempered due to human contact for
safety. Normal glass being very delicate is tempered to give a long durability,
mechanical strength and scratch resistance. It also present’s edge chipping or
flaking, a common problem with expensive table tops.


Ceramic glass gets its name from its print by a silk screen with a glass enamel
before tempering, heat strengthening or bending can take place, the enamel fuses
into the surface & becomes a permanent coating which cannot be damaged or
removed and is un affected by moisture, and scratch proof. It is also known as silk
screened glass & coloured glass.

Certain areas of glass or a at times the entire glass is hidden or masked for
reasons as varied as privacy to concealing the background or for improving the
aesthetic look of the product. Best use in commercial building to match,
accentuate or complement the vision area of the building (wall cladding).

Patterns can be developed fro virtually any arrangement of geometric shapes or

textures, custom patterns can provide unlimited design possibilities. Most famous
are dots, holes, lines, squares, and triangle.


Comes in many stranded designs like marble, granite, image, metallic, multi
colored, picture, scenes or could be custom made.


Stain glass, fusion embossed design, slumped, acid etched, engraved;

computerize sand carving, V grooved.


Is manufactured by PVB, UMU, EVA, and resin. Stop shot (Bullet proof)


Coated glass for façade, domes, partition etc.


For solar rays, solar heaters wind screen.


Double glazing, flat and bend types of glasses.


Orient is an enterprising company, who has associated in contract work,

supplies & services with almost all the star hotels such as Galadari, Taj Samudra,
Trans Asia, Hilton, Oberoi (Cinnamon Garden) & with high rises such as JAIC
Hilton Tower, Royal Park Condominium, Crescat Residency, ceylinco seylan
Towers, The World trade Centre etc.

Services also were rendered to presidential palace, Male, Nasundhara Palace

Hotel, Maldives. The Oberoi Hotel, Mumbai.

Above are few of the endless lists of our satisfied customers in our 25 years in

Incidentally our chairman, have been in the sheet of glass field over three
decades and have received training in UK, India, Belgium, & Denmark.

Orient design with its mixture of bent& latest formed glass technique has come to
create unique sophisticated & totally personalized work of art to suit your taste
and requirements.

Glass as a stylistic and a willing instrument for modern architecture, therefore we

could make absolutely anything ranging from elegant partition to exotic glass tops,
sky lights whether at commercial building or homes with full control of
transparencies to full opacity.

These glasses are produced in thickness of 6 – 12mm. in special cases less than
6mm or over 12mm are supplied on request.

Heat strengthened glass is three times harder than normal annealed sheet glass
which is highly suitable for building facades, sky lights, arch domes and many
flexible application architectural dreams, second to none in the world of glass. It is
possible to bend in our latest machinery, plain float, colour, tinted reflective hard
coated glass, laminated glass, pioneering in this field.



The data after collection is to be processed and analyzed in accordance

with the outline and down for the purpose at the time of developing research plan.

Technically speaking, processing implies editing, coding, classification and

tabulation of collected data so that they are amenable to analysis. The term
analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for
pattern groups. Thus in the process of analysis, relationship or difference should
be subjected to statistical tests of significance to determine with what validity data
can be said to indicate any conclusions.

The analysis of data in a general way involves a number of closely related

operations, which are performed with the purpose of summarizing the collected
data and organizing them in such a manner that they answer the research
questions. In this study the researcher followed above process carefully and it is
presented in this chapter

Table 4.1 – To know the department in which employees are belongs to

Department No. of Respondents Percentage

1. Mechanical 30 30

2. Electrical 25 25

3. Production 35 35

4. Others 10 10

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 35% of employees are belongs
to production department.




Table 4.2 – To know working experience of the employees

Work Experience No. of Respondents Percentage

1. Below 2 years 13 13

2. 2 – 4 years 30 30

3. 4 – 6 years 34 34

4. Above 6 years 23 23

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 34% of the employees have 4 –
6 years experience.




Table 4.3 – To know the physical working environment

Working Environment No. of Respondents Percentage

1. Excellent 12 12

2. Good 57 57

3. Fair 28 28

4. Poor 3 3

5. Very Poor 0 0

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were
feeling good about the working environment.




Table 4.4 – To know the satisfaction level of employees towards the non-
monitory benefits

N Non-Monitory Benefits offered
No. of Respondents Percentage
o to Employees

1. Highly satisfied 14 14

2. Satisfied 54 54

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 25 25

4. Dissatisfied 5 5

5. Highly Dissatisfied 2 2

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 54% of the employees were
satisfied towards the non-monitory benefits.




Table 4.5 – To know the satisfaction level of respondents towards the work

Amount of Work No. of Respondents Percentage

1. Highly satisfied 20 20

2. Satisfied 45 45

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 12 12

4. Dissatisfied 18 18

5. Highly Dissatisfied 6 6

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 45% of the respondents were
satisfied towards the work assigned.




Table 4.6 – Opinion about the career development programme in their


Career Development No. of Respondents Percentage

1. Highly satisfied 12 12

2. Satisfied 56 56

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 22 22

4. Dissatisfied 10 10

5. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 56% of the employees were
satisfied with the opinion about the carrier development programme in their




Table 4.7 – To know the cooperation of co-workers

Co-operation of Workers No. of Respondents Percentage

1. Highly satisfied 20 20

2. Satisfied 66 66

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 11 11

4. Dissatisfied 3 3

5. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 66% of the employees were
satisfied with the cooperation of co-workers.




Table 4.8 – To know the satisfaction of Respondents with top management

N Satisfaction with Top No. of
o Management Respondents

1. Highly satisfied 26 26

2. Satisfied 51 51

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 17 17

3. Dissatisfied 6 6

4. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 51% of the employees were
satisfied with the top management.




Table 4.9 – To know the satisfaction of Respondents with their subordinates

Satisfaction with Subordinates No. of Respondents Percentage

1. Highly satisfied 12 12

2. Satisfied 67 67

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 14 14

4. Dissatisfied 7 7

5. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 67% of the employees were
satisfied with their subordinates.




Table 4.10 – To know the level of satisfaction regarding nature of job

SI. Job Satisfaction No. of Percentage

N Respondents

1. Highly satisfied 22 22

2. Satisfied 56 56

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 16 16

4. Dissatisfied 7 7

5. Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 56% of the employees were
satisfied with their job.




Table 4.11 – To know whether there is any job pressure in their work

SI. Job Pressure No. of Respondents Percentage


1. Yes 72 72

2. No 28 28

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 72% of employees said there is
job pressure in their work.




Table 4.12 – To know the opinion regarding opportunity provided by the

organisation in developing skills & talents

N Development of Skills and
No. of Respondents Percentage
o Talents

1. Highly Agree 12 12

2. Agree 52 52

3. Neither Agree nor Disagree 28 28

4. Disagree 6 6

5. Highly Disagree 2 2

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 52% of employees agreed

regarding opportunity provided by the organisation in developing skills &




Table 4.13 – To know the satisfaction level of welfare facilities provided by

the management

SI. Welfare Facilities No. of Percentage

N Respondents

1. Highly satisfied 9 9

2. Satisfied 57 57

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 29 29

4. Dissatisfied 5 5

5 Highly Dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were
satisfied with the welfare facilities provided by the management.




Table 4.14 – To know the employee satisfaction towards the salary

SI. Payment Satisfaction No. of Respondents Percentage


1. Yes 67 67

2. No 33 33

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 67% of the employees were
satisfied with their salary.




Table 4.15 – To know the employees willingness to continue

SI. Willingness to Work No. of Respondents Percentage


1. Yes 59 59

2. No 41 41

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 59% of the employees were
willing to continue in this organisation.




Table 4.16 – To know the opinion about company’s policy and practices

SI. Company’s Policy and No. of Respondents Percentage

N Practices

1. Excellent 13 13

2. Very Good 23 23

3. Good 47 47

4. Bad 12 12

5. Very Bad 5 5

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 47% of the employees were feels
good about the company policy and practices.




Table 4.17 – To know the company’s promotion policy

N No. of
Company’s Promotion Policy Percentage
o Respondents

1. Highly Satisfied 14 14

2. Satisfied 57 57

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 20 20

3. Dissatisfied 7 7

4. Highly Dissatisfied 2 2

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were
satisfied about the company’s promotion policy.




Table 4.18 – To know the overall job satisfaction

N No. of
Overall Job Satisfaction Percentage
o Respondents

1. Highly Satisfied 22 22

2. Satisfied 30 30

3. Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 29 29

4. Dissatisfied 12 12

5. Highly Dissatisfied 7 7

Total 100 100

Source: survey data


From the above table it shows that 30% of the employees were
satisfied in their over all job satisfaction.





The chi square test is one of the simplest and most widely used non-

parametric tests in statistical work. As a non-parametric test it can be used to

determine if categorical data shows dependency or the two classifications are

independent. It can also be used to make comparisons between theoretical

population and actual data when categories are used.

Chi square, χ²= ∑ (O-E) ² / E

i =1

Where, O= observed frequency

E= expected frequency


Table 4.19 shows the relationship between the department and the job


Over All Neither

Job Highly Satisfied Highly Sub
Satisfaction Satisfied Satisfied nor
Dissatisfied Total

Mechanical 5 6 14 3 2 30

Electrical 6 8 6 3 2 25

Production 9 13 7 4 2 35

Others 2 3 2 2 1 10

Sub Total 22 30 29 12 7 100



Over All Neither

Job Highly
Satisfied Highly Sub
Satisfaction Satisfie Satisfied Dissatisfied
nor Dissatisfied Total

Mechanical 7 8 9 4 2 30

Electrical 5 8 7 3 2 25

Production 8 11 10 4 2 35

Others 2 3 3 1 1 10

Sub Total 22 30 29 12 7 100

Null Hypothesis (Ho)

There is no significant difference between the department and the job


Alternative Hypothesis (Ho)

There is significant difference between the department and the job


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