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CHAPTER – I INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It is a relatively recent term since in previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often predetermined by the occupation of that person’s parent. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness o the promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and social relationships, the job itself (the variety of tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, and the clarity of the job description/requirements). The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous workgroups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to relate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1 – 5 scale 9where 1 represents “not all satisfied” and 5 represents “extremely satisfied”).


Definitions Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. Weiss (2007) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we from attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors. Affect Theory Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premises of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.e. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/are not met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who does not value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy compared to Employee B. this theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produces stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Dispositional Theory Another well known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and


jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timorthy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her/his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. Two – Factor Theory (Motivation – Hygiene Theory) Fredrick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want o perform, and provide people with satisfaction. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Motivating factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. While Herzberg’s model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Herzberg’s original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.


Measuring Job Satisfaction There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfacting is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklist, forced choice answers. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or decide in response to whether given statements accurately describe one job. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It was an improvement to the job Descriptive Index because the JDI focused too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general.

1.1 Objective of the study The objective of the study is as follows   To assess the satisfaction level of employees in orient glass pvt ltd. To identify the factors which influence the job satisfaction of

employees.  To identify the factor which improves the satisfaction level of

employees.   To know the employee satisfaction towards the facilities. To offer valuable suggestions to improve the satisfaction level of



1.2 Scope of the study This study emphasis in the following scope:  To identify the employees level of satisfaction upon that job.
 This study is helpful to that organisation for conducting further research.

 It is helpful to identify the employer’s level of satisfaction towards welfare measure.  This study is helpful to the organization for identifying the area of dissatisfaction of job of the employees.  This study helps to make a managerial decision to the company.

1.3 Research Methodology Research methodology is the systematic way to solve the research problem. It gives an idea about various steps adopted by the researcher in a systematic manner with an objective to determine various manners.

1.3.1 Research Design A research design is considered as the framework or plan for a study that guides as well as helps the data collection and analysis of data. The research design may be exploratory, descriptive and experimental for the present study. The descriptive research design is adopted for this project. 1.3.2 Research Approach The research worker contacted the respondents personally with wellprepared sequentially arranged questions. The questionnaire is prepared on the basis of objectives of the study. Direct contract is used for survey, i.e., contacting employees directly in order to collect data.


1.3.4 Sample size The study sample constitutes 100 respondents constituting in the research area. 1.3.5 Sampling Area The study is conducted in employees of Orient Glass Pvt Ltd. 1.3.6 Sampling Design The researcher has used probability sampling in which stratified random sampling is used. 1.3.7 Collection of Data Most of the data collected by the researcher is primary data through personal interview, where the researcher and the respondent operate face – to – face. 1.3.8 Research Instrument The researcher has used a structured questionnaire as a research instrument tool which consists of open ended questions, multiple choice and dichotomous questions in order to get data. Thus, Questionnaire is the data collection instrument used in the study. All the questions in the questionnaire are organized in such a way that elicit all the relevant information that is needed for the study 1.3.9 Statistical Tools The statistical tools used for analyzing the data collected are percentage method, chi square, bar diagrams and pie diagrams.


1.3.10 Analysis of Data The data are collected through survey and books, reports, newspapers and internet etc., the survey conducted among the employees of Orient Glass Pvt Ltd. The data collected by the researcher are tabulated and analyzed in such a way to make interpretations.

Various steps, which are required to fulfill the purpose, i.e., editing, coding, and tabulating. Editing refers to separate, correct and modify the collected data. Coding refers to assigning number or other symbols to each answer for placing them in categories to prepare data for tabulation refers to bring together the similar data in rows and columns and totaling them in an accurate and meaningful manner

The collected data are analyzed and interrupted using statistical tools and techniques. 1.4 Research period The research period of the study has from 1st February to May 1st 2008 having 18 weeks of duration. 1.5 Limitations of the study  The survey is subjected to the bias and prejudices of the respondents. Hence 100% accuracy can’t be assured.  The researcher was carried out in a short span of time, where in the researcher could not widen the study.  The study could not be generalized due to the fact that researcher adapted personal interview method.


1.6 Chapter scheme This project is summarized into five different chapters. Chapter-1 Consists of an Introduction, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, Rrsearch methodology and limitations of the study Chapter-2 Contains Industry Profile, which contains of world scenario, national scenario, and state scenario. Chapter -3 Consists of company profile, which states about the promoter of the company and a brief history about the company. Chapter-4 Consists of analysis and interpretation of the collected data. Chapter-5 Consists of findings of the study. Chapter-6 It includes suggestion and recommendations. A copy of questionnaire is included as appendix at the end of this report.


CHAPTER – II INDUSTRY PROFILE Glass in the common sense refers to a hard, brittle, transparent solid, such as used for windows, many bottles, or eyewear, including soda-lime glass, acrylic glass, sugar glass, isinglass (Muscovy-glass), or aluminium oxynitride. In the technical sense, glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Many glasses contain silica as their main component and glass former. In the scientific sense the term glass is often extended to all amorphous solids (and melts that easily form amorphous solids), including plastics, resins, or other silica-free amorphous solids. In addition, besides traditional melting techniques, any other means of preparation are considered, such as ion implantation, and the sol-gel method.[6] However, glass science commonly includes only inorganic amorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer science, biology and further scientific disciplines. The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art. Ordinary glass is prevalent due to its transparency to visible light. This transparency is due to an absence of electronic transition states in the range of visible light. The homogeneity of the glass on length scales greater than the wavelength of visible light also contributes to its transparency as heterogeneities would cause light to be scattered, breaking up any coherent image transmission. Many household objects are made of glass. Drinking glasses, bowls and bottles are often made of glass, as are light bulbs, mirrors, aquaria, cathode ray tubes, computer flat panel displays, and windows.


In research laboratories, flasks, test tubes, and other laboratory equipment are often made of borosilicate glass for its low coefficient of thermal expansion, giving greater resistance to thermal shock and greater accuracy in measurements. For high-temperature applications, quartz glass is used, although it is very difficult to work. Most laboratory glassware is mass-produced, but large laboratories also keep a glassblower on staff for preparing custom made glass equipment. Sometimes, glass is created naturally from volcanic lava, lightning strikes, or meteorite impacts (e.g., Lechatelierite, Fulgurite, Darwin Glass, Volcanic Glass, Tektites). If the lava is felsic this glass is called obsidian, and is usually black with impurities. Obsidian is a raw material for flintknappers, who have used it to make extremely sharp glass knives since the stone age. Glass sometimes occurs in nature resulting from human activity, for example trinitite (from nuclear testing) and beach glass. Glass in buildings Glass is commonly used in buildings as transparent windows, internal glazed partitions, and as architectural features. It is also possible to use glass as a structural material, for example, in beams and columns, as well as in the form of "fins" for wind reinforcement, which are visible in many glass frontages like large shop windows. Safe load capacity is, however, limited; although glass has a high theoretical yield stress, it is very susceptible to brittle (sudden) failure, and has a tendency to shatter upon localized impact. This particularly limits its use in columns, as there is a risk of vehicles or other heavy objects colliding with and shattering the structural element. One well-known example of a structure made entirely from glass is the northern entrance to Buchanan Street subway station in Glasgow. Glass in buildings can be of a safety type, including wired, heat strengthened (tempered) and laminated glass. Glass fibre insulation is common in roofs and walls. Foamed glass, made from waste glass, can be used as lightweight, closedcell insulation. As insulation, glass (e.g., fiberglass) is also used. In the form of


long, fluffy-looking sheets, it is commonly found in homes. Fiberglass insulation is used particularly in attics, and is given an R-rating, denoting the insulating ability. Technological applications Uses of glass for scientific purposes range from applications such as DNA microarrays to large sized neodymium doped glass lasers and glass fibres The Hubble Space Telescope orbiting above earth, containing optical instruments Pure SiO2 glass (the same chemical compound as quartz, or, in its polycrystalline form, sand) does not absorb UV light and is used for applications that require transparency in this region. Large natural single crystals of quartz are pure silicon dioxide, and upon crushing are used for high quality specialty glasses. Synthetic amorphous silica, an almost 100 % pure form of quartz, is the raw material for the most expensive specialty glasses, such as optical fiber core. Undersea cables have sections doped with erbium, which amplify transmitted signals by laser emission from within the glass itself. Amorphous SiO2 is also used as a dielectric material in integrated circuits due to the smooth and electrically neutral interface it forms with silicon. Optical instruments such as glasses, cameras, microscopes, telescopes, and planetaria are based on glass lenses, mirrors, and prisms. The glasses used for making these instruments are categorized using a six-digit glass code, or alternatively a letter-number code from the Schott Glass catalogue. For example, BK7 is a low-dispersion borosilicate crown glass, and SF10 is a high-dispersion dense flint glass. The glasses are arranged by composition, refractive index, and Abbe number. Glass polymerization is a technique that can be used to incorporate additives that modify the properties of glass that would otherwise be destroyed during high temperature preparation. Sol gel is an example of glass polymerization and enables embedding of organic and bioactive molecules, to add a new level of functionality to glass.


Glass production Oldest mouth-blown window-glass from 1742 from Kosta Glasbruk, Småland, Sweden. In the middle the mark from the glass blowers pipe Glass production history Glass melting technology has passed through several stages.

Glass was manufactured in open pits, ca. 3000 B.C. until the invention of the blowpipe in ca. 250 B.C.

The mobile wood-fired melting pot furnace was used until around the 17th century by traveling glass manufacturers.

Around 1688, a process for casting glass was developed, which led to glass becoming a much more commonly used material.

The local pot furnace, fired by wood and coal was used between 1600 and 1850.

The cylinder method of creating flat glass was used in the United States of America for the first time in the 1820s. It was used to commercially produce windows.

The invention of the glass pressing machine in 1827 allowed the mass production of inexpensive glass products.

The gas-heated melting pot and tank furnaces dating from 1860, followed by the electric furnace of 1910.

Hand-blown sheet glass was replaced in the 20th century by rolled plate glass.

The float glass process was invented in the 1950s.


Glass ingredients Pure silica (SiO2) has a "glass melting point"— at a viscosity of 10 Pa·s (100 P)— of over 2300 °C (4200 °F). While pure silica can be made into glass for special applications (see fused quartz), other substances are added to common glass to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the melting point to about 1500 °C (2700 °F) in soda-lime glass; "soda" refers to the original source of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants. However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74 percent silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90 percent of manufactured glass. As well as soda and lime, most common glass has other ingredients added to change its properties. Lead glass, such as lead crystal or flint glass, is more 'brilliant' because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more "sparkles", while boron may be added to change the thermal and electrical properties, as in Pyrex. Adding barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion, and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern glasses. Large amounts of iron are used in glass that absorbs infrared energy, such as heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths (biologically damaging ionizing radiation). Besides the chemicals mentioned, in some furnaces recycled glass ("cullet") is added, originating from the same factory or other sources. Cullet leads to savings not only in the raw materials, but also in the energy consumption of the glass furnace. However, impurities in the cullet may lead to product and equipment failure. Fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxide are added to reduce the bubble content in the glass.


A further raw material used in the production of soda-lime and fiber glass is calumite, which is a glassy granular by-product of the iron making industry, containing mainly silica, calcium oxide, alumina, magnesium oxide (and traces of iron oxide). For obtaining the desired glass composition, the correct raw material mixture (batch) must be determined by glass batch calculation. Contemporary glass production Following the glass batch preparation and mixing the raw materials are transported to the furnace. Soda-lime glass for mass production is melted in gas fired units. Smaller scale furnaces for specialty glasses include electric melters, pot furnaces and day tanks. After melting, homogenization and refining (removal of bubbles) the glass is formed. Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glass process, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers, which created a continuous ribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows unhindered under the influence of gravity. Container glass for common bottles and jars is formed by blowing and pressing methods. Further glass forming techniques are summarized in the table Glass forming techniques. Once the desired form is obtained, glass is usually annealed for the removal of stresses. Various surface treatment techniques, coatings, or lamination may follow to improve the chemical durability (glass container coatings, glass container internal treatment), strength (toughened glass, bulletproof glass, windshields), or optical properties (insulated glazing, anti-reflective coating).


Glassmaking in the laboratory A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Failed laboratory glass melting test. The striations must be avoided through good homogenization. New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initially investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials for laboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in mass production because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly pure chemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted with moisture or other chemicals in the environment (such as alkali oxides and hydroxides, alkaline earth oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxide), or that the impurities are quantified (loss on ignition). Evaporation losses during glass melting should be considered during the selection of the raw materials, e.g., sodium selenite may be preferred over easily evaporating SeO2. Also, more readily reacting raw materials may be preferred over relatively inert ones, such as Al(OH)

over Al2O3. Usually, the melts are carried out in platinum crucibles to reduce

contamination from the crucible material. Glass homogeneity is achieved by homogenizing the raw materials mixture (glass batch), by stirring the melt, and by crushing and re-melting the first melt. The obtained glass is usually annealed to prevent breakage during processing. Silica-free glasses Besides common silica-based glasses, many other inorganic and organic materials may also form glasses, including plastics (e.g., acrylic glass), carbon, metals, carbon dioxide (see below), phosphates, borates, chalcogenides, fluorides, germanates (glasses based on GeO2), tellurites (glasses based on TeO2), antimonates (glasses based on Sb2O3), arsenates (glasses based on As2O3), titanates (glasses based on TiO2), tantalates (glasses based on Ta2O5), nitrates, carbonates and many other substances.


Some glasses that do not include silica as a major constituent may have physicochemical properties useful for their application in fibre optics and other specialized technical applications. These include fluorozirconate, fluoroaluminate, aluminosilicate, phosphate and chalcogenide glasses. Under extremes of pressure and temperature solids may exhibit large structural and physical changes which can lead to polyamorphic phase transitions.[13] In 2006 Italian scientists created an amorphous phase of carbon dioxide using extreme pressure. The substance was named amorphous carbonia(a-CO2) and exhibits an atomic structure resembling that of Silica. The physics of glass The amorphous structure of glassy Silica (SiO2). No long range order is present, however there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement of Oxygen (O) atoms around the Silicon (Si) atoms. The standard definition of a glass (or vitreous solid) requires the solid phase to be formed by rapid melt quenching. Glass is therefore formed via a supercooled liquid and cooled sufficiently rapidly (relative to the characteristic crystallisation time) from its molten state through its glass transition temperature, Tg, that the supercooled disordered atomic configuration at Tg, is frozen into the solid state. Generally, the structure of a glass exists in a metastable state with respect to its crystalline form, although in certain circumstances, for example in atactic polymers, there is no crystalline analogue of the amorphous phase. By definition as an amorphous solid, the atomic structure of a glass lacks any long range translational periodicity. However, by virtue of the local chemical bonding constraints glasses do possess a high degree of short-range order with respect to local atomic polyhedra. It is deemed that the bonding structure of glasses, although disordered, has the same symmetry signature (Hausdorff-Besicovitch dimensionality) as for crystalline materials. Glass versus a super cooled liquid Glass is generally treated as an amorphous solid rather than a liquid, though both views can be justified. However, the notion that glass flows to an appreciable


extent over extended periods of time is not supported by empirical research or theoretical analysis (see viscosity of amorphous materials). From a more commonsense point of view, glass should be considered a solid since it is rigid according to everyday experience. Some people believe glass is a liquid due to its lack of a first-order phase transition where certain thermodynamic variables such as volume, entropy and enthalpy are continuous through the glass transition temperature. However, the glass transition temperature may be described as analogous to a second-order phase transition where the intensive thermodynamic variables such as the thermal expansivity and heat capacity are discontinuous. Despite this, thermodynamic phase transition theory does not entirely hold for glass, and hence the glass transition cannot be classed as a genuine thermodynamic phase transition. Although the atomic structure of glass shares characteristics of the structure in a super cooled liquid, glass is generally classed as solid below its glass transition temperature.[21] There is also the problem that a super cooled liquid is still a liquid and not a solid but it is below the freezing point of the material and will crystallize almost instantly if a crystal is added as a core. The change in heat capacity at a glass transition and a melting transition of comparable materials are typically of the same order of magnitude indicating that the change in active degrees of freedom is comparable as well. Both in a glass and in a crystal it is mostly only the vibrational degrees of freedom that remain active, whereas rotational and translational motion becomes impossible explaining why glasses and crystalline materials are hard.


Behavior of antique glass The observation that old windows are often thicker at the bottom than at the top is often offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a matter of centuries. It is then assumed that the glass was once uniform, but has flowed to its new shape, which is a property of liquid. The likely source of this unfounded belief is that when panes of glass were commonly made by glassblowers, the technique used was to spin molten glass so as to create a round, mostly flat and even plate (the Crown glass process, described above). This plate was then cut to fit a window. The pieces were not, however, absolutely flat; the edges of the disk would be thicker because of centripetal force relaxation. When actually installed in a window frame, the glass would be placed thicker side down for the sake of stability and visual sparkle. Occasionally such glass has been found thinner side down or on either side of the window's edge, as would be caused by carelessness at the time of installation. Mass production of glass window panes in the early twentieth century caused a similar effect. In glass factories, molten glass was poured onto a large cooling table and allowed to spread. The resulting glass is thicker at the location of the pour, located at the center of the large sheet. These sheets were cut into smaller window panes with nonuniform thickness. Modern glass intended for windows is produced as float glass and is very uniform in thickness. Several other points exemplify the misconception of the 'cathedral glass' theory:

Writing in the American Journal of Physics, physicist Edgar D. Zanotto states "...the predicted relaxation time for GeO2 at room temperature is 10 years. Hence, the relaxation period (characteristic flow time) of cathedral glasses would be even longer".

If medieval glass has flowed perceptibly, then ancient Roman and Egyptian objects should have flowed proportionately more — but this is not observed. Similarly, prehistoric obsidian blades should have lost their edge; this is not observed either (although obsidian may have a different viscosity from window glass).


If glass flows at a rate that allows changes to be seen with the naked eye after centuries, then the effect should be noticeable in antique telescopes. Any slight deformation in the antique telescopic lenses would lead to a dramatic decrease in optical performance, a phenomenon that is not observed.

There are many examples of centuries-old glass shelving which has not bent, even though it is under much higher stress from gravitational loads than vertical window glass.

Some glasses have a glass transition temperature close to or below room temperature. The behavior of a material that has a glass transition close to room temperature depends upon the timescale during which the material is manipulated. If the material is hit it may break like a solid glass, however if the material is left on a table for a week it may flow like a liquid. This simply means that for the fast timescale its transition temperature is above room temperature, but for the slow one it is below. The shift in temperature with timescale is not very large however as indicated by the transition of polypropylene glycol of -72 °C and -71 °C over different timescales. To observe window glass flowing as liquid at room temperature we would have to wait a much longer time than the universe exists. Therefore it is safe to consider a glass a solid far enough below its transition temperature: Cathedral glass does not flow because its glass transition temperature is many hundreds of degrees above room temperature. Close to this temperature there are interesting time-dependent properties. One of these is known as aging. Many polymers that we use in daily life such as rubber, polystyrene and polypropylene are in a glassy state but they are not too far below their glass transition temperature. Their mechanical properties may well change over time and this is serious concern when applying these materials in construction.


Physical properties The following table lists some physical properties of common glasses. Unless otherwise stated, the technical glass compositions and many experimentally determined properties are taken from one large study. Unless stated otherwise, the properties of fused silica (quartz glass) and germania glass are derived from the SciGlass glass database by forming the arithmetic mean of all the experimental values from different authors (in general more than 10 independent sources for quartz glass and Tg of germanium oxide glass). Those values marked in italic font have been interpolated from sililar glass compositions (see Calculation of glass properties) due to the lack of experimental data. Color Common soda-lime float glass appears green in thick sections because of Fe2+ impurities. Colors in glass may be obtained by addition of coloring ions that are homogeneously distributed and by precipitation of finely dispersed particles (such as in photochromic glasses). Ordinary soda-lime glass appears colorless to the naked eye when it is thin, although iron(II) oxide (FeO) impurities of up to 0.1 wt% produce a green tint which can be viewed in thick pieces or with the aid of scientific instruments. Further FeO and Cr2O3 additions may be used for the production of green bottles. Sulfur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used to form iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almost black. Manganese dioxide can be added in small amounts to remove the green tint given by iron(II) oxide.


History Roman glass Naturally occurring glass, especially obsidian, has been used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and, due to its limited source areas, was extensively traded. According to Pliny the Elder, Phoenician traders were the first to stumble upon glass manufacturing techniques at the site of the Belus River. Agricola, De re metallica, reported a traditional serendipitous "discovery" tale of familiar type: "The tradition is that a merchant ship laden with nitrum being moored at this place, the merchants were preparing their meal on the beach, and not having stones to prop up their pots, they used lumps of nitrum from the ship, which fused and mixed with the sands of the shore, and there flowed streams of a new translucent liquid, and thus was the origin of glass." This account is more a reflection of Roman experience of glass production, however, as white silica sand from this area was used in the production of Roman glass due to its low impurity levels. But in general archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or Old Kingdom Egypt. Due to Egypt's favourable environment for preservation, the majority of well-studied early glass is found in Egypt, although some of this is likely to have been imported. The earliest known glass objects, of the mid third millennium BC, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of metal-working slags or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing. During the Late Bronze Age in Egypt and Western Asia there was an explosion in glass-making technology. Archaeological finds from this period include coloured glass ingots, vessels (often coloured and shaped in imitation of highly prized wares of semi-precious stones) and the ubiquitous beads. The alkali of Syrian and Egyptian glass was soda ash, sodium carbonate, which can be extracted from the ashes of many plants, notably halophile seashore plants: (see saltwort). The earliest vessels were 'core-wound', produced by winding a ductile rope of metal


round a shaped core of sand and clay over a metal rod, then fusing it with repeated reheatings. Threads of thin glass of different colours made with admixtures of oxides were subsequently wound around these to create patterns, which could be drawn into festoons with a metal raking tools. The vessel would then be rolled flat ('marvered') on a slab in order to press the decorative threads into its body. Handles and feet were applied separately. The rod was subsequently allowed to cool as the glass slowly annealed and was eventually removed from the centre of the vessel, after which the core material was scraped out. Glass shapes for inlays were also often created in moulds. Much early glass production, however, relied on grinding techniques borrowed from stone working. This meant that the glass was ground and carved in a cold state. By the 15th century BC extensive glass production was occurring in Western Asia and Egypt. It is thought the techniques and recipes required for the initial fusing of glass from raw materials was a closely guarded technological secret reserved for the large palace industries of powerful states. Glass workers in other areas therefore relied on imports of pre-formed glass, often in the form of cast ingots such as those found on the Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey. Glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late Bronze Age civilisations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt. It picked up again in its former sites, in Syria and Cyprus, in the ninth century BC, when the techniques for making colourless glass were discovered. In Egypt glass-making did not revive until it was reintroduced in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Core-formed vessels and beads were still widely produced, but other techniques came to the fore with experimentation and technological advancements. During the Hellenistic period many new techniques of glass production were introduced and glass began to be used to make larger pieces, notably table wares. Techniques developed during this period include 'slumping' viscous (but not fully molten) glass over a mould in order to form a dish and 'millefiori' (meaning 'thousand flowers') technique, where canes of multi-coloured glass were sliced and the slices arranged together and fused in a mould to create a mosaic-like effect. It was also during this period that colourless or decoloured glass began to be prized and methods for achieving this effect were investigated more fully.


During the first century BC glass blowing was discovered on the Syro-Palestinian coast, revolutionising the industry and laying the way for the explosion of glass production that occurred throughout the Roman world. Over the next 1000 years glass making and working continued and spread through southern Europe and beyond. South Asia Indigenous development of glass technology in South Asia may have begun in 1730 BCE. Evidence of this culture includes a red-brown glass bead along with a hoard of beads dating to 1730 BCE, making it the earliest attested glass from the Indus Valley locations. Glass discovered from later sites dating from 600-300 BCE displays common color. Chalcolithic evidence of glass has been found in Hastinapur, India. Some of the texts which mention glass in India are the Shatapatha Brahmana and Vinaya Pitaka. However, the first unmistakable evidence in large quantities, dating from the 3rd century BCE, has been uncovered from the archaeological site in Taxila, Pakistan. By the beginning of the Common Era, glass was being used for ornaments and casing in South Asia. Contact with the Greco-Roman world added newer techniques, and Indians artisans mastered several techniques of glass molding, decorating and coloring by the early centuries of the Common Era. Satavahana period of India Early modern glass in England The early modern period in England (c. 1500-1800) brought on a revival in local glass production. Medieval glass had been limited to the small-scale production of forest glass for window glass and vessels, predominantly in the Weald. The organisation of production evolved from the small-scale family-run glass houses typical of forest glass-making to large monopolies granted by the Crown. The influx of immigrants from Europe brought changes in furnace technology and raw materials, creating a better quality glass. Monastic decrees later banned the use


of wood fuel which was then replaced by the less expensive alternative of coal. The development of lead glass in the late 17th century propelled England to the forefront of the glass industry and paved the way for advancements in the Industrial Revolution Chemical composition Glass has three major components: a network former (silica), a network modifier (flux), and a network stabilizer (predominantly lime). In the early 16th and 17th centuries glassmaking (the manufacture of glass from raw materials) and glassworking (the creation of objects from glass) occurred within the same glasshouse. Glass was also recycled at this time in the form of cullet. In the early modern era, network formers were obtained from fine or coarse sands which were usually located near the area of production or from silica based pebbles. Network modifiers were used to alter the chemical composition of the the network former and reduce the melting temperature of the batch. These fluxes varied depending on the type of glass. Potassium oxide (K2O) based alkalis were used extensively in glass production. The type of flux selected heavily influenced the quality of the glass produced. In England, beech wood and oak were preferred for forest glass. For soda glasses (Na2O), alkalis were often found in the form of marine plants – either local kelp or imported plants from the Mediterranean and the Near East (barilla, polverine, rochetta, sevonus, natron). Network stabilizers in early modern England continued to be lime sources. Lime occurs as a natural contaminant in most sands, and may also be intentionally added to the melt.


Compositional groups Five glass compositional groups have been identified through analysis of archaeologically recovered glass from this period. These have been further reduced into two types, ‘green glass’ and ‘white glass’. The groups include:

Potash-lime-silica glass (forest or green glass), typically has an excess of 10% wt oxide K20 High Lime Low Alkali, HLLA (green glass) usually has <10% Na2O,K20, 1520% CaO Soda-lime glass (white glass/ ‘ordinary glass’) with low MgO, CaO, high K2O Mixed alkali glass (white glass/ crystallo) Na2O K2O and CaO levels are too low for this glass to be incorporated in the other categories. Lead glass (white glass/ façon de venise) has on average 25-35% PbO

The following table represents the mean compositional data derived from the analysis of materials at the Old Broad Street furnace in London, dated to the early 17th century. and those recovered from Phase Two (circa 1680-1700 AD) Silkstone, Yorkshire. This information was gathered from Dungworth's compilation and analysis. The data is represented in wt% oxides and those below the detection limits (0.2% or less) are shown by '-'. Colorants There are numerous factors that may influence colouration during glass production. These include contaminants in raw materials, furnace conditions, and deliberate additives that would provide known colour variations. Iron existing as a contaminant in sands, produced either a green or brown colour depending upon the oxidation state. Coal fumes provided a carbon contaminant, which could create a dark brown or black colour. Manganese present in wood ash may have contributed to the lighter, translucent green colour. Other trace elements present in alkalis (such as MnO in beech ash) undoubtedly influenced the finished product.


Other metal oxide colorants were known from earlier periods in antiquity. Early post-medieval glass Medieval glasshouse traditions continued in the Weald, which was becoming deforested by the early 17th century; local glassmaking spread elsewhere, where timber was available to fire furnaces, to Hampshire, Gloucestershire, North Staffordshire and the Scottish Borders. At Bagot's Park, Staffordshire, one such glasshouse has been recovered, which dates from circa 1535; it contained an early melting furnace and a smaller annealing furnace. The melting furnace had two siege benches for the placement of three crucible pots, each with a central flue cut into the floor to create a draught that would allow the furnace to achieve 1200oC in order to melt the glass. Fritting, and the preheating of crucibles may have occurred in the upper areas of the main furnace. Annealing (glass) and glass blowing probably occurred using a smaller furnace. Cullet heaps of broken glass residue were found on either side, suggesting the use of a flux to reduce melting temperatures. Some crushed white pebbles were recovered in the bottom of pots, and this may reflect the silica source used at this site. The glass recovered from Bagot's Park was badly weathered, yet the ends of broad glass and crown glass suggest that window and vessel glass were produced. Glass technology The majority of glass at this time was blown or mould blown into a variety of vessel shapes. This was enhanced by decorative styles, including optic decoration and trailing the glass, sometimes with pre-fabricated glass canes, to replicate Venetian traditions. Influences from the Continent In 1567, Jean Carré arrived in London from Antwerp and obtained a crownsanctioned patent for the production of window glass. This patent was awarded to Carré on the condition that prices remained low and that glassmaking and blowing would be taught to native Englishmen to promote the craft. He brought many


Venetian craftsmen to his London workshop and opened a second furnace outside the city to produce vessel and green glass. Later in 1574, Jacob Verzelini, a Venetian who worked for Carré was granted a monopoly over Venetian-style vessel glass. This effectively banned most of the imports from Venice and promoted glass made locally in England. Verzelini's goal was to produce clear crystallo glass as well as decorative glass façon de venise ("in the Venetian mode"), which he achieved by importing barilla from Spain. This effectively helped to lower the price of clear glassware and made it available to a wider range of the gentry and middle class. Utilitarian green glass production remained on a small scale and was made by numerous glasshouses in different areas for local consumption, in the tradition of forest glass. Technological changes With the new influx of immigrants from the European Continent in the mid 16th century, technological changes affected the quality of English glass. This was possibly the combined result of experience and the selection/importation of purer raw materials. Winged furnaces Additionally, glass furnaces constructed from the mid 16th century began to reflect continental styles. This trend, identifiable in the archaeological record, supports the documentary evidence for immigrant glassmakers. Wing-like additions were added to the late 16th-early 17th century furnace remains at two glass producing sites, Hutton and Rosedale in York, as well as at Vann Copse in the Weald. The Hutton furnace had two wings added in the northeast and southeast corners of the original rectangular melting furnace. A smaller nearby furnace was abandoned around the same time as the addition of the wings, suggesting that they provided an area for either annealing or pre-heating pots. Rosedale and Vann Copse were constructed in similar styles but with four wings, one in each corner, which were built integral to the original furnace. The wings


showed evidence of heating which again suggested these were areas for fritting or glassworking. The glass produced at Rosedale was generally cleaner and of a better quality than that of Hutton, although the reasons for this are still unclear. Production at Rosedale appeared to have a higher output than that of Hutton, as two additional smaller furnaces indicate that the operation had expanded. It is thought that these furnaces are similar to those of the Lorraine style, and research in the Netherlands suggests that contemporary continental furnaces were made in this fashion. Change to coal From 1581-1584, Parliament became increasingly concerned over the wood supply in the country. At this time, a large number of high temperature industries were dependent on wood for fuel, and this began to diminish the country‘s forests. The original decree in this time prohibited the use of wood fuel unless it was from one’s own land. By 1609, Sir Edward Zouche was granted a patent to experiment with coal as the main fuel for a furnace at Winchester and by 1615 Parliament had banned the use of wood fuel. Adopting coal as the main source of fuel created numerous problems for glass production. Burning coal produced short flames which shifted the location of the hearth from the far ends of the furnace to the center. Air draughts are also necessary to create a regenerative heating system for glassmelting. Early coal furnaces, such as at Bolsterstone, contain underground flues to provide an easy way to remove ash. Additionally, the carbon from the coal fumes contaminated the glass in the uncovered pots which created a dark and often uneven colour. Lids, such as those found at Bolsterstone, needed to be implemented to prevent these impurities. Glass bottles from this initial transition are often dark in color.


Charles Mansell Before 1616, Charles Mansell bought out the patent and company started by Zouche. He began many ventures and set up a successful glasshouse near a coal source in the attempts to save money and to more easily meet the demands of London. His crystallo furnace at Broad Street, London, had fared successfully. Some of his earlier attempts to set up new a furnace to produce glass for the growing needs of London failed, as transportation costs proved to be too high. Yet the furnace Mansell set up at Newcastle was successful. Another winged furnace was set up at Kimmeridge using local sources of oil shale as fuel. Unlike other wing furnaces, the one at this site had deep flues and a centrally located hearth, illustrating the adaptation to a new fuel source. This furnace was demolished in 1623 as being in violation of Mansell’s monopoly. Conical furnaces The conical glasshouses of England of the late 17th century introduced to furnaces the use of a chimney and a new plan shape. This development possibly drew off the idea of earlier wind furnaces and the beehive-shaped Venetian style furnaces, known only from historical documents in England. The addition of the chimney both created a strong draught and acted to extract the coal fumes. The earliest examples appear in Bristol and at Gawber, Yorkshire. These furnaces had underground flues and chimneys with air holes to provide a strong air draught to control heat. Fritting, pre-heating pots and annealing processes were undertaken in different sections of the furnace, elevated above the heat source. The Expansion of the Industry In 1763, George Ravenscroft developed flint glass, a colourless and translucent glass with many desirable working properties. The original recipe was subject to crizzling. Later batches had the addition of lead oxide (PbO) which combatted this problem and produced a superior glass that was more suitable for to engraving


and etching. Lead glass was widely adopted by the Glass seller’s guild when Ravenscroft’s patent expired. Lead glass helped to propel England to the front of the glass industry. Bottles for wine and phials began to be produced and exported on a large scale. The archaeological remains of the Albion shipwreck off Margate in 1765 contained 11 lead glass ingots, which are thought to be meant for trade with China. Although little is known about these materials, it does suggest that lead glass contributed to England's exports. The 19th century brought new developments with synthetic materials, such as gas fuel. Additionally, continuous melting production with tank furnaces helped mark the end of the early modern period and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. English glass objects Vessel glass The evolution of vessel glass became more elaborate and specific to its intended use throughout the early modern period. Mirror glass and glass objects also began to be produced on larger scales during the early modern period. Types of objects include:
• • • • • • • • • • • •

Phials Goblets Drinking Glasses Beakers Tankards Jugs Bottles Bowls Jars Urinals Flasks Mirror glass


Window glass Window glass was produced throughout the period on a small scale, in the form of crown glass and broad glass. This was predominantly made from green glass throughout the 16th century. While rare in the early 16th century, glass windows soon became a symbol of increasing wealth and status. Larger sheets were in demand for domestic and public buildings. Stained glass Stained glass in the earliest part of the early modern period was imported into England from France. With the Protestant Reformation in England, ecclesiastic buildings increasingly used the more expensive 'white' glass.



ORIENT From a small beginning way back in 1981, we have grown to be what we are now a sthe leading glass producers in the country converting all types of flat and curved glass, namely clear float, tinted, reflective, laminated safety, and bullet proof, tempered and heat strengthened glasses. Reputed local constructions companies as well as many foreign construction companies who have undertaken building construction have found working with us for their requirements and services are concerned a very satisfying experience. We do think of ourselves as yet another glass supplier, instead we see ourselves as specialists, and this specialization has earned for us a multitude of satisfied customers among them global top constructing companies, developers, house builders, furniture manufactures, interior decorators, equipment manufactures etc. Our commitment to excellence has been the key to our growth and we will always continue to provide our customers with best products and services. Our processing facilities are in a picturesque factory at Royapuram in a land area of over 100, 000 sq ft. TEMPERED GLASS It is a special heat treating process which increases the strength up to four/five times of the normal glass. This glass is custom made are processed to any size or any shape as required. It is suitable for store front, residential window, doors, sloped glazing, curved architectural glass, solar panels, balustrades, elevators; shower cubicle/tub enclosures etc in float or bend type. This includes canopies, building facades, suspended glass assemblies are all unique applications, is manufactured to customers specification. Tempered glass reduces the likelihood of injury in the unlike event of breakages.


HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASS Heat strengthened glass is two/three times harder than normal annealed sheet glass, which is highly suitable for building facades, sky lights , arch domes and many flexible application to architectural dreams, second to none in the world of glass. GLASS FRAMELESS DOORS A wide range of glass doors available in nearly unbreakable tempered glass clear, tinted glass doors with many different (or personalized) etched patterns, there is also opaque and ceramic color versions used in living rooms, hotels, commercial premises, showers and bath tubs. AUTOMOTIVE GLASS Automotive glass is made by heating quality glass just below its softening temperature giving it the required shape & suddenly chilling it with jets cold air. It results the outer skin coming under powerful compressive stress and the interior with severe tensile stress. In consequence, the impact applied to the glass will be overcome by compression force on the surfaces to ensure safety in formed. BEND GLASS Orient with its mixture of bent & latest formed glass technique has come to create unique crystal clear glass for counters sophisticated as well as totally personalized work of art suit your taste and requirement. We offer a total package of planning, designing, supplying, or on demand unto installation. Glass are stylistic and a willing instrument for modern architecture we could make absolutely anything ranging from elegant partition to exotic glass tops to sky lights whether at commercial building or homes with full control of transparencies to full opacity. These glasses are produced in thickness of 2mm – 12mm.


GLASS FURNITURE We manufacture glass furniture in any thickness with edges polished to, many profile such as flat, pencil, bevel, ogee, etc. Furniture glass and table tops should be tempered due to human contact for safety. Normal glass being very delicate is tempered to give a long durability, mechanical strength and scratch resistance. It also present’s edge chipping or flaking, a common problem with expensive table tops. CERAMIC PRINTED GLASS Ceramic glass gets its name from its print by a silk screen with a glass enamel before tempering, heat strengthening or bending can take place, the enamel fuses into the surface & becomes a permanent coating which cannot be damaged or removed and is un affected by moisture, and scratch proof. It is also known as silk screened glass & coloured glass. Certain areas of glass or a at times the entire glass is hidden or masked for reasons as varied as privacy to concealing the background or for improving the aesthetic look of the product. Best use in commercial building to match, accentuate or complement the vision area of the building (wall cladding). Patterns can be developed fro virtually any arrangement of geometric shapes or textures, custom patterns can provide unlimited design possibilities. Most famous are dots, holes, lines, squares, and triangle. DECAL PRINTED GLASS Comes in many stranded designs like marble, granite, image, metallic, multi colored, picture, scenes or could be custom made. DECORATIVE FUSION GLASS, STAIN GLASS Stain glass, fusion embossed design, slumped, acid etched, engraved; computerize sand carving, V grooved.


LAMINATED GLASS Is manufactured by PVB, UMU, EVA, and resin. Stop shot (Bullet proof) SOLAR REFLECTIVE Coated glass for façade, domes, partition etc. PHOTO VOLTIC GLASS For solar rays, solar heaters wind screen. INSULATED GLASS Double glazing, flat and bend types of glasses. OUR SERVICES Orient is an enterprising company, who has associated in contract work, supplies & services with almost all the star hotels such as Galadari, Taj Samudra, Trans Asia, Hilton, Oberoi (Cinnamon Garden) & with high rises such as JAIC Hilton Tower, Royal Park Condominium, Crescat Residency, ceylinco seylan Towers, The World trade Centre etc. Services also were rendered to presidential palace, Male, Nasundhara Palace Hotel, Maldives. The Oberoi Hotel, Mumbai. Above are few of the endless lists of our satisfied customers in our 25 years in business. Incidentally our chairman, have been in the sheet of glass field over three decades and have received training in UK, India, Belgium, & Denmark. Orient design with its mixture of bent& latest formed glass technique has come to create unique sophisticated & totally personalized work of art to suit your taste and requirements. Glass as a stylistic and a willing instrument for modern architecture, therefore we could make absolutely anything ranging from elegant partition to exotic glass tops, sky lights whether at commercial building or homes with full control of transparencies to full opacity.


These glasses are produced in thickness of 6 – 12mm. in special cases less than 6mm or over 12mm are supplied on request. Heat strengthened glass is three times harder than normal annealed sheet glass which is highly suitable for building facades, sky lights, arch domes and many flexible application architectural dreams, second to none in the world of glass. It is possible to bend in our latest machinery, plain float, colour, tinted reflective hard coated glass, laminated glass, pioneering in this field.



The data after collection is to be processed and analyzed in accordance with the outline and down for the purpose at the time of developing research plan. Technically speaking, processing implies editing, coding, classification and tabulation of collected data so that they are amenable to analysis. The term analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for pattern groups. Thus in the process of analysis, relationship or difference should be subjected to statistical tests of significance to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate any conclusions. The analysis of data in a general way involves a number of closely related operations, which are performed with the purpose of summarizing the collected data and organizing them in such a manner that they answer the research questions. In this study the researcher followed above process carefully and it is presented in this chapter


Table 4.1 – To know the department in which employees are belongs to SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. Mechanical Electrical Production Others Total Source: survey data 30 25 35 10 100 30 25 35 10 100 Department No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 35% of employees are belongs to production department.




Table 4.2 – To know working experience of the employees SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. Below 2 years 2 – 4 years 4 – 6 years Above 6 years Total Source: survey data 13 30 34 23 100 13 30 34 23 100 Work Experience No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 34% of the employees have 4 – 6 years experience.




Table 4.3 – To know the physical working environment SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Excellent Good Fair Poor Very Poor Total Source: survey data 12 57 28 3 0 100 12 57 28 3 0 100 Working Environment No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were feeling good about the working environment.




Table 4.4 – To know the satisfaction level of employees towards the nonmonitory benefits SI. N Non-Monitory Benefits offered o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 14 54 25 5 2 100 14 54 25 5 2 100 to Employees No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 54% of the employees were satisfied towards the non-monitory benefits.




Table 4.5 – To know the satisfaction level of respondents towards the work assigned SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 20 45 12 18 6 100 20 45 12 18 6 100 Amount of Work No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 45% of the respondents were satisfied towards the work assigned.




Table 4.6 – Opinion about the career development programme in their organisation SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 12 56 22 10 0 100 12 56 22 10 0 100 Career Development No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 56% of the employees were satisfied with the opinion about the carrier development programme in their organisation.




Table 4.7 – To know the cooperation of co-workers SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 20 66 11 3 0 100 20 66 11 3 0 100 Co-operation of Workers No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 66% of the employees were satisfied with the cooperation of co-workers.




Table 4.8 – To know the satisfaction of Respondents with top management SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 3. 4. Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 26 51 17 6 0 100 26 51 17 6 0 100 Satisfaction with Top Management No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 51% of the employees were satisfied with the top management.




Table 4.9 – To know the satisfaction of Respondents with their subordinates SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 12 67 14 7 0 100 12 67 14 7 0 100 Satisfaction with Subordinates No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 67% of the employees were satisfied with their subordinates.




Table 4.10 – To know the level of satisfaction regarding nature of job SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 22 56 16 7 0 100 22 56 16 7 0 100 Job Satisfaction No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 56% of the employees were satisfied with their job.




Table 4.11 – To know whether there is any job pressure in their work SI. N o . 1. 2. Yes No Total Source: survey data 72 28 100 72 28 100 Job Pressure No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 72% of employees said there is job pressure in their work.




Table 4.12 – To know the opinion regarding opportunity provided by the organisation in developing skills & talents SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Highly Disagree Total Source: survey data 12 52 28 6 2 100 12 52 28 6 2 100 Development of Skills and Talents No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 52% of employees agreed regarding opportunity provided by the organisation in developing skills & talents.




Table 4.13 – To know the satisfaction level of welfare facilities provided by the management SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 Highly satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 9 57 29 5 0 100 9 57 29 5 0 100 Welfare Facilities No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were satisfied with the welfare facilities provided by the management.




Table 4.14 – To know the employee satisfaction towards the salary SI. N o . 1. 2. Yes No Total Source: survey data 67 33 100 67 33 100 Payment Satisfaction No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 67% of the employees were satisfied with their salary.




Table 4.15 – To know the employees willingness to continue SI. N o . 1. 2. Yes No Total Source: survey data 59 41 100 59 41 100 Willingness to Work No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 59% of the employees were willing to continue in this organisation.




Table 4.16 – To know the opinion about company’s policy and practices SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Excellent Very Good Good Bad Very Bad Total Source: survey data 13 23 47 12 5 100 13 23 47 12 5 100 Company’s Policy and Practices No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 47% of the employees were feels good about the company policy and practices.




Table 4.17 – To know the company’s promotion policy SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 3. 4. Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 14 57 20 7 2 100 14 57 20 7 2 100 Company’s Promotion Policy No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 57% of the employees were satisfied about the company’s promotion policy.




Table 4.18 – To know the overall job satisfaction SI. N o . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: survey data 22 30 29 12 7 100 22 30 29 12 7 100 Overall Job Satisfaction No. of Respondents Percentage

Inference: From the above table it shows that 30% of the employees were satisfied in their over all job satisfaction.




CHI-SQUARE METHOD The chi square test is one of the simplest and most widely used nonparametric tests in statistical work. As a non-parametric test it can be used to determine if categorical data shows dependency or the two classifications are independent. It can also be used to make comparisons between theoretical population and actual data when categories are used. n Chi square, χ²= ∑ (O-E) ² / E i =1 Where, O= observed frequency E= expected frequency



Table 4.19 shows the relationship between the department and the job satisfaction Over All Highly Satisfaction Satisfied Satisfied Job Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Mechanical 5 6 14 3 2 30 Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Sub Total






















Sub Total








EXPECTED FREQUENCY Over All Job Satisfaction Highly Satisfie d Mechanical Electrical Production Others Sub Total 7 5 8 2 22 8 8 11 3 30 Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied 9 7 10 3 29 4 3 4 1 12 2 2 2 1 7 30 25 35 10 100 Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Sub Total

Null Hypothesis (Ho) There is no significant difference between the department and the job satisfaction.

Alternative Hypothesis (Ho) There is significant difference between the department and the job satisfaction.

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