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Waller 1

Jesus Speak: A Narrative Exploration of the Relationship between the Language of Jesus and the Language of an A eri!an "hristian Spee!h "o $% &# $ntrodu!tion to the "hristian Spee!h "o unit# unit#

Bless your heart; Ill be praying for you. Will you hold me accountable? Im trying to guard my heart. Last night was an amazing time of Spirit filled worship and fellowshipping. 'hese are a few state ents $ have both said and heard said a ong the "hristian !o $(ll be honest) $ use words like edif#) hallelu*ah) Spirit) and revival both and without regard to who $ a# be talking to% 'o unit#%

ore than $ !are to ad it eaning and

e) these words are ri!h in

experien!e) though $ understand that for other people) whether !onfessed "hristians or not) these words !an appear e pt#) ar!hai!) and disorienting% 'hough $ was born the daughter of "hristian issionaries to Afri!a) it was not until filled spee!h !o # faith be!a e # own and $ entered a vibrant) faith+ ore

unit# several #ears ago that $ reali,ed that the "hristian diale!t !ould be unit# and sustain a !ulture of spiritual revival%

than a novelt#- it !ould be used to birth a !o .nexpe!tedl#) $ found

#self fluent in "hristianese%

$n the fall of /010) $ was a part of a s all group that experien!ed a revival out of the book of A!ts% 'he fier# !olors of autu n leaves were s# boli! of the growing passion of the group% We shared our one# and opened our ho es) wel!o ed drug addi!ts fro the streets) and

experien!ed an outpour of spiritual gifts% At the group(s peak) we had nearl# 10 people pa!ked into a tin# living roo on S% 'a#lor Street% 'he guitar usi! bellowed) and our legs a!hed fro

standing so long be!ause there was no pla!e to sit% 'he interesting thing about the group was that none of us !a e fro a !haris ati!

ba!kground or anti!ipated the revival events to o!!ur% We were si pl# a rag+tag handful of /0+

Waller / so ethings fro an arra# of lo!al Non+deno inational !hur!hes who were looking for deeper

wa#s to experien!e Jesus% Even as the revival events were unfolding) $ didn(t have the language to des!ribe what the group was experien!ing% 'hough $ had grown up in !hur!h) $ was !o pletel# unfa iliar with the verna!ular of revival% 2"haris ati!3 had been a pe*orative word in $a # household% $t has onl# been in re!ent #ears through a !loser stud# of the book of A!ts that able to express what # s all group experien!ed%

Looking ba!k) $ !an see how we were using language to shape our realit# and !reate a !o unit#% 'he s all group leader insisted we refer to the group as 2Revival group3 instead of

si pl# a 2s all group3 4or) the 2'alking 5onke#s)3 as we originall# !alled ourselves6 be!ause he didn(t want others to get the i pression that this was *ust another !hur!h+# event where people !a e to talk about their feelings or !he!k the box of their weekl# "hristian to+do list% $ re e ber the rea!tion tri!kle into #i ediate fa il# had when the newl# a!7uired religious dis!ourse began to # dad asked 29ou

# ever#+da# spee!h% 2What do #ou do at a worship night83 orning%3 # ears and

alread# sang at !hur!h this

:or better or worse) this revival experien!e opened

outh to a new language;

"hristianese) or what .rban 5i!tionar# now defines as the 2!o

uni!able language within the

"hristian sub!ulture3 4Randag6% 'hough it has been exhilarating to have dis!overed words that a!!uratel# define # spiritual experien!es and allow e to arti!ulate these experien!es with # language

others) $ !annot help but wonder about the i pli!ations of using "hristianese% $s

in!lusive and edif#ing to people8 <r is it ex!lusive and rude8 And) here !o es the big 7uestion: does my language a!tuall# sound like Jesus8 'hese 7uestions are deepl# personal) but $ feel the# are ne!essar# to broa!h in order to dis!over the i pa!t that "hristianese has on both the lo!al faith !o unit# and the non+religious !o unit# at large% =# presenting a surve# of spee!h

Waller > !o unit# theor# followed b# a language variet# anal#sis !o paring the language of Jesus and

the language of #oung+adult) Non+deno inational A eri!an "hristians) this paper will seek to answer the following resear!h 7uestions: 1% $s "hristianese good) bad) or si pl# a natural o!!urren!e8 /% What is the i pa!t or i pression it leaves on others8 >% 5id Jesus Speak "hristianese8 ?% @ow !an "hristians toda# learn fro 1% What does it look like to talk like a $$% Jesus( exa ple of in!lusive language8 odern+da# Jesus8 unit#

'heor# that $nfor s the 5iale!t of the "hristian Spee!h "o

2Ever#one speaks a diale!t)3 @arve# A% 5aniels states as the fourth of his nine ideas about language 45aniels A6% With the definition of diale!t as 2a variet# of language whi!h has a !ertain set of lexi!al) phonologi!al) and gra ati!al rules that distinguish it fro other diale!ts3

45aniels A6) it should not !o e as a surprise that #oung adult) non+deno inational A eri!an "hristians have established a diale!t of their own) !o plete with words) phrases) intonations) and s#nta!ti! strategies% Lee Bederson explains how we !an tra!e the roots of new diale!ts fro the

drawing and re+drawing of !ultural boundaries: 2Wherever !lear !ut+boundaries of !ulture !an be re!onstru!ted on the basis of histori!al infor ation fro ar!heolog#) usi!) graphi! arts) or the

so!ial s!ien!es) diale!t differen!es !an be predi!ted3 4>?16% 5aniels elaborates) 2=esides having a range of spee!h st#les) ea!h speaker also uses a nu ber of *argons based upon his or her affiliation with !ertain groups3 45aniels 116% 'his pheno enon of "hristianese is exa!tl# what happened to # s all group when we atte pted to des!ribe what we were seeing and

experien!ing% $n the words of Nan!# Lord) our diale!t was helping us 2extend our sense of

Waller ? !o unit#3 4Lord ?CD6% <ut of our 2spe!iali,ed !onversations3 we were atte pting to reinfor!e

group identit# and develop private !odes 4Bederson >1/6% <ur diale!t not onl# extended our sense of !o "hristians we had never re!entl# unit# a ong ourselves) but even to

et% <ne ,ealous !ouple attended our group for the first ti e after Eansas "it#% We instantl# !onne!ted over the words house et this !ouple) it was obvious we

oving to Little Ro!k fro

church and Spirit filled worship% Even though we had never

were speaking the sa e language% 'here was the i pli!it understanding that we would have helped the ove their possessions fro the .+haul to their new apart ent if the# had asked%

Another ti e) while visiting

# friend Eli,a in another state 4whose s all group was # own6) we ran into a friend of iddle of the !ereal aisle) we

experien!ing a revival that paralleled the pa!e and events of hers fro

!hur!h in a di l#+lit gro!er# store% Right there in the

pro!eeded to have an hour+long !onversation on our personal experien!e with the @ol# Spirit% Eli,a) @arrison) and $ shared !onversion stories) struggles) and doubts like we were !lose friends% After the !onversation was over) we even planned a pra#er and worship night for the next evening% A handful of good folks;though so e of who even Eli,a did not know;showed up e bers)

at Eli,a(s apart ent the next evening and we sang and pra#ed together like fa il#

raising our hands) hu bl# asking for pra#er) and boldl# sharing words% <ur parting words fro that evening were so ething along the lines of) 2See #ou in the !louds) if not before%3 'he a a,ing thing about the pheno enon of diale!t is that though our spee!h !o to !o unities allow us to !reate to our own realities and per!eptions of the world) we are still able uni!ate and e pathi,e with individuals and ideas outside of our spee!h !o unit#%

5aniels explains: 2Fhu an adaptabilit# enables us to trans!end the li itations of a language; to learn to see the world in new wa#s and voi!e new !on!epts;when we ust3 45aniels 1D6% $t(s

Waller 1 true% <ne o ent $ !ould be on the phone in # !ar) *abbering awa# in "hristianese with #

best friend Eli,a) telling her about the profound event of ra!ial re!on!iliation we had experien!ed that night at group 42Eli,a) Seth started weeping and asking Luther to forgive hi for the sins of

white A eri!a- the# both e bra!ed) pra#ed against ra!is ) and blessed ea!h other36) and the next o ent when $ would leave # !ar and !al l# enter the front door to # house) $ would

!ode swit!h so as not to stir up !on!ern a ong !ertain fa il# group were the beginnings of a !ult% When

e bers) who wondered if this

# fa il# asked about the evening at group) $ would

sa# so ething bland) al ost to the point of an untruth) 2<h) group was fine% Sa e Gole) sa e GoleF3 'hough spee!h !o !lose+knit !o unities are natural o!!urren!es that serve a useful purpose of !reating

unit#) the# !an also serve as a breeding ground of ex!lusion% $n a voi!e

re inis!ent of :ou!ault(s ideolog# of 2othering)3 Ronald &a!aula# re arks: 2Languages and diale!ts have both a unif#ing fun!tion and a separatist fun!tion% 'he# help a group of people see what the# have in !o on with ea!h other and how the# differ fro Gothers(3 4&a!aula# >C16% unit#:

@ere is the ethi!al dile

a of the use of "hristianese b# the "hristian spee!h !o

does "hristianese pro ote ex!lusivit#8 $f spee!h !o

unities !an be like fen!es that are used to

keep so e people in and others out) $ wonder if it is possible then to at least have a gate on the fen!e that lets people gra,e fro a new territor# if the# should so please8 <r is the onl# other

alternative to ex!lusivit# a frightful teetering on the fen!e(s ledge before a great fall8 Berhaps an appropriate pla!e to start for an#one who wants to pra!ti!e !ons!ious) in!lusive spee!h is with the odel of Jesus( language%

Waller D $$$% An Anal#sis of 'wo 5iale!ts

1% Jesus( Spee!h: the Stor#teller =ehind the Little Red Letters $(ve stared at those red) 'i es New Ro an letters so !o pel e as the# should% 'hough an# ti es the words often fail to essage) so eti es the fa iliarit# so overwhel ed at the

# life is based on their

of the Hospel stor# invokes passivit# instead of passion% <ther ti es) $ a s!ope of dense !ultural histor#)

# e#es blur in !onfusion% $ don(t alwa#s understand or even like e% So eti es) it helps e

the words in that book% Even still) Jesus( words !hanged histor#) and

to refle!t on who the histori!al Jesus was in order to grasp the perspe!tive of his language% Jesus of Na,areth was born of a virgin other in a anager in =ethlehe ) in approxi atel#

in 1 =%" 42Jesus3 11?D6% @e lived a hu ble !hildhood) as son of a !arpenter% At age >0) after his baptis and te ptation) Jesus began a inistr#% Jesus !alled 1/ en to be his dis!iples and

*ourne# with hi

while he taught) healed) and perfor ed

ira!les% Jesus engaged people at ever#

level of so!iet# and was often !riti!i,ed for being a friend to the poor) sinners) and out!asts 42Jesus3 11?D6% When he was >>) he was betra#ed b# one of his own dis!iples and senten!ed to death on a !ross for his !lai to be the Son of Hod% =# his death) it is said that Jesus atoned for the

the world(s sin on!e for all ti e% 'hree da#s after his death) he was said to have risen fro dead and lived for ?0 ore da#s before he as!ended to heaven%

Ripples of Jesus( existen!e !an be seen in instan!es ranging fro

the A5I=" and ="EI"E

dating s#ste s to the reverberating the e of self+sa!rifi!e that o!!urs in al ost ever# great work of literature written sin!e the ti e he walked the earth% Regardless of whether one believes he was ps#!hoti! or the Son of Hod) however) the one thing it appears Jesus was not was a h#po!rite% A thorough exa ination of the s!riptures reveals a nu ber of !onsistent parallels between Jesus( words and a!tions% Even near the end of his life) when he !hallenged those who

Waller A knew hi ?1?6% $n her arti!le 2What would Jesus Write83 Sher#l Anderson ponders Jesus as a stor#teller: 2@e knew the audien!e he was tr#ing to rea!h) he(d defined his de ographi!s) and he tailored his stories a!!ordingl#FAnd the wa# he handled spe!ial effe!tsJ @e(d do great in @oll#wood3 41>K6% $ndeed) Jesus was a aster stor#teller and !o uni!ator- he was in the world 4and it% Berhaps one of the ost striking best to !all out an# h#po!riti!al wa#s) his dis!iples were silent 4&!5owell and Stewart

!learl# up on the ti es6) #et re ained set apart fro

differen!es between Jesus( spee!h and the diale!t of A eri!an "hristians toda# is that Jesus taught in parables;2earthl# stories with a heavenl# Were Jesus in A eri!a toda#) it is far easier for the base ent of a bar) than it is for e to see hi eaning3;not propaganda 4Barha 1D+1A6%

e to i agine hi

!onversing with friends in

on the front lines of a politi!al rall#% eaning to an#one who wanted to u!h to learn

Jesus( language was authenti!) in!lusive) and presented

learn% @e had a wa# with words) even when he did not use the ) and we have as fro his o ents of silen!e as we do fro his

o ents of spoken revelation% 'hrough

etaphor) a !olle!tion of fort# parables) and even instan!es of harsh language) Jesus wove together !o pelling narratives) usuall# !entering on far ) food) and fa il# in wa# that Hospel a!!essible to an#one who wanted to listen% Jesus pra!ti!ed a !o of a on Jewish tea!hing te!hni7ue of the era !onsisting of the presentation ade the

ashal;or a parable) followed b# a ni shal;or an explanation 4"urr#6% 'he explanation of

the parable) or ni shal) however) !ould usuall# onl# be dis!overed through a dis!ipleship) or deep personal pursuit of Jesus 4"urr#6% 'he fa!t that Jesus intentionall# did not alwa#s provide a ni shal right awa# is the reason wh# the parables have !onfounded people throughout the ages%

Waller C Jesus explains this dile his dis!iples:


a;now known in edu!ation !ir!les as the 2&atthew prin!iple3;to

'hen the dis!iples !a e and said to hi ) 2Wh# do #ou speak to the

in parables83


And he answered the ) 2'o #ou it has been given to know the se!rets of the kingdo it has not been given% 1/ :or to the one who has) ore will be

of heaven) but to the

given) and he will have an abundan!e) but fro will be taken awa#% 1> 'his is wh# $ speak to the

the one who has not) even what he has in parables) be!ause seeing the# do not

see) and hearing the# do not hear) nor do the# understand% 4!nglish Standard "ersion Bible &att% 1>%10+1>6 'hough the following passage ight initiall# appear !ontradi!tor# to the assertion in this

paper that Jesus( spee!h was in!lusive) the knowledge that Jesus was si pl# pra!ti!ing a !onte porar# tea!hing te!hni7ue to draw in dis!iples illustrates that his language was indeed in!lusive% Hrasping the eaning of the parables was not based on intelle!t) but on dis!ipline or the religious s!holars) not

earnest desire to learn% Jesus used parables to separate the seekers fro and the trul# expe!tant fro

the entertain ent *unkies% Jesus led people into the Eingdo etaphor and

with a dra ati! show of fire and bri stone but through

#ster#% 'he pro ise was

4and still is6 2seek and #ou will find3 4&att% A%A6% :urther eviden!e that Jesus( language was in!lusive is observed in the fa!t that his followers in!luded a host of unedu!ated people% 'he following !hart provides an anal#sis Jesus( language based on what he spoke 4in!luding etaphor) parables) and literal language6) conte#t for his spee!h 4how he spoke and who he spoke to6) and the significance of his spee!h% isfits) out!asts) and

Waller K

What Jesus said

Context for Jesus speech


Jesus Calls His Disciples

4&ark 1%1D+1C6 'hough this event ight initiall# see like an abrupt Bassing alongside the Sea of and even disturbing Halilee) he saw Si on and o!!urren!e) it(s i portant to Andrew the brother of Si on reali,e that it was a !o on !asting a net into the sea) for Jewish tradition for #oung en the# were fisher en% 1A And to follow a Rabbi 4"lear#6% Jesus said to the ) 2:ollow Also) this was not the first ti e e) and $ will ake #ou that that Si on and Andrew 1C be!o e fishers of en%3 And had et Jesus 4=enware 1C6% i ediatel# the# left their nets John 1:>1 re!ords the first ti e and followed hi % the# et Jesus through their friend John a #ear prior to their !alling% $n the !ourse of the next #ear) these ordinar# fishing brothers 4the e7uivalent of blue !ollar workers in toda#(s e!ono #6 witnessed Jesus( inistr# in a!tion) at events su!h as the wedding at "ana and the purging of the te ple 4"lear#6% Jesus( offer to Andrew and Si on was unusual in that it was !usto ar# for the dis!iple to seek out a rabbi) instead of the other wa# around 4Eeener 1?A6% 'his stor# provides an exa ple of how to ake dis!iples% As the passage illustrates) Jesus didn(t isolate Si on and Andrew and anipulate the into following hi % Rather) he took ti e to get to know the % When he !alled the ) he used a etaphor the# !ould relate to and invited the to a!tive parti!ipation rather than a passive s!holasti! experien!e%

Waller 10

What Jesus said

Context for Jesus speech


Sermon on the Mount: Love our !nemies"

4&atthew 1%?>+??6

9ou have heard that it was said) G9ou shall love #our neighbor and hate #our ene #%( ?? =ut $ sa# to #ou) Love #our ene ies and pra# for those who perse!ute #ou%

'he ser on on the ount takes pla!e on a hillside with a brilliant view of the Sea of Halilee 4Wilkins 1C/A6% Jesus is surrounded b# both a large !rowd !o posed of !urious) but un!o itted followers) and his dis!iples) or !o itted learners 4Wilkins 1C/A6% $n this portion of one of his ost e orable tea!hings) he !larifies a is!on!eption people had about the tea!hings of the <ld 'esta ent !on!erning the treat ent of ene ies 4Wilkins 1C>06%

Jesus( essage in the ser on on the ount is signifi!ant be!ause he explains a new standard of living% 'he iron# is) however) that the people would never be able to a!hieve this standard% $n &att% 1%?C Jesus instru!ts) 29ou therefore ust be perfe!t) as #our heavenl# :ather is perfe!t3;an i possible feat if there ever was one% $n this wa#) Jesus de onstrates his identit# as the perfe!t fulfill ent of the law and shows that sin has ore to do with otive than expressed a!tion%

Waller 11

What Jesus said

Context for Jesus speech


Jesus Mourns La#arus Death

John 11%>1

Jesus wept%

'his passage de onstrates Jesus( ournful response when he arrives at the ho e of two of his !losest friends) &ar# and &artha) who have lost their brother four da#s earlier% &ar#) &artha) and La,arus were followers of Jesus and s!ripture not onl# indi!ates that Jesus felt wel!o e in their ho e) but that their verbal ex!hanges were si ilar to that of fa il# e bers 4Luke 10%>C6% At &ar#(s bold state ent) 2Lord) if #ou had been here) # brother would not have died3 4John 11:>/6) Jesus is oved to the point of spee!hlessness%

Jesus shows us here that so eti es it is better to keep 7uiet% @e e bodies the exhortation to) 2weep with those who weep and re*oi!e with those who re*oi!e3 @owever) Jesus was not si pl# weeping for s# path#(s sake) but be!ause 2he was deepl# oved in his spirit and greatl# troubled b# his friend(s death3 4John 11%>>6% Jesus( displa# of e otions does not show his la!k of faith;he raises La,arus fro the dead a little while later;but rather de onstrates his broken heart towards the realit# of suffering and death) the ver# but the things he would over!o e upon his i inent death 4ELstenberger /0?D6%

Waller 1/

What Jesus said

Context for Jesus speech


Jesus $urges the %emple

John /%1>+1D 'he te ple is bustling with Jews and religious leaders as 1> 'he Bassover of the Jews the# pur!hase their sa!rifi!es to was at hand) and Jesus went up be shed for the up!o ing to Jerusale % 1? $n the te ple Bassover% Jesus akes a he found those who were dra ati! overturning of the selling oxen and sheep and tables to de onstrate his pigeons) and the one#+ disgust with the perversion of !hangers sitting there% 11 And the te ple% aking a whip of !ords) he drove the all out of the te ple) with the sheep and oxen% And he poured out the !oins of the one#+!hangers and overturned their tables% 1D And he told those who sold the pigeons) 2'ake these things awa#- do not ake # :atherMs house a house of trade%3 'his passage displa#s a Jesus full of righteous anger and re!ounts one of two ti es that Jesus ever used ph#si!al for!e 4ELstenberger /0/>6% 'he whip of !ords de onstrates the intentionalit# with whi!h he purged the 'e ple%

Waller 1> /6 Language of Non+deno inational) 9oung Adult "hristians .nfortunatel#) all too often) the present da# language of "hristians sounds nothing like Jesus% An a!7uaintan!e on!e re!ounted a !onversation she had had with her professor of religion) after she had des!ribed her dis!ontents with the institution of the "hur!h% 2'he "hur!h has hurt e)3 # friend la ented% issing a beat% 2Who hasnt been hurt b# the

2Join the !lub)3 the professor said) without "hur!h83

&# a!7uaintan!e des!ribed her initial !onte pt) but later a!!eptan!e of her professor(s frank response% @er stor# resonates with fro # own% $(ve !ried # fair share of tears after !o ing ho e # 2fa il#%3 $(ve

!hur!h and feeling unloved b# the ver# people who were supposed to be

felt the nu b sho!k of silen!e and the !old shoulder fro !onvi!tion different fro their own or told the

supposed friends after $ expressed a

$ would be worshipping in a different !hur!h%

'he "hur!h has a pe!uliar wa# of hurting its own% 'his should not be% $f) $) as a e ber of the bod#) have felt this u!h hurt fro the words of the people in the

"hur!h) $ !an onl# i agine how people outside the "hur!h "hristianese is interpreted as ex!lusive or alienating) but how per!eived as an insult or atta!k8 While $ do not feel that

ust feel% $t(s bad enough if u!h worse is it if "hristianese is

# s all group engaged in an# serious

oral offenses against the

world b# speaking "hristianese) we were probabl# guilt# of !onfusing a few people with ter s su!h as discipleship) multiply) and treasure hunt% $t took ter s as well% 'he following se!tion will define and provide insight into so e of the words and phrases that were used in # for er s all group) of whose deno inational stan!e $ now know enough e a while to war up to these new

Waller 1? "hristianese to dee 2=apti!ostal%3 'his glossar# is b# no eans exhaustive and alternative unities) but this

definitions and !onnotations are sure to exist a ong other "hristian spee!h !o is the language that sparked and sustained a revival in # s all group%

Waller 11

&lossar' of (apticostal %erms

)ccounta*ilit': relates to the pro!ess of keeping a person in+!he!k spirituall#to the ter honest !o a!!ountabilit# partner) or a !hosen individual with who a "hristian a# pertain aintains

uni!ation in order to !o bat the te ptations of the se!ular world

Exa ple: 2@ave #ou talked to #our a!!ountabilit# partner this week83 )nointed for healing: relates to a person who was been delivered fro a !ertain struggle or

si!kness and is now able to i part powerful pra#ers on behalf of those dealing with the sa e struggles Exa ple: 2After over!o ing his drug addi!tion) Sa areas of addi!tion%3 (ac+,sliding: relating to the pro!ess of falling awa# fro "hristian !o to withdraw fro Exa ple: 2$( the faitha# be noted in was anointed for healing in the

unities b# a person who attends a liberal !ollege) i bibes al!ohol) or begins "hristian !o unit# ight be ba!k+sliding% Ever sin!e he started attending

worried that &att

Reed last fall) $ noti!ed he is going to bars all the ti e and has 7uit going to his life group%3 Discipleship -relationship.: an intentional relationship whi!h fosters a!!ountabilit# between two people) and in whi!h one is usuall# en!ourage or exhort the less ore spirituall# ature than the other and seeks to

ature one% A "hristian is en!ouraged to partake in

si ultaneous dis!ipleship relationships) one in whi!h the# are being dis!ipled) and another in whi!h the# are dis!ipling so eone else Exa ple: 2$( dis!ipling &eredith) and Ra!hel is dis!ipling e%3

Waller 1D /ello0ship: a faith !o unit# gathering or so!ial event

Exa ple: 2Wanna get together for so e :risbee golf and fellowship later this week83 /ruit: a referen!e to the s!ripture) 2the tree is known b# its fruit3 4&att% 1/%>>6) and relates a person(s a!tions in life to the fruits of the spirit 4love) *o#) pea!e) et!%%%6 Exa ple: 2@e professes to follow Jesus) but $ honestl# don(t see the fruit%3 &od thing: an a!t of unexplainable good fortune that the providential hand of Hod Exa ple: 2$ ended up getting a *ob 10 Hod thingJ3 H1$: a!ron# for the ter @ealing in Bro!ess) or a healing that takes pla!e over a period of inutes awa# fro # apart ent% $t was a total a# be interpreted as a blessing fro

ti e) as opposed to instantaneousl# Exa ple: 2'hough $ re!eived instant healing fro relationships is a @$B%3 La' hands: the a!t of pla!ing hands on another person during pra#er Exa ple: 2Ever#bod#) let(s gather Ground Austin and la# hands as we pra# for his trip to 'hailand%3 Life verse: a !hosen =ible verse that resonates deepl# with a person andIor a!ts as a for their life Exa ple: 2$n the idst of this loss) $( *ust tr#ing to hold onto # life verse Ro ans: antra ba!k pain) # past of broken

C:/C) GAnd we know that in all things Hod works for the good of those who love hi ) who have been !alled a!!ording to his purpose%(3

Waller 1A Multipl': pertains to the expansion of the !hur!h or a s all group Exa ple: 2<ur s all group is up to >0 people now) so we(re going to have to out next week%3 Secular: relates to the world or an# for Exa ple: 2$ used to listen to se!ular usi!%3 See+er: pertains to sensitivit# for rea!hing the lost- the !onnation is watered+down or not a pra!ti!al for established in their faith% Exa ple: 2'he K:00 a% % servi!e is the traditional one) and the 11:00 a% % one is seeker%3 She+inah: the anifest presen!e of Hod- this ter was re!entl# populari,ed in "hristian a# ean that the !hur!h ore of worldliness- the anton# of sa!red ultipl#

usi!) but now all $ want to listen to is worship

eeting the spiritual needs of those who are

!ir!les b# "or# Asbur#(s worship song She$inah Exa ple: 2<ur group longs to see the Shekinah Hlor#%3 Spirit,filled: pertains to the essen!e of being filled with the @ol# Spirit Exa ple: 2She is a Spirit+filled wo an of Hod%3 Spiritual Disciplines: relates to the pra!ti!ed a!tivities of pra#er) reading the s!riptures) and fasting) a ong others Exa ple: 2Bra!ti!ing spiritual dis!iplines !an help bring into fo!us the existen!e%3 %reasure hunt: relates to the a!tivit# of pra#ing for a divine inistr# appoint ent and then eaning of our

seeking out that appoint ent based on the details revealed in the pra#er(s response Exa ple: 2We went treasure hunting downtown last night and pra#ed for a broken leg%3 an with a

Waller 1C Word: a# refer to the literal s!riptures or a personal propheti! word fro orning%3 the Lord

Exa ple: 25ann# reall# brought the word this Exa ple: 2$ feel like $ got a word that $( another #ear%3 $N%

supposed to sta# in Little Ro!k for

Answers to Resear!h Ouestions

'herefore) to address the first resear!h 7uestion regarding if "hristianese is good) bad) or si pl# a natural pheno enon) it is eas# to see that it is ost !ertainl# a natural pheno enon%

Whether it is 2good3 4!onstru!tive) in!lusive) or edif#ing6) or 2bad3 4destru!tive) ex!lusive) or rude6 depends on the !ontext and audien!e of the spee!h% So) for those who ight be read# to

write off "hristianese as a !o pletel# waste) a thoughtful pause is in order% "hristianese is a legiti ate diale!t with potential benefits to both those inside and outside the "hristian spee!h !o unit#% 'he potential benefit of "hristianese is that it gives expression to the "hristian arketpla!e of ideas% otive

worldview) a valid !ontribution in the world(s

'he i pa!t or i pression that "hristianese leaves on others depends on the tone and

behind the spee!h% Beople have an in!redible radar to dete!t love and sin!erit# behind spee!h and will be able to dis!ern the differen!e between an arti!ulate) but se!retl# snobbish) instan!e of "hristianese) and an instan!e of awkward) but obviousl# genuine) "hristianese% $f love reall# does !over a ultitude of sins) it is best to dispense it in spee!h liberall#% inister to his audien!e and purpose) whether this eant si pl# weeping along with those eant des!ribing sin to a group of enstrual rags%

Jesus spoke whatever was appropriate to

was silen!e or harsh language% $n other words) if that

who had re!entl# lost a loved one) he re ained silent- if that

blind) self+righteous Bharisees) he des!ribed sin in ter s of blood#

Waller 1K "hristians !an learn fro use vivid and relevant talk like a Jesus( exa ple in that we should learn to tell !o pelling stories)

etaphors) and !onsider our audien!e and purpose above all% @ow do we

odern+da# Jesus8 'hat(s a 7uestion with a wide variet# of !orre!t answers) but if we e83 we are probabl#

!an answer yes to the 7uestion 2$s this how $ would like so eone to talk to on the right tra!k% N% $ pli!ations

$n the !hapter 2@ow to Reall# Love Beople3 of his book Blue Li$e %azz) 5onald &iller des!ribes his experien!e of finding ore love and a!!eptan!e in a hippie !o unit# than he ever

found in the !hur!h) and explains what he sees as the heart of the proble : 'he real issue in the "hristian !o unit# was that it was !onditional% 9ou were loved)

but if #ou had 7uestions) 7uestions about whether the =ible was true or whether A eri!a was a good !ountr# or whether last week(s ser on was good) #ou were not so lovedFif #ou wanted to be loved) #ou be!a e a !lone 4/1?6% &iller goes on to des!ribe how he sees that the language of the !hur!h in A eri!a is based on the !o etaphor of e!ono i!s% 2'he proble odit#% We use it PloveQ like with "hristian !ulture is we think of love as a

one#3 4/1C6% &iller is right% We dis!iple or in&est in people

we like) but we withhold fro

people in or out of the !hur!h that we disagree with 4/1C6- we are

!onsu ed with accountability efforts) and !o pelled b# the desire to multiply the rea!h of the !hur!h% &iller is 7ui!k to point out that the proble does not fall on the shoulders of the

!orporate "hur!h) but that the responsibilit# to love without !ondition is an individual one% N$% "on!lusion

$ do not speak the =apti!ostal diale!t as fre7uentl# an# ore% $ know the "hristian language well;!o plete with the appropriate register and a!!o pan#ing hand gestures;but $ do not

Waller /0 have an# one to speak it to% Nearl# a #ear ago) the glor# da#s of awa#% So e people # s all group began to fade

oved out of state) a !ouple others had babies) and the final blow that ended arried and started edi!al s!hool% :or a while) oved on fro the group)

it all;the group(s leader resigned when he got

there was a profound sadness be!ause it felt like ever#one else had ex!ept e% $t was hard for e to fatho

wh# an#one would want to leave this beautiful) inti ate

revival !ulture that we had experien!ed together% What !ould be better than :rida# night worship8 $ saw one of still # friends fro the group several weeks ago and it tou!hed e to know that he

issed the group as well% 2$t was al ost like the 5onke#s)3 he said of another s all group he had re!entl# attended%

2=ut not 7uite%3 $(ve tried # best to be genuine and honest in this paper be!ause $ feel that authenti!it# and unit# is la!king% $ believe the institution of the

honest# is exa!tl# what the "hristian spee!h !o

!hur!h is !o posed individuals and the onl# wa# to fix the flaws of the !hur!h is to fix the individuals% After all) what is the !hur!h !o posed of) if not individuals8 "hange starts with "hange starts e aking a !o it ent to love people b# # words and a!tions% outh but do not love the e%

$n $ "orinthians) Baul writes that if we talk to so eone with our

in our heart) we are like a !langing s# bol;a loud) *arring) and e pt# noise% 'o be understood and relevant) "hristians should follow Jesus( exa ple of in!lusive language% At all ti es) we should speak love% "hristianese is appropriate if) and onl# if) it is in!lusive and edif#ing- it should not be spoken if its intent is to be ex!lusive or destru!tive% 'he value of pra!ti!ing in!lusive) genuine spee!h as en!ouraged in this paper is not *ust for "hristians) but for an#one who hopes to !reate pea!e in the world through their spee!h% =#

Waller /1 en!ouraging people to pra!ti!e in!lusive language) $ do not wish to endorse a world without diale!t% =# the !ontrar#) diale!t !reated within spee!h !o a ne!essar# ele ent to establishing and aintaining a unities is a profound) beautiful) and

ultipli!it# of hu an perspe!tives% :or the

sa e reason $ support the preservation of Appala!hian English) $ support the preservation of the =apti!ostal diale!t% $ si pl# sub it that we !onsidering others

a# speak our respe!tive diale!ts in love)

ore highl# than ourselves%

So now faith( hope( and lo&e abide( these three; but the greatest of these is lo&e.) *+att. ,-.,-/

Waller // Works "ited Anderson) Sher#l% 2What Would Jesus Write83 Behind the Screen. 0ollywood Insiders on 1aith( 1ilm( and 2ulture. Ed% Spen!er Leweren, and =arbara Ni!olosi% Hrand Rapids: =aker=ooks) /001% 1>>+1?1% Brint% =enware) Baul N% 3he Sur&ey of the 4ew 3estament% "hi!ago: &ood# Bublishers) /00>% Brint% "lear#) John% 2Jesus "alls @is 5is!iples%3 Renos%org% Renos "hristian :ellowship) /001% Web% / &a# /01>% "urr#) Jeffre# L% 2.nderstanding the Barables) the An!ient @ebrew Wa#%3 theparabledis!over#%!o % 'he Barable 5is!over#) n%d% Web% /A April /01>% 5aniels) @arve# A% 2Nine $deas about Language%3 Language. Introductory 5eadings% Ed% Nirginia "lark) Baul Es!hhol,) Alfred Rosa) and =eth Lee Si on% =oston: =edfordISt% &artin(s) /00C% >+/0% Brint% !nglish Standard "ersion Bible. /001% Bible 6ateway% Web% /A April /01>% 2Jesus%3 6ood 4ews 3ranslation Starting 7oint Study Bible. Ed% Luis Balau Evangelisti! Asso!iation% Hrand Rapids: Sondervan) /00/% Brint% Eeener) "raig S% 8 commentary on the 6ospel of +atthew. Hrand Rapids: W % =% Eerd ans Bublishing) 1KKK% Brint% ELstenberger) Andreas J% 2John Annotations%3 !nglish Standard "ersion Study Bible% Ed% Lane '% 5ennis and Wa#ne Hrude % Wheaton: "rosswa#) /00C% /01K+/0A/% Brint% Lord) Nan!#% TNative 'ongues%TLanguage. Introductory 5eadings% Ed% Nirginia "lark) Baul Es!hhol,) Alfred Rosa) =eth Lee Si on% =oston: =edfordISt% &artin(s) /00C% ?C0+?CD% Brint%

Waller /> &!5owell) Josh and 5on Stewart% 2What About all the @#po!rites in the "hur!h83 3he Best of %osh +c9owell. 8 5eady 9efense. Ed% =ill Wilson% Nashville: 'ho as Nelson Bublishers) 1KK>% ?1?+?11% &a!aula#) Ronald E%S% 2Regional 5iale!ts and So!ial "lass%3 Ed% Nirginia "lark) Baul Es!hhol,) Alfred Rosa) =eth Lee Si on% =oston: =edfordISt% &artin(s) /00C% >C>+>KA% Brint% &iller) 5onald% Blue Li$e %azz. 4onreligious 3hought on 2hristian Spirituality% Nashville: 'ho as Nelson Bublishers) /00>% Brint% Barha ) 'ho % 2Wh# do @eathens &ake the =est "hristian :il s83 Behind the Screen. 0ollywood Insiders on 1aith( 1ilm( and 2ulture. Ed% Spen!er Leweren, and =arbara Ni!olosi% Hrand Rapids: =aker=ooks) /001%1>+D?% Brint% Bederson) Lee% 25iale!ts%3 Language. Introductory 5eadings% Ed% Nirginia "lark) Baul Es!hhol,) Alfred Rosa) =eth Lee Si on% =oston: =edfordISt% &artin(s) /00C% >?1+>1?% Brint% Randag% T"hristianese%T :rbandictionary. .rban 5i!tionar#% 1A &ar% /001% Web% / April /01>% Wilkins) &i!hael J% 2&atthew Annotations%3 !nglish Standard "ersion Study Bible% Ed% Lane '% 5ennis and Wa#ne Hrude % Wheaton: "rosswa#) /00C% 1C/0+1CCC% Brint%

Waller /? Works Referen!ed =lake) John% 25o #ou Speak "hristian83 Belief Blog% "NN) >1 Jul# /011% Web% > &ar% /01>% =org) &ar!us J% Spea$ing 2hristian. Why 2hristian Words 0a&e Lost 3heir +eaning and 7ower ;and 0ow 3hey 2an Be 5estored% New 9ork: @arper"ollins) /011% Brint% :erguson) Eirb#% 2'he Language of "hristianit#%3 Nideo "lip% 244 Belief Blog% 'urner =road!asting S#ste $n!%) >1 Jul# /011% Web% / &ar% /01>%

@ill) &egan% 2$t(s <E to 'alk Like a "hristian%3 0ermeneutics% "hristianit# 'oda# &aga,ine) 1 &ar% /01>% Web% > &ar% /01>% <sborn) Robert '% 2"onte porar# "riti!is s of "hristian Language3 %ournal of Bible and 5eligion ) >0%1 41KD/6) pp% /D+>1% %S3<5% Web% > &ar% /01>%