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CHAPTER 1.0 - INTRODUCTION

The industrialized building system (IBS) can be generally interpreted as in which all building components such as floors, walls, columns, beams, and roofs are mass produced either in a factory or at site factory according to specifications with standardize shapes and dimensions and transported to the construction projects site to be assembled into a structure with minimal site wet work and erected on the site properly joined to form the final units. The development of industrialized building system (IBS) is not new in the construction industry. The history of IBS in the UK housing industry dates back from the mid 1900’s, when this and other forms of prefabricated construction were used to address the problem of widespread destruction of housing stock during the Second World War.

In the United States, the use of precast building components in the construction industry began in the construction of prefabricated steel house by General House in 1930. However the early efforts of rationalizing and implementation faded quickly due to price in competitiveness, high capital and inconsistent local codes. The use of precast building components increased sharply after the Second World War due to the need to resolve critical shortage of houses.

The idea of industrialised building system (IBS) has received much attention in the devastated countries after the Second World War. Though, Malaysia did not suffer the impact of the war, the need to supply its population with affordable and quality houses has prompted the government to promote the use of IBS as an alternative to conventional building system.

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The implementation of precast concept by using precast concrete building were introduced in Malaysia in 1966 when the government launched two pilot projects for precast housing which involves the construction of Tuanku Abdul Rahman Flats in Kuala Lumpur and the Rifle Range Road Flats in Penang. Both projects were the first time whereby precast elements were used to construct mass houses. Later, Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri Johor (PKNS) import the precast concrete technology from Germany for the construction ranging from low cost housing to luxurious housing such as bungalows and semi detached.

1.1 Definition of IBS

To date there has been no one commonly-accepted or agreed definition of IBS. However, there are a few definitions by researchers and experts in this field which can be found through literature. Rahman and Omar (2006) defined IBS as a construction system that is built using pre-fabricated components. The manufacturing of the components is systematically done using machine, formworks and other forms of mechanical equipment.

IBS is defined as products, systems and techniques used in making construction less labour-oriented, faster as well as quality controlled. It generally involves prefabricated products, factory manufactured elements that transported to the construction sites and erected. (Shaari, Bulletin Ingénieur, 2003)

According to Abraham Warszawski (1999), IBS is defined as a set of element or component which is inter-related towards helping the implementation of construction works activities. He also expounded that an industrialisation process is an investment in equipment, facilities, and technology with the objective of maximising production output, minimising labour resource, and improving quality while a building system is defined as a set of interconnected element that joint together to enable the designated performance of a building. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 2

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Trikha (1999) defined IBS as a system in which concrete components prefabricated at site or in factory are assembly to form the structure with minimum in situ construction.

Esa and Nuruddin (1998) asserted that IBS is a continuum beginning from utilising craftsmen for every aspect of construction to a system that make use of manufacturing production in order to minimise resource wastage and enhance value for end users.

Perhaps the most comprehensive definition of IBS was clarified by Junid (1986). He mentioned that IBS in the construction industry includes the industrialised process by which components of a building are conceived, planned, fabricated, transported and erected on site. The system includes a balanced combination between the software and hardware components.

The software elements include system design, which is a complex process of studying the requirement of the end user, market analysis, development of standardised components, establishment of manufacturing and assembly layout and process, allocation of resources and materials and definition of a building designer conceptual framework. The software elements provide a prerequisite to create the conducive environment for industrialised to expand.

Meanwhile, the hardware elements are categorised into three major groups. These include frame or post and beam system, panel system, and box system. The framed structures are defined as those structures that carry the loads through their beams and girders to columns and to the ground whilst in panel system load are distributed through large floor and wall panels. The box systems include those systems that employ three-dimensional modules (or boxes) for fabrication of habitable units are capable of withstand load from various directions due to their internal stability. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 3

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All the above definitions emphasised on prefabrication, off-site production and mass production of building components as the main characteristic of IBS. The focal of discussion in the study synergises the key concept of IBS as defined as follows: A construction technique in which components are manufactured in a controlled environment (on or off site), transported, positioned and assembled into a structure with minimal additional site works (CIDB, 2003a).

1.2 Classification of IBS

Warszawski (1999) asserted that the building system could be classified in different ways, depending on the particular interest of their users or producers. Such classification use construction technology as a basis for classifying different building systems. In this manner four major groups can be distinguished namely, system with (1) timber, (2) steel, (3) cast in situ concrete, and (4) precast concrete as their main structural and space enclosing materials. These systems can be further classified according to the geometrical configuration of their main framing components as follows (1) linear or skeleton (beams and columns) system, (2) planar or panel systems, and (3) three dimensional or box systems.

According to Badir- Razali, generally, there are four types of building systems currently available in Malaysia’s building system classification (Badir et al. 1998), namely conventional, cast in-situ, prefabricated and composite building systems. Each building system is represented by its respective construction method which is further characterised by its construction technology, functional and geometrical configuration.

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Fig. 1.1 Type of building system in Malaysia

Nonetheless, according to CIDB (2003), the structural aspects of IBS of the systems, divided into five major types as follows:

1. Precast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box Systems Precast columns, beams, slabs, 3-D components (balconies,

staircases, toilets, lift chambers), permanent concrete formwork, etc;

Figure 1.2 Precast concrete wall

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2. Steel Formwork Systems Tunnel forms, beams and columns molding forms, permanent steel formworks (metal decks, etc;

Figure 1.3 Steel formwork system

3. Steel Framing Systems Steel beams and columns, portal frames, roof trusses, etc;

Figure 1.4 Steel roof trusses

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4. Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems Timber frames, roof trusses, etc;

Figure 1.5 Prefabricated timber framing system for a double storey house.

5. Block Work Systems Interlocking concrete masonry units (CMU), lightweight concrete blocks, etc.

Figure 1.6 Lightweight concrete blocks are used for wall construction

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The pre-cast concrete components are among the most common prefabricated elements that are available both locally and abroad. The pre-cast concrete elements are concrete products that are manufactured and cured in a plant environment and then transported to a job site for installation. The elements are columns, beams, slabs, walls, 3-D elements (balconies, staircase, toilets, and lift chambers), permanent concrete formwork and etc.

The steel formwork is prefabricated in the factory and then installed on site. However the steel reinforcement and services conduit are installed on site before the steel formwork are installed. The installation of this formwork is easy by using simple bracing system. Then concrete is poured into the formwork and after seven days, the formwork can be removed and there is some system whereby the formwork served as a part of the structure itself after concreting. The steel formwork systems are used in tunnel forms, beams, column moulding forms and permanent steel formworks.

The elements of steel framing system are rolled into the specific sizes and then the elements are fabricated that involves cutting, drilling, shot blasting, welding and painting. Fabricated elements are sent to the construction site to be then erected whereby welding and the tightening of bolts at joints are conducted. The elements include steel beams and columns, portal frames and roof trusses.

The prefabricated timber framing system is normally used in the conventional roof truss and timber frames. The timber is prefabricated by joining the members of the truss by using steel plate. It is important that all members are treated with the anti pest chemical. Then, the installation is done on site by connecting the prefabricated roof truss to the reinforcement of the roof beams.

The elements of block work system include interlocking concrete masonry units (CMU) and lightweight concrete blocks. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 8

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The elements are fabricated and cured in the factory. The elements are normally used as bricks in structures and interlocking concrete block pavement.

1.3 Essential Characteristics of IBS

It is plausible to review the prerequisite characteristics underlining the successful implementation of industrialised building system. Each of them is briefly discussed below.

1.3.1 Closed System

A closed system can be classified into two categories, namely production based on client’s design and production based on precaster’s design. The first category is designed to meet a spatial requirement of the client’s that is the spaces required for various functions in the building as well as the specific architectural design. In this instance, the client’s needs are paramount and the precaster is always forced to produce a specific component for a building. On the other hand, the production based on precaster’s design includes designing and producing a uniform type of building or a group of building variants, which can be produced with a common assortments of component. Such building includes school, parking garage, gas station, low cost housing, etc. Nevertheless these types of building arrangement can be justified economically only when the following circumstances are observed (Warszawski, 1999).

(a) The size of project is large enough to allow for distribution of design and production costs over the extra cost per component incur due to the specific design.

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b) The architectural design observes large repetitive element and standardisation. In respect to this, a novel prefabrication system can overcome the requirement of many standardised elements by automating the design and production process.

c) There is a sufficient demand for a typical type of building such as school so that a mass production can be obtained.

d) There is an intensive marketing strategy by precaster to enlighten the clients and designer the potential benefit of the system in term of economics and non-economic aspects.

1.3.2 Open System

In view of the limitations inherent in the closed system, an open system which allows greater flexibility of design and maximum coordination between the designer and precaster has been proposed. This system is plausible because it allow the precaster to produce a limited number of elements with a predetermined range of product and at the same time maintaining architectural aesthetic value.

In spite of many advantages inherent in an open system, its adoption experiences one major setback. For example, joint and connection problem occur when two elements from different system are fixed together. This is because similar connection technology must be observed in order to achieve greater structural performance.

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1.3.3 Modular Coordination

Modular co-ordination is a co-ordinated unified system for dimensioning spaces, components, fitting, etc. so that all elements fit together without cutting or extending even when the components and fittings are manufactured by different suppliers (Trikha, 1999).

The objectives of modular co-ordination are:

a) To create a basis upon which the variety of types and sizes of building components can be minimized. Through a rationalized method of construction, each component is designed to be interchangeable with other similar ones and hence, provide a maximum degree of freedom and choice offered to the designer. This can also be accomplished by adopting a relatively large basic measurement unit (basic module) and by limiting the dimensions of building components to recommended preferred sizes

(Warszawski, 1999).

b) To allow for easy adoption of prefabricated components to any layout and for their interchange ability within the building. This is achieved by defining the location of each component in the building with reference to a common modular grid rather than with a reference to other components (Warszawski, 1999).

The modular co-ordination for building component apply the basic length unit or module of M=100cm. This allows the designer to apply this size or its multiple in the production of building components.

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Although this concept seems to be easy for adoption, its application involves a great degree of coordination and adjustment in the manufacturing process and the interfacing aspects of components.

1.3.4 Standardisation and Tolerances

For accomplishing the requirement

of modular co-ordination, all

components need to be standardised for production. Such standardisation of space and elements need prescribing tolerances at different construction stages such as manufactured tolerances, setting out tolerances, and erection tolerances, so that the combined tolerance obtained on statistical considerations is within the permitted limits (Trikha, 1999).

Production resources can be used in the most efficient manner if the output is standardised. Then the production process, machinery, and workers’ training can be best absorbed to the particular characteristics of the product.

1.3.5 Mass Production

The investment in equipment, human recourses, and facilities associated with an industrialisation can be justified economically only when large production volume is observed. Such volume provides a distribution of the fixed investment charge over a large number of product units without unduly inflating their ultimate cost (CIDB Singapore, 1992).

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1.3.6 Specialisation

Large production output and standardisation of precast elements allow a high degree of labour specialisation with the production process. The process can be subdivided into a large number of small homogenous tasks. In such working condition, workers are exposed to their work repetitiously with higher productivity level (Warszawski, 1999).

1.3.7 Good Organisation

High production volume, specialisation of work, and centralisation of production requires a efficient and experiences organisation capable of a high level of planning, organising, coordination and control function with respect to production and distribution of the products (Warszawski, 1999).

1.3.8 Integration

In order to obtain an optimal result, a high degree of coordination must exist between various relevant parties such as designer, manufacturer, owner, and contractor. This is achieved through an integrated system in which all these functions are performed under a unified authority (Warszawski, 1999)

1.3.9 Production Facility

The initial capital investment for setting up a permanent factor is relatively experience. Plant, equipment, skilled worker, management resources need to be acquired before production can be commenced. Such huge investment can only be breakeven if there is sufficiently demand for the products. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 13

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On the other hand, a temporary casting yard or factory can be established at the project site in order to minimise the transportation costs (Peng, 1986).

1.3.10 Transportation

It is found that casting of large-panel system can reduce labour cost up to 30 percent. However, these cost savings are partially offset by the transportation costs. The transportation of large panels is also subject to the country’s road department requirement. These limitations must be taken into consideration when adopting a prefabrication system (Peng, 1986).

1.3.11 Equipment at Site For the purpose of erecting and assembling precast panels into their position, heavy crane is required especially for multi-storey building. It is therefore important to incorporate this additional cost when adopting a prefabrication system (Warszawski, 1999).

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CHAPTER 2.0 - DEVELOPMENT OF IBS IN MALAYSIA

IBS in Malaysia has begun in early 1960’s when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European countries and evaluate their housing development program (Thanoon et. al., 2003). After their successful visit in 1964, the government had started first project on IBS aims to speed up the delivery time and built affordable and quality houses. About 22.7 acres of land along Jalan Pekeliling, Kuala Lumpur was dedicated to the project comprising seven blocks of 17 storey flat there are 3000 units of low-cost flat and 40 shops lot. This project was awarded to Gammon/ Larsen Nielsen using Danish System of large panel of pre-fabricated system (CIDB, 2003b).

In 1965, the second housing project initiated by the government of Malaysia, the project comprising a 6 block of 17 storey flat and 3 blocks of 18 storey flat at Jalan Rifle Range, Penang. The project was awarded to Hochtief/Chee Seng using French Estoit System (Din, 1984). Among the earliest housing development project using IBS was Taman Tun Sardon, Penang. IBS pre-cast component and system in the project was designed by British Research Establishment for low cost housing in tropical countries. Nonetheless, the building design was very basic and not considering the aspect of serviceability such as the need of wet toilet and bathroom (Rahman and Omar, 2006). Between 1981 and 1993, Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri Selangor (PKNS) a state government development agency acquired pre-cast concrete technology from Praton Haus International based on Germany to build low cost house and high cost bungalow in Selangor (CIDB, 2003b). The usage of steel structure as part of IBS, first gained attention with the construction of 36-storeys Dayabumi complex that was completed in 1984 by Takenaka Corporation of Japan (CIDB, 2003b).

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Today, the use of IBS as a method of construction in Malaysia is evolving. Many private companies in Malaysia have teamed up with foreign expert from Australia, Netherlands, United State and Japan to offer pre-cast solution to their project (CIDB, 2003b). In addition, more and more local manufacturers have established themselves in the market. Pre-cast, steel frame and other IBS were used as hybrid construction to build national landmark such as Bukit Jalil Sport Complex, Lightweight Railway Train (LRT) and Petronas Twin Tower. It was reported that at least 21 of various manufactures and suppliers of IBS are actively promoting their system in Malaysia (Thanoon et al., 2003). Nevertheless, the government of Malaysia still feels that the usage of IBS is still low despite the plausible potential.

From the survey conducted by CIDB of Malaysia in 2003, the usage level of IBS in local construction industry stands at 15% (CIDB, 2003b). The total registered IBS contractors in Malaysia stand for 1,993 in year 2007 (Table 3 and 4) and registered IBS manufacture in Malaysia until 2007 is 138 producing 347 IBS products available in the market shown in Table 5.

Evidently that most of locally developed products are based on traditional materials such as reinforced concrete and the most innovative materials are based on imported technology (CIDB, 2007b). There is no mandatory requirement on any certification or accreditation of components, companies or installers in place. Whilst, there is no empirical data, there is some anecdotal evidence suggests that there has been sporadic dumping of sub-standard foreign products in Malaysia (CIDB, 2007b). A mechanism to ensure IBS products marked to an acceptable standard must be introduced in the manufacturing process. Testing of components, verify and certify them will limit only safe and acceptable IBS panels are erected and thus CIDB will lead this roles.

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2.1

Implementation of IBS in Malaysia

In Malaysia, the implementation of IBS concept by using pre-cast concrete building were introduce in Malaysia 1966 when the government launched two pilot projects for pre-cast housing which involves the construction of Tuanku Abdul Rahman Flats in Kuala Lumpur and the Rifle Range Road Flats in Penang. Both projects were the first time whereby pre-cast elements were used to construct mass houses.

Since 1980’s there are intensive marketing strategies launched by the Malaysian Government t o introduce modular coordination, its acceptance has received poor responses for the building industry. As a result even partial introduction on IBS such as lintels and staircase has not been possible (Trikha, 1999). Previously in the 7th Malaysia Plan, the country intended to construct about 800,000 units of houses for its population using the IBS construction, Indeed 585,00 units planned for the low and low medium cost houses. However the achievements are disappointing with only 20% completed houses reported due to use of conventional construction method. Although the government introduce numerous incentives and promotions to encourage housing developer’s t invest in such housing category (Ismail, 2001). Under the 7th Malaysian Plan, the enforcement of modular Coordination through the construction Industry Standard 1 & 2 only applies to the low cost housing projects initiated by the ministry of Housing and Local Government Malaysia (CIDB 2001). The enforcement by the local authorities did not apply to all the parties involve in the construction contribute to the failure or the implementation in Malaysia. Furthermore the incentives that promised to be given to developers by the government does not clearly stated in the law of Malaysia.

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This is non conformance leads to the use conventional method which is less risky to the developers.

In the 1998, the ministry of housing and local government and CIDB has come up with the modular design guide which contain the modular coordination concepts, the design rules, drawings and preferred dimensions for architectural finishes material such as bricks, glass, gypsum board and etc. the important aspects of prefabricated concrete in terms of modular dimensions, strength, stability and the fire protection specifications are not indicated. The uniform building by law (UBBL) has introduced several clauses to encourage the use of IBS include the sub clause of 42(1):

a) The second line mentioned that ’11 meter square gross area’

is

replace by the ’10.8 meter square net area’ this is suitable for the area room that has the dimension of 3000x3600mm and using the modular dimension.

b) The forth line, ‘9.3 square gross area’ is replace by the ‘9.0 meter square net area.’

c) The fifth line, ‘6.5 meter square gross area’ is replace by’6.3 meter square net area

In the conventional construction the local authority only given the authority to inspect the work after the completion of the project which is not practical. The government should look into allowing the local authority to inspect the work in the manufacturing process up the construction stage and lastly to the project completion to ensure the quality is not compromised.

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In the year 2001, the government set the Malaysia standard 1064 in order to standardize the IBS components in terms of dimensions. However the MS 1064 still have a lot of loop holes that still can be improve.

The important specifications such as types of materials, design standard, connection types, construction method and the system implementation are not included. These items will ensure the quality of IBS components can be improve and the contractor can be implement a standardize system easily and this will encourage the use of IBS in Malaysia especially in the private sector. However the standards must not be too rigid to allow for technological improvement in constructions method, system and etc.

Many involvements in materials and components are made before their application in the building process. In most cases, construction firm acts as system integrators and catalyst for transforming new technologies into marketable products. These play an important role modifying and developing new technologies that impact as feedback loop to producers in the upstream. The forces for technology for adoption are the strongest among materials, component manufacturers and high quality equipment for production purposes. Property developers and government policy makers also feed the stream for innovation by funding in research and development activities.

2.2

Impediments to progress of IBS in Malaysia

The government is the major key player in the construction industry has spent billions of ringgit over the pat several Malaysia Plans to develop the country. However the plans are the characterized by short falls, delays and lack of coordination between all parties including the agencies at federal and state levels and other major players in the constructions industry. The government has not taken necessary actions for the globalization and the industrialization of the Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 19

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construction industry. The selection of the IBS has been hindered by lack of assessment criteria set by the approving authorities.

An IBS system can only be practiced by the practitioner if its major advantages are valuable compare to the conventional system. However up to date, there is inadequate collaborative scientific research undertaken to substantiate the benefit of IBS system. Therefore it can be clearly seen that the implementation of IBS is hindered by lack of scientific information. The academic curriculum in the university seldom in corporate courses that technology, organization and the construction and the design of IBS. Lack of the research and development to use the local materials causes the dependence of foreign technology can be expensive and quality of products may be compromised

The fragmented construction industry straddles over several professions and business. The professionals, builders and the supplier do not communication to input on ideas on implementation of IBS. However the main concerns for these parties are just profit and the resistance to change due to unclear incentives given by the government by using new technology.

The research output from research institution is not readily commercially exploitable and does not appeal to potential users. The major players of the construction industry are reluctant to carry out the research and development in IBS because this can be seen as risky ventures. The country has not been embarked upon venture capitalism in a proactive meaningful manner and as such effort in universities and research institutions remain largely unexploited and unused.

All parties involve in the construction industry should collaborate and to work together in order to achieve the full utilization of IBS.

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The government play very important role in imposed new regulation, standard and training in terms of knowledge, experience and construction method. Moreover the standardization of dimensions of material needs to provide a feedback loop from the constructor to enable the implementation to be improving from time to time.

Incentives given by government should be clearly documented and making sure that all parties is well informed through promotions by the media. Last but not least, the government should have the authority over parties involved including manufacturer, constructor, designer, financial institution and the transporters to ensure they play heir respective roles in the successful implementations of IBS

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CHAPTER 3.0 - ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN IBS IMPLEMENTATION IN MALAYSIA

3.1 Introduction

CIDB has published IBS Roadmap 2003- 2010 which entailed the needs and requirement of Malaysian construction industry. This roadmap was endorsed by Cabinet on 29th October 2003. The roadmap is a comprehensive document that divides the IBS programmed into five main focus areas that reflect the inputs needed to drive the programmed. They are Manpower, Materials, Management, Monetary, and Marketing (CIDB, 2003a).

The inputs are then divided into elements and the activities to be implemented for each element are then identified and included into the time span of the roadmap in order to achieve the mission within the stipulated time-frame. The content of this roadmap is focused towards achieving the industrialization of the construction sector and the longer term objective of Open Building concept. It has been five years since the launching of the roadmap and more than half-way through the mission of industrializing construction (Hussein, 2007).

It is now pertinent to examine the progress and how close to the completion of the mission to date. More importantly, it is imperative to evaluate whether the implementation of the roadmap has met the market response to the IBS programmed so far. Most policy issues have been resolved and implemented, while all relevant documents required to support the programmed have been developed. Notwithstanding these achievements a number of implementation snags were identified as being potential hurdles to the full implementation of the roadmap.

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These include the following which have been identified by IBS Steering Committee 2003- 2005 (Hussein, 2007):

• Development of standard plans and standard component drawings for common use, • Apprentice and on-the-job training in the area of IBS moulds and casts, and assembly of components, • IBS testing and evaluation programmed, • Vendor development program, • Readiness of designers and consultant practices, quality control, production of standard components in the field of IBS.

`Realizing the implementation of IBS is still to make headway, CIDB through its research arm, Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM) has taken the initiative from the problem identified earlier and has conducted three workshops session with the industry between 2006 and 2007.

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3.2

Challenges & Issues on IBS

After a lengthy deliberation with the stakeholders, it was concluded that the factors contributing to the delays of IBS implementation are as follows:-

3.2.1 IBS as mass construction method. The term ‘IBS’ is often misinterpreted with negative meaning as it is always linked with industrialized buildings that were built in1960s. These buildings are normally associated with pre-fabricated mass construction method, low quality buildings, leakages, abandoned projects, unpleasant architectural appearances and other drawbacks. Due to the poor architectural design, the old pre-fabricated buildings have given the public, bad impression about precast concrete.

There have been quite a number of cases where the use of IBS had lead to such drawbacks. For example, in the case of Pekeliling Flats in Kuala Lumpur and Taman Tun Sardon, Gelugor, Penang. These two early prefabricated flats were constructed in mass to produce low cost accommodation for lower income groups. In the case of Taman Tun Sardon, the IBS precast system was designed by British Research Establishment, UK for low cost housing in tropical countries.

However, the design was very basic and not considering the aspect of serviceability such as the need for wet toilets and bathrooms. Lacking in this design consideration leads to problems of leakage that becomes the common issue with precast buildings. In addition, in many cases the low cost housings are not maintained properly, thus contributing further to the poor image of IBS buildings.

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3.2.2 Lack of involvement from small contractors From the survey it is found that many small contractors are reluctant to adopt IBS system and prefer to continue using the conventional method of construction. This is due to the fact that small contractors are already familiar with the conventional system and for them the technology suit well with small scale projects and therefore not willing to switch to mechanized based system. Furthermore small contractors lack financial backup and are not able to set up their own manufacturing plants as it involves very intensive capital investment. In this case, financial issues become the main obstacle for small contractors to move forward with the IBS system. On the other hand, however, many big players in IBS industry have shown good track records in building successful IBS projects. This shows that IBS is a feasible system provided the parties involved have the capabilities to carry out the work related to IBS such as analysis, design and manufacturing of IBS components.

3.2.3 Lack of knowledge and exposure to IBS technology Lack of knowledge in structural analysis and design of pre-fabricated components among civil engineers and those related to construction discourages further the implementation of IBS system. Unlike steel structures, the subject of precast concrete design is normally not delivered to undergraduate students in many universities. As a result, many junior engineers are not really familiar with the precast concrete technology as compared to structural steelwork. Knowledge in construction technology is equally important. There are cases, where building projects are awarded and constructed using IBS system but were carried out with many difficulties.

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The most common problems encountered are improper assembly of the components that normally involved the beam-to-column and column-tobase connections. These problems arise due to the fact that the parties involved in the construction underestimate the important of accuracy in setting out the alignment and levelling of the bases. Basically, accurate levelling and alignment of the bases are the two most important aspects for the successful rapid erection of precast concrete components. Other related technical issues are lack of knowledge capability in designing the details of ties and connections of the pre-fabricated components particularly in precast concrete construction. Poor connection system may cause problem to site work such that the connections cannot be joined properly due to poor construction details. In the case of steelwork structures, there are many cases where buildings were designed to imitate the conventional reinforced concrete structural system. This concept results in exposed steel beams and columns. Eventually this invites many serviceability problems such as leakage. Rain water can easily seep into the internal building through the joint between the wall and steel beam. Dampness leads to corrosion to the lighting system and the steel beam.

3.2.4 Designing a Feasible IBS System IBS system if properly designed can deliver a more efficient construction process due to many advantages such as greater speed of construction, simpler construction process, reduced environmental impact and reduce reliance on traditional labours. Therefore the challenge is to provide a feasible and innovative IBS system that is acceptable to those involved with construction as well as the users.

In order to achieve a feasible IBS system, the aspect of standardization should be incorporated in designing the system. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 26

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The standardisation can include the use of standard connections, standard beam and column sizes. Standardisation of components may be incorporated to reduce the cost of manufacturing. By implementing standardization, many errors in production or erection due to variability can be reduced. Standardisation may lead to improvement in quality, decrease variability and increase the ease of manufacturing. In this case, the challenging aspect related to a feasible system is the manufacturing of the components.

For example, the steel mould used to form beams and columns must have high degree of precision to produce accurate and consistent dimensions of width, breadth and length and other related dimensions. The mould should be of high quality with enough durability and strength and not easily becomes dented or buckled during compaction of the concrete. In the case of mechanical connections, the built in connection accessories to be cast in the concrete component, must be located precisely prior to concreting. Similarly any sleeves or opening in the component must be done accurately.

3.2.5

Investment on Heavy Equipment for Mechanized Construction System

The successful IBS construction system has some degree of dependency to heavy and special equipment such as cranes. The high initial cost in setting up the manufacturing plant as well as the cost of transportation has reduced the margin of profit. It has been noticed that despite all the advantages of adopting IBS, a significant portion of the construction industry players still has a biased perception on IBS system. It is admitted presently that switching to IBS would not guarantee significant savings in the cost especially with the small volume of buildings constructed.

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However, IBS has demonstrated that the savings in the construction time is able to compensate the higher construction cost incurred.

3.2.6 Awareness In order for IBS system to be understood and used widely, the challenge is to create mechanism of awareness. Many contractors and even engineers are not well aware of the IBS system and not involved with the use of any IBS system in their construction methods. Therefore, in order to create awareness among practicing engineers and contractors, campaign to reassure that IBS systems are able to provide fast, economical and high quality products should be carried out.

The awareness campaigns may include seminars and short courses. For example, CIDB in collaboration with universities, manufacturers and professional bodies have carried out extensive seminars and roadshow to give exposure to contractors and engineers about the IBS system. Also, hands-on trainings in specialised works such as operating cranes and welding works are also conducted to provide specilised and trained workers in the IBS industry.

3.2.7

Knowledge

Specialized and additional engineering knowledge will be required to design, manufacture and construct a good IBS system. All parties involved from designers to erectors must have enough knowledge about the prefabricated component based construction. In terms of design, the engineers must have competent knowledge in analysis and design. In the construction field, the contractors and site engineers must have enough knowledge on the safe and accurate methods of erecting and assembling loose components into a global structure.

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At university level, the students should be taught structural design principles, material technologies and construction practices related to IBS system such as precast concrete structures. Some local universities are currently improving their curriculum by adding new topics related to IBS in the existing syllabus. For example subjects related to precast concrete design and construction are also offered as elective for final

undergraduate and graduate students. Apart from that, testing and research have to be conducted to prove feasibility of design. Knowledge gained from advanced research may elevate the level of understanding on the behaviour of IBS structure and consequently the level of confidence.

Engineers

with

good

technical

knowledge

in

analysis,

design,

manufacturing and construction have the ability to produce systematic IBS systems. If the components are skillfully designed, erection can be carried out efficiently. Furthermore, complying with good practices in design and construction leads to high quality precast concrete structures. In this aspect, the challenge is to produce many good and reliable manufacturers and erectors with such knowledge capabilities to be part of the IBS construction team.

3.2.8 Adoption of IBS System The government through CIDB has embarked the IBS Roadmap 20032010 that outlines several well-thought strategies and aggressive steps to promote the use of IBS in Malaysia To facilitate further, the government has encouraged the use of IBS for the construction of new government quarters. Contractors adopting the IBS system are given incentive such as levy exemption based on the percentage of IBS usage in a project.. The government is taking the leading role in persuading the construction industry to adopt a more systematic approach and methodology in construction. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 29

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The effort, started in 1998, is a strategic change in the construction industry. If IBS is adopted, efficient, clean, safe and innovative are some of the new attributes that will be associated with the construction industry. With these outstanding features, plus attributes such as professionally managed and handled, workers with relevant skills, proper coordination and management as well quality will inevitably make IBS an excellent option for those involved in the industry to become global industry players in the international arena that demands high quality, efficient and professional services. 3.2.9 - Barriers to IBS Implementation Despite the plausible advantages, the majority of contractors are sceptical to use IBS method. In fact, the majority of contactors are not ready to bid IBS construction tender. Warszawski (1999) highlighted implementation risk of using IBS compared to conventional labour intensive method and later observed that adaptation of standardization requires a tremendous education and training effort. Pan et al. (2008) has highlighted the barriers of using IBS construction in a survey conducted for UK housebuilders. The most mention barriers according to UK housebuilders are higher in capital cost, complex interfacing between systems and the nature of UK planning system which is not favourable to IBS. Goodier & Gibb (2006) highlighted barriers hindering the use of IBS that include an increase in overall cost, client resistance, lack of guidance and information, increased in risk and insufficient workers skill. In a report on off-site manufacturing in Australia, Blismas (2007) observed that very low IT integration in the construction industry, high fragmentation in the industry, cost related issues, a lack of codes and standards, difficulties in financing, limited capacity of suppliers as the barriers contribute to limited take up on IBS. It also observed that transportation of panels and modules is much more difficult in IBS construction (Rahman & Omar, 2006). Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 30

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More serious is the problem of making joints, locking, gluing, welding, hammering or snapping components together which need time and experience for perfection and reduced wastage. Moreover, the method itself involving mechanized system and skilled worker to coordinate and assembly introduces demand of precision not needed in other method. IBS also appear to be slightly an expensive choice over the traditional method and not appealing option which need extensive training and apprenticeship (Thanoon et al. 2003) (Rahman & Omar, 2006). 3.2.10 Negative perception on IBS Rahman & Omar (2006) observed that the term IBS is often misinterpreted with negative image due to its past failures and unattractive architecture. These buildings are normally associated with pre-fabricated, mass construction method, low quality buildings, leakages, abandoned projects, unpleasant architectural appearances and other drawbacks. Due to the poor architectural design, the old pre-fabricated buildings have given the public, bad impression about pre-cast concrete. Clients are often in doubt of using IBS because of fear of customer rejection. Even construction professionals are in doubt in IBS technology and relate IBS with a potential post-construction problem. In addition, it is always not popular among the designers as they found pre-fabrication has limiting their creativity in design process (Hamid et al. 2008). It is observed that lack of IBS branding and promotion taking place in the market as the end user are neither misinterpret nor unaware of this construction method. As a result, IBS is not creating enough pull factors to encourage developers to adopt IBS. In comparison, IBS development in Scandinavian and Japan provide higher customer focus and adopt masscustomization of to enrich customer option. In UK, IBS is well associate with sustainability and green construction. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 31

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Better customer perception will create better understanding and demand and will definitely encourage developers to push for IBS adoption. 3.2.11 loose supply chain integration Construction is a multi-organization process, which involves client/owner, designer, contractor, supplier and consultant. It also is a multi-stage process, which includes conceptual, design, construction, maintenance, replacement, and decommission. By moving construction activities upstream from the construction site to factories where pre-assembly is carried out, high demands will be raised on the management of the supply chain and logistic activities (Pan et al. 2008) (Blismas, 2007) (Gibb, 2001). In such arrangement the risk involve with any construction quality and tolerance are also clearly identify and the party responsible for taking corrective action is agreed from the outset of a project. Extensive integration requires good IT tools to ensure supply chain continuity and synchronization. Integration also includes developing supplier partnership and establishes clear information flow using IT (Oostra & Jonson, 2007). However, the current state of construction industry is being considered as fragmented where the whole supply chains get their own strategy and agenda. To worsen the situation, IT adoption in Malaysia is still low and contribute to loose supply chain coordination and integration between design and manufacture which is vital to IBS implementation. 3.2.12 Poor knowledge and lack of awareness Client- According to IBS Roadmap Review (2007) report, the adoption of IBS in Malaysia is a client driven e.g. Jaya Jusco, Tesco etc. where client has insist on fast track construction. In housing development, client with a good knowledge and awareness of IBS benefit will therefore encourage appointed designers to design building in IBS. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 32

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However, lack of awareness program lead to misinterpretation and thefore contributed to a lack of interest from the client and decision makers (Rahman & Omar, 2006). From the client point of view, unless the were necessary fast track project e.g Tesco, Jusco project, IBS is often misinterpreted as high risk and expensive solution. Designer- Lack of knowledge among the IBS designers contributes to the project delays. Designer need extra time to produce details drawing etc. Local Authorities - Poor knowledge among the approving authorities has resulting misunderstanding and misinterpreting of IBS and its relation to the current building regulation. Familiarity with IBS will expedite design approval and it is vital to ensure successful IBS project (Construction Industry Master Plan, 2007). The majority of the authorities nonetheless is not aware of IBS design and often takes more time than usual to process design approval. Policy Makers- It is also observed by Chung & Kadir (2007) recently that of local authorities in Malaysia are unlikely to change local building regulation to suit IBS as the amendment will consume a lot of time and cost. According to IBS Mid Term Review (2007), the enforcement of Modular Coordination (MC) trough the amendment of Uniform Building by Low (UBBL) is yet to be implemented due to poor knowledge and awareness on this concept among the policy makers. Workers- Government hoped IBS would help reduce dependence on foreign workers by 30 per cent by 2015. But most industry people don't think IBS will greatly reduce the number of workers in the industry. IBS is taking the problem from a job-site environment to a factory environment," said a senior industry insider. Pre-cast means instead of going to the job Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 33

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site to cast, I'm going to the factory to do the casting and then putting them together at the job site. So how can you do pre-cast without the wet-trade workers. He stressed that there's still a lack of skilled local workers because of the mismatch between the training the CIDB provides and industry needs (NST 30/8/2008) 3.2.13 Improper planning and failed to consider IBS at the design stage IBS as alternative method - At presents, the pre-casters and contracting firm in Malaysia are involved after tender stage of the construction value chain. IBS design needs to be addressed and plan form the design stage to be successful adopted trough the integration of pre-caster, designer and contracting firm and not trough proposing alternate design (IBS Roadmap Review, 2007). As a result, a lot of IBS project in Malaysia (IBS as alternate design) is not cost effective because the process of changing in design requires a lot of further adjustment will rise the initial time and cost. If IBS is considered at design stage will also solve issues related to manufacturing, transportation and logistic that can be pre-plan ahead of time. Lack of proper planning on IBS - Moreover, IBS requires more coherent structure of process planning and control from start to end of the project in order to reach the goals and reduce defect and errors (Gibb, 2001) (Warszawski, 1999).

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"Books from Prof.Alistair G.F. Gibb; Off-site: prefabrication, preassembly and modularisation and Industrialised and Automated Building Systems : A Managerial Approach by Abraham Warszawski. Prof.Gibb currently attached at University of Loughborough is Frenchmen. When my first time i met him at UKTI Offsite / IBS Seminar at Kuala Lumpur in 2005. While Warszawaski from Israel, i had never met him before" (Rfd21 @

http://buildingsystem.blogspot.com/) The overall project should be planned in such way that as soon as the components are manufactured, it is possible to transport it to the construction site and assemble it. Any delays either on manufacturing floor or construction site has severe impact on staging requirement and production planning where components from several construction projects are scheduled for production at the same time. Result - There are cases, where building projects are awarded and constructed using IBS system but were carried out with many difficulties. The most common problems encountered are improper assembly of the components that normally involved the beam-to-column and column-tobase connections due to impropoer planning and coordination at design stage (Rahman & Omar, 2006)

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3.2.14 IBS appears to be more expensive compared to traditional method "The key technology to IBS is the preparation of precast building structure off-site, which is then brought to the construction site and assembled. This allows building to be constructed with minimal effort and time at the construction site, which in turn provides tremendous cost savings to the contractors" (IBS Modular

@http://ibsmodular.blogspot.com/) IBS appears to be slightly expensive choice over the traditional method and not an appealing option to decision makers in Malaysia. IBS construction requires high initial investment capital for pre-casters to purchase new machinery, mould, importing foreign technology and wages of skilled workers for installation process (IBS Steering Committee, 2006) (Thanoon et al. 2003). IBS is also unattractive choice due to wide swing of housing demand, high interest rate and unsure economic condition (Thanoon et al. 2003). "The potential for IBS sector in Malaysia is enormous to say the least. The conservative estimate of the industry is approximately to RM2 billion, making the future of the industry secure" (IBS Modular @

http://ibsmodular.blogspot.com/) For contractor, using pre-fabricated components in IBS project require them to procure the components in advance with requiring of paying upfront deposit. This will give affecting the cash flow of existing payment over project progress system. As a result, small and medium class contractors viewed IBS as threats to their business and not as opportunities (IBS Roadmap Review, 2007).

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It appears that existing procurement and contracting system is not ‘favorable’ to both pre-caster and contractor which using IBS method. 3.2.15 Technical problem related to IBS One of the biggest drawbacks for IBS adoption is the tendency to post construction failure. It is much related to improper installation by untrained constriction workforce and relatively wet climate in Malaysia. For example, Lumut Naval Base project which consists of 29 blocks of 11storey apartments which was constructed in 1976 by Hazama Gumi and supervised by FH Kocks GmBH who is the consulting engineers at that time. The 11-storey apartments are built using pre-cast concrete walling system. The apartments are still facing problems until today with regards to defects caused by water penetrations and leakages largely due to the construction joints and panel integration between the wall system and the floor system (Anon, 2008). There's also an issue of renovation works carried out which is constraint by the pre-cast system design and also the M & E system. It will make IBS system not popular choice for developer and customer because the majority of house owner in Malaysia would like to renovate their dwelling at some point of their tenancy. 3.1.16 Mismatch between the roadmap and readiness among contractors and designers. The paper has agreed and accepted that IBS is ideal conceptualization and simplifying construction work. However, the reality in the projects is far from practical idealism in Malaysia. The transformation is not green a good respond due to the unlikely construction readiness (Hamid et al. 2008). Superior construction technology requires highly skilled workers to replace foreign workers but contractors left with no other choice.

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Local workforce is reluctant to join the industry because of the issues of low wages combined with low emphasis on occupational safety and health. The current training program to produce new construction workforce is still not be able to cater vast demand of the market. As such, regardless of foreign worker policy, foreign labor to do manual job is still badly needed by the industry and it is available abundant in cheaper cost (Construction Industry Master Plan, 2007). Moreover, specialized skills such as system integrator or assemblers need intensive training and apprenticeship which require more time and investment (Thanoon et al. 2003) (IBS Steering Committee, 2006) (Rahman & Omar, 2006). Contractors in Malaysia are also lack of past experience in IBS and their professional is lack of technical knowledge in this area (Hamid et al. 2008). Hamid et al. (2008) also observed lack of R&D, low IT adoption and limited technology availability have generally discourage IBS take up. It also appears that most innovative system and components or using innovative materials are based on imported technologies which are obviously more expensive and purchase by local contractor (IBS Roadmap Review, 2007). difficult to

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CHAPTER 4.0 – RECOMMENDATIONS AND WAY FORWARD.

4.1Introduction

An early effort by the Government of Malaysia to promote usage of Industrialised Building System (IBS) and develop an Open Building System (OBS) concept as an alternative to conventional and labor intensive construction method has yet to make a headway. Although members of the industry are open to the idea, a major portion of the industry stakeholders are indifferent, perhaps due to resistance towards change, insufficient information and lack of technology transfer method to support feasibility of change to IBS. In this case, it has proven that it is difficult to introduce new technologies and method in the construction sector when compared to other sectors. According to Hervas et. al (2007) construction sector is known as a traditional sector that can be characterised as reluctant and even resistant to change.

4.2 Recommendation and The Way Forward

4.2.1 K-Management As the era of the K-economy enters into it’s stride, it is obvious that Global players competing to provide unique services, processes, materials and systems tends to impart better quality, higher speed and competitive costs. However, there is deep concern that the construction industry as a whole is underachieving. It has for many years maintained the time-tested but labour intensive traditional approach in construction and investing too little in research and development (R&D) and training even in this knowledge era. (IBS Digest,2006)

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Technological advances shall play a major role in changing the competitive work environment in the construction industry and in providing companies with capabilities to successfully produce and field new products, processes and systems. The construction industry must indulge itself in innovations and supportive of new ways of doing things. (IBS Digest,2006)

Knowledge was the driving force behind the Industrial Age. It was somehow subsided and nearly forgotten until the next wave arrived which is the Digital Age. This new age has resurfaced knowledge again as one of the key dimension to propel global growth. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM) is now an important discipline and an essential source that our economy cannot afford to do without, if we were to have competitive advantage and remained relevant. (IBS Digest,2006)

In Wikipedia, KM refers to a range of practices used by organizations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning across the organization. From business standpoint, Harvard Business Review refers KM as the way companies generate, communicate, and leverage their intellectual assets. (IBS Digest,2006)

We have also seen over the last ten years, highly significant event took placed on the advancement and explosion of information and communication technology (ICT) driven by the liberalization of global economies. This has lead to tremendous transformation in the manner businesses are being executed. (IBS Digest,2006)

The world is not only becoming borderless but also flatter instead of round as the bestseller writer, Thomas L Friedman put it. Information are now highly accessible and being exploited to an unimaginable scale. Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 40

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The rat race for market positioning is as fierce as ever through the capitalization of information, knowledge and innovation.This scenario has also lead major economies to have greater access than ever before into countries such as India and China to exploit its competitive resources leading to a more competitive product and services in the marketplace. With this challenging phenomenon, it is now overdue and absolutely critical that we need to expedite our readiness, the know-how and competitiveness of our Malaysian Construction Industry in order to survive and sustain; an industry which is now minus 1.6 % growth based on 2005 government statistics. (IBS Digest,2006)

The fragmented nature of our industry need to be consolidated and reconstructed in order to realize the government’s aspirations on the National IBS Roadmap which targets the industry to be industrialized by the year 2010. (IBS Digest,2006)

As part of efforts to steer various sectors towards our Vision 2020, the Malaysian government has also launched the National Knowledge-Based Economy Masterplan which was first announced by the government in the Budget 2000. This masterplan marks yet another key government initiative to further accelerate the development of the nation into a knowledge-based economy. It provides strategic framework outlining the changes to the fundamentals of the economy. (IBS Digest,2006)

These National IBS Roadmap and Knowledge-Based Economy Masterplan have provided a good base information related the policy targets and objectives. However, this information alone will not progress our industrialisation effort. It is only a reference document on policy direction. As such, strategies still need to be formulated downstream within each sector. In doing so, we need to capture our industry knowledge, consolidate, reconfigure and strategise to our best competitive advantage, in order to progress. (IBS Digest,2006). Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 41

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Another misconception on KM is that it is ICT oriented. ICT is purely a tool to an end. It should not be treated as the driving factor for KM. Business strategies and direction instead, are the true drivers for KM. With a cohesive and collaborative effort involving government and industry, we are in position to consolidate our fragmented industry information and ignite our latent intellectual assets. We believe such assets do exist based on our exposure in national mega infrastructural projects over the past 15 years as well as the world is now being flatten with information at the press of a button. (IBS Digest,2006) TO R However, efforts on the ‘HOW TO’ for the National IBS Roadmap seems way behind and need to be urgently accelerated. (IBS Digest,2006)

One of the major factor for this delay is that the industry by nature, is very much project based instead of program based. The soft aspect has not been fully exploited especially on the management of industry knowledge. (IBS Digest,2006)

A knowledge based construction industry would induce a conducive environment to propel the acceleration of our IBS Roadmap. However, current mindset on ‘information protectionism’ need to be phased out. This is very much due to the current ‘Red Ocean’ overcrowded marketplace whereby companies are engaged in head-to-head competition struggling to survive, let alone to sustain. (IBS Digest,2006) “The development of human capital, the upgrading of the mentality and intellectual capacity of a nation is one of the biggest challenges under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. If we wish to become a knowledge-based economy, if we wish to be a developed country and maintain that developed status, the development of human capital must be a priority. In the context of globalisation, high quality human capital has become a necessity, not merely a luxury.” YAB Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, 9MP Speech, 31st. March 2006 Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 42

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The ultimate way forward is for us to inject into ourselves intellectual knowledge which will lead us to the Know-How by becoming the specialist within the marketplace. This can be achieved by being more open minded, unbiased, neutral, patriotic, passionate and aggressive in our efforts to support and participate in the realisation of our National IBS Agenda .IBS on the other hand, is a new industry with endless opportunities. In order to commence with this exploration, it has to start with knowledge sharing as the new working culture within the industry. This approach encourages investment on ‘trust’ which in turn, will lead companies who used to be in competition, to better understand each other and collaborate for improved market positioning in this new ‘Blue Ocean’ industry.(IBS Digest,2006)

It is only with this ‘Open Collaboration’ environment that we are able to induce participation, develop and steer, impactful downstream strategies to support the roadmap implementation.This effort on KM however, need to be driven from both top and bottom ends of industry heirarchy. Apart from being policy driven, each industry organization plays an equally crucial role in developing industry’s intellectual capability. This effort will result in the organization to be more specialize and therefore provides an improved strategic positioning for the industry as a whole. (IBS Digest,2006)

Based on the above, we need to create our own speciality and niche in order to sustain. It is only through KM that this can be achieved and therefore, necessitates companies to review their internal organizational strategies and methodologies(IBS Digest,2006)

The essence of KM in an organization is best put forward by Alex Bennet, former Chief Knowledge Officer of US Department of Navy. She describes the essence of knowledge management is built on intellectual capital, which includes human

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capital, social capital and corporate capital. All three are essential components of enterprise knowledge (see diagram) (IBS Digest,2006)

Human capital is our greatest resource. It is made up of an individual’s past, present and future. Social capital related to communications, human and virtual networks, relationship, collaborations, etc. As for Corporate Capital, it covers intellectual property, corporate assets and organizational processes. Knowledge Management can be viewed as a process for optimizing the effective application of intellectual capital to achieve organizational objectives.(IBS Digest,2006)

The current industry however, perceived as having assets, financial capital and staff would be sufficient to realize company objectives. It is more focus on the tangible aspect of the organization. The crucial intangible elements were completely overlooked and this has impacted our competitiveness (IBS Digest,2006)

In conclusion and as way forward, we clearly need to diagnose ourselves as individual, company, associations, industry as well as the policy makers on the state of our readiness to persevere the demanding and exhaustive rat race for market positioning, and most critically our existence and sustainability in this ever challenging Global climate. (IBS Digest,2006)

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CIDB believes that R&D is the way forward for developing IBS. The R&D themes and topics for IBS are aligned to the requirements of the IBS Roadmap 20032010. Although the initiatives in IBS are lead by CIDB, participation from contractors, consultants, academia, companies and research institutes are critical. It is a daunting task as 2010 is just around the corner. The processes and mechanisms to accomplish the target depend on the integration and acceptance of IBS by players.

The coming three years will be very challenging. A strategic approach will be the way forward. As the R&D arm for CIDB, CREAM’s R&D output will geared towards industry’s application and requirements.

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4.2.2 CIMP and CREAM as strategic directions

A combination of integrated approaches and long term strategic partnering with stakeholders tackling specific agenda on IBS’ 5M strategies are the way forward. Well co-ordinated and planned R&D themes and titles discussed in earlier section have to be implemented simultaneously with all players.

The content of Strategic Thrust 5 simplified in Figure 1 realized the importance of IBS as the way forward for the construction in reducing labour dependency which is expected to grow to 5 million people in 2010 (Utusan, 19th. June, 2005).

Despite policy and promotion of IBS, the implementation is still slow except in Klang Valley. The common critical success factors identified to address the slow uptake of IBS by the construction stakeholders include: o Lack of driver/s from the construction industry stakeholders, o Government initiatives (i.e. directives, incentives, secure projects) are required, o Price competitiveness o Whole life cycle costing o IBS Supply Chain o Information Sharing

o One channel of implementation from Government Agency(i.e. JKR, KPKT) o Centre of Research Excellence for the implementation of IBS o Aesthetics o Quality Control, speed o Lack of knowledge on IBS

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Strategic Thrust 5 In order to realize the implementation and expected target of IBS in Malaysia, CIDB together with the stakeholders and experts have successfully published a document titled IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 (summarized in Figure 2) as the action plan for the industry to refer to and implement. CIMP 2006-2015 and IBS Roadmap 2003 - 2010 are the strategic directions for the industry to move forward. The understanding of each of the document needs to be discussed with the stakeholders to strategize and to implement IBS.

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CREAM shall take the following actions as a prerequisite to expedite the success of the roadmap implementation with respect to IBS: A long term and strategic approach of conducting research on IBS shall be established, The involvement of universities, companies, organisations and research institutes right from the onset of any IBS R&D project, Participation and inclusion of IBS in JKR building design, i.e. JKR IBS Design must be incorporated in its Rekabentuk Bangunan Piawai for Government quarters, schools and Government administrative offices. (CREAM should discuss this matter further with JKR on any issues related to R&D). Malaysian standard joints for IBS (wet or dry) must be designed and made available for use by industry, CREAM initiatives to lead Centre of Research Excellence on IBS and act as One Stop Centre for R&D are critical as this moves will consolidate the effort to centralize and identify issues and problems first hand from industry, The formation of R&D laboratory and CORE for IBS is urgent and CREAM should initiate and take the lead, CREAM is to apply for double deduction status to expedite participation from private entities as they will also benefit in getting tax rebates when contributing research funds, Open Building System must be competitive in terms of cost, performance and quality as compared to proprietary system and conventional methods in order to be sustainable in the construction market, Not reinventing the wheel on R&D but to focus on IBS applied research, Soft issues related to IBS such as marketing, social impact, involvement of Bumiputra contractors in vendor development programme as highlighted in the roadmap should be taken on board at the early stage,

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A complete comprehensive study on IBS solutions encompassing the entire value chain will ensure its success. These shall include verification, validation and certification of process on IBS components, fabricator, factory, erector and related skills of specialization, A technology transfer model via knowledge management adapted from EU, Japan and Singapore best practices in implementing IBS will add value and expedite the implementation process. 4.2.3 Endorsement of IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 The endorsement of IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 in Malaysia by the Malaysian Parliament on 29th October 2003 expressed seriousness of the government and the urgency of IBS implementation. It is a blueprint of total industrialisation of construction industry towards achieving Open Building industry by the year 2010. The roadmap is a comprehensive document that divided the IBS programme into the five main focus areas that reflect the inputs needed to drive the programme (Manpower, Materials, Management, Monetary, and Marketing) (IBS Roadmap, 2003). The content of this roadmap is focused towards achieving the industrialisation of the construction sector and the longer term objective of implementing Open Building Systems concept. The key elements and activities of the roadmap are to have a labour policy that gradually reduces percentage of foreign workers, improve Uniform Building By- Law (UBBL), develop IBS professional courses and IBS university syllabus, develop IBS standard plan for common use, establish verification and certification scheme, establish vendor developing program and to study relevant incentive to encourage IBS adoption.

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Industrialized Building Systems (IBS) or off-site construction has been introduced to cope with a growing demand of affordable housing, solving issues associated with foreign workers and improving image, quality and productivity of construction related services in Malaysia. Prior that, IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 has been published by the Government of Malaysia to guide the practitioners, government agencies and professional bodies with the strategies and implementation plan. Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP 2006-2015) has also higlighted the important of IBS under Strategic Thrust 5. Nevertheless, despite the plausible advantages and strong support from the government, IBS adoption in Malaysia has yet to obtain a good response. This research is one of the innitiative by Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM) and Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia to benchmark best practice in those Critical Success Factors of IBS companies in UK and Europe.

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The 5-M Strategies

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4.2.4 Enforcement of the legislation, regulations, guidelines and Standards

Having identified the major impediments to the introduction of IBS in the country, it is important to suggest measures to facilitate adoption of IBS. As we can clearly see that lack of enforcement of the legislation, regulations, guidelines and standards are major hindrances. Therefore the process of enforcement of regulations needs to be done step by step to enable the IBS to be standardized through modular coordination.

The first step is to study the current status of the construction industry in terms of controlling the dimension of the prefabricated concrete product. The study involves legislations, planning, design, manufacturing industry, construction technology, surveying work and etc. The result of the study is used as a foundation to plan for the implementation of modular coordination in IBS in Malaysia. It is also used to formulate the National Modular Coordination Standard MS 1064 as a basis to standardize the dimension for the design of building and the fabricated components using metric system.

Next, the strategic planning for the implementation of modular coordination need to be done. This strategic implementation plan needs to consider the construction organization structure, the collaborative measures and the further improvement that can be made to the current system practiced. This is to ensure that the implementation of IBS using the modular coordination can be done successfully.

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Then, The effort will focus on the preparation of Malaysia Standard (MS) 1064 : Guide to Modular Coordination in Building. Currently, there are 15 parts has been approved for implementation by the Government of Malaysia.

Lastly, the execution of modular coordination through legislation is very important to succeed in the industrialized building programmed. The implementation of modular coordination into the uniform Building by Law, planning standard and the building specification need to be executed. The government department such as public Works Department and the local authorities are responsible to introduce modular coordination through building regulations and specifications as soon as possible.

4.3

Successful Implementation of IBS Projects

With the advanced knowledge in computer aided design, IBS buildings can be designed and visualised analytically prior to the actual construction. The 3dimensional drawings can be developed to provide accurate component dimensions and hence ensure buildability. Erection and construction procedures can also be simulated and properly planned with the use of computer softwares. Feasibility studies on the different building systems can be performed without incurring much cost. Problems during construction can also be observed and predicted. Any rectifications to the component design can be done before the manufacturing process. These computer tools contribute to a well-planned and systematic IBS system.

In relation to the advancement in computer-aided design, IBS buildings built in Malaysia in the 1990s have shown significant improvement in terms structural performance and architectural aspects. Some of these structures have become the showcases and even the icon of the country.

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One good example is the Brickfields Secondary School 1. The school is located in a busy and limited access site. With such construction constraints and to expedite construction period, a building system utilising about 75% of prefabricated components of precast concrete beams, columns, hollow core slabs and solid planks were adopted. The precast concrete skeletal framed IBS system is also widely used in many other projects. Figures 6 and 7 show the precast concrete buildings that were built using precast concrete components of beams, columns and slabs.

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Another successful examples of IBS systems using precast concrete load bearing wall system are Senawang Police Quarter (see (a)), teachers’ quarters in Kuala Kangsar (see (b)) and government quarters in Putra Jaya (see F(c)). A total of 10,000 units of teachers’ quarters were built throughout the country using the standard structural and architectural design.

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In the case of steel structures, there are also many successful IBS projects. Figure 9 shows the KLCC convention centre, an icon building in the prestigious Kuala Lumpur city centre. The building was built using a combination of prefabricated steel roof truss with composite steel deck flooring system.

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5.0

Conclusion

Industrialized Building Systems (IBS) or off-site construction has been introduced to cope with a growing demand of affordable housing, solving issues associated with foreign workers and improving image, quality and productivity of construction related services in Malaysia. Prior that, IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 has been published by the Government of Malaysia to guide the practitioners, government agencies and professional bodies with the strategies and implementation plan. Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP 2006-2015) has also higlighted the important of IBS under Strategic Thrust 5. Nevertheless, despite the plausible advantages and strong support from the government, IBS adoption in Malaysia has yet to obtain a good response.

Survey on IBS system has been conducted through out Malaysia in 1996. The purpose of this survey is to gather information on IBS buildings in Malaysia. Besides that, a visual inspection study was also conducted to observe of any problems related to IBS system. IBS features potential construction system for the future with emphasis on quality, higher productivity and less labor intensive. Besides the aim of gradually reducing the dependency on foreign labor and saving the country’s loss in foreign exchange, IBS provides the opportunity for the players in the construction industry to project a new image of the industry to be at par with other manufacturing-based industry such as the car and electronic industries.

The adoption of IBS promises to elevate every level of the construction industry to new heights and image of professionalism. Finally, IBS should be seen as the modern methods of construction where modern and systematic methods of design, production planning and mechanized methods of manufacturing and erection are applied.

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The government through CIDB has embarked the IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 that outlines several well-thought strategies and aggressive steps to promote the use of IBS in Malaysia To facilitate further, the government has encouraged the use of IBS for the construction of new government quarters. Contractors adopting the IBS system are given incentive such as levy exemption based on the percentage of IBS usage in a project.. The government is taking the leading role in persuading the construction industry to adopt a more systematic approach and methodology in construction.

The effort, started in 1998, is a strategic change in the construction industry. If IBS is adopted, efficient, clean, safe and innovative are some of the new attributes that will be associated with the construction industry. With these outstanding features, plus attributes such as professionally managed and handled, workers with relevant skills, proper coordination and management as well quality will inevitably make IBS an excellent option for those involved in the industry to become global industry players in the international arena that demands high quality, efficient and professional services. INDUSTRIALISED Building System (IBS) or pre-fabricated construction has not yet met its targeted objectives, a Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) official said. CIDB chairman Tan Sri Jamilus Hussein said although the administrative structure to transform from labour-intensive construction to a more capital-intensive sector is in place, the market has not fully embraced the concept. "With only two years to the end of the IBS Roadmap, we are far from achieving the objectives," he said in his keynote address at the Malaysian International IBS Exhibition (MIIE 2009) in Kuala Lumpur on 28 January 2009. IBS is a technique that uses pre-fabricated components or off-site installation, where project clients and developers can benefit from reduced building material wastages. This is because the components are made to size already. The system will enable buildings to be developed faster and stronger, hence save Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 61

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costs and time. It will also help reduce dependence on foreign workers from 320,000 now to 250,000 by 2015. Works Minister Datuk Mohd Zin Mohamed had said that more than two-thirds of the RM9.6 billion infrastructure projects under the Public Works Department and related agencies must use IBS. The IBS is a strategic step to move the local construction industry further up the value chain, transforming it into a service industry that deals with components manufactured in factories. "To achieve the objective, industrialisation of IBS is essential to utilise market forces to bring down prices. We must also review the IBS scoring system and separate the data on infrastructure fabricated components from building IBS,"

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References :

1. IBS Digest, Industrialised Building Systems Issue 2 2006 : ISBN 9832724-29-5 2. IBS Digest, Industrialised Building Systems Issue 1 2007 3. Rahman,A and Omar, W, Issues and Challenges in the

Implementation of Industrialised Building Systems in Malaysia. 4. Alashwal,A.M, Optimising Production line of IBS by using simulation 5. Chung,L.M, Implementation Strategy for IBS 6. http://www.cream.com.my/files/Summary.pdf 7. http://www.efka.utm.my/thesis/IMAGES/4MASTER/2008/JSBP/noriwanima071084d08ttt.pdf 8. http://ibsmodular.blogspot.com/2007/01/industrialised-buildingsystems.html 9. Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) Roadmap 2003 – 2010. 2003. Construction Industry Development Board. 10. http://www.mbam.org.my/mbam/images/@IBS%20%20Current%20Shortcomings%20And%20The%20Vital%20Role%20(6265).pdf 11. http://www.cidb.gov.my/cidbweb/information/publ/IBS%20Digest%202006 %20-%201.pdf 12. http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?pg=special/speech_2005budg et.htm 13. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn6207/is_/ai_n24955950 14. http://salfordbenchmarking.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.html 15. http://www.asiaconst.com/past_conference/conference/14th/08Malaysia.p df 16. http://www.asiaconst.com/past_conference/conference/14th/08Malaysia.p df 17. http://eng.upm.edu.my/hrc/newsletter/nlv2i2.pdf Industrialised Building System(IBS) by Jaspal Azam,Hidayah,Sharon,Syafiq,Ooi 63

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