Morphology – a working definition:
A study of the internal structure and formation of words

(1) Linguistic knowledge for linguists player – inventory – playground arrangement – – game process

Phonology: Knowledge of the sound system (which sounds are in that language and which are not (kh®œn) - inventory: (paradigmatic relations) Pl. dom / tom; Eng. bit / pit – phonemes - phonotactics: principles of organisation: pstry / *ptrsy – defines possible strings (syntagmatic relations). Note that this aspect of phonology in fact determines the shape of morphological units – morphemes & words - process: noga / nóg [nuk] devoicing, Eng. pity [pI|I] t-tapping, [pI/I] t-glottaling - Morpheme Structure Conditions (MSC) are defined in phonological terms - allomorphy: cats, dogs, watches Morphology: Knowledge of the meaning of words (how to relate sounds and meanings. Certain sound sequences signify certain concepts of meaning - arbitrary relation) - inventory of such units: morphemes cat, -(e)s-plural, (paradigmatic) - morphotactics: relations: development vs.*developation (syntagmatic) - process: derivation of new words: discontentedness, - principles: *unlikeslihood - inflection (morphological) is governed by syntax: brat bratu wilkiem cf. *brata bratem wilkowi Syntax: - ???

(2) Morpheme – basic element of meaning1, a phonological form2 that is
arbitrarily united with a particular meaning3 and that cannot be analysed into simpler elements4


(3) Morphology: basic terms and concepts
dis-content-ed-ness: dis-content-ed: dis-content: content: state of being discontented characterised by discontent the opposite of content noun ‘satisfied’ based on adjective content

Discontentedness is a morphologically complex form, content is the root, dis-, -ed, -ness are affixes, and bound morphemes because they cannot occur in isolation, the root content is a free morpheme, dis- is a prefix, -ed and –ness are suffixes, the morpheme that converts the adjective into the noun content is called zero morpheme – function without form cf. also a cook / to cook.


etc. also a cook / to cook empty morpheme – structure/form with no meaning: cran-berry. modifications of form will be involved in morphological processes – adding or subtracting material (accompanied by a change in meaning) concatenative morphology: putting morphemes together non-concatenative: modifying internal structure of morphemes (8) morphological processes concatenative nonconcatenative compounding incorporation affixation reduplication (repetition) internal modification conversion back derivation 2 . was killed (7) Morphological Processes Q: What mechanisms are employed by speakers of a language to change or modify the meaning of a particular base-form? morpheme = function & form: logically. cran|berry a possible way out: treat these as lexemes even though there is visible morphological complexity (5) allomorphy (alternations of the phonetic shape of morphemes) – – – phonologically conditioned: cats. e. Part. dis|gusted (*gusted) up|holster (*down|holster). rok/roczek (6) Inflectional vs. he brings. wanted. mal-ina. out|skirts (*in|skirts) straw|berry. e. case. ptak/ptaszek vs. Noun > Verb.g. dogs.less productive than inflection inflection – production of word-forms corresponding to a given lexeme.g. down|hearted (*up|hearted). de|ceive re|mit. voice. -mit. -owie panowie. Pres. par-o-wóz. trans|mit. -a okna lexically conditioned dziecko/dzieci. trying . in|ert (*ert). derivational morphology derivation – methods of forming new lexemes from already existing ones .g. goose|berry. tense. con|ceive. watches. per|ceive. cats. in|cest (*cest). Verb > Adjective. per|mit.may change categories of words e. in|ane (*ane).(4) Problems with morphemes as defined above zero morpheme – function without form cf. –e konie. com|mit. re|ceive. Adj. bok/boki morphologically (grammatically cond: pl. but/buty. out|landish (*in|landish). dw-u piętrowy some morphemes are not meaningful in isolation but acquire meaning only in combination with other specific morphemes -ceive. -berry. number. trying it marks gender. ad|mit in|ept (*ept). sub|mit.

girlfriend. ge-frag-t. seaside i. Most frequent method of forming morphologically complex words: typically a combination of a stem or root with a bound morpheme.. infixation.base (root or stem) . English bold – em-bolden. circumfixation. to globe-trot • affixation (suffixation. derived verbal stem. e. N N N morning news N paper N recursiveness: a compound may itself become a modifier of a compound. ge-trunk-en. transfixation) prefixation.(9) CONCATENATION: • compounding e.g. Geburt-s-tag infix: and affix that divides the root: al-bloody-mighty. kútub ‘books’. kátab ‘write’. • incorporation: similar to compounding. grób – na-grob-ek. e. cf. prefixal-suffixal długi – po-dłuż-ny. N N N N news paper iv. (10) Summary of affixation affix confix infix prefix suffix interfix 1 2 circumfix transfix . suffix follows the base: dom-ek. in Semitic (templatic) languages: k-t-b ‘write’. N N N N N war time machine N N N war time N machine N morning iii. Most common type of affixation. etc.affix 3 . pod-wiązać. typically as noun-incorporation where a nominal stem is fused with a verbal stem to yield a larger.g. Commonly category changing prefix is added in front of the base: un-happy. trink-en. interfixation.. -coffee table -coffee table repair -coffee table repair service -coffee table repair service management -coffee table repair service management improvement -coffee table repair service management improvement award.Uni-bloody-versity. like two interlocking combs. transfix: a discontinuous affix cuts across the morpheme.. kitáab ‘book’.g. cf. inflection and derivation is done by vowels. and suff. where pref. N ii. are also independent affixes. but *tea-bloody-cher circumfix: a discontinuous morph composed of two parts which embrace the base element: frag-en. Category change infrequent (en-throne) interfix: precedes one root but follows another: śrub-o-kręt. live – en-liven.

[au] bind – bound. tick-tack. device – devise.. electrocution > electrocute. e. [t] – [d] bent – bend. Vater / Väter. empty (to) empty are methods of word coinage! It is just modification of Function but not of Form. use – use. [œ] – [e] man – men Cf. editor > edit. peddler > peddle. gę gę. laser > to lase where laser comes from an acronym! preemptive > preempt Also: transcription – to transcript. seek – sought. kra kra. house – house. teach – taught. conversion can be made to look like affixation if we assume the existence of the so called. Apophony a morphological process consisting in replacing word-internal segments (two consonants or two vowels) Result: inflectional or derivational oppositions: singular / plural. English present/past: catch – caught. contraceive).g. [i:] – [ou] speak – spoke. [ai] . E. proof – prove.mięcho • Mixed modification – more than one segment. mięso . Vogel / Vögel (umlaut: vowel change reducible to a phonological adjustment in terms of a feature) • Consonant modification –Noun/Verb in English: [T] – [D] mouth – mouth. automation > automate.g. verb / noun. • Conversion: the status of conversion as a morphological process on a par with compounding. But the derivations: (a) pilot – (to) pilot. steal – stole. piłka – piła. affixation. (to) cook – (a) cook. wreath – wreathe. • Back-derivation: (back-formation) found in derivation and not inflection. Polish examples: augmentative: beczka – beka. grief – grieve. bułka – buła. Reduplication is relatively common in onomatopoeic expressions. bath –bathe. Tochter / Töchter. beginnen – begann – begonnen –Plural of some English nouns: [u(:)] – [i:] foot – feet. cuckoo. szpilka . Mutter / Mütter. [f] – [v] belief – believe.. good – better – best. Causative [empty]A > [[empty]A+ Ø]V. This is if: . criss-cross (non-exact reduplication) • Internal modifications. it is just a word-class exchange. form an apparently complex form by analogy with other instances where the suffixed and non-suffixed forms are both lexemes. goose – geese. cloth . Cf. ćwir ćwir.(11) NON-CONCATENATIVE MORPHOLOGY: • Reduplication: (repetition / copying) Malay orang ‘man’.. e. włos – włoch. –augmentative in Polish: nos – noch. sculptor > sculpt. Diachronically speaking the following are also back derivations: beggar > beg. descent – descend. orang-orang ‘men’). German umlaut in the plural: Apfel / Äpfel. tooth – teeth [au] – [ai] mouse – mice.if morphology is the study of the systematic aspect of complex words. ku ku. offence – offend. [s] – [z] advice – advise. zig-zag. louse – lice. breath – breathe. ascent – ascend. wind – wound. The formation of a new lexeme by the deletion of a suffix. weave – wove.szpila 4 . riff-raff. sing – sang..clothe • Total modification (suppletion): go – went. sheath – sheathe. present / past.. zero-morpheme. or supposed suffix. [s] – [d] defence – defend. ring – rang.. Agent [cook]V > [[cook]V+Ø]N. reduplication or modification is not clear. Verb / Noun: live – life. English: fling / flung (*brung made by children as a mistake by analogy) • Vowel modification –‘strong’ verbs in English: [I] – [œ] begin – began. –In German it is called ablaut: backen – buk – gebacken. hau hau. enthusiasm > enthuse. bow-wow. also compound formation: dingdong. television > televise. contraception – to contracept (transcribe.g. Also. find – found. kwa kwa English: quack-quack.

Joseph > Jo. hotel • Acronimisation: artificial word-manufacturing. smartaleck 19. 7. 2.g. gymnasium > gym. stem. Jesus > Jee fore-clipping: hamburger > burger. sub rosa 11. Scientific. infrared 11. 5. unfair 2. Distribute the following three groups separately into two subgroups. handedness 12. unhorse 12. 6. VAT. international 5. superfix 2. caravan > van mixed clipping: influenza > flu. friend friendly unfriendly unfriendliness friendship friendlier befriends 8. telephone > phone. smartalecky smarter 20. handbag 10. disloyal 4. and suffix. hand 9. motel = motor. maltreat 3. defrost 6. 1. immoral 9. smog = smoke and fog. interpose 6. subhuman 6. transcity 10. subway 4. superman 5. the Chunnel = channel. malodorous 8. undercut 12. temperature > temp. usually used with names of new scientific discoveries. rhinoceros > rhino. ex-wife 8. brunch = breakfast and lunch. handed 11. Group I 1. 3. RADAR = radio detecting and ranging. outsmart 002 English prefixes 242 Each group illustrates two different functions of the prefixes. using the following terminology: root. VIP. overdress 4. post-classical 7. discolour 10. and Cultural Organization. smart 16.• Clipping: a polysyllablic lexeme is shortened in a more or less arbitrary fashion. insane 5. pre-war 5 . untie Group II 1. decode 11. misconduct 7. archduke 10. fanatic > fan. pseudoscience Group III 1. dormitory > dorm. disconnect 8. E. derivational affix. smartness 18. inflectional affix. SCUBA = self-contained underwater breathing apparatus ACTIVITIES 001 English word structure 241 Subdivide the following words into morphemes and indicate the types of morphemes. A blend is an amalgamation of the input forms also from the semantic point of view: e. non-smoker 3. offices: AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. each using the functions of their prefixes as criteria. 4.g. asymmetrical 7. UNESCO = United Nations Educational. back clipping: advertisement > ad. tunnel. violoncello > cello. LASER = light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. smartly 17. handful 13. pseudonym 9. misinform 2. handiness 15. refrigerator > fridge • Blending: (contamination) a process of word coinage in which phonetic fragments of two or more words are put together to make a single lexeme. handily 14. organization names. foretell 3. trade names. underdo 12. pre-marital 9. prefix.

Chinese 35. non-smoker 45. NATO 3. GHQ 60. tick-tock 4. conversion. wishy-washy 28. baby-sit 6 . malodorous 11. mouthful 14. isocracy 34. vivacious 44. childless 41. tip-top 54. employee 39. kingdom 23. bee-sting 21. loveseat 33. compounding. Johnnie 27. borrowing. wrap 50. sputnik 53. republican 28. UK 47. usherette 9. 4. friendship 12. insane 2. kitchenette 22. deaf-mute 58. cheat 19. barbecue 57. playboy 7. 2. communism 30. 6. bus 29. radar 20. slavery 16. reduplication. oxygen 10. enslave 23. cowardly 18. 3. dorm 37. USSR 42. thongs 51. kingdom 32. 5. robot 27. turn 55. princeling 17. stardom 20. Israelite 24. prof 31. booklet 26.O. gangster 30. chutney 46. sari 36.D. violinist 29. glad-hand 43. C.003 English noun suffixes 243 Indicate the functions of the suffixes in the following nouns 1. dictatorship 005 English word formation 245 Examine the following examples and identify which one of the following processes is used in their derivations: acronyms. self-control 24. 40. love 13. gangster booklet democracy engineer waitress Londoner daddy 8. blitz 14. flu 25. 1. untie 5. bilaterl 12. ownership 21. laser 18. walk 52. auntie 15. photo 15. crabwise 59. derivation. doubt 9. dressmaking 22. machinery 19. 7. backwards 56. Chinese 25. nunnery 26. misinform 6. phone 8. bigamy 38. lymphoma 49. panelling 13. bewitch 17. teenager 10. seesaw 16. boyhood 11. clipping. youngish 48.

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