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# Building the Dynamic Reservoir Model

Integrated Reservoir Study
DYNAMIC MODEL
Well !acilities Model Near Well"ore #er\$ormance Models

%&scaled Reservoir Model

#reliminary Dynamic Model

Cali"rated Dynamic Model O&timi(ed Reservoir Develo&ment #lan

#ro'ected Reservoir #er\$ormance

!ield Economic Model

Dynamic Reservoir Model
• A mathematical model that descri"es and simulates the time)de&endent \$lo* &rocesses active in a hydrocar"on reservoir • +he dynamic model com"ines – +he static model – #ressure) and saturation)de&endent &ro&erties – Near)*ell, *ell"ore, and \$acilities &ro&erties to calculate &roduction and &ressure vs time

Im&ortance
-tatic Model • Model o\$ reservoir at initial conditions • Insu\$\$icient to &redict &er\$ormance or o&timi(e develo&ment Dynamic Model • Models entire li\$e o\$ reservoir • Can &roduce reservoir several times under di\$\$erent o&erating conditions • Can o&timi(e reservoir de&letion &lan

si(es • -&eci\$ication o\$ reservoir &ro&erties • -im&li\$ication o\$ reservoir geometry • -election o\$ the *ell model • -&eci\$ication o\$ *ell control • -&eci\$ication o\$ time ste& si(e control • -election o\$ the numerical solution method .-te&s in Model Construction • -election o\$ the model ty&e • -election o\$ the \$luid model and num"er o\$ &hases • -election o\$ the grid coordinate system and num"er o\$ dimensions • -election o\$ o&timal grid "loc.

!actors A\$\$ecting Model Design • O"'ectives o\$ the simulation study • /uality o\$ the ans*er needed to satis\$y the &ro'ect o"'ectives • Com&le0ity o\$ the reservoir &rocesses to "e modeled including secondary and or tertiary recovery &rocesses • Budget constraints • +ime availa"le to com&lete the study .

!actors A\$\$ecting Model Design • Availa"ility and 1uality o\$ reservoir data • Availa"ility and &roduction data 1uality o\$ historical • Ca&a"ilities and ease o\$ use o\$ availa"le simulators • Ca&a"ilities and availa"ility o\$ com&uter \$acilities .

Data Categories • Reservoir and *ell data • -imulation s&eci\$ic data – -imulation grid – -imulation time schedule – -imulator control data .

&ro&erty data • -trata &ro&erties • Well data • Well"ore and \$acilities data .Reservoir and Well Data • Reservoir \$luid &ro&erty data • Reservoir roc.

Location of VLE 196 Field in Block V Lake !aracai"o Vene#uela Cari""ean -ea Barran1uilla La.e Maracai"o Maracai"o MARACAIBO N COLOMBIA 2ENE:%ELA I II I7 72 7 2II III 2I 2 7III 7I 2II BLOC6 2 2LE ) 345 AREA LA6E MARACAIBO 2LE 899 !ault .

LR! 99?@ >38999= LR! 9338 >35999= .9 Bloc.5999= 5 39 @ 8 3> Bloc.e Maracai"o !ault Areas Ma& -cale 3C>9999= 39.ilometers -=A= Aolditch B Associates. 2 33 < E8 2L 99 lt \$au 2LE 3>3@ 4 ? > 2LE 58. 2 Lamar. 39. 2I Bloc.8999= 2LE 899 lt \$ au 3 -cale 3C>9999= >99= 9=> 9= 9= >99= 9=> 899= 9=8 599= 9=5 <99= 9=< 3999= meters 2LE .4 LR! 99. 39.< LR! 9935 LR! 99>5 LR! 933? LR! 33.?< 3= .<999= LR! 9994 LR! 999? LR! 995> LR! 99>< LR! 99?? LR! 99?4 LR! 9995 LR! 99.Base !a\$ for t%e &'(&) Reservoir Si*ulation Study 39.>999= . La. Inc= Maraven. 2LE)345 Reservoir 2LE 8.

Introduction • 2LE)345 \$ield discovered in 34@< • #roduced over >99 million -+B • Wells &roduced *ith sliding sleeves to control *ater &roduction • A"out @9 *ells com&leted in the Misoa sandstones .

O"'ectives • Characteri(e the reservoir \$or modeling • Identi\$y "y&assed and unta&&ed com&artments • Develo& a &lan to increase &roduction rates and reserves .

oil .Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data • @ "asic reservoir \$luid ty&es – Dry gas – Wet gas – Retrograde gas Dgas condensateE – 2olatile oil – Blac.

+he !luid Model Must • Be consistent *ith the &ro'ect o"'ectives • #ro&erly account \$or the num"er o\$ &hases e0isting at reservoir and sur\$ace conditions D+his re1uirement can "e rela0ed in cases *here immova"le \$luids e0ist *hich do not contain a&&recia"le amounts o\$ the mova"le \$luids or com&onents in solutionE • Accurately &redict &hase changes *hich occur during the simulation .

the e1uation must "e FtunedF to match all availa"le s&ecial la"oratory data measured on valid reservoir \$luid sam&les . o\$ the reservoir and sur\$ace \$luids • Accurately &redict the viscosity o\$ reservoir \$luids and any other critical &arameters such as s&eci\$ic heats in cases o\$ nonisothermal simulations • When an e1uation o\$ state is used to &redict &hase "ehavior. including com&ressi"ility and density.+he !luid Model Must • Accurately &redict the volumetric &ro&erties.

ρ g(p) – 2olatile oil • Bo(p). Rso (p). Rso (p). µ o(p). µ g(p).Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data • !luid #2+ data – Blac. µ g(p). ρ o(p) • Bg(p). oil • Bo(p). ρ o(p) • Bg(p). ρ g(p) . µ o(p). Rsg (p).

)oil #2+ &ro&erties used in model .#2+ #ro&erties • %ndersaturated oil at initial conditions • Com&ositional gradient &resent initially • E0tra&olated #2+ data \$rom @ la"oratory analyses • Resulting "lac.

Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data • E1uili"ration data – Original &ressure at datum – !luid contact elevations .

Reservoir Roc. or stratum . so not enough data to generate ma&s. or distri"utions. o\$ these &ro&erties • %sually assume these &ro&erties are constant throughout a &articular (one. &ro&erties usually derived \$rom core analysis • -mall num"er o\$ sam&les. #ro&erty Data • +his section contains roc.

#ro&erty Data • Ca&illary &ressure • Relative &ermea"ility • Aysteresis in ca&illary &ressure and relative &ermea"ility • #ressure)de&endent &orosity and &ermea"ility \$unctions • Non)darcy \$lo* DgasE • Dual)&orosity data .Reservoir Roc.

high) &ermea"ility layers • #seudo relative &ermea"ilities *ere develo&ed to match o"served *ater &roduction . \$or 8 di\$\$erent &orosity ranges • Initially. did not ade1uately model *ater &roduction in thin.Relative #ermea"ility and Ca&illary #ressure Data • Initially develo&ed 8 sets o\$ data.

+ 1++.++.+ GD-*EH#cID6 #hiEJ9=@ -++.Ca&illary #ressure DG !unctionE as a !unction o\$ Water -aturation .+ -)+.+ )+.+ .)+.+ +.+ + 1+ -+ .+ 1)+.+ '+ )+ -* 6+ /+ 0+ 9+ 1++ .

or stratum . o\$ these &ro&erties • O\$ten in&ut se&arate ma&s o\$ these &ro&erties \$or each (one. &ro&erties usually derived \$rom *ell log data or seismic data • Larger num"er o\$ sam&les. so o\$ten enough data to generate ma&s.-trata #ro&erties • +his section contains roc. or distri"utions.

ness – Reservoir limits – Discontinuities D\$aultsE .-trata #ro&erties • -tructural &ro&erties – Elevation Dstructure ma&E – Kross interval thic.

-trata #ro&erties • !ormation &ro&erties – Net)to)gross ratio Dor net sand thic.nessE – #orosity – !ormation &ermea"ility – #ore volume and transmissi"ility modi\$ications .

Reservoir Characteri(ation #reviously Documented • Martin. et al. 344. • Keo&hysical. geological and &etro&hysical analyses • Keological model consisting o\$ 34 layers • Correlated seismic attri"utes to &etro&hysical &arameters to im&rove reservoir ma&&ing ..

1 . 10 10 -1 10 L R F + + 1 / 10 10 L R F + . 0 V L E ' . ' 1 F L + E 9 2LE 899 !ault 1 V 1 1 1 VF L - + 1 . B L E 9 1 F E ) E + -1 10 -1 1 1 E / 1 R -1 -1 V L E V L 6 E . 10 -1 10 10 10 10 V L E / .6 6 . 9 ' ) + F 1 R L E 1 . 1 F 1 1 . + 1 1 9 ' 1 ' 9 1 V 1 1 6 + + ' 10 -1 V L E 9 / V V L E 6 ' / V V L L L E V E E 10 V 1 1 -)1 -1 F .1 .10 L R F + 1 1 . + B L O C K B L O C K V I V L R F V L E WE L L S W E L 1L S 1) -1 1 9 V V L ' B L E E 0 1 1 V 1 V 1 6 F 1 L +E 1 + . Layer 7. 9 1 6 1 6 + / B B 1 F V L E ) 1 + V L E ) VE 1) 10 -1 -1 10 6 .61 F 1 R V 1 0L E / E 1 1 ' + 1 1 9 6 V F L + E 1 R 6 ) 1 -1 - 1 10 +1 ' ) 1 1 ) 1 RF 1 RB V 1 9 L + )1 E 0 + + 1 6 + ' 6 L 9E 1 -1 -F 1 R V L E 9 / . L R F + 10 + . E 0 1 + F 1 & V L E 9 0 1 V V 1 F L 6. V L 10 E V 1 . 0 1 + 10 10 1 6 -/ / -1 V V L V L E E L 9 ' E 9 6 + 1 + V + L E 1 V F L - 10 N ) + ' V 1 9 F L 1 L E 9 E ' 0 6 1 9 10 -1 V -1 -1 #ercent L>3 >3 3< 3< 3@ V V L E 9 6 0 V L E + 9 ' 1 V F L / E 6 1 R -1 ' ) . 10 . ) 1 & L ' ' 1 F ) / 1 10 Misoa Formation. C-5 Sand. 1 -1 ) .1 / + ' F 1B B 1 & V EL E 6 6 V L V 1 L . E 6 1 V 0 & L ) E / 1) 10 10 -1 1 + 1 6 V 6 B L ' 10 1 F L + + E + 1 + F L 6 E ) ) V 1 ) B L E V .V ) V L 1 1 1/B L ) E 1 -1 6 / 1 ' 1 ) ) -1 - E ) + 6 V F L -1 -1 V L E ' / 1 V L E ' V + F L + E +1 9 . Average Porosity 10 10 10 V 1 1 F 1L 1 6E .6 ) F 1 11 R L E 6 / 1 1 10 -1 -1 10 - L E 9 9 9 3@ 3> V L E ' / + V L E / 1 ) V L E + 9 1 V -1 1 F L 6 6 10 10 ' 6 ) -E 1 -1 10 10 9 9 ?999 3999 \$t m -1 10 10 .0 ) F L E E / ' 1 - 1 V - - L 0 E 9 0 / 1) - -1 1) -1 -1 V ' & L .

Well Data • Com&letion data • #roduction and in'ection data • #ressure data • O&erational control and constraint in\$ormation .

in \$actor – Aydraulic \$racture length – Aydraulic \$racture conductivity – Well constant .Well Data • Com&letion data – Well "ottomhole location and orientation – #er\$oration interval – Well"ore radius – #ermea"ility)thic.ness &roduct – -.

*ater .Well Data • #roduction and in'ection data – #roduction vs time \$or all &roduced \$luids M oil. condensate. gas. *ater – In'ection vs time \$or all in'ected \$luids M gas.

Well Data • #ressure data – -tatic &ressure data – !lo*ing &ressure data – #ressure transient test data .

Well Data • O&erational control and constraint in\$ormation – Ao* are *ells &roducedN • Natural \$lo* • Rod &um& • Kas li\$t • -u"mersi"le &um& .

or constraints.Well Data • Are there any limits. on &roductionN – E1ui&ment &ressure limitations – Ma0imum \$luid li\$ting ca&acity – Ma0imum *ater handling ca&acity – Economic limit &roduction rates – Allo*a"le &roduction limited "y regulatory agencies .

or constraints.Well Data • Ao* are in'ection *ells o&eratedN • Are there any limits. on in'ectionN – E1ui&ment &ressure limitations – Ma0imum in'ection rate ca&acity .

Well"ore and !acilities Data • Well mechanical con\$iguration data – Lengths and IDOs o\$ tu"ulars through *hich \$luids are &roduced and in'ected • Con\$iguration o\$ sur\$ace gathering and in'ection system – Note ty&es and locations – Lengths and IDOs o\$ tu"ulars through *hich \$luids \$lo* .

-imulation Krid • #rimary grid s&eci\$ication • Local grid re\$inement s&eci\$ication .

or discreti(e. the simulation grid is inde&endent o\$ the reservoir and *ell &ro&erties= . s&ace in order to solve the di\$\$erential e1uations numerically • Although *e use reservoir and *ell &ro&erties in designing the simulation grid.-imulation Krid • +he simulation grid is the de\$inition o\$ ho* *e divide.

#rimary Krid and Local Krid Re\$inement .

Common Krid Coordinate -ystems Include • Cartesian • Cylindrical • Curvilinear Dincluding stream)tu"eE • Corner &oint .

-election o\$ O&timal Krid Bloc. -i(es • O&timal grid – Results in the desired level o\$ accuracy – #ro&erly re&resents the reservoir geology. and – Aas the lo*est com&uter memory and time re1uirements to solve the &ro"lem= .

-i(es on -imulation Results • !D solution a&&roaches #DE solution as ∆ 0 a&&roaches 9 • %se small "loc.s along dis&lacement \$ronts .E\$\$ects o\$ Krid Bloc.s *here convergent \$lo* • %se small "loc.

s increase in length "y no more than \$actor o\$ ?= • No more than 39 to >9P o\$ the total &ressure dro& should "e "et*een any t*o ad'acent grid "loc.ness should "e distri"uted over multi&le grid "loc.Common Rules \$or Constructing a Krid • Logarithmic s&acing in cylindrical grids= • Ad'acent "loc.s= • Large changes in elevation or thic.s= .

"oundaries= • 2ertical discreti(ation should "e \$ine enough \$or accurate accounting o\$ gas &ercolation and migration and or gravity over)ride or under)ride= • I\$ in dou"t.sE in one or more dimensions= .Common Rules \$or Constructing a Krid • Reservoir \$lo* units should. halve the grid "loc.s Ddou"le the num"er o\$ "loc. in general. "e se&arated "y grid "loc.

ley) Leverett Dis&lacement -imulation With a -har& Dis&lacement !ront and Mo"ility Ratio o\$ @9= 3999 399 D7H>>=@ D7H3<9 Water Oil Ratio 39 3 9=3 9=93 9=993 9=.E\$\$ect o\$ Krid Bloc. 9=< 9=4 3 3=3 3=> 3=? 3=8 #ore 2olumes o\$ Water In'ected . -i(es on a Linear Buc.

3 > ? 8 @ 5 .99 >> >? >8 >@ >5 >. . ?< ?4 89 83 8> 3?999 8? 88 8@ 85 . @ 8 ? Bloc. < 4 39 33 3> 3? 38 3@ 35 3. 8< >@ 3> >9 9 >5 >. 3< 34 3> >9 >3 . ?< ?4 89 83 8> 8? 88 8@ 85 8. < 4 39 33 3> 3? 38 3@ 35 3.3<34 >9>3 >> >? >8 Y 3 > ? 8 @ 5 . >< >4 ?9 ?3 ?> ?? ?8 ?@ ?5 ?. e0isting &roduction *ells true \$ault traces 8< \$ault traces in simulation model >@ >5 >.3<34 >9>3 >> >? >8 OW C Legend ? 8. 2I Bloc. <4 39 33 3> 3? 38 335 @ 3. <4 39 33 3> 3? 38 335 @ 3. 5 339. 3< 34 >9 >3 >> >? >8 >@ >5 >.-tructure Ma& and Reservoir -imulation Krid 7 3>?8@5. >< >4 ?9 ?3 ?> ?? ?8 ?@ ?5 ?. 2 < 3>3@ 4 3>5? 39 OW C 9 <9 3> > 3 OW C 3>?8@5.

. 1 )++ '++ .1 )16 6 ) 1 9/.++ -++ 1++ + 1-1+1119)/ ++6++6++ +. 1 1+6. 1 )1+ 6 ' 1 6// 6 6 1 )+6 1--6 0 6 1 1 1 1++6 6 .6 / 1 196 6 1 1 1++' 6 6 1 619 6 ' 1 )/1 6 ) 1 6. 6 11 1 6/' 6 .1 6 '1-)' 1 6 1 1 90/ 6 1 1 -9/ 6 .9' 6 6 1 '6) 6 ' 1 6/1 6 . 1 11'+ 6 1 1 11)) 6 . 6 ' 1 '-.++++ days .1 ').-imulation Model Aori(ontal #ermea"ility Distri"ution \$or -imulation Layer 3 %ist.k ( 2(3er* ea"ility 4* d 5 /++ 6++ 6/) 6 ) 1 11+1 6 0''9 1 6 6 1 . 6 .

-im&li\$ication o\$ Reservoir Keometry • E0am&le situations • %sing symmetry to sim&li\$y the grid • %sing &seudo\$unctions • Chec.ing validity o\$ assum&tions .

%sing -ymmetry to -im&li\$y the Krid • 3 8th o\$ the drainage area containing a *ell *ith a hydraulic \$racture can "e simulated • Re&eated @)s&ot *ater \$lood &attern can "e modeled using 3 <th o\$ the &attern • Any time a *ell is centered in a homogeneous drainage area and \$orces on either side o\$ the lines o\$ symmetry are identical= .

%sing #seudo\$unction to Model ?D -ystems With >D Model • #seudo)relative)&ermea"ility and &seudo) ca&illary)&ressure \$unctions can "e used to sim&li\$y simulations o\$ dis&lacement &rocess in layered reservoirs *ith no cross\$lo* • Dynamic &seudo)\$unctions can "e generated \$rom cross)sectional simulations= .

ing 2alidity o\$ Assum&tions Made in -im&li\$ications • Any time a sim&li\$ication is made. it should "e validated "y runDsE *ithout sim&li\$ication= .Chec.

Re&resenting Wells in -imulation
• Well re&resentation should – Account \$or near *ell conditions – Allo* the necessary degree o\$ *ell control

Well Constant E1uations
#*ell #cell

 " .r 1 = WC   µ 

   ( & *ell − &cell ) 

Well Constant E1uations
• +he general \$ormula &resented "y #eaceman \$or the *ell constant o\$ a *ell located in the center o\$ a rectangular grid "loc. is given "y

9=99;9<.h WC = ln( ro r*a )

Well Constant E1uations
• +he a&&arent *ell"ore radius, r*a , includes the e\$\$ect o\$ the s.in \$actor due to damage, stimulation, &artial &enetration, and *ell"ore inclination= +he e1uation \$or r*a is r*a H r* e)s

may need 39 or more • Inter\$erence tests need \$iner grid s&acings .-&acing o\$ Wells in the -imulation Krid • -&acing de&endent on o"'ectives. accuracy and \$lo* mechanism • Rule o\$ thum" is ? to @ "loc.s "et*een *ells • In simulation o\$ *ater\$lood.

-&acing o\$ Wells in the -imulation Krid • In early stages o\$ study. a&&ro&riately re\$ine grid . &er\$orm a grid sensitivity study and select the most coarse grid • As study &rogresses.

Well Rate and #ressure -&eci\$ications and Constraints • +he *ell constraints used in simulations should re&resent actual \$ield o&erating conditions as closely as &ossi"le= • Most simulators *ill allo* s&eci\$ication o\$ &roduction targets and constraints ena"ling the rate and minimum \$lo*ing &ressure to "e s&eci\$ied= • +he simulator *ill automatically s*itch \$rom rate)controlled &roduction to &ressure) controlled &roduction= .

time in order to solve the di\$\$erential e1uations numerically • Although *e use reservoir and *ell &ro&erties in designing the timeste& schedule. or discreti(e. the timeste& schedule is inde&endent o\$ the reservoir and *ell &ro&erties= .+imeste& -chedule • +he timeste& schedule is the de\$inition o\$ ho* *e divide.

-cheduling Changes in #roduction Rates and Other Dynamic Data • -chedule o\$ times to honor changes in &roduction and in'ection rates Rate 7i*e .

-cheduling o\$ Individual +imeste&s Rate 7i*e .

E\$\$ects o\$ +ime -te& -i(e on -imulation Results • -everal \$actors must "e considered *hen selecting time ste& si(es \$or a simulation= +hese \$actors includeC – Data re1uirements. – Numerical sta"ility and – +ime)truncation errors= .

ly – %se ∆ &. ∆ .Common Rules \$or +ime -te& -i(e Control • Recommended &rocedureC – -tart *ith small time ste& si(es a\$ter signi\$icant rate changes – %se large time ste& si(e multi&liers to "uild time ste& si(es 1uic.and ∆ t limits to restrict time ste& si(es to reasona"le levels .

-imulator Control Data • Numerical solution &arameters • Out&ut control data • Run control .

ly "ecome unmanagea"le= • +y&e o\$ out&ut desired • !re1uency o\$ node out&ut • !re1uency o\$ ma& out&ut .Out&ut Control Data • Moderate to large simulations re1uire 'udicious s&eci\$ication o\$ desired out&ut= Out&ut \$iles si(es can 1uic.

Run Control C Rate A B +ime .

Model Initiali(ation #g H \$Dρ gE #cgo H #g ) #o -u"sea Elevation KOC Datum #cgo H 9 #o H \$Dρ oE #co* H #o ) #* #co* H 9 OWC #* H \$Dρ *E #i #ressure .

Model Initiali(ation 3 -g 9 #cgo #cgo 9 3 -u"sea elevation -g KOC KOC #c e o * OWC #co* OWC #c 9 -* 3 9 -* 3 .

k ( !id\$t Elevations 4ft ss5 (11)++ (116++ '6) '6) 6 6 ' . 11+1 6 0 1 )+6s 66 ' . 1 1+6.1 6 ' 1 -9/ 6 .9' 6 . . ) )16 6 .9/.16 1 9 6 . 6 9 ) )+6s 6 1 9 )1+ 6 ' 1 96s 6 1.1) 1++' )16 6 6 '1 )9 )1+ 6 / 1) . ) 6// 6 6 1 11'+ 6 1 1 11. 6 1 9 6// 6 9 6/' 6 ' 9 91+6. 6 1 '-.1 .6 11-/ /1-1) 1 6 ' 99 6. 196 6 1 1 6// 6 / 9 ''9 11)) 611+1 .++++ days . ) 1+6. )16 6 ) 1 )/1 6 . \$t -u")-eaE %ist.1 ').9' 6 6 1 6/)s 6 1 1/ . )1+6 6.) .0)1. 1 . 1 99) 6 1 1/ 6. 6/1 6 . 6 11 1 )+6 6 ' 6/' . ) 6 ' 1 )+6 6 ) 1) )16s 6 .+ 6 .. ) )1+ 6 ) 9 )1+ 6 9 11 1++' 6 6 1 1+6.. 619 6 ' 1 619 619 6 6 . 1 )+6 1.9 1-)' 6 1 1 '-.6 1 9 11+6 )) 11+6 1 90/ 6 1 1 (11/++ (110++ (119++ (1-+++ (1-1++ (1--++ (1-. 6 ' 1/ )/1 6 1 9 9/. 6/)s 6 .1 6 .++ (1-'++ (1-)++ 1-1+1119)/ ++6++6++ +. 6 1 9 6/'s 6 1 )+6 6 / 11 6// 6 0 )/1 6 ) 1 1) )1+ 6 1 6) . .9' 6 ) . 6 6 . 9 1++6 )+6 6 11)) 6 1.Com&lete ?D 2ie* o\$ the -imulation Model DMid)#oint Elevations o\$ -imulation Krid"loc. ').) 196 6 . ''9 6 6 1 )+6 0 1 1 1--6 1 6 . . 1 196 6 0 11 6 ..

++++ days .6 +.1-1+1119)/ ++6++6++ +. 6 11 1 6/' 6 . 1 +.1 ')..k ( 8 ater Saturation 1. 1 1+6.1 6 '1-)' 1 6 1 1 90/ 6 1 1 -9/ 6 ..1 )16 6 ) 1 9/.9 6/) 6 ) 1 11+1 6 0''9 1 6 6 1 . 6 . 1 )1+ 6 ' 1 6// 6 6 1 )+6 1--6 0 6 1 1 1++6 6 . 6 ' 1 '-.+ +.9' 6 6 1 '6) 6 ' 1 6/1 6 . +./ +.) +. 1 11'+ 6 1 1 11)) 6 .6 / 1 196 6 1 1 1++' 6 6 1 619 6 ' 1 )/1 6 ) 1 6.0 +.' +.-imulation Model Initial Water -aturation Distri"ution \$or Layer 3 %ist.

Revie*ing -imulation Out&ut to Ensure 2alid Results • We recommend using the \$ollo*ing &rocedure to systematically revie* simulation out&ut to ensure that results are valid= • +he \$ull revie* *ill normally "e re1uired \$ollo*ing ma'or changes in the model= -ome items should routinely "e revie*ed= .

relative &ermea"ility.Revie* Warning Messages • Revie* out&ut \$or *arning or error messages &rinted out "y the simulator – !luid &ro&erty.s *ith (ero &ermea"ility or &orosity – Wells located in inactive grid "loc.ing – Krid "loc. and ca&illary &ressure ta"le trend chec.s – Other simulator s&eci\$ic *arning error messages .

Revie* In&ut Data #rintout • Revie* out&ut to ensure that the simulator is correctly reading the in&ut data= – Roc. &ro&erties – !luid &ro&erties – Multi&hase &ro&erties .

oil)*ater.Revie* Initiali(ation • Revie* reservoir initiali(ation e1uili"ration as calculated "y the model – Com&are original \$luids in &lace in the model to values estimated using volumetrics – #ressure – -aturation – #osition o\$ gas)oil. gas)*ater contacts .

Revie* Numerical #er\$ormance -tatistics • Material "alance error • Outer iterations • Inner iterations • Cut"ac.s • Ma0imum &ressure and saturation changes • Is the model oscillatingN .

Revie* #roduction -tatistics • Ensure that *ells are "eing o&erated in the desired manner • Chec. – +hat each *ell is in the desired location – +hat correct alge"raic sign is used \$or &roduction and in'ection – !or *ells changing \$rom constant rate to constant &ressure .

– !or *ells *hich have "een shut in due to e0cessive gas or *ater &roduction.Revie* #roduction -tatistics • Chec. KOR or WOR – +otal &roduction \$rom multi&ly com&leted *ells – !or *ells drilled or com&leted "y an automatic *ell management scheme .

Integrated Reservoir Study DYNAMIC MODEL Well !acilities Model Near Well"ore #er\$ormance Models %&scaled Reservoir Model #reliminary Dynamic Model Cali"rated Dynamic Model O&timi(ed Reservoir Develo&ment #lan #ro'ected Reservoir #er\$ormance !ield Economic Model .

A= -=C FReservoir -imulation===What is itNF JPT DNov= 3454E 3?<?)3?<<= 8= Coats.F JPT DNov= 3454E 3?43) 3?4<= . -#E Monogra&h -eries No= 3?. R= L=C Reservoir Simulation. A=C Petroleum Reservoir Simulation. 6=.Re\$erences 3= Matta0. A&&lied -cience. and Dalton.4= ?= Odeh. 3449= >= A(i(. 6= A=C F%se and Misuse o\$ Reservoir -imulation Models. and -ettari. 34. C= C=.

D= W=C FNe* #seudo !unctions to Control Numerical Dis&ersion. D= !=.F JPT.@E >54).F &a&er &resented at the Indonesian #etroleum Association Nineteenth Annual Convention.Re\$erences @= Coats. G= R=. DAug= 34<>E 35??)358>= 5= -atter.= 6yte. !ri((ell. A=.5= . Oct= 3443 . G= E=C F+he Role o\$ Mini)-imulation in Reservoir Management.F SPEJ DAug= 34. and 2arnon. 6= A=C FReservoir -imulationC -tate o\$ the Art. and Berry.