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Subject : Chemistry

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Class : X (CBSE)

S.No. 1. 2. 3.

Topics Chemical Reactions & Chemical Equations Acids, Based & Salts Metals & Non-Metals

Page No. 1-21 22-43 44-75

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Chemistry is defined as that branch of science which deals with the composition and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergone by various interactions. A chemical compound is formed as a result of a chemical change and in this process different type of energies such as heat, electrical energy, radiation etc. are either absorbed or evolved. The total mass of the substance remains the same throughout the chemical change.


When a chemical change occurs, a chemical action is said to have taken place. A chemical change or chemical action is represented by a chemical equation. The matter undergoing change in known as reactant and new chemical component formed is known as product.

1.2 (a) Characteristics of a Chemical Reaction:
When we heat sugar crystals they melt and on further heating they give steamy vapour, leaving behind brownish black mass. On cooling no sugar crystals appears. Thus change which takes place on heating sugar is a chemical change and the process which brings about this chemical change is called chemical reaction. In this reaction the substance which take part in bringing about chemical change are called reactants. The substance which are produced as a result of chemical change are called products. These reactions involve braking and making of chemical bonds. Product(s) of the reaction is/are new substances with new name(s) and chemical formula. It is often difficult or impossible to reverse a chemical reaction. Properties of products formed during a chemical reaction are different from thos of the reactants. Apart from heat other forms of energies are light and electricity which are also used in carrying out chemical changes. Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 1


In all chemical reactions, the transformation from reactants to products is accompanied by various characteristics, which are-

(i) Evolution of gas : Some chemical reactions are characterized by evolution of a gas.

When zinc metal is treated with dilute sulphuric acid, hydrogen gas is evolved. The hydrogen gas burns with a pop sound. Zn (s) + H2SO4 (dilute) → ZnSO4 (aq) + H2(g) When washing soda is treated with hydrochloric acid, it gives off colorless gas with lots of effervescence. Na2CO3(s) + 2HCI → 2NaCI (aq) + H2O(I) + CO2(g)

heat 2NaNCO3 (s)  → Sodium hydrogen carbonate

Na2SO3 (s) + H2O ( ) + CO2 (g) Sodium carbonate Water Carbon dioxide

(ii) Change of colour: Certain chemical reactions are characterized by the change in colour of reacting
substance. When red lead oxide is heated strongly it forms yellow coloured lead monoxide and gives off oxygen gas. 2Pb3O4 (s) Lead oxide (Red)
heat  →

6PbO(s) + Lead monoxide (Yellow)


When copper carbonate (green) is heated strongly it leaves behind a black residue. CuCO3 (s) Copper carbonate (Green)
heat  →

CuO(s) Copper oxide (Black)


CO2 (g) Carbon dioxide

2Pb(NO3)2(s) Lead (II) nitrate (White)

heat  →

2 PbO(s) + Lead (II) oxide (Yellow)

4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) Nitrogen dioxide (Brown)

C12H22O 11 (s) White sugar

heat  →

12C(s) Carbon Black


11H2O Water

(iii) Formation of precipitate : Some chemical reactions are characterized by the formation of precipitate (an insoluble substance), when the solutions of the soluble chemical compounds are mixed together.

When silver nitrate solution is mixed with a solution of sodium chloride. AgNO3 (aq) Silver nitrate (Colourless) + NaCI (aq) +  → NaNO3 (aq) Sodium chloride Sodium nitrate (Colourless) (Colourless) AgCI (s) Silver chloride (White precipitate)

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 2

A dirty green precipitate of ferrous hydroxide is formed, when a solution of ferrous sulphate is mixed with sodium hydroxide solution. FeSO4 (aq) + 2NaOH(aq) + Fe(OH)2 (aq)  → Na2SO4 (aq) Ferrous sulphate (Light green) sodium hydroxide (Colourless) Sodium sulpahte (Colourless) Ferrous hydroxide (Dirty green precipitate)

BacI2 (aq) + Barium chloride

dill H2SO4

 → BaSO4 (s) + 2HCI (aq) Barium sulphate (White precipitate)

(iv) Energy changes : all chemical reactions proceed either with the absorption or release of energy.
One the basis of energy changes, there are two types of reactions:

(A) Endothermic reaction : A chemical reaction which is accompanied by the absorption of
heat energy is called an endothermic reaction.
Heat C (s) + 2S (s)  → CS2 ( )

Light energy is essential for biochemical reaction, photosynthesis, by which green plants prepare their food from carbon dioxide & water.

(B) Exothermic reaction : A chemical reaction which is accompanied by the release of heat
energy is called exothermic reaction. When magnesium wire is heated from its tip in a bunsen flame, it catches fire and burns with a dazzling white flame with release of heat and light energy.
Heat 2Mg (s) + O2 (g)  → 2MgO (s) + Energy

When quick lie (calcium oxide) is placed in water, the water becomes very hot and sometimes starts boiling. It is because of release of heat energy during the reaction. CaO (s) + H2O
 → Ca(OH)2 (aq) + Heat energy

Calcium oxide Water

Calcium hydroxide

(v) Change of state: Some chemical reactions are characterised by a change in state i.e. solid, liquid or
gas Two volumes of hydrogen gas react with one volume of oxygen gas to from water. 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O ( ) or when electric current is passed through water it splits into its elements. 2H2O ( ) NH3 (g) Ammonia +
Electric current    →

2H2(g) +
 →

O2 (g)

HCI (g) Hydrochloric acid

NH4CI (s) Ammonium Chloride

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 3

tekoclasses. (ii) Symbol equation : A brief representation of a chemical reaction in terms of symbols and formulae of the substance involved is known as a symbol equation. may be written as followsMagnesium + Oxygen  → Magnesium oxide (Reactants) (Product) Similarly. yet they don’t give the true picture of the chemical reactions.3 (a) Types of Chemical Equations : (i) Word equations : A word equation links together the names of the reactants with those of the products. 1. KARIYA (SRK Sir). An arrow (→) separates the reactants from the products. For example. In a symbol equation. when magnesium ribbon burns in oxygen to form a white powder of magnesium oxide. the symbols and formulae of the elements and compounds are written instead of their word names. Although word equations are quite useful. the word equation for the chemical reaction between granulated zinc and hydrochloric acid may be written as Zinc + Sulphuric acid → Zinc sulphate + Hydrogen In a word equation The reactants are written on the left hand side with a plus sign (+) between them. These reactions can be described in sentence form. Burning of magnesium in oxygen to form magnesium oxide may be written as follows : Mg + O2  → MgO Symbol equations are always written from the word equations. A chemical equation links together the substance which react (reactants) with the new substances that are formed (products).com Director : SUHAG R. Bhopal Ph. Free www. The products are written on the right hand side with a plus sign (+) between them.g. The direction of the arrow head points towards the product. For e.3 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS : All chemical changes are accompanied by chemical reactions.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 4 . but the description would be quite long. the word equation. Zinc + Hydrochloric acid  → Zinc chloride + Hydrogen (Reactants) (Products) A Chemical reaction can be summarised by chemical equation.1. Chemical equations have been framed to describe the chemical reactions.

In a balanced equating. the number of atoms of different elements on both side of the equation are not equal. The major steps involved in balancing a chemical equation are as follow – Write the chemical equations in the form a word equations. The balancing of a chemical equation is done with the help of Hit and Trial method. This is known as balancing of equation. on both side of the equations. Bhopal Ph.tekoclasses. The balanced equation for the burning of magnesium ribbon in oxygen is written as 2 Mg + O2  → 2 MgO (i) Importance of balanced chemical equation: The balancing of a chemical equation is essential or necessary to fulfill the requirement of “Law of conservation of mass”.com Director : SUHAG R. Make the equations more informative if possible. but the number of oxygen atoms are not equal.3 (b) Unbalanced and Balanced Chemical Equations : In an unbalanced equation. Keep the reactants on the left side and the products on the right side.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 5 . Convert the word equation into the symbol equation by writing the symbols and formulae of all the reactants and product. Do not change the formulae of the substance while balancing the equation. Make the atoms of different elements on both side of the equation equal by suitable method. the number of different elements on both sides of the equation are always equal. the number of Mg atoms on both sides of the equation is one (same). Free www. It is known as an unbalanced equations.1. In this method. (ii) Balancing of chemical equations: Balancing of chemical equations may be defined as the process of making the number of different types of elements. For example. the coefficients before the symbols or formulae of the reactants and products are adjusted in such a way that the total number of atoms of each element on both the side of the arrow head become equal. This balancing is also known as mass balancing because the atoms of elements on both side are equal and their masses will also be equal. in the equation given below. equal. Mg + O2  → MgO An unbalanced equation is also called skeletal equation. Separate them by an arrow whose head (→) points from the reactants towards the product. KARIYA (SRK Sir).

the number of O atoms in the reactant (H2O) is 1 while in the product (Fe3O4). Solution :.) 3 3 4 Thus.H. of atoms of reactants (L.) 1 2 2 No. The equation formed may be written as 3Fe + 4H2O → Fe3O4 + 4H2 Free V : on final inspection.H.) 1 2 1 4 As the number of atoms of the elements involved in the reactants and products are equal. Element Zn H S O No.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 6 . the equation is already balanced. At the same time. KARIYA (SRK Sir).tekoclasses. of atoms of reactants (L. the number of H atoms are equal on both sides. put coefficient 4 before H2 on the product side. III) oxide and liberates hydrogen gas. The partially balance equation may be written as Fe + 4H2O → Fe3O4 + H2 III : In order to equate H atoms.S. the number of Fe and O atoms are not equal. the H atoms on both side on of the equation become 8 and are thus balanced. To balance the atoms. Bhopal Ph. Director : SUHAG R.) 1 2 1 4 No. the number of atoms of all the elements on both sides of the equation are equal.The word equation for the reactions is Iron + Water → iron (II. these are 4. of atoms of products (R. Iron reacts with water (steam) to form iron (II. the equation is balanced.H. put coefficient 4 before H2O on the reactant side.S. Solution : The word equation for the reaction is Zinc + Sulphuric acid → Zinc sulphate + Hydrogen The symbol equation for the same reactions is Z n + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2 Let us count the number of atoms of all the elements in the reactants and products on both sides for the equations. 2.Example : 1. As a result. of atoms of products (R. put coefficient 3 before Fe on the reactant side. The partially balanced equation may now be written as Fe + 4H2O → Fe3O4 + H2 IV : In order to balance the Fe atoms. www. Element Fe H O No.H. Zinc reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to give zinc sulphate and hydrogen. III) oxide + Hydrogen The symbol equation for the same reaction isFe + H2O → Fe3O4 + H2 The balancing of the equations is done is the following steps: I : Let us count the number of atoms of all the elements in the reactants and products on both sides of the equation. II : On inspection.

3 (c) Writing State Symbols: The chemical equations or symbol equations which we have enlisted don’t mention the physical states of the reactant and product species involved in the reaction. by an arrow pointing upwards.1.e.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 7 . by an arrow pointing downwards.e. (ii) We get the information about the number of molecules of elements or compounds which are either taking part or formed in the chemical reaction.3 (d) Significance of State Symbols: The state symbols are of most significance for those chemical reactions which are either accompanied by the evolution of heat (exothermic) or by the absorption of heat (endothermic).CaCO3  → CaO (100gm) (56 gm) + CO2 (44 gm) Total weight of reactants is equal to the total weight of products because matter is never destroyed.. 1. For example. the physical state are also mentioned with the help of certain specific symbols known as state Director : SUHAG R. if formed during the reaction. (iii) We also get the information of weight of reactant or products. The abbreviation ‘ppt’ is also use to represent the precipitate. is indicated by the symbol (↓) i. actual amounts of heat are different when water is in the liquid state i. Sometimes a gas if evolved in a reaction is shown by the symbol (↑) i.. For example . H2O ( ) and when it is in the vapour state. In order to make the equation more informative. solution prepared in water. These symbols are (s) for solid state ( ) for liquid state (g) for gaseous state (aq) for aqueous solution i.e.. Similarly the precipitate. if formed. 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O ( ) + 572 kJ 2H2 (g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g) + 44 kJ Both these reactions are of exothermic nature because heat has been evolved in these.3 (e) Specialties of Chemical Equation : (i) We get the information about the substance which are taking part and formed in the reaction. Howeve. Bhopal Ph. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Free www. In the above example total weight of calcium carbonate (reactant) is 100 gram and of product is also 100 g (56 gram + 44 gram).tekoclasses. (i) 2Na(s) + 2H2O ( ) → 2NaOH (aq) + H2(g) or H2 (↑) (ii) Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) → CaCO3 (↓) + H2O ( ) (iii) AnNo3(aq) + NaCI(aq) → AgCI (↓) + NaNO3 (aq) 1.e.

Conditions (at 273 K and 1 atmosphere pressure) if conditions are not otherwise mentioned. Bhopal Ph. (vii) We do not get information about the necessary precautions to be taken for the completion of reaction. liquid or gas.3 (f) Limitations of Chemical Equations : (i) We do not get information about the physical state of reactants and products. N2 + 3H2  → 2NH3 + 22400 Calorie (Exothermic Reaction) ←  N 2 + O2  → 2NO . (v) We do not get information whether heat is absorbed or evolved during the reaction. so valency of magnesium is two. The above limitations are rectified in the following manner – • • The physical sate of reactants and products are represented by writing them in bracket.43200 Calorie (Endothermic Reaction) ←  Free www. (iv) Information regarding the favorable conditions of the reactions such as pressure. is written below the symbol. (vi) We do not get information whether the reaction of reversible or irreversible. (iii) No information about the speed of reaction and sense of timing can be obtained.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 8 . For example Mg + 2HCI → MgCI2 + H2 (↑) In the above reaction one atom of Mg displaces two atoms of hydrogen. dilute or conc. temperature. 1.tekoclasses.(iv) In a chemical equation if any reactant or product is in gaseous state. N2 + 3H2     3 0 200 atm • • Reversible reaction is represented by ( ←  → ) symbol and irreversible reaction by (→) symbol. For example solid. To express the concentration. catalyst etc. All chemical equations are written under N.T. KARIYA (SRK Sir).com Director : SUHAG R. (vi) In a chemical equation with the help of product we can get information about the valency as well. (ii) No information about the concentration of reactants and products is obtained. Mg + H2SO4  → MgSO4 + H2 (dilute) • • Favorable conditions required for the completion of reaction are written above and below the arrow. 500 . For example in the above reaction volume of carbon dioxide is 22. can’t be obtained during the reaction. then its volume can also be determined.P.Fe / Mo → 2NH + 22400 Calorie heat. The precipitate formed in the reaction is represented by (↓) symbol and gaseous substance by (↑ ) symbol.  The heat absorbed in the chemical reaction is written on the right side by putting negative (-) sign and heat evolved in the chemical reaction is written on the right side by putting positive (+) sign.4 liters.

2.2 10. (D) iron salt and water are produced. (B) A chemical equation informs us about the symbols and formulae of the substances involved in a reactin.3 (D) 1.4 (D) 4. (B) chlorine gas and ferric hydroxide are produced. In the reaction FeSo4 + x  → Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2.2.2 (B) 2. (C) A chemical equation tells us about the atoms or molecules of the reactants and products involved in a reaction.1. 7.1. (D) All are correct. Bhopal Ph.tekoclasses.2. (B) endothermic reaction (D) none of these 5. In the balanced equation aFe2O3 + bH2  → cFe + dH2O The value of a.3 (B) 1.Cu + xHNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + yNO2 + 2H2O The values of x and y are(A) 3 and 5 (B) 8 and 6 (C) 4 and 2 Neutralization reaction is an example of (A) exothermic reaction (C) oxidation (D) 7 and 1 4. (C) no reaction takes place. Heat In the reaction xPb (NO3)32  → yPbo + zNO2 + O2 x.DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLMES # 1 OBJECTIVE DPP-1.4 (C) 1. 8. Which of the following statements is/are true \ (A) The total mass of the substance remains same in a chemical Director : SUHAG R. Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq)  → ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) is an example of(A) precipitation reaction (B) endothermic reaction (C) evolution of gas (D) change in colour When dilute hydrochloric acid is added to iron fillings (A) hydrogen gas and ferric chloride are produced.2.2.3 The equation . (B) 2C4H10 + 1202  → 8CO2 + 10H2O (D) 4NH3 + 5O2  → 4NO + 6H2O (C) 1. (D) All the these.1 1.d are respectively (A) 1.2.c. Which of the following statements is correct (A) A chemical equation tells us about the substances involved in a reaction. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Which of the following reactions is not balnced \ (A) 2NaHCO3  → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 (C) 2AI + 6H2O  → 2AI (OH)3 + 3H2 3. x is (A) Na2SO4 (B) H2SO4 (C) NaOH (D) None of these Free www. 9.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 9 . (B) A chemical change is permanent and irreversible.y and z are (a) 1. (C) A physical change is temporary and reversible.2.b. 2. 6.

tekoclasses. Bhopal Ph. What are chemical equations? Give significance and limitations of chemical equations ? 3. Write the balance chemical equations for the following reactions (i) Zinc carbonate (s)  → Zinc oxide (s) + Carbon dioxide (g) (ii) Potassium bromide (aq) + Barium iodide (aq)  → Potassium iodide (aq) + Barium bromide (aq) 6.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 10 . What happens when electric current is passed through slightly acidic water ? 7. (ii) Phosphorus burns in chlorine gas to from phosphorus pentachloride. KARIYA (SRK Sir). 5.2 1. Free www. What do you mean by exothermic reactions ? Explain with an example. Write the balanced chemical equations for the following chemical reactions (i) Aqueous solution of sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide reacts to from aqueous sodium sulphate an water. Balance the following equations (i) HgO  → Hg + O2 (ii) C4H10(g) + O2(g)  → CO2(g) + H2O ( ) 2. 9. What do you mean by endothermic reactions ? Explain with an example . What information do we get from a chemical equation ? Explain with the help of Director : SUHAG R.SUBJECTIVE DPP-1. 4. What happens when silver nitrate is mixed with a solution of sodium chloride ? 8.

. Free www. nitrogen and hydrogen.tekoclasses. It may be brought about by the application of heat.. light electricity or pressure.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 11 . Synthesis reaction : It is a type of addition reaction in which a new substance is formed by the union of its component elements.the support A S S E S CHEMICAL REACTIONS & CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2. KARIYA (SRK Sir).. so it is a synthetic reaction. H2 + CI2 → 2HCI In the above example H2 and CI2 two elements combine to from hydrogen chloride.R C L . N2 + 3H3 → 2NH3 (Haber’s Process) Ammonia is synthesised from its components. For eg. For eg. For eg. Bhopal Ph.. For eg..1 (a) Addition Reactions : It is a union of two or more than two substances to from a new substance.1 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS: Director : SUHAG R. Other Example of synthesis reactions are 2H2 + O2  → 2H2O 2Mg + O2  → 2MgO 2Na + CI2  → 2NaCI (ii) When two or more compounds combine to from a new compound. Addition reactions may be formed in the following conditions (i) When two or more elements combine to form a new compound. NH3 + HCI  → NH4CI CaO + CO2  → CaCO3 2 − Br CH2 = CH2 + Br2  → CH | CH 2 − Br (iii) When and element and a compound combine to from a new compound. All synthesis reaction are addition reactions but all addition reactions are not synthesis reactions. 2CO + O2  → 2CO2 2CO2 + O2  → 2CO3 Only single substance is formed as a product in the addition reactions.

For eg. 2. For eg. For eg. Zn (s) + Director : SUHAG R. Free www. H2SO4 (aq)  → ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 ↑ (ii) Iron displaces copper from a copper sulphate solution. ∆ 2HgO  2Hg + O2 → 2HI ∆ H2 ↑ + ↓  → All analysis reactions are decomposition reactions. ∆ CaCO3 CaO + CO2  → 2Pb (NO3)2 ∆ 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2  → (ii) Decomposition performed by electricity is known as electrolysis. Fe (s) + CuSO4(aq)  → FeSO4 (aq) + Cu In general a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from the soluble solution of its salt. (i) Zinc displaces hydrogen from sulphuric acid.2. For eg. electricity etc. light. For eg. (i) A decomposition reaction brought by heat is known as thermal decomposition. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Decomposition reaction is just opposite of the addition reaction.1 (c) Displacement Reactions : It involves displacement of one of the constituents of a compound by another substance and may be regarded as a displacement reaction. 2AgBr 2AgCI   → Light 2Ag + Br2 2Ag + CI2  → Light (iv) Decomposition reaction in which a compound decomposes into its elements is known as analysis reaction. Bhopal Ph. but all decomposition reactions are not analysis reactions.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 12 .1 (b) Decomposition Reaction : It is breaking up of a substance into simpler compounds and it may be brought about by the application of heat.tekoclasses. Electricity 2H2O    → 2H2 + O2 Electricity 2NaCI    → 2Na + CI2 Electricity 2AI2O3    → 4 AI + 3O2 (iii) A decomposition reaction brought by light is known as photo decomposition.

c(iii).1 (d) Double Displacement : It is mutual exchange of the radicals of two compounds taking part in the reaction and results in the formation of two new compounds.tekoclasses. Which of the following equations is not an example of single displacement reaction? (A) 2AI + Fe2O3  → AI2O3 + 23Fe (C) 2KI + CI2  → 2KCI + I2 (B) Ca + CO2  → CaCI2 (D) 2Na + 2H2O  → 2NaOH + H2 4. KARIYA (SRK Sir). c(iv). Match the following - Column A Types of chemical reaction (a) Combination reaction (b) Decomposition reaction (c) Displacement reaction (d) Analysis reaction (A) a(ii). NaCI (aq) + AgNO3 (aq)  → AgCI ↓ + NaNO3 (aq) BaCI2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq)  → BaSO4 ↓ + 2NaCI (aq) Acid base neutralisation reactions are double displacement reactions. d(ii) Free Column B Chemical equations ∆ (i) CaCO3  CaO + CO2 → Electricity (ii) 2H2O   → 2H2 + O2 (iii) CaO + CO2  → CaCO3 (iv) Fe + CuSO4 (aq. c(iii).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 13 . Which of the following is/are a decomposition reaction(s)? Heat (A) 2HgO  → 2Hg + O2 Electrolysis (C) 2H2O   → H2 + O2 Heat (B) CaCO3  → CaO + CO2 (D) All of these 5. C9iv).com Director : SUHAG R.2. b(i). b(i). DAILY PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 2 OBJECTIVE DPP-2. B(i). d(iv) (D) a(iii). d(iii) (C) a(iii). b(ii).)  → FeSo4(aq) + Cu (B) a(i).1 1. d(iv) www. Chemical reaction 2Na + CI2  → 2 NaCI is an example of (A) Combination reaction (B) decomposition reaction (C) displacement reaction (D) double displacement reaction Which of the following equations is representing combination of two elements? (A) CaO + CO2  (B) 4 Na + O2  → CaCO3 → 2Na2O (C) SO2 + 1/2 O2  → SO3 3. Bhopal Ph. (D) 2Na + 2H2O  → 2NaOH + H2 2.

it turns grey. What happens when ferrous sulphate is heated ? Write the name and balanced chemical equation for the change. What happens when the iron nail is kept into copper sulphate solution ? (ii) 2HgO  → 2Hg + O2 (iv) CuSO4 (aq. Which of the following reactions is/are a double displacement reactions (s) ? (i) AgNO3 + NaBr  → NaNO3 + AgBr (ii) BaCI2 + H2SO4  → BaSO4 + 2HCI (iii) As4O4 + 3H2S  → As2S3 + 3H2 O (iv) NaOH + HCI  → NaCI + H2O (A) (i) & (ii) (B) only (iii) (C) only (iv) (D) (i) to (iv) all 7. 3. KARIYA (SRK Sir). 6. What happens when copper metal is dipped in silver nitrate solution ? Give the balanced chemical equation for the change. The reaction in which two compounds exchange their ions to form two new compounds is(A) a displacement reaction (B) a decomposition reaction (C) an addition reaction (D) a double displacement reaction SUBJECTIVE Director : SUHAG R. When a white compound ‘X’ is placed under sunlight. What is an analysis reaction? Give an example.tekoclasses. Classify the following reactions (i) N2 + O2  → 2NO . Free www.) + Zn  → ZnSO4 (aq. Bhopal Ph.Heat (iii) Na2SO4 + BaCI2  → 2NaCI + BaSO4 (v) NH3 + HCI  → NH4CI 2. What is the difference between displacement and double displacement reaction ? Write equations for these reactions. 4.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 14 . Differentiate between combination and synthesis reaction with example.2 1. 7. (ii) double displacement reaction) (iv) addition reaction (B) (i) and (ii) (D) (ii) and (iv) 9. 8. (B) Single displacement reaction (D) Synthesis reaction 10. Give the name of reaction and write the balanced chemical equation. AgNo3 (a) + NACI (Aq)  → AgCI (s) + NaNO3 (Aq) Above reaction is a (A) precipitation reaction (B) dboule displacement reaction (C) combination reaction (D) (A) and (B) both H2SO4 + 2NaOH  → Na2SO4 + 2H2O Above equation is a (i) neutralization reaction (iii) decomposition reaction (A) (i) to (iv) all (C) (i) and (iii) Zn + H2SO4 (dil)  → ZnSO4 + H2 ↑ Above equation is a= (A) Decomposition (C) Combination reaction 8.) + Cu 5.

S + O2  → SO4 2SO2 + O2  → 2SO3 2Ca + O2  → 2CaO Pbs + 2O2  → PbSO4 (ii) Gain or addition of a electronegative radical For eg. For eg.tekoclasses.1 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION : 3.. KARIYA (SRK Sir).the support A S S E S CHEMICAL REACTIONS & CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 3.g. 2KI + H2O2  → 2KOH + I2 3. Bhopal Ph..:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 15 . Since oxygen is an electronegative element and hydrogen is an electropositive element. 2HCI  → CI2 + H2 Zn + H2SO4  → ZnSO4 + H2 (iv) Removal or loss of electropositive radical or element. so.. For eg. 2FeCI2 + CI2  → 2FeCI3 Mg + CI2  → MgCI2 2FeSO4 + H2SO4 + [O]  → Fe2(SO4)3 + H2O SnCI2 + CI2  → SnCI4 (iii) Removal of a hydrogen atom.1 ( b) Reduction : It is a chemical reaction in which there is a gain of hydrogen or any electropositive radical or a loss of oxygen or electronegative Director : SUHAG R. oxidation is defined as a reaction in which a substance gains and electronegative radical or loses and electropositive radical.1 (a) Oxidation : Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which a substance gains oxygen or loses hydrogen. Free www. (i) A reaction in which a substance gains oxygen is known as oxidation.. For e...R C L .

there can be no oxidation without and equivalent reduction. which brings about oxidation. A substance. Fe2(SO4)3 + H2  → 2FeSO4 + H2SO4 SnCI4 + Hg2CI2  → 2HgCI2 + SnCI2 3. Such reactions in which oxidation and reduction take place simultaneously are known as redox reactions. For eg. For eg. which brings about reduction. For eg.(i) Gain of hydrogen.2 (a) Electronic Interpretation of Oxidation: Free www. where as cupric oxide helps in oxidation of hydrogen so it is known as oxidizing agent. CuO + H2  → Cu + H2O ZnO + C  → Zn + CO (iv) Loss of electronegative radical. 3. is called reducing Director : SUHAG R. SnCI2 + 2HgCI2  → Hg2CI2 + SnCI4 CuCI2 + Cu  → Cu2CI2 (iii) Loss of oxygen atom. Hydrogen gas helps in reduction of cupric oxide to metallic copper so it is known as reducing agent. For eg. i. From all above example it is clear that oxidation and reduction occur side by side. KARIYA (SRK Sir).e. is called an oxidizing agent. Reduction CuO + H2 Cu + H2O Oxidation When hydrogen gas is passed through not cupric oxide.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 16 .tekoclasses. hydrogen is oxidised to water (H2O) while cupric oxide is reduced to metallic copper by loss of oxygen. A substance. The reverse is also true whenever one substance is reduced the other is oxidized. Bhopal Ph. CI2 + H2S  → 2HCI + S O2 + 2H2  → 2H2O C2H4 + H2  → C2H6 (ii) Gain of any electropositive radical or element.2 REDOX REACTIONS : Reduction is loss of electronegative element or radical. In a reaction whenever one substance is oxidised the other is definitely reduced.

Combustion is basically oxidation accompanied by release of energy. Free www. starch etc. hence oxidation involves loss of electrons and it is also referred as de. atom will try to complete its octet by losing gaining or sharing electrons. Some examples are- 3.→ 2NaCI Director : SUHAG R. For example Mg combines with oxygen and is oxidized to MgO.P. coal. According to electronic theory magnesium atom loses two electrons from its outermost shell (M) and is oxidised to mG which oxygen atom gains these two electrons and gets reduced to oxide anion. Methane (CH4) a major constituent of natural gas undergoes combustion in excess of oxygen upon heating. fructose. The human body may be regarded as a furnace or machine in which various food stuffs that we eat undergo combustion or oxidation. They undergo combustion with the help of oxygen that we inhale to form carbon dioxide and water. also undergoes combustion.3 EFFECT OF OXIDATION REACTIONS IN EVERYDAY LIFE : We are all aware of the fact that oxygen is most essential for sustaining life.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 17 . Carbohydrates such as glucose. Bhopal Ph. Some of these effects are briefly discussed. undergo combustion.The electronic theory attempts to interpret oxidation on the basis of electron transfer. 2Na → 2Na+ + 2e2Na+ + 2CI.→ O2+2 2Mg + O → MgO +2 3. For example. For example.G. Sodium is said to be oxidised and loss of electrons is termed as oxidation.tekoclasses. Are the major source of energy to the human body. the neutral sodium loses and electron and becomes positively charged sodium ion. In its formation.2 (b) Electronic Interpretation of Reduction : Reduction which is also referred to as electronation is a process involving the gain of electrons and is the reverse of oxidation. The heat energy evolved keeps our body working. 2Mg+ O2 → 2MgO Mg → Mg + 2eO + 2e. C5H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) → 6CO2(g) + 6H2O ( ) + energy All combustion reactions are not accompanied by flame. CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O ( ) Methane Similarly. charcoal.3 (a) Combustion Reactions: A chemical reaction in which a substance burns or gets oxidised in the presence of air or oxygen in called combustion reaction. Sodium chloride is an electrovalent compound and consists of an ion pair (Na+) (CI-) even in the solid state. burn in air and thus. According to octet rule. wood etc. It is involved in a variety of actions which have wide range of effects on our daily life. butane (C4H10) the main constituent of L. C4H10 (g) + 13/2O2(g) → 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(g) Butane All combustion reactions are of exothermic nature and are accompanied by release of heat energy. Reduction involves gain of electrons so it is referred to as electronation. One can live without food or even water for a number of days but not without oxygen.electronation. Most of them are quite useful while a few may be harmful in nature. kerosene. KARIYA (SRK Sir).

3.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 18 . sulphur dioxide (SO2) sulphur trioxide (SO3) and oxide of nitrogen (NOX) etc. we find a deposit around the terminals of the battery. In case of iron. The environmental pollution is basically due to combustion. It also provides the desired warmth to the body. other harmful effects of combustion are corrosion and rancidity.3 (b) Respiration : Respiration is the most important biochemical reaction which releases energy in the cells. are being released into the atmosphere as a result of variety of combustion reaction which are taking place. They pollute the atmosphere and make our lives miserable. We quite often hear that an old building has collapsed on its own causing loss of both lives and property. xH2O. (i) Corrosion : Corrosion may be defined as the process of slow eating up of the surfaces of certain metals when kept in open for a long time. Respiration occurs in these cells and is accompanied by the combustion of glucose producing carbon dioxide and water. Black coating on the surface of silver and green layer on the surface of copper are the examples of corrosion. Since the reaction is of exothermic nature. In addition to these. It binds itself to hemoglobin present in red blood cells and is carried to millions of cells in the Director : SUHAG R. Free www. It is basically an oxidation reaction and the formula of rust is Fe2O3. however. This is an example of corrosion. combustion has harmful effects also. When we breathe in air. corrosion is called rusting. Rust is a chemical substance brown in colour and is formed by the chemical action of moist air (containing O2 and H2O) on iron. This is on account of the rusting of iron which is used in making the structure particularly the roof. 3. Poisonous gases like carbon monoxide (CO). It is very slow in nature and once started keeps on.3 (c) Harmful Effects of Combustion : We have discussed the utility of combustion in releasing energy which our body needs to keep warm and working. These air sacs occupy a large area of membranes and oxygen diffuses from the membranes into blood. Fish takes up oxygen dissolved in water through their gills while plants take up air through small pores (stomata) present in their leaves. Respiration takes place in the cells of all living beings. Railway tracks. Both carbon dioxide and water pas back into the blood and we ultimately breathe them out. KARIYA (SRK Sir). when we open the bonnet of a car after a long time. Quite often. Both corrosion and rusting are very harmful and case damage to the building. Bhopal Ph. the energy released during respiration carry out many cell reactions and also keeps our hart and muscles working.tekoclasses. These are briefly discussed. oxygen enters our lungs and passes into thousands of smalls air sacs (alveoli). cars and other objects/ materials where metals are used.

they become Director : SUHAG R. (C) Removal or loss of electropositive radical or element (D) None of these 4. reaction is an example of (A) redox reaction (B) neutralisation (B) synthesis reaction (D) analysis reaction Free www. This is known a rancidity. In the reaction Mg + CI2 → MgCI2 Chlorine may be regarded as (A) an oxidising agent (C) a catalyst 2. the reaction is SO2 + 2H2S → 2H2O + 3S Here hydrogen sulphide is acting as (A) an oxidising agent (C) a dehydrating agent (B) a reducing agent (D) a catalyst 3. (B) Keeping food in air tight containers prevents its oxidation. (D) Chips manufacturers generally flush their bags with nitrogen before packing so that they may not be oxidised. (B) a reducing agent (D) providing an inert medium When the gases sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide react. CiO + H2 → H2O + Cu. (C) Refrigeration of food also slows down rancidity because the temperature inside refrigerator is very low and direct contact with air or oxygen is avoided. They become quite unpleasant. Which of the following statements is/are false for oxidation reaction? (A) Gain or addition of electronegative radical (B) Removal of hydrogen atom. These are known as antioxidant and check their oxidation.(ii) Rancidity : Oxidation has damaging effects on food and eatables. Bhopal Ph. KARIYA (SRK Sir). It can be checked in a number of away. their smell and taste change. When the fats and oils present in butter and margarine are oxidised.tekoclasses. (A) Manufacturer sometimes add certain food additives to the food materials.2 1.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 19 . As a result. DAILY PRACTICE PROBLESM # 3 OBJECTIVE DPP-3.

10.2e. (B) both the substances are Director : SUHAG R. Oxidation reaction have some harmful effects. (A) PbO is oxidised (B) C acts as oxidising agent. 4. 2. Comment on the sentence. What is rancidity? Example with example.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 20 .5. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Can oxidation occur without reduction ? Explain Explain the terms oxidation and reduction with examples.tekoclasses.→ Sn+4 (C) CI2 + 2e.→ Fe+2 (D) None of these 6.2 1. (D) None of these 8. magnesium undergoes (A) reduction (B) sublimation (C) oxidation A substance which oxidises itself and reduces other is known as(A) an oxidising agent (B) a reducing agent (C) Both of these Oxidation is a process which involves (A) addition of oxygen (C) loss of electrons (B) removal of hydrogen (D) All are correct (D) all of these 7. SUBJECTIVE DPP-3. In the process of burring of magnesium in air. 6. (C) and acid is neutralised by the base. Which of the following is an example of oxidation reaction ? (A) Sn+2 . What do you mean by corrosion ? Identify the substances that are oxidized and the substances that are reduced in the following reactions (a) ZnO + C  → Zn + CO (b) MnO2 + 4HCI  → MnCI2 + 2H2O + CI2 (c) 2FeCI3 + H2S  → 2FeCI2 + S + 2HCI (d) 3Mg + N2  → Mg3N2 Free www. (D) one substance is oxidised. 9. Bhopal Ph. 3. A redox reaction is one in which (A) both the substances are reduced. (C) C acts as a reducing agent.→ 2CI (B) Fe+3 + e. (D) This reaction does not represent a redox reaction. In the reaction PbO + C → Pb + CO. which the other is reduced. 5.

Ans.1 Quse. (c) FeCI3 is reduced and H2S is oxidised. KARIYA (SRK Sir). (d) Mg is oxidised and N2 is reduced. Ans. 13 O  → 4CO2 + 5H2O 2 2 (i) H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq  → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O ( ) (ii) P4 (d) + 10 CI2 (g)  → 4 PCI5 (g) 5. Decomposition reaction 2AgCI (s)  → 2Ag ↓ + CI2 (g) (X) grey 6.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 21 . 1 A 2 B 3 B 4 D 5 C 6 D 7 D 8 B 9 B 10 D OBJECTIVE DPP 2. (i) ZnCO3 (s)  → ZnO (s) + Co2 (g) (ii) 2KBr (aq) + BaI2 (aq)  → 2KI (q) + BaBr2 (aq) OBJECTIVE DPP 2. (b) MnO2 is reduced and HCI is oxidised.1 1. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Endothermic Reaction Analysis reactions Double displacement reaction Single displacement reaction Combination reaction 4. Bhopal Ph.1 Director : SUHAG R. (a) ZnO is reduced and C is oxidised.1 Quse. Free www. 1 A 2 B 3 D 4 A 5 A 6 C 7 B 8 D 9 C 10 D SUBJECTIVE DPP 3.ANSWERS OBJECTIVE DPP 1. 1 C 2 B 3 C 4 A 5 D 6 D 7 C 8 A 9 B 10 C SUBJECTIVE DPP 1. Cu (s) + 2AgNO3 (aq)  → Cu (NO3)2 (aq) + 2Ag (s) OBJECTIVE DPP 3. Ans.1 1.tekoclasses.1 6. (i) 2HgO  → 2Hg + O2 (ii) C4H10 + 4.

In stomach as gastric juice. Fount in vinegar used a solvent in the manufacture of dyes and perfumes. in medicines for treating gout disease of jointly. Present in lemons. taste sour since they are acidic. Responsible for souring of milk in curd. super phosphate) detergents etc. Nitroglycerine) and fertilizers (Ammonium nitrate. grape fruit juice and spoilt milk etc.tekoclasses. Calcium nitrate. One the basis of their source avids are of two types - (a) Mineral acids 4. Bhopal Ph. used in tanning industry Used in the manufacture of explosives. KARIYA (SRK Sir).the support A S S E S ACIDS. Used as a food preservation.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 22 . to make aqua regia mixture of Hu2HNO3 in ration of 3 : 1 Commonly used in car batteries. plastics. Used I antirust paints and in fertilizers.1 (b) Organic Acids : Acids which are present in animals and plants are known as organic acids. in the manufacture of fertilizers (Ammonium sulphate..BASES AND SALTS 4. used in tanning leather. oranges and citrus fruits.1 ACIDS : Substances with sour taste are regarded as avoids.R C L .1 (a) Mineral Acids : (b) Organic acids Acids which are obtained from rocks and minerals are called mineral acids. In such case it would be according to modern definitionAn acid may be defined as a substance which release one or more H+ ions in aqueous solution. Hydrochloric acid Sulhuric acid Mineral Acid HCI Mineral Acid H2SO4 Phosphoric acid Formic acid Mineral Acid Organic Acid H3PO4 HCOOH(CH2O2) Acetic acid Lactic acid Benzoic acid Critic acid Organic Acid Organic Acid Organic Acid Organic Acid CH3COOH(C2H4O2) CH3CH(OH)COOH(C3H6O3) C6H5COOH C6H8O Free www.) In purification of common salt. is given below Name Carbonic acid Nitric acid Type Mineral acid Mineral Acid Chemical Formula H2CO3 HNO3 Where found or used In soft drinks and lends fizz. drugs. vinegar. Purification of Au.. in textile industry as bealching agent.... in Director : SUHAG R. 4. in petroleum refining. A list of commonly used acids along with their chemical formula and typical uses. Acids are mostly obtained from natural sources. Many substances can be identified as acids based on their taste but some fo the acids like sulphuric acid have very strong action on the skin which means that they are corrosive in nature. Lemon juice. in manufacture of artificial silk. (TNT.. Found in the stings of ants and bees. Ag.

For e. Action with metal carbonates and metal bicarbonates : Both metal carbonates and bicarbonates react with acids to evolve CO2 gas and form salts. KARIYA (SRK Sir).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 23 .g. As a result. HCI Free + NaOH  → NaCI + H2O www.g.)  → ZNCI2(aq)  → MgSO4(aq)  → CuCI2(aq) (Bluish green) + + + H2O ( ) H2O ( ) H2O ( ) 3.g. 2+ Zn(s)  → Zn (aq) + 2e- ZH+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2eZn(s) + 2H+ (aq) 2 → H2 (g) + SO4 (aq)  → Zn++(aq) + H2(g) 2. Action with metal oxides : Acids react with metal oxides to form salt and water. For e. Mg etc. K. Action with metals: Dilute acids like dilute HCI and dilute H2SO4 react with certain active metals to evolve hydrogen gas. Director : SUHAG R. ZnO(s) + MgO(s) + CuO(s) + (Block) 2HCI(aq) H2SO4(aq) 2HCI(dil. CaCO3(s) + 2HCI(aq)  → CaCI2(aq) + H 2O ( ) + CO2(g) Calcium carbonate 2NaHCO3(s) Sodium bicarbonate + H2SO4(aq) Calcium chloride  → Na2SO4(aq) Sodium sulpahte + H2O(aq) + CO2(g) 4. Zn(s) + H2SO4 (dilute) → ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) The active metals which lie above hydrogen in the activity series are electropositive in nature. For e.4. Action with bases : Acids react with bases to give salts and water. Bhopal Ph. These reactions are mostly carried out upon heating.1 (c) Chemical Properties of Acids: 1.g. H2 is evolved. Their atoms lose electrons to form positive ions and these electrons are accepted by H+ ions of the acid. e. 2Na(s) + 2HCI (dilute)  → 2NaCI(aq) + H2 (g) Mg(s) + H2SO4 (dilute)  → MgSO4 (aq) + H2(g) Metals which can displace hydrogen from dilute acids are known as avtive metals. Fe. Ca. Zn.tekoclasses.

2 Base : Substances with bitter taste and soapy touch are regarded as bases. are all strong acids. sulphuric acid (H2SO4). KARIYA (SRK Sir). Ammonium hydroxide - NH4OH In removing greases stains from cloths and in cleaning window panes. 4. 4. Free www. Since many bases like sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide have corrosive action on the skin and can even harm the body. Hydrochloric acid (HCI). In manufacture of bleaching powder softening of hard water etc. manufacture of soap. HCI + Water  → H+(aq) Water  → 2H+(aq) + + CI-(aq) SO4 (aq) 2- H2SO4 + (ii) Weak acids: Acids which are weakly ionised in water are known as weak acids.tekoclasses. Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Caustic Sba KHO Calcium hydroxide Slaked lime Ca(OH)2 Magnesium hydroxide Mil of Magnesia Mg(OH)2 As an antacid to remove acidity from stomach Aluminum hydroxide - Al(OH)3 As foaming agent in fire extinguishers. nitric acid (HNO3) etc.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 24 . In alkaline storage batteries.2 (a) Alkalies : Some bases like sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are water soluble. Bhopal Ph.1 (d) Strong and Weak Acids : (i) Strong acids : Acids which are completely ionised in water are known as strong acids.ions in aqueous solution. Carbonic acids (H2CO3). These are known as alkalies.g. KOH. For e. rayon. acetic acid (CH3COOH) are weak acids. phosphoric acid (H3PO4). CH3COOH + Water  → CH3COO-(aq) + H+ (aq) In general MINERAL acids are STRONG acids while ORGANIC acids are WEAK acids. formic acid (HCOOH).com Director : SUHAG R. paper. so according to the modern definition a base may be defined as a substance capable of releasing one or more OH. pulp. A list of a few typical bases along with their chemical formulae and uses is given belowName Commercial Name Caustic Soda Chemical Formula NaOH Uses In manufacture of soap. For e.g. refining of petroleum etc. Therefore water soluble bases are known as alkalies eg.4. NaOH. absorbing CO2 gas etc.

:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 25 . Similarly. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH). but bases react with oxides of nonmetals to form salt and water. For e. 2NaOH(aq) + CO2(g)  → Na3CO3(aq) + H2O ( ) Ca(OH)2(s) + SO2(g)  → CaSO3(aq) + H2O ( ) Ca(OH)2(s) + CO2(g)  → CaCO3(s) + H2O ( ) 4.tekoclasses. For e. are known as strong bases.g. eg. the aqueous solutions of both acids and bases are conductors of electricity.2 (b) Chemical Properties : 1. tin and aluminum react with strong alkalies like NaOH (caustic soda).3 CONDUCTING NATURE OF ACID AND BASE SOLUTIONS : Acids are the substances which contain one or more hydrogen atoms in their molecules which they can release in water as H+ ions.4. bases are the substances which contain one or more hydroxyl groups in their molecules which they an release in water as OH. Bhopal Ph. NaOH(s) + Water  → Na+ (aq) + OH-(aq) KOH(s) + Water  → K+ (aq) + OH. Action with non-metallic oxides: Acids react with metal oxides. are known as strong bases. Action with metals : Metals like zinc.g.(aq) Both NaOH and KOH are deliquescent in nature which means that they absorb moisture from air and get liquefied.2 (c) Strong and Weak Bases : (i) Strong base : A base contains one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups which it releases in aqueous solution upon ionisation. Zn(s) + 2NaOH(aq)  → Na2ZnO2(aq) + H2(g) Sodium zincate Sn(s) + 2NaOH(aq)  → Na2SnO2(aq) + H2(g) Sodium stannite 2AI(s) + 2NaOH + 2H2O  → 2NaAIO2(aq) + 3H2(g) Sodium meta aluminate 2. (ii) Weak bases : Bases that are feebly ionised on dissolving in water and reduce a low concentration of hydroxyl ions are called weak bases.ions. KARIYA (SRK Sir).com Director : SUHAG R. Since the ions are the carries of charge therefore. NH4OH 4. Bases which are almost completely ionised in water. Free www. KOH (caustic potash) to evolve hydrogen gas. Ca(OH)2. Bases which are almost completely ionised in water. potassium hydroxide (OH) groups which it releases in aqueous solution upon ionisation.

Experiment :
In a glass beaker, take a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid (HCI). Fix two small nails of iron in a rubber cork in the beaker as shown in the figure. Connect the nails to the terminals of a 6 volt battery through a bulb. Switch on the current and bulb will start glowing. This shows that the electric current has passed through the acid solution. As the current is carried by the movement of ions, this shows that is solution HCI has ionised to give H+ and CI- ions. Current will also be in a position to pass if the beaker contains in it dilute H2SO4 (H+ ions are released in aqueous solution). Similarly, aqueous solutions containing NaOH or KOH will also be conducting due to release of OH- ions.

Bulb will not glow if glucose (C6H12O6) or ethyl alcohol (C2H6O) solution is kept in the beaker. This means that both of them will not give any ions in solution.

1. 2.

3. 4.


Sour in taste. Change colours of indicators et. Litmus turns from blue to red, phenolphthalein remains colourless. Shows electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solution. Acidic properties disappear when reacts with bases (Neutralisation). Acids decompose carbonate salts.

1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

Bases Bitterness in taste. Change colours of indicators eg, litmus turns from red to blue, phenolphthalein furns from colourless to pink. Shows electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions. Basic properties disappear when reacts with acids (Neutralisation). No decomposition of carbonate salts by bases.

Substances can act as acids and bases only in the presence of water in aqueous solution. In dry state which is also called anhydrous state, these characters cannot be shown Actually, water helps in the ionisation of acids or base by separating the ions. This is also known as dissociation and is explained on the basis of a theory called Arrhenius theory of acids and bases. In the dry state, hydrochloric acid is known as hydrogen chloride gas i.e. HCI(g). It is not in the position to give any H+ ions. Therefore, the acidic character is not shown. Now, let

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 26

us pass the gas through water taken in a beaker with the help of glass pipe. H2O molecules are of polar nature which means that they have partial negative charge (δ+ ) on oxygen atom and partial positive charge

( δ− ) on hydrogen atoms. They will try to form a sort of envelope around the hydrogen atoms as well as chlorine atoms present in the acid and thus help in their separation as ions. These ions are said to be hydrated ions. HCI(g) + Water  → H+ (aq) + CI- (aq) (Hydrated ions) The electrical current is carried through these ions. The same applied to other acids as well as bases. Thus we conclude that -

(i) acids can release H+ ions only in aqueous solution. (ii) base can release OH- ions only in aqueous solution. (iii) hydration helps in the release of ions from acids and bases.


Acids and bases are mostly water soluble and can be diluted by adding the required amount of water. With the addition of water the amount of acid or base per unit volume decrease and dilution occurs. The process is generally exothermic in nature. A concentrated acid like sulphuric acid or nitric acid is to be diluted with water. Acid should be added dropwise to water taken in the container with constant stirring.

1. The acid used in making of vinegar is (A) Formic acid (B) Acetic acid Common name of H2SO4 is(A) Oil of vitriol (B) Muriatic acid (C) Blue vitriol (D) Green vitriol (C) Sulphuric acid (D) Nitric acid



CuO + (X)  → CuSO4 + H2O. Here (X) is(A) CuSO4 (B) HCI Which of the following is the weakest base ? (A) NaOH (B) NH4OH Reaction of an acid with a base is known as(A) decomposition (B) combination

(C) H2SO4

(D) HNO3



(D) Ca(OH)2


(C) redox reaction

(D) neutralization

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 27


When CO2 is passed through lime water, it turns milky; The milkiness is due to the formation of (A) CaCO3 (B Ca(OH)2 (C) H2O (D) CO2 Caustic soda is the common name for(A) Mg(OH)2 (B) KOH Antacids contain (A) Weak base


(C) Ca(OH)2

(D) NaOH


(B) Weak acid

(C) Strong base

(D) Strong acid


Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) is used in (A) Plastics and dyes (B) Fertilizers Acids gives (A) H+ in water H2CO3 is a (A) strong acid (B) weak acid

(C) Antacids

(D) White washing


(B) OH- in water

(C) Both (A) & (B)

(D) None of these


(C) strong base

(D) weak base

1. Equal amounts of calcium are taken in test tubes (A) and (B). Hydrochloric acid (CHI) is added to test tube (A) while acetic acid (CH3COOH) is added to test tube (B). In which case, fizzing occurs more vigorously and why ? 2. Give the name of two mineral acids and their uses. What effect does concentration of H+ (aq) have on acidic nature of the solution? What do you understand by organic acids? Give the name of the organic acids and their sources. Which gas is usually liberated when an acid reacts with metal? Illustrate with an example how will you test the presence of the gas?

3. 4. 5.

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 28

:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 29 . KARIYA (SRK Sir). the colour of indicator changes to pink. In the basic medium its colour becomes reddish or deep brown.the support A S S E S ACIDS. A few common acid base indicators are 5. its colour changes to green. when dipped in an acid solution acquires red colour. 5. It can also be applied on paper in the form of strips and is available as blue and red strips.. Bhopal Ph. In the acidic medium the colour of indicator becomes red and in the basic or natural medium. basic or neutral. Similarly a red strip when dipped in a base solution becomes blue. Sample HCI HNO3 NaOH KOH Blue litmus solution Changes to red Changes to red No colour change No colour change Red litmus solution No colour change No colour change Changes to blue Changes to blue Phenolphthalein Remains colourless Remains colourless Changes to light pink Changes to light pink Methyl orange Changes to red Changes to red No changes in colour No changes in colour Litmus is obtained from LICHEN plant..1 (d) Red Cabbage Juice : It is purple in colour in natural medium and turns red or pink in the acidic medium.1 (a) Litmus : Litmus is a purple dye which is extracted from ‘lichen’ a plant belonging to variety Thallophytic. 5. Apart from this.. 5.R C L .1 (c) Methyl Orange : Methyl orange is an orange coloured dye (yellow) and basis in nature. indicator also represents the change in nature of the solution from acidic to basic and vice versa. BASES AND SALTS Director : SUHAG R. 5.1 (b) Phenolphthalein : It is also an organic dye and acidic in nature.. it remains colourless while in the basic solution. 5.tekoclasses.2 Free NEUTRALISATION : www. Indicators are basically coloured organic substances extracted from different plants. In the basic or alkaline medium. In neutral or acidic solution. it colour remains unchanged. A blue litmus strip.1 (e) Turmeric Juice : It is yellow in colour and remains as such in the neutral and acidic medium.1 INDICATORS: Indicator indicated the nature of particular solution whether acidic...

No energy is needed for their ionisation.ions of the base to form H2O. The acidity is neutralised by antacid tablets which contain sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda). (iv) Farmers generally neutralise the effect of acidity in the soil caused by acid rain by adding slaked lime (Calcium hydroxide) to the soil. the heat evolved is given by the following reaction H+ (aq) + OH. (ii) The sting of bees and ants contain formic acid.1 J (Strong acid) (Strong base) Strong acids and strong bases are completely ionised of their own in the solution.It may be defined as a reaction between acid and base present in aqueous solution to form salt and water.1 KJ 5.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 30 .(aq)  → H2O ( ) + 57.(aq)  → Na+(aq) + CI-(aq) + H2O ( ) H+(aq) + OH-(aq)  → H2O ( ) Neutralisation reaction involving an acid and base is of exothermic nature. Bhopal Ph.3 APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRALISATION : (i) People particularly of old age suffer from acidity problems in the stomach which is caused mainly due to release of excessive gastric juices containing Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Since the action of base and anion of acid on both sides of the equation cancels out completely.4 pH SCALE : Free www. For e. Its corrosive and poisonous effect can be neutralised by rubbing soap which contains NaOH (an alkali). Heat is evolved in all naturalisation reactions. H+(aq) + CI-(aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH. HCI(aq) + NaOH(aq)  → NaCI(aq) + H2O ( ) Basically neutralision is the combination between H+ ions of the acid with OH.tekoclasses. If both acid and base are strong. 5. For e. magnesium hydroxide etc. (iii) The stings of wasps contain an alkali and its poisonous effect can be neutralised by an acid like acetic acid (present in vinegar).g.1 KJ (Strong acid) (Strong base) HNO3 (aq) + KOH(aq)  → KNO3(aq) + H3O ( ) + 57. HCI (aq) + NaOH (aq)  → NaCI (aq) + H2O ( ) + 57.g. the value of heat energy evolved remains same irrespective of their nature.

The P in pH stands for potenz’ in German meaning power. These are known as buffers.P.42. A very popular antacid is ‘Milk of Magnesia’ which is insoluble magnesium hydroxide. KARIYA (SRK Sir).0 – 5. excess of acid causes indigestion and leads to pain as well as irritation. These antacids will bring the pH of the system back to its normal value. pH < 7 (ii) For alkaline solution.1 4. On the pH scale we can measure pH from O (very acidic) to 14 (very alkaline). has been developed by S.9 14.L. Such papers represent specified colours for different concentrations in terms of pH values. sorrensen.A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a solution called pH scale.36 – 7. The excessive acid can be neutralised with the help of antacid which are recommended by the doctors.4 3.0 4.4 (a) Universal Indicator Papers for pH Values : Indicators like litmus.0 5. phenolphthalein and methyl orange are used in predicting the acidic and basic characters of the solutions. pH = 7 5. However universal indicator papers have been developed to predict the pH of different solutions. The pH of the digestive system in the stomach will decrease.4 (b) Significance of pH in daily life : (i) pH i our digestive system : Dilute hydrochloric acid produced in our stomach helps in the digestion of food.5 12. However. Higher the hydrogen ion concentration.5 Solution Pure water Blood Baking soda solution Sea water Washing soda solution Lime water House hold ammonia Sodium hydroxide Approximate pH Director : SUHAG R.0 4.0 10. The pH of human blood varies between 7. pH should be thought of simply as a number which indicates the acidic or basic nature of solution.2. Lower is the pH scale.6 6.0 7. Characteristic of pH scale are (i) For acidic solution.0 11. Free www.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 31 . these are group of compounds (basic in nature) and have hardly and side effects. pH values of a few common solutions are given below Solution Gastric juices Lemon juices Vinegar Bear Tomato juice Coffee Acid rain Milk Saliva Approximate pH 1.5 5. pH > 7 (iii) For neutral solution.5 6.0 2.5 – 5.4 9.42 8.36 to 7.0 – 3. The exact pH of the solution can be measured with the help of pH meter which gives instant reading and it can be relied upon. it is maintained by the soluble bicarbonates and carbonic acid present in the blood. Aluminum hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate can also be used for the same purpose.5 – 7.2 . Bhopal Ph.tekoclasses. Actually.

different plants prefer different pH range for their growth. The formation of these acids causes decrease in pH. the effect of stings by wasps containing alkali is neutralised by the application of vinegar which is ethanoic acid (or acetic acid) (iv) Soil pH and plant growth : The growth of plants in a particular soil is also related to its pH. Actually. These are all basic in nature and have neutralising effect. Soils with high iron minerals or with vegetation tend to become acidic. The acidic effect can be neutralised by ‘liming the soil’ which is carried by adding calcium hydroxide. when the pH in the mouth falls below 5. the soil with excess of lime stone or chalk is usually alkaline. its pH reaches as high as 8. Sometimes. The soil pH is also affected by the acid rain and the use of fertilizers. it is better to add some decaying organic matter (compost or manure). Similarly.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 32 .5 the enamel gets corroded. In order to reduce the alkaline effect. Bhopal Ph. When stung. The cure is in rubbing the affected area with soap. quite important to provide the soil with proper pH for their healthy growth. It is therefore advisable to avoid eating surgery foods and also to keep the mouth clean so that sugar and food particles may not be present. Water will have a direct access to the roots and decay of teeth will occur. Free www. they cause lot of pain and irritation. (iii) Role of pH in curing stings by insects: The stings of bees and ants contain methanoic acid (or formic acid). It is not affected by water.3 and is quite harmful for the plant growth. Therefore soil treatment is quite essential. The bacteria present in the mouth break down the sugar that we eat in one form or the other to acids. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Sodium hydroxide present in the soap neutralises acid injected in the body and thus brings the pH back to its original level bringing relief to the person who has been stung. However.tekoclasses. Lactic acid is one these.(ii) pH change leads to tooth decay : The white enamel coating on our teeth is of insoluble calcium phosphate which is quite hard. The tooth pastes contain in them some basic ingredients and they help in neutralising the effect of the acids and also increasing the pH in the mouth. Director : SUHAG R. This soil pH can reach as lows as 4. it is therefore.

KARIYA (SRK Sir). Its pH is likely to be(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 7 (D) 10 Director : SUHAG R. Methyl orange is (A) an acidic indicator (B) a basic indicator (C) a neutral indicator (D) none of these 4.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 33 .8 kJ (B) 57.7 (D) 6.1 kJ (C) hNO3 (D) H2C2O4 9.tekoclasses.4 (B) 7. Which is a base and not an alkali ? (A) NaOH (B) KOH (C) Fe(OH)3 (D) None is true 7. A solution turns red litmus blue. means that it is(A) weakly acidic (B) weakly basic (C) strongly acidic (D) strongly basic 6. Bhopal Ph. pH of Blood is(A) 6. A solution has pH 9. If pH of any solution is equal to zero then solution will be(A) acidic (B) basic (C) neutral (D) none of these 3.4 (C) 4.DAILY PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 5 OBJECTIVE DPP-5.4 5. Energy released in neutralisation reaction which occurs between strong acid and strong base is(A)57. If ph of solution is 13.1 1. On dilution the pH value (A) decreases (B) increases (C) remain same (D) none of these Free www.

D and E when tested with universal indicator shows pH as 5.tekoclasses. (ii) Aqueous solution of copper sulphate has pH less than 7. Explain why ? (i) Aqueous solution of sodium acetate has pH more than 7. (b) strongly alkaline. (iii) Aqueous solution of Potassium nitrate has pH value 7. 2.2 1.SUBJECTIVE DPP-5. 7 and 9 respectively. 13. (d) weakly alkaline.C. Arrange the pH in decreasing order of H+ ion concentration.B. What will you observe when(i) red litmus paper is introduced into a solution of sodium sulphate ? (ii) methyl orange is added to dilute hydrochloric acid ? (iii) a drop of phenolphthalein is added to solution of lime water ? (iv) blue litmus is introduced into a solution of ferric chloride ? 3. Bhopal Ph. (e) weakly acidic. KARIYA (SRK Sir). 4. 3.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 34 . Which solution is (a) neutral. Five solutions A. (c) strongly acidic. Give two applications of pH in our daily life. Free Director : SUHAG R.

(ii) Acidic salt solutions : Salt solutions of strong acids and weak bases are of acidic nature and have pH less than 7. For e. (NH4)2SO4.R C L . Na2SO4 etc. basic lead nitrate Pb (OH) NO3. K2 SO4 etc. Depending upon the nature of the acids and bases or upon the pH values. NaCI.1 SALTS : A substance formed by neutralization of an acid with a base is called a salt. For example.2 (a) Classification Based on Chemical Formulae : (i) Normal salts : A normal salt is the one which does not contain any ionsable hydrogen atom or hydroxyl group.2 CLASIFFICATION OF SALTS : Salts have been classified on the basis of chemical formulae as well as pH values.. sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCI3) etc.2 (b) Classification Based on pH Values : Salts are formed by the reaction between acids and bases. For e. Pb(OH)CI etc. They change the colour of blue litmus solution to red. This means that the neutralisation of acid by the base is no complete. basic lead chloride.g. Free www. Ca (OH)2 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 + H2O 2Ca(OH)2 + 4HNO3 → 2Ci(NO3)2 + 2H2O NaOH + HCI → NaCI + H2O 6. : NaCI. NaNO3. For example. the salt solutions are of three types. the base NH4OH is weak while the acids H2SO4 and HCI are strong.. Bhopal Ph... In both these salts. They do not change the colour of litmus solution. For e.. 6.tekoclasses. (iii) Basic salts : A basic salt still contains some replaceable hydroxyl groups. 6. This means that the neutralisation of base by the acid is not complete. (i) Neutral salt solutions : Salt solutions of strong acids and strong bases are neutral and have pH equal to 7.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 35 . BASES AND SALTS 6..g. KARIYA (SRK Sir). (ii) Acidic salts : an acidic salt still contains some replaceable hydrogen atoms. NaNO2.g. They change the colour of red litmus solution to blue. This means that it has been formed by the complete neutralisation of an acid by a base.g. (iii) Basic salt solutions : Salt solutions of strong bases and weak acids are of basic nature and have pH more than 7. KCI.the support A S S E S ACIDS. sodium hydrogen sulphate (NaHCO4).com Director : SUHAG R. For e. NH4CI etc.

It leads to muscle cramps. When we sweat. (iv) In the manufacturing of washing soda and baking soda. 6.g. it is separated by some suitable methods. A few out of these are hydrochloric acid (HCI). Biologically.(cathode reaction) 6.5 WASHING SODA : Chemical name : Sodium carbonate decahydrate Chemical formula : Na2CO3. In severe cold. When pure. Apart from these. 6.10H2O).For e. 10H2O Free www. (v) For the preparation of sodium hydroxide by electrolysis of brine.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 36 . it is used in leather industry for the leather tanning.3 USES OF SALTS : (i) As a table salt.4 SODIUM CHLORIDE . it is also used as fertilizer for sugar beet. Its loss has to be compensated suitably by giving certain salt preparations to the patient. it is a white crystalline solid. there is loss of sodium chloride along with water. Upon electrolysis of a strong solution of the salt (brine). baking soda (NaHCO3) etc. Na2CO3. Deposits of the salts are found in different part of the world and is known as rock salt. bases NaOH and KOH are strong while the acids H2CO3 and H3PO4 are weak. SOME IMPORTANT CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS : 6.(anode reaction) (ii) 2H2O + 2e. In both the salts. (ii) Raw material for chemical: Sodium chloride is also a very useful raw material for different chemical.tekoclasses.K3PO4 etc.4 (a) Uses : (i) Essential for life : Sodium chloride is quite essential for life.4 (b) Electrolysis of aqueous solution of NaCI : Electrolys is 2NaCO (s) + 2H2O ( )   → 2NaOH(aq) + CI2(g) + H2(g) reaction takes place in two steps (i) 2CI. washing soda (Na2CO3. Electrol powder is an important substitute of common salt. Chemically it is formed by the reaction between solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. chlorine and hydrogen are obtained. rock salt is spread on icy roads to melt ice. → CI2(g) + 2e. it is often brown due to the presence of impurities. (iii) In leather Industry. However. → H2 + OH. sodium hydroxide. 6. (ii) In the manufacture of butter and cheese. (vi) Rock salt is spread on ice to melt it in cold countries. KARIYA (SRK Sir).COMMON SALT (TABLE SALT) : Sodium chloride (NaCI) also called common salt or table salt is the most essential part of our diet. it has a number of function to perform such as in muscle contraction. Sea water is the major source of sodium chloride where it is present in disserved form along with other soluble salts such as chlorides and sulphates of calcium and Director : SUHAG R. Bhopal Ph. in conduction of nerve impulse in the nervous system and is also converted in hydrochloric acid which helps in the digestion of food in the stomach.

Na2CO3 + 10H2O  → Na2CO3. it is converted into sodium carbonate.tekoclasses. being less soluble. (vi) It is used in the manufacture of borax (Na2B4O7. The aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate is neutral to methyl orange but gives pink colour with phenolphthalein orange. a saturated solution of sodium chloride in water is saturated with ammonia and then carbon dioxide gas is passed into the liquid.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 37 . 2NaHCO3 (s)  → Na2CO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O ( ) 6. 10H2O Sodium Washing soda carbonate 6. KARIYA (SRK Sir). In this process. Baking powder is a mixture or potassium hydrogen tartar ate and sodium bicarbonate. (ii) It is used in softening hard water and controlling the pH of water. textile and paper industries etc. (Phenolphthalein and methyl orange are dyes used as acid-base indicators.5 (a) Recrystallization of sodium carbonate: Sodium carbonate is recrystallized by dissolving in water to get washing soda it is a basic salt. (v) It also finds use in Director : SUHAG R. separates out from the solution.6. 2NH3 (g) + H2O ( ) + CO2 (g) (NH4)2CO3 (aq) + 2NaCI(aq)  → (NH4)2 CO3(aq)  → Na2CO3 (aq) + 2NH4CI(aq) Na2CO3(aq) + H2O ( ) + CO2 (g)  → 2NaHCO3(s) 6. 6.6 BAKING SODA : Baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate (NaCHO3). crystalline substance that forms an alkaline solution with water. 10H2O) 6.6 (b) Properties : (i) It is a white.) (ii) When heated above 543 K. Sodium chloride is converted into sodium bicarbonate which. (iv) Due to its detergent properties.6 (a) Preparation : It is obtained as an intermediate product in the preparation of sodium carbonate by Solvay process. Bhopal Ph. it is used as a constituent of several dry soap powders. During the preparation of bread the evolution of carbon dioxide causes bread the evolution of carbon dioxide causes bread to rise (swell). CH(OH)COOK + NaHCO3 CH(OH)COOH Free CH(OH)COOK + CO2 + H2O CH(OH)COONa www.6 (c) Uses : (i) It is used in the manufacture of baking powder. (iii) It is used in manufacture of glass.5 (b) Uses : (i) It is used as cleansing agent for domestic purposes.

Bhopal Ph. The following diagram shows a fire extinguisher that uses NaHCI3 and H2SO4 to produce CO2 gas. CO2 gas is formed. (iv) It is also used in a particular type of fire extinguishers. which acts as an antacid. tanning. As soon as the acid comes in contact with the NaHCO3 solution.(ii) It is largely used in the treatment of acid spillage and in medicine as soda Director : SUHAG R. A glass ampoule (P) containing H2SO4 is attached to a knob (K) and placed inside the NaHCO3 solution. paper and ceramic industries. H2O www. CO2 gas rushes out through the nozzle (A). When enough pressure in built up inside the container. 313 K Ca(OH)32 (aq) + CI2(g)   → Ca(OCI)CI (s) + H2O(g) Slaked lime Bleaching powder Actually beaching powder is not a compound but a mixture of compounds : CaOCI2.tekoclasses. a small fire can be put out by pointing the nozzle towards the fire. KARIYA (SRK Sir).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 38 Free . Ca(OH)2. It is principally calcium oxychloride having the following formula : CI Ca OCI Bleaching powder is prepared by passing chlorine over slaked lime at 313 K. The gas is produced according to the following reaction. 2NaHCO3 (aq) + H3SO4 (aq)  → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O ( ) + 2CO2(g) Fire Extinguisher 6.7 BLEACHING POWDER : Bleaching powder is commercially called ‘chloride of lime or’ chlorinated lime’. The extinguisher consists of a conical metallic container (A) with a nozzle (Z) at one end. The ampoule can be broken by hitting the knob. CaCI2. Since CO2 does not support combustion. (iii) It is an important chemical in th textile. 4H2O. A strong solution of NaHCO3 is kept in the container.

cosmetic and casts of statues. These properties find a number of Director : SUHAG R. (ii) It is also used for disinfecting water to make water free from germs. 373 K 2(CaSO4. KARIYA (SRK Sir). 1 3 H 2O + H O 2 2 2 The temperature is carefully controlled.8 (b) Properties : (i) Action with water : When it 1 3 CaSO4. The properties of dehydrated gypsum are completely different from those of plaster of Paris. In the process.8 (c) Uses : When finely powered Plaster of Parries is mixed with water and made into a paste. 6. (iv) It is also used for making surfaces smooth and for making designs on walls and ceilings. it gets crystallized and forms gypsum CaSO4. 2H2O CaSO4. (ii) It is also used for making toys.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 39 . as at higher temperature gypsum is fully dehydrated . (iii) It is used as a cast for setting broken bones. (iv) It also find use in making moulds in pottery. its volume also increases slightly. Addition of water turns Plaster of Parries back into gypsum. or in a revolving furnace .8 PLASTER OF PARIS : 6. H2O + 3H2O Gypsum Plaster of Parries or CaSO4. Free www.2H2O 6. (iv) It is also used to make wool shrink-proof. 6.8 (a) Preparation : It is prepared by heating gypsum (CaSO4. (iii) It is used to prepare chloroform. it quickly sets into a hard mass.7 (a) Uses : (i) It is commonly used as a bleaching agent in paper and textile industries. Bhopal Ph.2H2O)  → (CaSO4)2. H O+ H O 2 2 2 2 is dissolved in water .tekoclasses. 2H2O) at about 373 k in large seel pots with mechanical stirrer . (i) It is used in the laboratories for sealing gaps where airtight arrangement is required.

Heat the tube from below. the molecules of water of crystallisation also account for their characteristic colours. In colourd crystalline and hydrated salts. Materials used in the manufacture of bleaching powder are (A) lime stone and chlorine (B) quick lime and chlorine (C) slaked lime and HCI (D) slaked lime and chlorine 3.6. Cool the tube and add a few droops of water again. KARIYA (SRK Sir).9 HYDRATED SATLS . hydrated copper sulphate in a dry test tube or boiling Director : SUHAG R. The salt will change to a white anhydrous powder and water droplet will appear on the walls of the tube. its colour changes since molecules of water of crystallisation are removed and the salt becomes anhydrous. A salt derived from strong acid and weak base will dissolve in water to give a solution which is (A) acidic (B) basic (C) neutral (D) none of these 2. 5H2O → CuSO4 + 5H2O Copper sulphate (Hydrated) Copper sulphate (Anhydrous) DAILY PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 6 OBJECTIVE DPP-6. Baking powder contains.e. upon heating of hydrated salt.1 1. Thus. ∆ CuSO4. For example.tekoclasses. The white anhydrous powder will again acquire blue colour. baking soda and(A) potassium hydrogen tartarate (C) sodium carbonate (B) calcium bicarbonate (D) vinegar 5. take a few crystals of blue vitriol i.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 40 . Bhopal Ph. These are known as hydrated salts and are of crystalline nature. Plaster of pairs is made from(A) lime stone (B) slaked lime (C) quick lime (D) gypsum Free www. Bleaching powder gives smell of chlorine because it(A) is unstable (C) gives chlorine on exposure to atmosphere (C) is mixture of chlorine and slaked lime (D) contains excess of chlorine 4.SALTS CONTAINING WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION: Certain salts contain definite amount of some H2O molecules loosely attached to their own molecules. The molecules of H2O present are known as ‘water of crystallisation’.

The chemical name of marble is (A) calcium carbonate (C) calcium chloride Washing soda has the formula (A) Na2 CO3.2 Director : SUHAG R.H2O (D) Na2CO3 10.(NH4)2CO3. 7H2O (B) Na2CO3. Also state one use in each case. Bhopal Ph. (i) Washing soda (ii) Baking soda (iii) Bleaching powder Explain why(i0 common salt becomes sticky during the rainy season ? (ii) blue vitriol changes to white upon heating ? (iii) anhydrous calcium chloride is used in desiccators ? (iv) if a bottle full of concentrated sulphuric acid is left open in the atmosphere by accident the acid starts flowing out of the bottle of its own ? 3. How will you prepare the following ? Give chemical reactions also. 10H2O (B) Magnesium carbonate (D) calcium sulphate 9.NaCI2Ca(OH)2 (C) NaCI2. NH3 (B) NH4Ci. The raw materials required for the manufacture of NaHCO3 by Solvay process are (A) CaCI2. Plaster of Paries hardens by(A) giving off CO2.6. (iii) Baking soda from brine.NH3CaCO3.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 41 . (ii) Bleaching powder from slaked lime. Free www. (NH4)2 CO3. Setting of plaster of Paris takes place due to(A) oxidation (B) reduction (C) dehydration (D) hydration 7.tekoclasses. 12. Give chemical names of the following compounds. 2. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Chemical formula of baking soda is(A) mGSO4 (B) Na2CO3 (C) NaHCO3 (D) MgCO3 8. (i) Plaster of Paris from Gypsum.H2O 11. (C) combining with water (B) changing into CaCO3. The difference in number of water molecules in gypsum and plaster of paris is(A) 5/2 (B) 2 (C) ½ (D) 3/2 SUBJECTIVE DPP-6.NH3 (D) NaCO. (D) giving out water. (C) Na2CO3.

Ans 1 B 2 A 3 C 4 B 5 D 6 A 7 D 8 A 9 D 10 A 11 B OBJECTIVE DPP. Bhopal Ph.ANSWERS OBJECTIVE DPP . KARIYA (SRK Sir).1 Ques.1 Ques.5. Ans 1 A 2 D 3 B 4 A 5 D 6 D 7 C 8 A 9 B 10 D 11 C 12 D Free www. Ans 1 D 2 A 3 B 4 B 5 D 6 D 7 B 8 C 9 A OBJECTIVE DPP -6.tekoclasses.4.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 42 .com Director : SUHAG R.1 Ques.

.. KARIYA (SRK Sir).. the metallic character decreases on going from left to right side in the periodic table. There are 22 non-metals.. Metals and non-metals are separated from each other in the periodic table by a zig-zag line. The elements close to zig-zag line show properties of both the metals and the non-metals. These are called metalloids. A majority of the known elements are metals. It may be noted that hydrogen (H) is an exception because it is non-metal but is placed on the left hand side of the periodic table. the non-metals are placed on the right hand side of the periodic table. out of which. which is a liquid metal. However. except Director : SUHAG R. The elements at the extreme left of the periodic table are most metallic and those on the right are least metallic or non-metallic. One the other hand.R C L . tellurium (Te) and polonium (Pi).tekoclasses.. Free www.2 POSITION OF METALS AND NON-METALS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE : The metals are placed on the left hand side and in the centre of the periodic table. This has been shown in the figure. one non-metal (bromine) is liquid and the remaining 11 non-metals are gases. 10 non-metals are solids. silicon (Si). The common examples of metalloids are boron (B). Bhopal Ph. All the metals are solids.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 43 .1 INTRODUCTION: There are 118 chemical elements known at present.. all these elements can be broadly divided into two main groups: Metals and Non-Metals. In general. on going down the group. One the basis of their properties.the support A S S E S METALS AND NON-METALS 7. 7. antimony (Sb). They show some properties of metals and some properties of non-metals. arsenic (As). the metallic character increases. germanium (Ge).

and therefore. Since silver is expensive. therefore. Gold and silver are the most ductile metals. Metals are also good conductors of electricity. Copper and aluminum are also very ductile. these can be drawn into this wires which are used in electrical wiring.1 etc. For example. they are used for making household utensil. silver and copper metals have metallic lustre.3 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF METALS AND NON-METALS : 7. other metals have 1 to 3 electron in their outermost shells. KARIYA (SRK Sir). (iv) Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity: All metals are good conductors of heat. (v) Metals are lustrous and can be polished: Most of the metals have shine and they can be polished. Aluminum and copper re also highly malleable metals. Among all the metals. It may be noted that hydrogen and helium are exception because hydrogen is a non-metal having only electron in the outermost shell (K shell) of its atom and helium is also a non-metal having 2 electron in the outermost shell (K shell). magnesium and aluminum are metals having 1. all the alkali metals have one electron in their outermost shells (lithium 2. sodium 2. Free www.) Sodium. Bhopal Ph. Copper and aluminum are the next best conductors of electricity. Mercury metal is also poor conductor of heat.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 44 .1: potassium 2. The shining appearance of metals is also known as metallic lustre.tekoclasses.2 and 3 electrons respectively in their valence shells. For example.3 (a) Electronic Configuration of Metals : The atoms of metals have 1 to 3 electrons in their outermost shells. (ii) Metals are malleable: metals are generally malleable. Gold and silver are among the best malleable metals. MERCURY is a liquid at room temperature.8. gold. Silver is the best conductor of heat. Similarly. SILVER is best conductor of heat and electricity.7. silver is the best conductor electricity. The electrical and thermal conductivities of metals are due to the presence of free electrons in them. Lead is the poorest conductor of heat. The conduction of heat is called thermal conductivity.3 (b) Physical Properties of Metals: The important physical properties of metals are discussed below: (i) Metals are solids at room temperature: All metals (except mercury) are solids at room temperature. Malleability means that the metals can be beaten with a hammer into very thin sheets without breaking. copper and aluminum are commonly used for making electric Director : SUHAG R. (iii) Metals are ductile : It means that metals can be drawn (stretched) into this wires. Copper and aluminum are also good conductors of heat and therefore. 7. 1.8.8.

(viii) Non-metals have low densities. an allotropic from of non-metal Carbon. No. 9) and Neon (At. lustrous and has very high melting point. is the hardest natural substance known). (vi) Non-metals are generally soft. 7).6. the smaller it its density.7. Sodium and potassium are common exceptions which are soft and can be easily cut with a knife. there are some exceptions.(vi) Metals have high densities : Most of the metals are heavy and have high densities. magnesium and aluminum have low densities.8 electrons in their outermost shells. But all metals are not equally hard.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 45 . (Exception: Graphite another allotropic form of Carbon. 7. Oxygen (At. 10) have respectively 4. They cannot be cut with a knife. or gases at room temperature. aluminum etc. liquid. KARIYA (SRK Sir). No. Bhopal Ph. has a melting point of about 37300C).8 ). the density of mercury metal if very high (13. (Exception: Graphite is a good conductor because of the presence of free electrons. (x) Metals are sonorous: Most of the metals are sonorous i. No. (vii) Non-metals have generally low melting and boiling points. Carbon (At. For example. Free www.3 (c) Electronic Configuration of Non-Metals : The atoms and non-metals have usually 4 to 8 electrons in their outermost shells.) (v) Non-metals may be solid. (ix) Metals are rigid : Most of the metals are rigid and they have high tensile strength. However. (ii) Non. Tungsten has highest melting point (34100C) among all the metals. Graphite is a good conductor of electricity. 7. -3 (vii) Metals are hard : Most of the metals are hard. (viii) Metals have high melting and boiling points : Most of the metals (except sodium and potassium) have high melting and boiling points.tekoclasses..metals are not ductile.6 g cm ). No6). The smaller the metal atom. No. they make sound when hit with an object. (Exception: Graphite and Iodine are lustrous nonmetals.5. Sodium. (iii) Non-metals are bad conductor of heat and electricity. Fluorine (At.3 (d) Physical Properties Of Non-Metals: The important physical properties of non-metals are listed below : (i) Non-metals are brittle. are quite hard. Densities of metals are generally proportional to their atomic masses. copper. Nitrogen ( Director : SUHAG R. For example. potassium.) (iv) Non-metals are not lustrous and cannot be polished. (Exception : Iodine has high density). Metals like iron.e. (Exception: Diamond.

the metal atoms can easily lose their outermost electrons to from positively charged ions. For example. 2Mg (s) + O2 (g) Heat  → 2 MgO(s) Thus. 8 ). The reactivity of oxygen depends upon the nature of the Director : SUHAG R. when a metal combines with oxygen. some react on on heating while still others react only on strong heating. Reactivity of metals with oxygen: All metals do not react with oxygen with equal ease. sodium oxide is a basic oxide. they give alkaline solutions. Some metals react with oxygen even at room temperature. KARIYA (SRK Sir). therefore. it gets stable electronic configuration of the noble gas (Ne : 2.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 46 .3 (e) Chemical Properties of Metals : The atoms of the metals have usually 1. heat is required for the reaction. Therefore. However. 8) Mg + 2e(2. For example.7. Some of the important chemical properties of metals are discussed below : (i) Reaction with oxygen : Metals react with oxygen to from oxides.tekoclasses. Therefore. 1) Mg (2. 8. 2) Al (2. the metals are called electropositive elements. Similarly. 8. Na2O(s) + H32O ( )  → 2NaOH(aq) Sodium hydroxide Due to the formation of sodium hydroxide (which is an alkali). After losing the outermost electron. 3) Na+ + e(2. These oxides are basic in nature. magnesium is a metal and it reacts with oxygen to form magnesium oxide. Bhopal Ph. the solution of sodium oxide in water turns red litmus blue (common property of all alkaline solutions). Na (2. 8. sodium metal reacts with oxygen of the air and form sodium oxide. Na+. magnesium can lose two outermost electron to from Mg2+ ions and aluminum can lose its three outermost electrons to from Al3+ ions. Free www. 2 or 3 electrons in their outermost shells. sodium metal can lose outermost one electron to form positively charged ions. magnesium is less reactive than sodium and therefore. These outermost electrons are loosely held by their nuclei. Similarly. 8) 2+ The metal atoms lose electrons and form positively charged ions. it loses its valence electrons and forms positively charged metal ions. ] 4 Na(s) + O2(g)  → 2 Na3O(s) Sodium oxide Sodium oxide reacts with water to form and alkali called sodium hydroxide. 8) Al3+ + 3e(2. We can say that oxidation of metal takes palace. When metal oxides are dissolved in water.

2 Na(s) + Sodium 2K (s) + Potassium 2H2O ( )  → 2NaOH(aq) Cold water Sodium hydroxide 2H2O ( )  → 2KOH (aq) Potassium hydroxide + H2(g) Hydrogen H2 (g) Hydrogen + The reaction between sodium and water is so violent that the hydrogen evolved catches fire. Some metals react even with cold water. Bhopal Ph.tekoclasses. For example. 3Fe(s) + Iron 2 Cu(s) + Copper Heat 2O2(g)  → Oxygen Heat O2(g)  → Oxygen Fe3O4(s) Iron (II.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 47 . 2Mg(s) + Magnesium 2 Zn(s) + Zinc Heat O2(g)  → Oxygen 2MgO(s) Magnesium oxide 2 ZnO(s) Zinc oxide O2(g) Oxygen Heat  → (C) Metals like iron and copper do not burn in air even on strong heating. III) oxide 2CuO(s) Copper (II) oxide (ii) Reaction with water : Metals react with water to form metal oxide or metals hydroxide and hydrogen. Ca (s) + Calcium 2H2O ( ) Cold water  → Ca (OH)2 (aq) + H2(g) calcium hydroxide (C) Magnesium reacts very slowly with cold water but reacts rapidly with hot boiling water forming magnesium oxide and hydrogen. KARIYA (SRK Sir). 4Na(s) + O2(g)  2 Na2O(s) → Sodium Oxygen Sodium oxide 4K (s) + O2(g)  2K2O(s) → Potassium 2Ca(s) + Calcium Oxygen O2(g)  → Oxygen Potassium oxide 2 CaO(s) Calcium oxide (B) Metals like magnesium and zinc do not react with oxygen at room temperature. The reactivity of metals towards water depends upon the nature of the metals. some react with water only on heating while there are some metals do not react even with steam. They burn in air only on strong heating to from corresponding oxides. Mg (s) + H2O ( ) H2(g)  → MgO(s) + Magnesium Boiling Magnesium water oxide Free www. (A) Sodium and potassium metals react vigorously with cold water to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is liberated. (B) Calcium reacts with cold water to form calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The reaction is less Director : SUHAG R. they react with oxygen only on prolonged heating. However. potassium and calcium react with oxygen even at room temperature to form their oxides.For example : (A) Metals like sodium.

but does not produce hydrogen. silver and gold do not react with water even under strong conditions. H2SO4. Only less reactive metals such as copper.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 48 . they give metal sulphates and hydrogen. gold etc. The reactions occurs only when steam is passed over red hot iron and the products are iron (II.(D) Metals like zinc and aluminum react only with steam to form their corresponding oxides oxide hydrogen.tekoclasses. III) oxide and hydrogen. silver. 2Na(s) Sodium + 2HCI (aq) Hydrochloric acid + H2SO4(aq) Sulphuric acid  → 2NaCI(aq) Sodium chloride  → Na2SO4(aq) Sodium sulphate + H2(g) Hydrogen 2Na(s) Sodium + H2(g) Hydrogen Similarly. The reactions of metals with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCI) and dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) are similar. With dil. For example: (A) Sodium.III) oxide + 4H2(g) Hydrogen (F) Metals like copper. they given metal chlorides and hydrogen whereas with dil. Mg (s) Magnesium + 2HCI (aq) Hydrochloric acid H2SO4(aq) Sulphuric acid acid  → MgCI2(aq) Magnesium chloride  → MgSO4 (aq) Magnesium sulpahte + H2(g) Hydrogen Mg(s) Magnesium + + H2(g) Hydrogen Free www. 3Fe(s) + Iron (Red hot) 4H2O(g) Steam  → Fe3O4(s) Iron (II. Bhopal Ph. The order of reactivities of different metals with water is : Na > Mg > Zn > Fe > Cu Reactivety with water decreases (iii) Reaction with dilute acids : Many metals react with dilute acids and liberate hydrogen gas. magnesium and calcium react violently with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCI) or dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) liberating hydrogen gas and corresponding metal salt. Zn(s) Zinc 2AI (s) + Aluminum + H2O(g)  → Steam 3H2O(g)  → Steam ZnO(s) Zinc oxide AI2O3 (s) + Aluminum oxide 3H2(g) + H2(g) (E) Iron metal does not react with water under ordinary conditions. do into liberate hydrogen from dilute acids. HCI. Dilute nitric acid (HNO3) is an oxidising agent which oxidises Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir). The reactivity of different metals is different with the same acid.

Thus. Fe(s) Iron + 2HCI(aq) Hydrochloric acid + H2SO4(aq) Sulphuric acid +  → FeCI2(aq) Ferrous chloride H2(g) Hydrogen Fe(s) Iron +  → FeSO4(aq) Ferrous sulphate H2(g) Hydrogen (C) Copper does not react with dill. gold and platinum are less reactive than copper. we will take a solution of copper sulphate (blue coloured solution) and put a strip of zinc metal in the solution. However. 2AI (s) Aluminum + 6HCI (aq) Sulphuric acid  → 2AICI3(aq) Aluminum sulphate + 3H2(g) Hydrogen (B) Iron react slowly with dilute HCI or dil. It is observed that the blue colour of copper sulphate fades gradually and copper metals are deposited on the zinc strip. it is less reactive than zinc and aluminum.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 49 . Bhopal Ph. if we put gold or platinum strip in the copper sulphate solution. zinc displaces copper from its salt solution. Free www. Cu(s) + HCI (aq) Cu(s) + H2SO4(aq)  → No reaction  → No reaction Therefore copper is even less reactive that iron. However. (iv) Reactions of metals with salt solutions: When a more reactive metals is placed in a salt solution of less reactive metal. HCI or dill H2SO4. if we take zinc sulphate solution and put a string of copper metal in this solution. then copper is not displaced by gold or platinum. Thus. H2SO4 and therefore.Zn(s) Zinc + 2HCI(aq) Hydrochloric acid H2SO4(aq) Sulphuric acid  → ZnCI2(aq) Zinc chloride  → ZnSO4(aq) Zinc sulphate + H2(g) Hydrogen Zn(s) Zinc + + H2(g) Hydrogen Similarly. then the more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal from its salt solution. ZnSO4(aq) Zinc sulphate + Cu(s) Copper  → No reaction This means that copper cannot displace zinc metal from its solution. The order of reactivity of different metals with dilute acid: Na > Mg > AI > Zn > Fe > Cu Reactivity with dill acids decreases from sodium to copper. KARIYA (SRK Sir). no reaction occurs.tekoclasses. we can conclude that zinc is more reactive than Director : SUHAG R. For example. this means that the following reaction occurs : Zn(s) Zinc + CuSO4 (aq) Copper sulphate (Blue solution) +  → ZnSO4(aq) Zinc sulphate (Colourless solution) Cu(s) Copper Here.

more active than hydrogen) like zinc.4 (a) Introduction: We have learnt that some metals are chemically very reactive while others are less reactive or do not react at all. the basis of reactivity is the tendency of metals to lose electrons. it will be a reactive metal. it will react slowly with the other substances. the H+ ions in the acids will accept electrons and give hydrogen gas as : Free www. The activity series of some common metals is given in Table. therefore.4 (c) Displacement of Hydrogen from Acids by Metals : All metals above hydrogen in the reactivity series (i. 7.4 REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS: 7.4 (b) Reasons for Different Reactivities: In the activity series of metals.e. For example. such a metal will be less reactive. it will react readily with other Director : SUHAG R. Therefore. On the basis of reactivity of different metals with oxygen. they are very reactive. Bhopal Ph. KARIYA (SRK Sir). If a metals can lose electrons easily to form positive ions. alkali metals such as sodium and potassium lose electrons very readily to from alkali metal ions. On the other hand.tekoclasses. The arrangement of metals in order of decreasing reactivities is called reactivity series or activity series of metals. water acids as well as displacement reactions. Therefore. the metals have been arranged in the decreasing order of their reactivities. nickel can liberate hydrogen from acids like HCI and H2SO4. As we go down the series the chemical reactivity of metals decreases. In this table. Therefore. magnesium. REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS Lithium Potassium Barium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Li K Ba Na Ca Most reactive metal Metals more reactive than hydrogen Reactivity decreae s s Mg Al Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb Reactivity increae s s Zinc Iron Nickel Tin Lead Hydrogen H Cu Hg Ag Au Pt Least reactive metal Metals less reactive than hydrogen Copper Mercury Silver Gold Platinum 7. if a metal loses electrons less rapidly to form a positive ion.7. the most reactive metal is placed at the top whereas the least reactive metal is placed at the bottom. These metals have greater tendency to lose electrons than hydrogen.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 50 .

Therefore.e. zinc. (A) less (C) equal 2.M Metals H+ (aq) + e(From acid) H +H  → M+ (aQ) + e → H  → H2 ↑ The metals which are below hydrogen in the reactivity series (i. gold cannot liberate hydrogen form acids like Director : SUHAG R. they normally occur free in nature. For example. (B) more (D) sometimes more sometimes less Free www.4 (e) Usefulness of Activity Series: The activity series is very useful and it gives the following information: (i) The metal which is higher in the activity series is more reactive than the other. (iv) A more reactive metal (placed higher in the activity series) can displace the less reactive metal from its solution. 7. KARIYA (SRK Sir). they cannot lose electrons to H+ ions. displaces copper form its solution. they do not occur free in nature. therefore. Bhopal Ph. Lithium is the most reactive and platinum is the least reactive. These metals have lesser tendency to lose electrons than hydrogen. H2SO4 etc. (D) A & C both 3. silver.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 51 .tekoclasses. present in the reactivity series is found in Free State in nature. Which of the following properties is not a characteristic of metals ? (A) Metallic lusture (B) High density (C) Hardness (D) Low melting and boiling point Which of the following metals generally occur in liquid sate ? (A) Mercury (B) Bromine (C) Gallium Reactivity of zinc is______ than hydrogen. gold. For example. (v) Metals at the top of the series are very reactive and. In general. Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq)  → ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu(s) 7. DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLESM # 7 OBJECTIVE DPP -7. The metals at the bottom of the series are least reactive and.1 1. (ii) The metals which have been placed above hydrogen are more reactive than hydrogen and these can displace hydrogen from its compounds like water and acids to liberate hydrogen gas.4 (d) Reactivity Series and Displacement Reactions : The reactivity series can also explain displacement reactions. a more reactive metal (placed higher in the activity series) can displace the less reactive metal from its solution. therefore. (iii) The metals which are placed below hydrogen are less reactive than hydrogen and these cannot displace hydrogen from its compounds like water and acids. les reactive than hydrogen) like copper.

4. Identify the most reactive and least reactive metal from the following Hg. Ag. Cu and Fe in the decreasing order of reactivity. Name a gas which is always produced when a reactive metal reacts with a dulute acid. 3 (D) H2. there is no evolution of gas. In above equation A & x are (A) H2. Fe (A) Na > K > AI > Cu > Ag > Fe (B) K > Na > AI > Cu > Fe > Ag (C) K > Na > AI > Fe > Cu > Ag (D) K > Na > AI > Fe > Ag > Cu When a metal is added to dilute HCI solution. 8. Cu. 4 (D) All of these 5. Metals if (A) K (B) Na (C) Ag (D) Zn On addition of which metal.7. Which of the following metals reacts vigorously with oxygen? (A) Zinc (B) Magnesium (C) Sodium (D) Copper SUBJECTVE DPP . Free www. 5. then the product formed will be(A) Na2O (B) NaOH (C) Na2CO3 6. 4. 1 (C) H2. 7. What is the decreasing order of reactivity of following metals ? Director : SUHAG R. Ag. 2 (B) CI2. AI. Write a chemical equation supporting your answer. What would you observe when you put : (i) some zinc pieces in the blue copper sulphate solution ? (ii) some copper pieces in green ferrous sulphate solution ? 3. Name two metals which occur in nature in the free state. (C) ZnO2 & O2 (D) ZnO & H2 10.2 1. 2. Mg. Al. copper sulphate solution (Blue colour) will be changed to colourless solution > (A) Fe (B) Ag (C) Zn (D) Hg Zn + H2O (Steam)  → A + B In the above equation (A) and (B) are (A) Zn & H3 (B) ZnH2 & O2 7. Describe the physical properties of metals > Write the chemical equation of chemical reaction of zinc metal with the following (a) H2SO4 (b) H2O (c) O2 What is an activity series of metals ? Arrange the metals Zn. Bhopal Ph. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Fe. When sodium reacts with cold water. Na.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 52 . 6.tekoclasses. Zn + xHCI  → ZnCI2 + Z. 9.

So..R C L . Noble gases do not usually from bonds with other elements. Examples of elements whose atoms have fully filled or 8 e. They do not usually form bonds with other elements. Free www..N. According to actet rule “an atom whose outermost shell contains 8 electrons (octet) is Director : SUHAG R. of valence electrons 8 8 8 Neon Argon Krypton Ne Ar Kr All noble gases contain 8 valence electrons (except He in which 2 valence electrons are present) and are stable. An atom can achieve the inert gas electron arrangement in three ways - (i) by losing one or more electrons .” This rule. (iii) by sharing one or more electrons. KARIYA (SRK Sir).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 53 . Bhopal Ph.. atoms of elements have the tendency to combine with one another to achieve the inert gas configuration. because they are their outermost shell are – Element Symbol Atomic Number 10 18 36 Electronic configuration 2. Atoms combine with one another to achieve the inert gas electron arrangement and become stable.8 2..8. however. (ii) by gaining one or more electrons. Atoms from chemical bonds to achieve stability by acquiring the inert gas configuration or by completing their octet or duplet (in case of small atoms) in outermost shell.8 2.Kossel in 1916.8.the support A S S E S METALS AND NON-METALS 8..8 No.1 HOW METALS REACT WITH NON-METALS : Octet Rule : Octet rule was given by G. Lewis and W. does not hold good in case of certain small atoms like helium (He) in which presence of 2 electrons (duplet) in the outermost shell in considered to be the condition of stability.tekoclasses.18.

Bhopal Ph. a chemical bond is produced between the ions. while the electronegative atom gains the electron to become negatively charged.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 54 . Example : Sodium chloride compound.8. Two or more than two types of atoms mutually combine with each other to achieve stable configuration of eight valence electrons. 1) (2. When in gross electronic configuration of the elements there are 8 electrons present then these elements do not take part in the chemical reaction because atoms containing 8 electrons in their outermost shell are associated with extra stability and less energy.2 CONCEPT OF IONIC BOND : Except the elements of group 18 of the periodic table all the elements for the remaining group. Atoms with other electronic configuration. When an atom of electropositive element come in contact with that of an electronegative element then the electropositive atom loses electron & becomes positively charged. Sodium atom (Electropositive element) by losing an electron from its outermost orbit. gets converted into a cation and attains noble gas like stable configuration. As a result. are unstable and to achieve the stability they chemically combine in such a manner that they achieve eight electrons in their outermost shell. These elements from stable compounds either by combining with the other atoms or with their own atoms. which is known as Ionic or Electrovalent compound. Number of electrons donated or accepted by any element is called Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir). are not stable in independent state. 8. Electrostatic force of attractions works between the positively and negatively charged ions due to which both ions are bonded with each other. Electropositive elements lose electrons in chemical reaction and electronegative elements gain electrons in chemical reaction. 8. Energy required for this process is called “ionization potential. at normal temperature and pressure.tekoclasses.3 IONIC OR ELECTROVALENT BOND: This bond is formed by the atoms of electropositive and electronegative elements. Attempt to achieve eight electrons in the outermost orbit of a element is the reason behind its chemical reactivity or chemical bonding. which do not contain eight electrons in their outermost shell.” Na + IE  → Na + + e − (2. 8) X Free www. In an ionic compound every cation is surrounded by a fixed number of anions and every anion is surrounded by a fixed number of cations and they are bonded in a fixed geometry in a three dimensional structure.

tekoclasses.3 (a) Properties of Ionic Compounds: (i) Ionic compounds consist of ions: All ionic compounds consist of positively and negatively charged ions and not molecules. Such a regular arrangements is called crystal lattice.but due to uniform electric field around and ion. they are bonded by electrostatic force of attraction to from NaCI compound. For example. Bhopal Ph. Lattice structure of Sodium chloride Free www. (ii) Physical nature : Ionic compounds are solid and relatively hard due to strong electrostatic force of attraction between the ions of ionic compound. it is necessary that the ionization potential of electropositive element should be less and the electron affinity of electronegative element should be high. 7) (2. sodium chloride consists of Na+ and CI. This is due to the fact that the forces of attraction are not restricted to single unit such as Na+ and CI. For example. For the formation of ionic bond. KARIYA (SRK Sir). there is a regular arrangement of these ions in three dimensions as shown in diagram. the CI.ion but it can attract as many negative charges as it an. 8.” (2. Na+ + CI. Similarly.Chlorine atom (Electronegative element) accepts the electron donated by sodium atom in its outermost orbit and forms chloride anion.ions. 8. In this process energy is released which is known as “electron affinity. 8) Due to the opposite charges on the Na+ and CI. each ion is attracted to a large number of other ions.ions.ion will attract several Na.ions and so on. → [Na]+ [CI] or NaCI Here electrovalent of sodium and chlorine atom is one. 8. (iii) Crystal structure : X-ray studies have shown that ionic compounds do not exist as simple single molecules as Na+CI-. magnesium 2+ fluoride consists of Mg and Director : SUHAG R.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 55 . As a result. one Na+ ion will not attract only one CI.ions.

crystals of compounds are broken. such substances are known as brittle and this property is known as brittleness. (B) two electronegative elements.1 1. (C) N (D) He 3. BRITTLE NATURE OF IONIC COMPOUNDS (vii) Electrical conductivity : Electrical conductivity in any substance is due to the movement of free electrons of ions. Ionic bond is formed between (A) two electropositive elements. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Bhopal Ph. (C) Electropositive & electronegative elements. (B) gain of electrons only. But in the solid state due to strong electrostatic force of attraction free ions are absent so they are insulator in the solid state. Director : SUHAG R. DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLEMS # 8 OBJECTIVE DPP . layers of ions slide over one another and particles of the same charge come near to each other as a result due to the strong repulsion force. As ionic compound exhibits electrical conductivity due to the movement of ions either in the fused state or in the soluble state in the polar solvent. To break the crystal lattice more energy is required so their melting points and boiling points are high. In metals electrical conductivity is due to the free movement of valency electrons. (D) None of these (C) Lewis & Kossel (D) None of these 2. Octet rule was given by (A) Rutherford (B) Soddy Exception of octet rule is (A) K (B) Ca Ionic bond is formed by (A) loss of electrons only. Free www.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 56 . (D) sharing of electrons.(iv) Melting point and boiling point : Strong electrostatic force of attraction if present between ions of opposite charges. ether alcohol etc.8. (vi) Brittle nature: Ionic compounds on applying external force or pressure are broken into small pieces. (v) Solubility : Ionic compounds are generally soluble in polar solvents like water and insoluble in no polar solvents like carbon tetrachloride.tekoclasses. benzene. (C) loss and gain of electrons both. When external force is applied on the ionic compound.

(C) low melting and low boiling points. 6. (D) None of these Ionic compound have (A) low melting and high boiling points. SUBJECTIVE DPP . 3. (D) Do not conduct electricity at all.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 57 . Explain the brittle nature of ionic compounds. (C) there is force of attraction between positive & negative Director : SUHAG R. 8. (D) none of these. cation is formed by(A) gain of electron (s). (B) there is force of repulsion between two positive ions.8. (D) high melting and high boiling points. (C) sharing of electron(s). Ionic compounds conduct electricity in(A) solid state (C) gaseous state. Ionic compounds are soluble in(A) water (B) benzene (B) fused state. Define octet rule. KARIYA (SRK Sir). 5. 4.tekoclasses. Physical nature of most of the ionic compounds is(A) solid (B) liquid (C) gas (D) May exist in any state. 9. Why ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points ? Why ionic compounds show electrical conductivity is fused or soluble state ? Free www. In the formation of ionic bond. (C) ether (D) alcohol 10. (B) loss of electron(s). Define electrovalency. (B) high melting and low boiling points.5. 2.2 1. Bhopal Ph. 7. During formation of ionic bond (A) there is force of repulsion between two negative ions.

Oxygen is the most abundant element on earth’s crust. is called an ore..O3. 2SiO2.g. These have no tendency to react with oxygen and are not attacked by moisture. aluminum can be conveniently and profitably extracted from bauxite.. gold and platinum are some examples of such metals. The impurities associated with minerals are collectively known as gangue or matrix. Copper and silver are metals which occur in the free state as well as in the combined state. bauxite (AI2.1 (a) Native and Combined State of Metals : Metals occur in the crust of earth in the following two states - (i) Native state of free state: A metal is said to occur in a free or a native state when it is found in the crust of the earth in the elementary or uncombined form. Free www. (ii) Combines state : A metal is said to occur in a combined state if it is found in nature in the form of its compounds. The mineral from which the metal can be conveniently and profitably extracted.. So. The second most abundant metal is iron and thier one is calcium. Out of these two. carbon dioxide of air or other no-metals. copper. magnesium etc.2 MINERALS AND ORES : The natural substances in which metals or their compounds occur either in native state or combined state are called minerals. Bhopal Ph.the support A S S E S METALS AND NON-METALS 9. Silver. Sodium. 2H2O).. bauxite is an are of aluminum.R C L . The metals which are very uncreative (lying at the bottom of activity series) are found in the free stae. e. KARIYA (SRK Sir).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 58 . For example. 9. 9. The minerals are not pure and contain different types of other impurities. Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust. 2H2O) and caly (AI2O3.. aluminum occurs in the earth’s crust in the form of two Director : SUHAG R.tekoclasses.1 OCCURRENCE OF METALS : All metals are present in the earth’s crust either in the free state or in the form of their compounds.

etc. In other words. halides..7H2O BaSO4 PbSO4 Sulphide ores Carbonate ores Halide ores Sulphate ores 9. earthy particles. etc. sulphides.g. platinum etc.tekoclasses. 6H2O CaF2 AgCI CSO4 2H2O MgSO4. SOME COMMON ORES ARE LISTED IN THE TABLE Nature Oxide ores Metal Aluminum Copper Iron Copper Zinc Lead Mercury Calcium Zinc Sodium Magnesium Calcium Silver Calcium Magnesium Barium Lead Name of the ore Bauxite Cuprite Magnetite Heamatite Copper pyrites Copper glance Zinc blende Galena Cinnabar Limestone Calamine Rock salt Carnallite Fluors par Horn silver Gypsum Epsom salt Barytes Anglesite Composition AI2O3.. Director : SUHAG R.). The ores generally contain unwanted impurities such as sand. subparts. there is not a single method for the extraction of all metals. limestone.. Bhopal Ph. AO2O3 etc. CuS.) occur in elemental form or Free State. Therefore.2H2O Cu2O Fe3O4 Fe2O3 CuFeS2 Cu2S Zns PbS HgS CaCO3 ZnCO3 NaCI KCI.3 METALLURGY: The process of extracting pure metals from their ores and then refining them for use is called metallurgy. The process of metallurgy depends upon the nature of the ore. KARIYA (SRK Sir).9. mica. the process of metallurgy involves extraction of metals from their ores and then refining them from use. Various steps involved in metallurgical processes are (a) Crushing and grinding of the ore. stone. sulphates.) (iii) Most reactive metals occur as salts as carbonates. MgCI2. most of the metals can e extracted by a general procedure which involves the following steps. (b) Concentration of the ore or enrichment of the ore. (c) Extraction of metal from the concentrated ore. halides etc. Pbs etc. nature of the metals and they types of impurities present. these are called gangue or matrix. very uncreative metals (such as gold. (d) Refining or purification of the impure metal. However.2 (a) Types of Ores : The most common ores of metals are oxides. Free www. (i) Metals which are only slightly reactive occur as sulphides (e. carbonates. In general.g. (ii) Reactive metals occur as oxides (e. silver.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 59 .

They are broken into small pieces with the help of crusher. 9. (ii) Front floatation process: Principle: this method is based on the principle of difference in the wetting properties of the ore and gangue particles with water and oil. zinc. Director : SUHAG R.tekoclasses.These steps are briefly discussed below - 9. The froth floatation process if commonly used for the sulphide ores copper. These pieces are then reduced to fine powder with the help of a ball mill or a stamp mill. 6H2O (D) KCI. tin and lead are very heady and. This method is commonly used for sulphide ores. MgCI2 (B) KCI.3 (a) Crushing and Grinding of Ore : Most of the ores occur as big rocks in nature. lead etc. therefore. Carnallite is (A) KCI.9. MgCI2. (iii) Magnetic separation : Principle: This method depends upon the difference in the magnetic properties of the ores and gangue. Horn silver is a/an (A) sulphate ore (B) halide ore (C) sulphide ore (D) oxide ore 3.1 1. they are concentrated by this method. This method is used for the concentration of heamatite. 3H2O (C) KCI. H2O Free www. (i) Hydraulic washing (washing with water) : Principle: This method is based upon the difference in the densities of the ore particles and the impurities (gangue). MgCI2. an ore of iron. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Which of the following is/are oxide ore(s) ? (A) Bauxite (B) Cuprite (C) Haematite (D) All of these 2.3 (b) Concentration of Ore or Enrichment of Ore : The process of removal of unwanted impurities (gangue) from the ore is called ore concentration or ore enrichment. DIALY PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 9 OBJECTIVE DPP .:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 60 . Bhopal Ph. Ores of iron.

c(iii). Removal of impurities from ore is known as (A) crushing and grinding (C) minerals Column B (Nature of ore) (i) Sulpahte ore (ii) Halide ore (iii) Sulphide ore (iv) Carbonate ore (B) a(iv). c(iii). c(ii). b(i). 3. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Which of the following is most abundant metal on the earth’s crust ? (A) Iron (B) Aluminum (C) Calcium (D) Oxygen 10.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 61 .4. (D) halide ores 8. Bhopal Ph. b(ii). What is gangue ? 4. b(ii). Which of the following metal is found in native state ? (A) Sodium (B) Zinc (C) Gold (D) Iron SUBJECTIVE DPP. Match column A with column B and select the correct option - Column A (Ore) (a) Copper glance (b) Calamine (c) Rock salt (d) Epsom salt (A) a(i).tekoclasses. Which of the following methods is used in the concentration of haematite ore ? (A) Hydraulic washing (B) Magnetic separation (C) Froth floatation process (D) None of these Forth floatation method is used for the concentration of (A) oxide ores (B) sulphide ores (C) sulphate ores 7. d(iv) (C) a(iii).2 Director : SUHAG R. d(i) 5. Give chemical compositions of the following ores (i) bauxite (ii) gypsum (iii) galena (iv) rock salt Free www. Which of the following methods is based on the principle of the difference in the wetting properties of the ore and gangue particles with water and oil ? (A) Magnetic separation (B) Front floatation process (C) Hydraulic washing (D) None of these 9. b(iv). d(i) (D) a(iv).9. 2. Explain the difference between ores and minerals ? Comment on native and combined states of metals. Which process is used for the enrichment of (i) sulphide ores (ii) oxide ore 5. d(iii) (B) concentration of ore (D) gangue 6. c(ii).

moisture is removed volatile impurities are removed. to remove water from the hydrated ores.tekoclasses.R C L . In this process. This process is used for converting sulphide ores to metal oxide. Bhopal Ph.. For example Calcination ZnCO3(s)   → ZnO(s) + CO2(g) carbon dioxide CO2(g) Carbon dioxide Zinc carbonate Zinc oxide Calcination FeCO3(s)   → FeO(s) + Siderite Iron (I) oxide (ii) Roasting : It is the process of heating the concentrated ore strongly in the presence of excess air. This can be usually done by two processes known as calcination and roasting process... (b) Conversion of oxide to metal y reduction process 10. KARIYA (SRK Sir). the following changes take place : the sulphide ores undergo oxidation to their oxides.1 EXTRACTION OF THE METAL FROM THE CONCENTRATED ORE : The metal is extracted from the concentrated ore by the following steps : (a) Conversion of the concentrated ore into its oxide : The production of metal from the concentrated ore mainly involves reduction process.the support A S S E S METALS AND NON-METALS 10. For example : 2ZnS + 3O2 Roasting   → 2ZnO(s) Zinc oxide + 2SO2(g) Sulphur Zing (Zinc blende ore) 4FeS2(s) Iron pyrites + Oxygen (From air) Roasting 1102(g)  → Oxygen 2Fe2O3(s) Ferric oxide + 8SO2(g) Sulphur Dioxide Free www.1 (a) Conversion of Ore into Metal Oxide : These are briefly discussed below : (i) Calcination : It is the process of heating the concentrated ore in the absence of Director : SUHAG R... The method depends upon the nature of the ore. The calcination process is used for the following changes : to convert carbonate ores into metal oxide.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 62 .. to remove volatile impurities from the ore.

zinc. aluminum. tin. The metals can be grouped into the following three categories on the basis for their reactivity: Metals of low reactivity. 10. (A) Reduction with carbon : The oxides of moderately reactive metals (occurring in the meddle of reactivity series) like zinc. copper etc. These different categories of metals are extracted by different technique. lead etc. sodium or calcium. copper. The oxides of these metals cannot be reduced by heating alone.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 63 .tekoclasses. 2HgS(s) Mercuric sulphide 2HgO(s) Mercuric oxide + Roasting 3O2(g)  → 2HgO(s) Mercuric oxide + 2SO2(g) Sulphur dioxide Oxygen Roasting  → 2Hg ( ) + Mercury metal O2(g) Oxygen (ii) Chemical Reduction (For metals in the middle of the reactivity series): The metals n the middle of the reactivity series. can be reduced by using carbon as reducing agent. AnO(s) Zinc oxide + Heat C(s)  → Carbon (Reducing agent) Zn (s) + Zinc metal CO(g) Carbon monoxide Free www. lead. these metal oxides are reduced to free metal by using chemical agents like carbon. The method used for reduction of metal oxide depends upon the nature and chemical reactivity of metal.1 (b) Conversion of Metal Oxide to Metal: The metal oxide formed after calcination or roasting is converted into metal by reduction. are moderately reactive. Therefore. before reduction the metal sulphides and carbonates must be converted to oxides. This is done by roasting and calcination. Metals of high reactivity. Therefore. such as iron.Calcination is used for hydrated and carbonate ores and roasting is used for sulphide ores. KARIYA (SRK Sir). They can be obtained from their oxides by simple heating in air. the different steps involved in separation are as follows : (i) Reduction by heating : Metals placed low in the reactivity series are very less reactive. These are usually present as sulphides or carbonates. Bhopal Ph. Metals of medium Director : SUHAG R. nickel.

3MnO2 (s) Manganese dioxide Cr2O3(s) Chromium oxide + + 4AI(s) Aluminum Heat  → 3Mn(s) + Manganese oxide 2AI2O3(s) Aluminum 2AI (s) Aluminum Heat  → 2Cr (s) + Chromium AI2O3 (s) Aluminum oxide Reduction of metals oxides with aluminum is known as aluminothermy or thermite process. These metals are commonly extracted by the electrolysis of their fused salts using suitable electrodes. Free www.e. This is also called electrolytic reduction i. The process of extraction of metals by electrolysis process is called electrometallurgy.Fe2O3(s) Ferric oxide + 3C(s) Carbon  → 2Fe(s) + Iron Metal monoxide Pb(s) + Lead metal monoxide 3CO(g) Carbon PbO(s) Lead oxide + C(s) Carbon  → CO(g) Carbon One disadvantage of using carbon as reducing agent is that small traces of carbon are added to metal as impurity. Bhopal Ph. aluminum oxide is very stable and aluminum cannot be prepared by reduction with carbon. reduction by electrolysis. (iii) Reduction of electrolysis or electrolytic reduction : The oxide of active metals (which are high up in the activity series) are very stable and cannot be reduced by carbon or aluminum. For example. It is prepared by the electrolysis of molten alumina (AI2O3).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 64 . Therefore. the metals are always obtained at the cathode (negative electrode). Heat Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)  → Ferric oxide Carbon monoxide Iron dioxide Carbon (C) Reduction with aluminum : Certain metal oxides are reduced by aluminum to metals. it contaminates the Director : SUHAG R. (B) Reduction with carbon monoxide: Metals can be obtained from oxides by reduction with carbon monoxide in the furnace. Coke is very commonly used as a reducing agent because it is cheap.tekoclasses. AI3+ + Aluminum ion (From molten alumina) Heat 3e → Electron (From cathode) AI Aluminum (At cathode) It may be noted that during electrolytic reduction of molten salts. KARIYA (SRK Sir).

Zone refining and Van Arkel method are used for obtaining metals (Si. tin. An aqueous solution of some salt of the metal is used as an electrolyte.) of very high purity for certain specific applications. the crude metal is cast into thick rods and are made as anodes. are refined electrolytically. silver. This is based on the principle that the metal to be refined is easily fusible (melt easily (but the impurities do not fuse easily.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 65 . In this way. Many metals such as copper. KARIYA (SRK Sir). such as tin. The process of purifying the crude metal is called refining. 10. while the thin sheets of pure metal are made as cathodes. the pure metal from the anode dissolves into the electrolyte.10. On passing current through the electrolyte. Free www.2 (b) Distillation: This method is used for the purification of volatile metals (which form vapours readily) such as mercury and Director : SUHAG R.tekoclasses.2 (a) Liquation : This method is use for refining the metals having low melting points. the pure metal from anode goes into electrolyte and from electrolyte it goes to the cathode. Bhopal Ph. gold etc. At anode : +2 Oxidation Cu    → Cu + 2eCopper ( from impure anode) At cathode : Cu + 2eCopper ion 2+ Re duction CU    → Copper ( deposited at cathode) In electrolytic refining impure metal is made anode and pure metal is made cathode. It is based upon the phenomenon of electrolysis. Ge etc. lead. 10. The soluble impurities go in the solution whereas the insoluble impurities settle down at the bottom of the node and are known as anode mud. zinc.2 PURIFICATION OR REFINING OF METALS : The metal obtained any of the above methods is usually impure and is known as crude metal. In this method.2 (c) Electrolytic Refining : This is most general and widely used method for the refining of impure metals. nickel. 10. bismuth etc. An equivalent amount of pure metal from the electrolyte is deposited on the cathode.

Heating of concentrated ore in absence of air for conversion in oxide ore in known as (A) roasting (B) calcination (C) reduction (D) none of these


Process of roasting and calcination takes place in(A) bessemer converter. (B) blast furnace. (C) reverberatory furnace. (D) electrolytic cell.


Which reducing agent is used in chemical reduction ? (A) C (B) CO (C) AI Which of the following is used in reduction of alumina ? (A) Coke (B) Carbon monoxide (C) Aluminum

(D) All of these


(D) Electricity


For purification of which metal, liquation method is used ? (A) Tin (B) Lead (C) Bismuth

(D) All of these


Which method is used in purification of mercury ? (A) Liquation (B) Distillation (C) Electrolytic refining (D) Chemical reduction Which of the following methods is used for obtaining metals of very high purity ? (A) Distillation (B) Zone refining (C) Liquation (D) Electrolytic refining



Which of the following methods is not used in purification of metals ? (A) Calcination (B)Liquation (C) Distillation Anode mud is obtained in which process? (A) Roasting (B) Zone refining In thermite process reducing agent is (A) C (B) CI

(D) None of these


(C) Electrolytic refining (D) Calcination


(C) AI

(D) None of these

2. 3. 4. 5.

Describe methods of extraction of the metal from the concentrated ore ? Define calcination. Name a method for obtaining metals of very high purity. Which method is used for refining of volatile metals ? Name the products obtained when (i) zinc sulphide is roasted (ii) lime stone is calcined Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 66




.......the support





Surface of many metals is easily attacked when exposed to atmosphere. The react with air or water present in the environment and form undesirable compounds on their surface. These undesirable compounds are generally oxides. Thus, corrosion is a process of deterioration of metal as a result of its reaction with air or water (present in environment) surrounding it.

11.1 (a) Corrosion of Iron:
iron corrodes readily when exposed to moisture and gets covered with a brown flaky substance called rust. This is also called Rusting of Iron. Chemically, the rust if hydrated iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3.XH2O. Rusting is an oxidation process in which iron metal is slowly oxidized by the action of air (in presence of water). Therefore, rusting of iron takes place under the following conditions : Presence of air (or oxygen) Presence of water (moisture)

More the reactivity of the metal, the more will be the possibility of the metal getting corroded.
(i) Experiment to show that rusting of iron requires both air and water We take three test tubes and put one clean iron nail in each of the three test tubes : (A) In the first test tube containing iron nail, we put some anhydrous calcium chloride to absorb water (or moisture) from the damp air present in the test tube and make it dry. (B) In the second test tube containing iron nail, we put boiled water because boiled water does not contain any dissolved air or oxygen in it. A layer of oil is put over boiled water in the test tube to prevent the outside air from mixing with boiled water. (C) In the third test tube containing an iron nail, we put unboiled water so that about two-third of the nail is immersed in water and the rest is above water exposed to damp air. After one week, we observe the iron nails kept in all the three test tubes.

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 67

Rusting of iron (ii) We will obtain the following observations from the experiment :
(A) No rust in seen on the surface of iron nail kept in dry air in the first test tube. This tells us that rusting of iron does not takes place in air alone. (B) No rust is seen on the surface of iron nail kept in air free boiled water in the second test tube, This tells us that rusting of iron does not take place in water alone. (C) Red brown rust is seen on the surface of iron nail kept in the presence of the air and water in the third test tube. This tells us that rusting of iron takes place in the presence of both air and water together. (iii) Prevention of rusting (A) Corrosion of metals can be prevented by coating the metal surface with a thin layer of pant, varnish or grease. (B) Iron is protected from rusting by coating it with a thin layer of another metal which is more reactive that iron. This prevents the loss of electrons from iron because the active metal loses electrons in process of covering iron with zinc is called galvanization. Iron is also coated with other metals such as tin known as tin coating. (C) By alloying: Some metals when alloyed with other metals become more resistant to corrosion. For example, when iron is alloyed with chromium and nickel, it form stainless steel. This is resistant to corrosion and does not rust at all. (D) To decrease rusting of iron, certain antirust solutions are used. For example, solutions of alkaline phosphates are used as antirust solutions.

11.1 (b) Corrosion of Aluminum :
Due to the formation of a dull layer of aluminum oxide when exposed to moist air, the aluminum metal loses its shine very soon after use. This aluminum oxide layer is very tough and prevents the metal underneath from further corrosion (because moist air is not able to pass through this aluminum oxide layer). This means sometimes corrosion is useful.

11.1 (c) Corrosion of Copper
When a copper object remains in damp air for a considerable time, then copper reacts slowly with carbon dioxide and water of air to form a green coating of basic copper carbonate [CuCO3, Cu(OH(2] on the surface of the object. Since copper metal is low in the reactivity series, the corrosion of copper metal is very, very slow.

11.1 (d) Corrosion of Silver :
Silver is a highly uncreative metal, so it does not reacts with oxygen of air easily. But, air usually contains a little of sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S), which react slowly with silver to form a

black coating of silver sulphide (Ag2S). Silver ornaments gradually turn black due to the formation of a
thin silver sulphide layer on their surface and silver is said to be tarnished.

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 68

cobalt or nickel to carbon steel are called Ally Steel. (ii) To modify chemical reactivity : The chemical reactivity of sodium is decreased by making an alloy with mercury which is known as sodium amalgam. The main objects of ally-making are : (i) To increase resistance to corrosion : For example.5% carbon. vanadium. girders. Steel is very hard. The new form of iron is called steel.05%). It has a low melting point and is used for welding electrical wires together. bridges. titanium. iron is the most widely used metal. 11. Its Free www.1 to 1. 11. (v) To produce good casting: Type metal is an alloy of lead. stainless steel is prepared which has more resistant to corrosion than iron. screws. Steel can also be used for the contraction for building. manganese. railway lines etc. it becomes hard and strong.2 ALLOYS : An alloy is a homogenous mixture of two or more metals or a metal and a non-metal. But it is never used in the pure form. (vi) To lower the melting point: For example. copper and traces of magnesium and manganese. KARIYA (SRK Sir).tekoclasses. molybdenum. But when it is mixed with a small amount of carbon (about 0.11. (iv) To increase tensile strength: Magnesium is an alloy or magnesium and aluminum. this is because iron is very soft and stretches easily when not. an alloy of iron and carbon is harder than iron. Bhopal Director : SUHAG R. For example. tin and mercury. solder is an alloy of lead and tin (50) Pb and 50% Sn).2 (b) Some Important Alloys : The approximate composition and used of some important alloys are given below : (i) Steel : Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon containing 0. ships etc.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 69 . (iii) To increase the hardness: Steel. It is an alloy containing aluminum.2 (a) Objective of Ally Making : Alloys are generally prepared to have certain specified properties which are not possessed by the contituent metals. It is used for making rails. vehicles. (ii) Allow Steels : Steel obtained by the addition of some other elements such as chromium. (iii) Alloys of Aluminum : This common alleys of aluminum are : (A) Duralumin. tough and strong. It has greater tensile strength as compared to magnesium and aluminum.

It is used for making utensils. it is generally alloyed with other metals commonly copper or silver to make it harder and modify its colour. The purity of gold is expressed as carats. It is more hard than pure aluminum.It is an alloy of copper. (ii) Tin amalgam is used for silvering cheap mirrors. Zn = 20%.It is an alloy of copper and tin having the composition : Cu = 90% Sn = 10% Bronze is very though and highly resistant to corrosion. it is used for making bodies of aircrafts.AO\I 95%. Since duralumin is light and yet strong.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 70 . sodium amalgam contains sodium and mercury. utensils and for electroplating. Mg = 5% It is very light and hard.5 % It is stronger than pure aluminum. It is an alloy containing aluminum. hardware. Amalgams are homogenous mixtures of a metal and mercury.It is an alloy of copper and zinc having the composition = Cu = 80% Zn = 20% Brass is more malleable and more strong than pure copper. For example. statues. Most of the jewellery is made of 22 carat gold. and cobalt. (C) German Silver . nuts. A 18 carat gold means that is contains 18 parts of gold is 24 parts by weight of alloy. It is used for making silverware. It is an alloy of aluminum and magnesium having the composition: Al . It is used for making cooking utensils. For example. coins.95%. Mg = 0. screws.percentage composition is . It is highly magnetic in nature and can be used for making powerful magnets. (iii) The process of amalgamation is used for the extraction of metals like godl or silver from their native ores. helicopter. Ni = 20%. hardware etc. iron nickel. (i) Sodium amalgam is produced to decrease the chemical reactivity of sodium metal. zinc and nickel having the composition: Cu = 60%. (A) Brass . pressure cookers etc. (C) Alnico . jets and kitchenware’s like pressure cookers etc. Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir). (v) Alloying of Gold : Pure gold is very soft and cannot be used as such for jewellery. Therefore. Cu = 4%. cooling pipes. bolts. Pure gold is of 24 carat. Different amalgams are prepared according to their used. springs etc. It is also used as a good reducing agent. condenser sheets. Free www. (B) Bronze . Bhopal Ph.5 % Mn = 0. (iv) Alloys of Copper: The important alloys of copper are Brass and Bronze. It is used for making light instruments. balance beams.tekoclasses. (B) Magnesium.

Sn and Ag (C) Cu. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Ornaments made up of gold do not get corroded. Fe and Mn An alloy which does not contain copper is(A) magnalium (B) bronze (C) brass (D) german silver Which of the following is not and alloy of aluminum ? (A) Duralumin (B) Mangalium (C) Alnico (D) All are alloys of aluminum.1 1. Zn and Ni (D) Cu. (B) hydrated ferric oxide. 2.DAILY PRACTICE PROBLESM # 11 OBJECTIVE DPP . 10. Which of the following methods is suitable for preventing an iron vessel from rusting ? (A) Applying grease (B) Applying paint (C) Applying a coating of zinc (D) All the above Which of the following conditions are necessary for rusting of iron? (A) Presence of water only (B) Presence of air only (B) Presence of water and air both (D) None of these Silver metal becomes black on exposure to air by the coating of (A) silver chloride (B) silver oxide (C) silver sulphide (D) silver hydroxide Alloys are a homogeneous mixture of (A) metals only (B) non .11. Ni. (D) None of these 4. 3. (C) zinc is more reactive that tin. 6. 5. Food cans are coated with tin and not with zinc because (A) zinc is costlier than tin. 9. (D) zinc is less reactive than tin. 7.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 71 . Explain. 3.tekoclasses.2 1. Director : SUHAG R. Why ? Iron nails are not rusted if kept in boiled distilled water for a long time. SUBJECTIVE DPP . Free www.metals only (C) metals or metals and non-metal (D) None of these German silver is an alloy of (A) Cu and Ni (B) Cu. Pure gold is equal to (A) 24 carat (B) 100 carat (C) 22 carat (D) 1000 carat 2. What is an amalgam ? Name an alloy of copper used for making utensils. Bhopal Ph.11. 5. Chemical rust is (A) hydrated ferrous oxide (C) only ferric oxide. Why do we make alloys ? Give two reasons. (B) zinc has higher melting point than tin. 8. Sol. Ans.1 Ques. Sol. 1 D 2 D 3 B 4 A 5 B 6 C 7 C 8 C 9 D 10 C SUBJECTIVE DPP . Because of presence of free ions.Ag Sol.1 Ques. (i) the copper sulphate (blue) solution gradually faded to from colourless solution. OBJECTIVE DPP . Zn.7. 1 C 2 D 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 B 7 D 8 B 9 A 10 A SUBJECTIVE DPP .tekoclasses.6 Gold and Silver Most reactive . Director : SUHAG R. (ii) No change takes place.5 Sol. Fe(s) + dill.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 72 . 4.7 Hydrogen gas.3 Arrangement of metals in a vertical column in the decreasing order of their chemical reactivities is called metal activity series. H2SO4  → FeSO4(aq) + H2(g) OBJECTIVE DPP . Fe and Cu are metals in the order of their decreasing chemical activity. 1 D 2 B 3 C 4 C 5 B 6 B 7 B 8 B 9 B 10 C Free www.2 Sol. Ans.2 Sol.1 Ques. Ans. It is because copper is lower is metal activity series compared to iron.ANSWERS OBJECTIVE DPP . Al.Na and Least reactive .5 Because of strong electrostatic force of attraction. Bhopal Ph. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Sol.8.

10. 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 D 5 D 6 B 7 B 8 A 9 C 10 C SUBJECTIVE DPP . Free www.4 Sol.11. Boiled distilled water does not contain air.SUBJECTIVE DPP . KARIYA (SRK Sir).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 73 .2H2O (iv) Rock salt .2 Sol. 1 A 2 C 3 B 4 D 5 C 6 C 7 C 8 C 9 A 10 D SUBJECTIVE DPP 11.5 Zone refining and Van arkel method.CaSO2.4 Sol.2H2O (iii) Galena .2 Sol4 (i) Forth floatation process (ii) Hydraulic washing (i) Bauxite -AO2O3.3 Director : SUHAG R.5 Brass Gold is noble metal and not affected by air and water.2 Sol.tekoclasses. Ans.NaCI Sol. Distillation (i) ZnO and SO2(i) CaO and CO2 OBJECTIVE DPP . Ans.1 Ques.9.10.2 Sol.Pbs (ii) Gypsum .1 Ques. OBJECTIVE DPP . Bhopal Ph.

2. dyes.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 1 . Forces of attraction between these molecules of organic compounds are not very strong/ As these compound are largely non conductors of electricity hence the bonding in these compound does not give rise to any ions. Bhopal Ph. The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of these compounds is called ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Director : SUHAG R. R Page No. But it would be difficult for the nucleus with six protons to hold on to ten electrons.2 BONDING IN CARBON = THE COVALENT BOND : Most carbon compounds are poor conductors of electricity. oils.tekoclasses.2 (a) Some Simple Molecules Formed by the Sharing of Valence Electrons are s follows: (i) Hydrogen molecules: This is the simplest molecule formed by sharing of electrons. it has four electrons in its outermost shell and needs to gain or lose four electrons to attain noble gas Class : X (CBSE) CONTENTS PART – II S. 1 – 44 45-62 C L . Topics Carbon & Its Compounds Periodic Table & Periodicity in Properties.. when two hydrogen atoms approach each other. which were isolated directly or indirectly from living or indirectly from living organism such as animals and plants were called organic compounds. four extra electrons. The reactivity of elements if explained at their tendency to attain a completely filled outer shell... that is.No. the single electron of both the atoms form a shared pair.. This may be represented as: Free www.anion. 12.1 INTRODUCTION: Organic compounds: The compounds like urea. So.Subject : Chemistry GET IT FREE FROM WBSITE www. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1 and it has only one electron is its outermost K shell. sugars. In the case of carbon. that is.. Element forming ionic compounds achieve this by either gaining or losing electrons from the outermost shell.. It could lose four electrons forming C4+ cation. proteins vitamins etc. KARIYA (SRK Sir). attain noble gas configuration.tekoclasses. But it would require a large amount of energy to remove four electrons leaving behind a carbon cation with six protons in its nucleus holding on to just two electrons. It required only one more electron to complete the K shell. 1. fats.. The boiling and melting points of the carbon compounds are low.the support A S S E S CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS  12. It is were to gain or lose electrons – (i) (ii) it could gain four electrons forming C4.

Therefore.CI or CI2 Chlorine atoms Chlorine molecule Shared electron pair (iii) Hydrogen chloride molecule: It may be note that a covalent bond is not only formed between two similar atoms. by mutual sharing of electron pair between hydrogen and a chlorine Director : SUHAG R.tekoclasses. an electron of both the atoms is shared between them.CI Hydrogen atom Chlorine atom Hydrogen chlorine molecule Shared electron Pair (iv) Formation of water molecule (H2O) : Each hydrogen atom has only one electron in its outermost shell. the molecule can be represented by drawing two overlapping circles around the symbols of the atoms and showing the shared pair of electrons in the overlapping part. Therefore. each hydrogen atom required one more electron to achieve the stable configuration of helium (nearest noble gas).H + Hydrogen atoms H x  → H• xH or H2 Hydrogen molecule or H . The shared pair of electron (show x) is said to constitute a single bond between the two hydrogen atoms and is represented by a line between the two atoms. but it may be formed between dissimilar atoms also. Hydrogen atoms Oxygen atom Water molecule 2 Shared electron pairs Free www. Bhopal Ph. When the two chlorine atoms come close together. For example.H Shared electron pair According to Lewis notation. or H .:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 2 . Therefore. the electrons in the valence shell are represented by dots and crosses. Pictorially. This method was proposed by G. hydrogen and chlorine form a covalent bond between their atoms. It needs two electrons to complete its octet. (ii) Chlorine molecule : Each chlorine atom has seven electrons in its outermost shell. one atom of oxygen shares its electrons with two hydrogen atoms.N. hydrogen atom (1) has only one electron in its valence shell and chlorine atom (2.Lewis and is known as Lewis representation or Lewis structure.6 and has six electrons in its outermost shell. In HCI. Both the atoms acquit nearest noble gas configuration. The oxygen atom has the electronic configuration 2.8.7) has seven electrons in its valence shell. KARIYA (SRK Sir). or CI .

Nitrogen atoms Nitrogen molecule or N ≡ N Nitrogen molecule 3 Shared electron pairs Free www. Thus. In the formation of a nitrogen molecule. Therefore. It has four electrons in its valence shell and needs 4 more electrons to get the stable noble gas configuration. Each oxygen atom (2. Therefore. bond is known as single covalent bond and is represented by one dash (-) If two atoms share two electron pairs. (i) Formation of double bond (oxygen molecule) : Two oxygen atoms combine to form oxygen molecule by sharing two electron pairs. two electron pairs are shared and hence there is a double bond between the oxygen atoms.tekoclasses. each of the following atoms provide three electrons to form three electrons pairs for sharing. Carbon Hydrogen Atom atoms Methane 4 Shared electrons pairs 12. both the atoms contribute two electrons each for sharing to form oxygen molecule.(v) Formation of methane molecule (CH4) : Methane (CH4) is a covalent compound containing covalent bonds.2 (b) Different Kinds of Covalent Bonds : Electron pair shared between two atoms results in the formation of a covalent bond. This shared pair is also called bonding pair of electron. Its electronic configuration is 2. Hydrogen atom has one electron and needs one more electron to get stable electronic configuration of nearest noble bas. one atom of carbon shares its four electrons with four atoms of hydrogen to form four covalent bonds.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 3 .com Director : SUHAG R. or O = O Oxygen atoms Oxygen molecule Oxygen molecule 2 Shared electrons pairs (ii) Formation of triple bond (Nitrogen molecule) : Nitrogen atom has five electrons in its valence shell.4. If two atoms share one electron pair. If two atoms share three electron pairs. Carbon atom has atomic number 6. In the molecule. bond is known as double covalent bond and is represented by two dashed (=). bond is known as triple covalent bond and is represented by three dashes (=). 6) has six electrons in the valence shell. It required two electrons to acquire nearest noble gas configuration. KARIYA (SRK Sir). helium. Bhopal Ph. a triple bond is formed between two nitrogen atoms.

For example diamond. KARIYA (SRK Sir). bromine etc. are some solid covalent compounds. oxygen. nitrogen are gases while carbon tetrachloride. carbon tetrachloride etc. so their melting and boiling points are less.2 (c) Characteristic Properties of Covalent Compounds: The important characteristic properties of covalent compounds are : (i) Covalent compounds consist of molecules: The covalent compounds consist of molecules. So. chlorine. This regular. O2 and N2 molecules respectively. For example: Hydrogen. (v) Electrical conductivity . These different forms are called allotropes. sugar.hydrogen.polar nature of covalent compounds they are soluble in non . methane. we have to break four strong covalent bonds. Free www. consist of H2.Covalent compounds are bad conductors of electricity due to the absence of free electrons or free ions. nitrogen Director : SUHAG R.tekoclasses. oxygen. The two common allotropic forms of carbon are diamond and graphite. (ii) Physical state : Weak Vanderwaal’s forces are present between the molecules of covalent compounds. For example . This strong bonding is the cause of its hardness and its high density. and insoluble in polar solvents like water etc. Elements in which atoms are bonded covalently found in solid state. covalent compounds are in gaseous or liquid state at normal temperature and pressure. Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 4 .12. They do not have ions. sulphur etc. ethyl alcohol.3 ALLOTROPIC FORMS OF CARBON : Allotropy is the property by virtue of which an element exist in more than one form and each form has different physical properties but identical chemical properties.3 (a) Damon : (i) Structure of Diamond : Diamond crystals found in nature are generally octahedral (eight faced).polar solvents like benzene. Glucose. ether. To separate one carbon atom from the structure. 12. 12. are liquids. (iii) Crystal structure . each carbon i linked to four other carbon atoms forming regular and tetrahedral arrangement and this network of carbon atoms extends in three dimensions and is very rigid. iodine etc. urea. (vi) Solubility : Due to the non . symmetrical arrangement makes the structure very difficult to break. (iv) Melting point and boiling point: Energy required to break the crystal is less due to the presence of weak Vanderwaal’s force. graphite.Covalent compounds exhibit both crystalline and non crystalline structure. In the structure of diamond.

(iii) Uses of Diamond : (A) They are used in jewellery because of their ability to reflect and refract light. easily slide over one another. (C) It has high specific gravity (about 3.5). This makes graphite lubricating. (C) Diamond has an extraordinary sensitivity to heat rays and due to this reason. (F) It is non-conductor of Director : SUHAG R. (E) It has a high refractive index (about 2. Very thin tungsten wires of diameter less than one-sixth of the diameter of human hair have been drawn using diamond dies. Bhopal Ph. which is black or bluish grey with a metallic lustre and or greasy feel. (B) Diamond is used in cutting glass and drilling rocks. (i) Structure of Graphite : Each carbon is bonded to only three neighboring carbon atoms in the same plane forming layers of hexagonal networks separated by comparatively larger distance. called vanderwaal’s forces. it is used for making high precision thermometers.tekoclasses. The different layers are held together by weak forces. 12. (D) Diamond has the ability to cut out harmful radiations and due to this reason it is used for making protective windows for space probes. (D) It is transparent. colourless and brittle solid. (E) Diamond dies are used for drawing thin wires. It occurs in igneous and metamorphic rocks. soft and greasy to touch.4). such as marble.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 5 .3 (b) Graphite: Graphite is an allotrope of carbon. (F) Surgeons use diamond knives for performing delicate operations. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Free www. (B) It is the hardest natural substance known. The layers can therefore.Three dimensional tetrahedral structure (ii) Properties of Diamond : (A) It occurs naturally in free state and has octahedral shape.

When we write with a pencil. (B) It is used as dry lubricant for heavy machinery. (F) It is stable and has high melting point. KARIYA (SRK Sir).Showing how the layers fit together One layer Within each layer of graphite. (F) It is also used in making artificial diamonds. (ii) Properties of Graphite: (A) It is soft and greasy in touch. (E) It is used in nuclear reactors as moderator to regulate nuclear reactions. The layers are able to slide easily over one another. layers of graphite flake off and stick to the paper. rather like pack of cards. So graphite also has high melting point. However. (D) It is used as an electrode in batteries and electric furnaces. (D) It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.25 (generally). black paint etc. (C) It is grayish black and opaque. This makes graphite soft and slippery. Free www. every carbon atom is joined to three others by strong covalent bonds. Bhopal Ph. The carbon atoms are difficult to separate from one another. the bonds between the layers are weak. printer’s ink. (iii) Uses of graphite: (A) It is used for making pencil lead.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 6 . (B) Its specific gravity is 2. (E) It occurs in hexagonal layers. (C) It is used in making crucibles for melting substances. This forms a pattern of interlocking hexagonal Director : SUHAG R.tekoclasses.

Molecules of C60 have a highly symmetrical structure in which 60 carbon atoms are arranged in a closed net with 20 hexagonal faces and 12 pentagonal faces. because C60 readily accepts and donates electrons.3 (c) Fullerenes: (i) Structure: Fullerene is naturally occurring allotrope of carbon in which 60 carbon atoms are linked to form a stable structure.3 (d) Explaining Conduction in Carbon : In diamond. (ii) Uses of Fullerenes : It is hoped fullerenes or their compounds may find used as (A) superconductors (B) semiconductors (C) lubricants (D) catalysts (E) as highly tensile fibers for construction industry. For Director : SUHAG R.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 7 .12. This means that there are no free electrons and so diamond is an insulator. KARIYA (SRK Sir). C60 has been found to form in sooting flames when hydrocarbons are burned. The pattern in exactly like the design on the surface of a soccer ball. The third allotrope of carbon. only two forms of carbon (diamond and graphite) were known. which resembles the molecular structure of C60. STRUCTURE OF FULLERENE The correctly suggested the cage structure as shown in the figure and named the molecule Buckminster fullerene after the architect Buckminster Fuller. Bhopal Ph. (F) inhibiting agents in the activity of the AIDS virus. In graphite. Herald Kroto and Richard Smalley. so graphite acts as an electrical conductor. 12. called fullerene was discovered in 1985 by Robert Curl. Previously. with formulae ranging upto C400 and higher. Free www. the inventor of the Geodesic dome. All the fullerenes have even number of atoms. all four electrons in the outer shell of each carbon atom are used to make covalent bonds. This leaves on electrons per atom free to move.tekoclasses. it has possible application in batteries. only three of the outer shell electrons are used in bonding to other carbon atoms. These materials offer exacting prospects for technical application.

3. In a double covalent bond number of electron pairs shared are (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 Which of the following compound contain single covalent bond ? (A) Oxygen (B) Nitrogen (C) Methane Carbon dioxide molecule contains (A) single covalent bond (C) triple covalent bond Covalent bond between atoms is formed by (A) loss of electrons (C) sharing of electrons Covalent compounds can be dissolved in (A) benzene (B) ether (D) 6 (D) Carbon dioxide (B) double covalent bond (D) ionic bond 6. (D) is has no free electrons to conduct electric current. KARIYA (SRK Sir).3 (e) Difference Between Properties of Diamond and Graphite : Property Hardness Diamond Hardest natural substance 3 Graphite Very Soft 3 Density 3.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 8 . Bhopal Ph. 7.4 g/cm Tendency to counduct electric current Colour Bad conductor Good conductor Pure diamond is colourless Black Transparency Transparent Opaque Occurrence Rare Abundant DAILY PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 12 OBJECTIVE DPP . Director : SUHAG R.5 g/cm 2. (B) its structure is very compact. 5. (C) it is not water soluble. Free (B) gain of electrons (D) loss and gain of electrons both (C) alcohol (D) all of these www. (D) All of these 2.1 1. Which of the following is an allotropic form of carbon ? (A) Diamond (B) Graphite (C) Fullerene Diamond is not a good conductor of electricity because (A) it is very hard. Director : SUHAG R. 9. (D) none of these. 5. while an element ‘Y’ has sis valence electrons.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 9 . 3. What type of bond is expected to be formed between the two? Draw the structure of the compound. Covalent compounds are (A) good conductors of electricity. Bhopal Ph. (C) trigonal (D) hexagonal SUBJECTIVE DPP . Why do atoms take part in bond formation ? Write the Lewis dot structure of PH3. (C) semiconductors of electricity. 2. (B) bad conductors of electricity. An element ‘X’ has four valence electrons. Name a carbon containing molecule in which two double bonds are present. Name one electrovalent and one covalent compound containing chlorine.8. KARIYA (SRK Sir).tekoclasses.12. Which of the following allotrope of carbon is used in making crucibles ? (A) Diamond (B) Graphite (C) Fullerene Structure of diamond is (A) linear (B) tetrahedral (D) Coke 10.2 1. Free www.

. The electronic configuration of carbon atom is 2. The main reasons for this huge number of organic compounds are = (i) Catenation : The property of self linking of carbon atoms through covalent bonds to form long straight or branched chains and rings of different sizes is called catenation. (ii) Tetravalency of carbon : Carbon belongs to group 14 of periodic table. It has four electrons in the outermost shell.the support A S S E CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS  S 13. Free www. As a result.. Therefore..R C L . its valency is four. A methane molecule (CH4) is formed when four electrons of carbon are shared with four hydrogen atoms are shown below. Bhopal Ph..:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 10 . For example - H H H−C−C−h H H Ethane H H H−C ≡ C −H Ethyne H − C = C− H Ethene 13. Thus carbon forms four covalent bonds in its Director : SUHAG R.4. Carbon shows maximum catenation in the periodic table due to its small size. KARIYA (SRK Sir). electronic configuration and unique strength of carbon .1 VERSATILE NATURE OF CARBON : About 3 million organic compounds are known today.2 VITAL FORCE THEORY OF BERZELIUS HYPOTHESIS : Organic compounds cannot by synthesized in the laboratory because they require the presence of a mysterious force (called vital force ) which exists only in living organisms. x xC x + x x• • x H• H xC x• H 4H or CH 4 H Carbon Hydrogen Methane atom atom (iii) Tendency to form multiple bond : Due to small size of carbon it has a strong tendency to form multiple bond (double & triple bonds) by sharing more than one electron pair. it can form a variety of compound.carbon bonds.. Since the atomic number of carbon is 6..tekoclasses.

KARIYA (SRK Sir).4 HYDROCARBONS : 13. : C2H4 (Ethane) C3H6 (Propane) Free www.hydrogen single covalent bonds. Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea (a well known organic compound) in the laboratory by heating ammonium cyanate. 13.13.g.4 (b) Types of Hydrocarbons: The hydrocarbons can be classified as : (I) Saturated hydrocarbons. (A) Alkanes : Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons containing only carbon .com Director : SUHAG R. Urea is the first organic compound synthesized in the laboratory. General formula: CnH2n+2 For e.carbon double bond.tekoclasses.4 (a) Introduction : The organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. The major source of hydrocarbons is petroleum. : CH4 (Methane) C4H6 (Ethane) Electron dot structure of ethane (ii) Unsaturated hydrocarbons : (A) Alkenes : These are unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain carbon . They contain two hydrogen less than the corresponding alkanes. (NH4)2 SO4 + 2 KCNO  → NH4CNO Ammonium Potassium Ammonium sulphate cyanate cyanate + K2SO4 Potassium sulphate O Heat   → NH − C − NH 2 2 Re arrangemen t Ammonium Urea Cyanate NH4CNO 13.g.3 WOHLER’S SYNTHESIS : In 1828.carbon and carbon . For e. Bhopal Ph. These are the simplest organic compounds an are regarded as parent organic compounds.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 11 . All other compounds are considered to be derived form them by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups of atoms.

they may also be saturated or unsaturated based upon the nature of bonding in the carbon atoms.Electron dot structrure of etherne (B) Alkynes : They are also unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain carbon . H H−C−H H H H−C −C −H H H H H−C −C −C −H Free H H H H H H Methane Ethane Propane www.tekoclasses.g.linking property of carbon called Director : SUHAG R. For example. General formula : CnH2n For e.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 12 . These compounds have been further classified as open chain and cyclic compounds. Organic compounds Open chain compounds Closed chain compounds Alicyclic compounds Aromatic compounds (i) Open chain compounds : These compounds contain an open chain of carbon atoms which my be either straight chain or branched chain in nature. : C2H2 (Ethane) C3H4 (Propane) Electron dot structure of ethane 13. Bhopal Ph. They contain four hydrogen atoms less than the corresponding alkanes.carbon triple bond. Apart from that. KARIYA (SRK Sir).4 (c) Classifications of Organic Compounds: The organic compounds are very large in number on account of the self .

the organic compounds can have cyclic or ring structures. Benzene Free Toluene Ethyl benzene Phenol Anilien www.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 13 .tekoclasses. H H H H H H−C− H C H −C−H H H−C−H H H 2-Methylpropane Butane Butane is a straight chain alkane while 2. For eg. or Cyclopropane or Cyclobutane or Cyclopentane or Cyclohexane (B) Aromatic compounds : Organic compounds which contain one or more fused or isolated benzene rings are called aromatic compounds. (ii) Closed chain or Cyclic compounds : Apart form the open chains. Bhopal Ph.Methylpropane is branched chain in nature. For eg. A minimum of three atoms are needed to form a ring.H H H H H−C − C −C −C −H. (A) Alicyclic compounds : Those carboxylic compounds which resemble aliphatic compounds in their properties are called alicyclic Director : SUHAG R. These compounds have been further classified into following types. KARIYA (SRK Sir).

HC = CH2) (iii) Homologous series of alkynes General formula : CnH2n-2 Value of n n=2 n=3 n=4 Molecular formula C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 IUPAC name Ethyne Propyne But . For eg. Bhopal Ph. All the members of alcohol family have . Their physical properties such as melting point.CH2 and differ in molecular mass by 14. boiling point. (v) The members of a particular series can be prepared almost by the identical methods.Butylenes (H3C . 13. Value of n n=1 n=2 n=3 Molecular formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 IUPAC name Methane Ethane Propane (ii) Homologous series of alkenes Value of n n=1 n=3 n=4 Molecular formula C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 IUPAC name Ethane Propane But . (iv) The members in any particular family have almost identical chemical properties. (iii) Different member in a series have a common functional group.tekoclasses. Director : SUHAG R.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 14 . (ii) Any two consecutive members differ in their formula by a common difference of . General formula for alkane series is CnH2n+2.5 HOMOLOGOUS SERIES : Homologous series may be defined as a series of similarly constituted compounds in which the members possess similar chemical characteristics and the two consecutive members differ in their molecular formula by .yne Common name Acetylene Methyl acetylene Ethyl acetylene (CH3 .CH2 .5 (a) Characteristics of Homologous Series : (i) All the members of series can be represented by the same generally formula. density etc.13. KARIYA (SRK Sir). For example : (i) Homologous series of alkanes General formula : CnH2n+2.C ≡ CH) Free www.CH2.OH group.1 .1 – ene Common name Ethylene Propylene α . For eg. show a regular gradation with the increase in the molecular mass.5 (b) Homologues : The different members of a homologous series are known as homologues.CH2 .

(D) All of these 10.DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLESM # 13 OBJECTIVE DPP . (D) C4H10 SUBJECTIVT DPP = 13. (D) ten 6. Free www.13. (D) All of these 8. 2. KARIYA (SRK Sir). In order to form branching. (C) C7H19 (D) None of these 3. The first compound to be prepared in the laboratory was (A) methane (B) ethyl alcohol (C) acetic acid (D) urea 4. Bhopal Ph. 3. (D) Butyne 9. The main reason for this huge number of organic compounds are (A) catenation (B) tetravalency of carbon (C) tendency to form multiple bonds (D) all of these Which of the following is a saturated hydrocarbon ? (A) C2H6 (B) C2H4 (C) C2H5 Whish of the following is not an open chain compound ? (A) methane (B) ethane (C) Toluene Which of the following is an aromatic compound? (A) Cyclohexane (B) Ethyne (C) Phenol Which of the following does not belong to alkane ? (A) C2H4 (B) CH4 (C) C2H6 Director : SUHAG R.tekoclasses.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 15 . an organic compound must have a minimum of (A) four carbon atoms (B) three carbon atoms (C) five carbon atoms (D) any number of carbon atoms The number of C .2 1. The general formula for saturated hydrocarbon is (A) CnH2n+2 (B) CnH2n (C) CnH2n-2 Select the alkyne form the following (A) C4H8 (B) C5H8 (D) CnH2n-n 2.H bonds in ethane (C2H6) molecule is (A) four (B) six (C) eight 5.1 1. What is the common difference in two consecutive members in a homologous series ? What is catenation? Why does carbon show maximum tendency to catenate ? What are saturated hydrocarbons? Give one example.

Each systematic name has first two or all three of the following parts : (i) Word root : The basic unit is a series of word rot which indicate linear or continuous number of carbon atoms.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 16 . Bhopal Ph. 14..1 (a) Basic Rules of Nomenclature or Compounds in IUPAC System : For naming simple aliphatic compounds.R C L . (ii) Secondary suffix : Suffixes added after the primary suffix to indicate the presence of a particular functional group in the carbon chain are known as secondary Director : SUHAG R. the normal saturated hydrocarbons have been considered as the parent compounds and the other compounds as their derivatives obtained by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms with various functional groups.the support A S S E S CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS  14. There are two main systems of nomenclature of organic compounds – Trivial system IUPAC system (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) 14.tekoclasses..1 (b) Name of Straight Chain Hydrocarbons The name of straight chain hydrocarbon may be divided into two parts (i) Word root (ii) Primary suffix (i) Word roots for carbon chain lengths : Chain length C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Word root MethEth – Prop – But – Pent - Chain length C8 C7 C8 C9 C10 Word root Hex – Hept – Oct – Non – Dec - Free www.1 NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS : Nomenclature means the assignment of names to organic compounds. KARIYA (SRK Sir)...

:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 17 .(ii) Primary suffix : Class of Cmpounds Primary suffix General name C-C Saturated . H H (i) H−C−H H Methane H H − H→  H−C− H Methyl H H (ii) H−C−C −H H H Ethane − H→  H−C−C− H H Ethyl Free www. For Director : SUHAG R.1 (c) Names of Branched Chain Hydrocarbon : The carbon atoms in branched chain hydrocarbons are present as side chain. KARIYA (SRK Sir). General formula of an alkyl group = CnH2n+1 An Alkyl group is represented by R.tekoclasses. These side chain carbon atoms constitute the alkyl group or alkyl radicals.ene Alkene . An alkyl group is obtained from an alkane by removal of a hydrogen.ane Alkane C=C Unsaturated ( −C ≡ C − ) Unsaturated . Bhopal Ph.yne Alkyne Examples : Molecular formular CH4 CH3-CH3 CH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH3 CH2 = CH2 CH3 –CH = CH2 CH3 -C ≡ CH Word root Meth – Eth – Prop – But – Eth – Prop – Prop - Primary suffix ane ane ane ane ane ane yne IUPAC Name Methane Ethane Propane Butane Ethene Propene Propyne 14.

If some multiple bond is present. (iii) Alkyl substituents are indicated by prefixes .tekoclasses. Bhopal Ph. Suffix : ene eg. the chain selected must contain the multiple bond. Methyl o w rd root : Pent P.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 18 .1 (d) A Branched Chain Hydrocarbon is Named Using the Following General IUPAC Rules : Rule 1 : Longest chain rule : Select the longest possible continuous chain of carbon atoms.g. Free www. KARIYA (SRK Sir). eg. (ii) Saturation or unsaturation determines the primary suffix (P. u s ffix : ane eg. Prefix : Methyl o w rd root : pent P. e. u S ffix : ane Prefix : Methyl o W rd root : But P. Prefixes : Ethyl. Prefixes : Methyl o W rd root : Hept P. Suffix : ane Rule 2 : Lowest number Rule : The chain selected in numbered in terms of arabic numerals and the position of the alkyl groups are indicated by the number of the carbon atom to which alkyl group is attached. suffix(. (i) The number of carbon atoms in the selected chain determines the word root.H H H -H H−C−C−C− H H H n − propylor (1 − Pr opyl) H H H H−C −C −C −H H H H Pr opane H H H -H H− C −C − C −H H H H iso propyl or ( 2 − Pr opyl) (ii) Director : SUHAG R.

3. (Position of substituents) (prefixes) (word root) (p . tri etc.CH2 − CH 2 − CH3 | CH3 4.tekoclasses. : If the compound contains more than one similar alkyl groups. eg. 2 3 4 1 CH3 − CH .:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 19 . Bhopal Ph. 4 Trimethylpentane eg. di.CH 2 − CH3 | CH3 3 – Methyl butane (Wrong) eg. 3. 2.yne (Wrong) 4 e.Methylpentane (Correct) 4 3 2 1 CH3 − CH .com Director : SUHAG R. is attached to the name of the substituents. The positions of the subsistent are separated by commas. eg. their positions are indicated separately and an appropriate numerical prefix. The name of the compound. KARIYA (SRK Sir).Methylpentane (Wrong) eg.CH 2 − CH3 | CH3 2 – Methyl butane (Correct) 4 3 2 1 CH3 − CH . in general.CH 2 − CH 2 − CH3 | CH3 2.(i) The numbering is done in such a way that the substituents carbon atom has the lowest possible number. CH3 CH3 1 2 | 3| 4 5 CH3 − CH − CH − CH 2 − CH3 1. (ii) If some multiple bond is present in the chain. 3 – Dimethylpentane 1 2 3 4 CH3 − CH − CH − CH2 | | CH3 CH3 CH 3 5 4 3| 2 1 CH3 − CH 2 − C − CH − CH 3 | | CH 3 CH 3 2.. the carbon atoms involved in the multiple bond should get lowest possible numbers. tri.suffix) Rule : 3 Use of prefixed di. 1 2 3 4 CH3 − CH . 1 2 3 4 5 CH3 − CH . etc. 5 6 − CH − CH3 | CH3 2.g.CH = CH2 | CH3 2 – Methylbut – 3 – ene (Wrong) CH 3 | CH3 − 2 CH − 3 C ≡ 4CH 2 – Metylbut . 5 Trimethylhexane Free www.3 – Trimethylpentane CH3 CH 3 1 2| 3 4| 5 CH 3 − C − CH 2 − CH − CH3 | CH3 2.CH = CH2 | CH3 3 – Methylbut – 1 – yne (Correct) CH 3 | CH 3 − 3 CH − 2 C ≡ 1 CH 3 – Methylbut – 1 – yne (Corract) 4 5 4 3 2 1 CH3 − CH . is written in the following sequence.3 .

Suffix : Substituents : IUPAC name : (iii) But ene two methyl groups 2. Bhopal Ph. eg. CH 3 1 2 3| 4 5 CH 3 − CH − C − CH 2 − CH 3 | | CH 3 CH3 3 – Ethyl – 2. the numerical prefixes such as di.1 (e) Some More Example : C 2H3 6 5 4| 3 2 1 CH3 − CH2 − C − CH2 − CH − CH | | CH3 CH3 Word root : Primary suffix : Substituents : Hex ane two methyl & one ethyl groups 4.Dimethylpropane IUPAC name : 3 4 CH 3 − CH − CH 3 | CH 3 − C = CH 2 2 1 Word root : P. CH3 C 2H 3 6 5 4| 3| 2 1 CH3 − CH 2 − CH − CH − CH 2 − CH3 3 – Ethyl – 4 – methylhexane 14.Rule 4 : Alphabetical arrangement of prefixes : If there are different alkyl substituents present in the compound their names are written in the alphabetical order.ene Free www.dimethylpentane For eg : Rule 5 : Naming of different alkyl substituents at the equivalent positions : If two alkly substituents are present at the equivalent position then numbering of the chain is done is such a way that the alkyl group which comes first in alphabetical order gets the lower position.tekoclasses. However.dimethylhexane (i) IUPAC name : CH 3 1 2| 3 CH 3 − C − CH 3 | CH 3 Word root : P.2. KARIYA (SRK Sir).1 . are not considered for the alphabetical order.Ethyl .com Director : SUHAG R.2. tri etc.4 . Suffix : Substituents : (ii) Prop ane to methyl groups 2. 3 – Dimethylbut .:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 20 . 3 .

2.CH2 . (ii) Aldehyde group (-CHO) : All organic compounds containing CHO group are known as aldehydes. For e. Br. Hydrocarbon radical determines the physical properties of the organic compound.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 21 . CI. For e. CH3COOH (Ethanoic acid) CH3CH2COOH (Propanoic acid) (v) Halogen group (x= F. Ethanol (CH3CHO) etc. Ethanol (CH3 .g.(iv) 6 5 4 3 2 1 CH 3 − CH 2 − CH − C ≡ C − CH 3 | CH 3 4 – Methylhex – 2 .tekoclasses.OH) etc.Propanone (CH3COH3).group are known as ketones. For e.OH group are known as alcohols. (iv) Carboxyl group ( -COOH) : All organic acids contain carboxyl group.2 (b) Main Functional Groups : (i) Hydroxyl group (-OH) : All organic compounds containing . 2-Butanone (CH3COCH2CH3) etc. For e.g. Methanol (HCHO).g. Br or I) group are known as halides. H − C − C − OH H H Hydrocarbon radical Functional group Functional group is the most reactive part of the molecule. CI. Bromomethane (CH3Br) etc. Methanol (CH3OH). Bhopal Ph. For Director : SUHAG R. Functional group determines the chemical properties of an organic compound. 14.2 (a) Introduction : An atom or group of atoms in an organic compound or molecule that is responsible for the compound’s characteristic reactions and determines its properties is known as functional group.g.X(F.2 FUNCTIONAL GROUP : 14. Chloromethane (CH3CI). I) : All organic compounds containing . KARIYA (SRK Sir).g. Hence they are also called carboxylic acids.yne 14. (iii) Ketone group (-CO-) : All organic compounds containing -CO. Free www. An organic compound generally consists of two parts - (i) Hydrocarbon radical H H (ii) Functional group For eg.

Br. Bhopal Ph. The terminal ‘e’ of the primary suffix is removed if it is followed by a suffix beginning with ‘a’. ‘e’.ene . The selected chain must include the carbon atom involved in the functional groups like . I) Formyl or oxo oxo . or those which carry the functional groups like .CHO −C− O -OH C =C C≡C -X (X = F. ‘u’.CI etc.Br and . ‘i’. In case the functional group does not have the carbon atom.2 (c) Nomenclature of Compounds Containing Functional Group : In case come functional group (other than C = C and C ≡ C) is present.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 22 .F. Free www. and .oic acid IUPAC Name Alkanoic acid Ester O − C − OR O R − C − O − R' (R ≠ R' ) R . Step 3 : The secondary suffix is decided by the functional group. Step 4 : The carbon atoms of the parent chain are numbered in such a way so that the carbon atom of the functional group gets the lowest possible number.ol .COOH.primary suffix . ‘o’. Step 5 : The name of the compound is written as Prefixes .2 (d) Naming of an Organic Compound Containing Functional Group : Step 1 : Select the longest continuous chain of the carbon atoms as parent chain.) – oate Alkyl alkanoate Aldehyde Ketone .one Alkanal Alkanal Alcohol Alkenes Alkynes Halides Hydroxy Halo .CHO etc. .yne - Alkanol Alkene Alkene Haloalkane 14.OH.COOH. then the carbon atom of the parent chain attached to the functional group should get the lowest possible number. −C − by Director : SUHAG R. CI.CI. Step 2 : The presence of carbon .secondary suffix The number of carbon atoms in the parent chain decides the word root. . . .carbon multiple bond decides the primary suffix. o Some groups like – CHO. .word root .CHO R − C −R O R – OH CnH2n CnH2n-2 R–X Carbalkoxy Alkyl (r.OH are considered as functional groups and are indicated Class Carboxylic acid Functional Group O − C − OH General Formular O R − C − OH (R = CnH2n +1 ) Prefix Carboxy Suffix .I are considered as substituents and are indicated by the prefixes.tekoclasses. KARIYA (SRK Sir). it is indicated by adding secondary suffix after the primary suffix. Some groups like .14.

2 (e) Some More Example : 2 3 4 5 (i) CH3 − CH − CH2 − CH2 − CH − CH3 | 7 1| 6 CH2 − OH CH2 − CH3 Longest chain contains carbon : 7 Word root : Hept primary suffix : ane Functional group : .5 . Bhopal Ph.OH Secondary suffix : .:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 23 . KARIYA (SRK Sir).Dimethylheptan -1 .tekoclasses.S.No.OH n-Butyl alcohol n-Propyl carbinol 1-Butanol H H H H H−C −C −C −C −O −H H H H H 6 HCOOH 7 CH3 COOH Acetic acid Formic acid Ethanoic acid Methanoic acid O H− C −O−H H O H − − C − C − OH H 8 CH3 – CH2 – COOH Propionic acid Propanoic acid H H O H− C −C − C −O −H H H 9 CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – COOH Butryic acid Butanoic acid H H H O H − C − C − C − C − OH H H H 10 CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH 2 – COOH Valeric acid Petanoic acid H H H H O H − − C − C − C − C − C − OH H H H H Director : SUHAG R. 1 Compound CH3 – OH Common name Methyl alcohol or Wood spirit Derived name Carbiinol IUPAC Methanol Strucutre H H− C − O −H H 2 CH3 – CH2 – OH Ethyl alcohol Methyl carbinol Ethanol H H H−C−C−O −H H H 3 CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – OH n-Propyl alcohol Ethyl carbinol 1-Propanol H H H H−C−C−C −O−H H H H 4 H H C −O−H CH3 − CH − OH | CH3 Isopropyl alcohol Dimethyl carbinol 2-Propanol H−C− H H− C −H H 5 CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH 2 .ol Free www.ol IUPAC Name : 2.

1 .3 (b) Structural Isomerism: Such compounds which have same molecular formula but different structural arrangement of atoms in their molecules are known as structural isomers and the phenomenon is known as structural isomerism. ISOMERSIM Structural Isomerism Stereoisomerism Chain Position group Functional Metamerism Tautomerism Geometrical Optical Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir).en . (i) Chain isomerism : The isomerism in which the isomers differ from each other due to the presence of different carbon chain skeletons in known as chain isomerism.3 ISOMERS & ISOMERSISM : 14.oic acid (iii) 1 2 3 4 CH 3 − CH − CH 2 − CH 3 | CI Word root : Primary suffix : Prefix : But ane chloro 2 . Bhopal Ph. Free www.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 24 .2 .(ii) O 5 4 3 2 1|| CH3 − CH 2 − CH = CH − C − OH Word root : Primary suffix : Secondary suffix : Position of double bond : Pent ene -oic acid 2 nd IUPAC name : Pent .3 (a) Introduction : Such compounds which have same molecular formula but different in some physical or chemical properties are known as isomers and the phenomenon is known as isomerism.Chlorobutane IUPAC name : 14.tekoclasses.

2 .Pentane 2.Butane (B) C5H12 CH3 . www.Dimethylpropane (neo .1 .Methylpropene CH3 .ene C3H8O CH3-CH2-CH2-OH CH3 − CH − CH3 OH Propane .1 .CH2 .Methylbutane (isopentance) CH 3 CH3 − C − CH3 CH 3 n .CH3 But-2-ene (B) Free (iii) Functional group isomerism : In this type of isomerism.1 .CH2 . CH3 . (ii) Position isomerism: In this type of isomerism. KARIYA (SRK Sir).CH = CH .CH = CH2 But . Bhopal Ph. (A) C4H8 CH2 .:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 25 .CH = CH2 But .ol .CH2 .For eg: (A) C4H10 CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH3’ CH3 − CH − CH3 | CH3 2. isomers differ in the structure due to the presence of different functional groups.2 .Methylpropane (Isobutane) n .tekoclasses.CH2 .com Director : SUHAG R. isomers differ in the structure due to difference in the position of the multiple bond or functional group. For eg.ene .CH2 .CH3 CH3 − CH − CH 2 − CH3 | CH3 2.pentane) (C) C4H8 CH 3 | CH3 − C = CH 2 2 .ol Propane .

(A) C3H8O CH3 .3.2.CH3 Methoxy ethane C4H6 CH3-CH2C ≡ CH But-1-yne and CH3 .-trimethyl -1-propane (B) 1.tekoclasses. (C) ethanol (D) ethyl alcohol 4.ol (B) and CH2 = CH .3-dimethyl-1-butene (D) 1.CH2 .methyl -1-butene (C) 2.OH Propane .CH (CH3)2 (A) 1.1 1.1.For eg.Butadiene] DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLEMS # 14 OBJECTIVE DPP .CH2 .2-dimethylethane (D) none of these 6.3-butene The IUPAC name of (CH3CHCH3 is (A) 2-methylpropane (C) trimethylmethan 5. (B) 2.vinyl propane (D) 1-isoproply ethylene IUPAC name of second member of homologous series of carboxylic acids is (A) methanoic acid (B) ethanoic acid (C) propanic acid (D) butanoic acid The IUPAC name of cH3 .1.1 .com Director : SUHAG R.4-dimethyl pentan -2-ol (B) 2.CH(CH3) CH3 is (A) 2. (D) carboxylic 3.C(CH3) (OH) CH2 . present in CH3COOC2H5 is(A) ketonnic (B) aldehydic (C) ester IUPAC name of CH3CH2OOH is (A) wood spirit (B) methyl carbinol 2.1-dimethyl-1.CH .1. KARIYA (SRK Sir). The IUPAC name of the following compound is CH2 .4. Bhopal Ph.14.trimethyl-1-butene (C) 3. 8.dimethyl butane (D) butanol -2-one 7.O .CH2 . The IUPAC name of the compound having the formula (CH3)3 CCH = CH2 is (A) 3.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 26 .dimethyl pentan -4-ol (C) 2. Free www. 3 .1-dimethyl -2 propane (B) 3.CH = CH2 Buta . 3-diene [or 1. The general formula fo an ester (where R represents an alkyl group ) is (A) ROH (B) R-COOH (C) R-COOR (D) RH The functional group.

Bhopal Ph.bromo pentane 10.2 1. The IUPAC name of (CH3)2 CHCH2CH2Br is (A) 1-bromopentance (C) 1. In an organic compound.CH2 . Draw the structures of the following compounds (a) simplest ketone (b) next higher homologue of butanoic acid (c) acetic acid (d) n-butly alcohol Name a functional group which can never occupy terminal position. Name the isomerism exhibited by the following pairs of compounds (a) Proponal & Propanone (b) 1. Give the IUPAC names of (a) CH3 .14.tekoclasses. Free www. 5. 6.CH2 .OH (b) CH3 − CH − CH3 OH (C) How are these two compounds related to each other ? 3.CH2 .methyl butane (B) 2.CH2 .CH2 .methyl-4-bromo pentane (D) 2-methyl Director : SUHAG R.CH2 .Br (b) CH3 .bromo -3.C ≡ CH How many structural isomers are possible for pentane? Draw these. The functional group in an alcohol is O O (A) − C − O − (B) − C − OH (C)-OH O (D) − C − H SUBJECTIVE DPP . KARIYA (SRK Sir).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 27 .Propanol 4.Propanol & 2. 2. 7. which part largely determines its physical & chemical properties ? Give IUPAC name of the following compounds (a) CH3 .

Free www... KARIYA (SRK Sir).1 (a) Combustion: Carbon in all its allotropic forms burns in air or oxygen to give carbon dioxide and releases energy in the form of heat and light..the support A S S E S CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS  CL . limiting the supply of air results in incomplete combustion of even saturated hydrocarbons giving a sooty flame.R C L . This results in a sooty deposit on the metal plate..15 Director : SUHAG R. C Carbon + O2  → Oxygen CO2 + Carbon dioxide Hear and light CH4 Methane + 2O2  → Oxygen CO2 dioxide + 2H2O + Carbon Heat and light Water C2H4 Ethane + 3O2  → Oxygen 2CO2 dioxide + 2H2O + Carbon Heat and light Water 2C2H2 Ethyne + 5O2  → Oxygen 4CO2 dioxide + 2H2O + Carbon Heat and light Water CH2CH2OH Ethanol + 3O2  → Oxygen 2CO2 + Carbon dioxide 3H2O + Water Heat and light Saturated hydrocarbons will generally give a clean flame while unsaturated carbon compounds will give a yellow flame with lots of black smoke.tekoclasses.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 28 . However.1 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS : The important chemical properties of organic compounds are discussed below : 15.. Bhopal Ph. Most carbon compound also release a large amount of heat and light on burning..

atom of methane has been replaced by a . However. which are commonly used in organic chemistry. The substances which add oxygen to other substances are called oxidising agents. For example. acidified potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). in the presence of sunlight the reaction of chlorine and hydrocarbons is fairly fast reaction. all the hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine atom one by one. It gives a variety of Director : SUHAG R. However.1 (b) Oxidation : Oxidation is a process in which oxygen is added to a substance. There are many oxidising agents such as alkaline potassium permanganate (alk. CH4 + Methane Sulight CI2   → Chlorine CH3CI + HCI Chloromethane Hydrogen chloride In this reaction H . chlorine does not react with methane at room temperature. Sulight CH3CI + CI2   → Chloromethane Chlorine Sulight CI2 CH2CI2 +   → Dichloromethane Chlorine Sulight CHCI3 + CI2   → Trichloromethane Chlorine Free CH3CI2 + HCI Dichloromethane CHCI2 + HCI Trichloromethane (Chloroform) CCI4 + HCI Tetrachloromethane (Carbon tetrachloride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen chloride www. Some common reactions of oxidation are CH 2 − CH 2 Alkaline KMnO 4→ (i) CH2 = CH2 + H2O + (O)         OH OH Ethylene glycol Ethane COOH (ii) CH ≡ CH + 4(O) Alkaline KMnO 4→        COOH Oxalic acid Alkaline KMnO 4→ (iii) CH3CH2OH       Acidified K 2 Cr2 O 7 + Heat Ethanol CH3COOH Ethanoic acid Alkaline KMnO Or 4 → CH3COOH (iv) CH3CHO     Acidified K 2 Cr2 O 7 Ethanol Ethanoic acid 15. nitric acid (HNO3) etc. KARIYA (SRK Sir).tekoclasses. KMnO4).1 (c) Substitution Reaction: The reaction in which an atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced or substituted by different atoms or group of atoms are called substitution reactions.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 29 . Saturated hydrocarbons are fairly uncreative. if Cl2 is used in excess.CI atom converting CH4 to CH3CI. Bhopal Ph.

the volatile substances present vapourise and burn with a flame in the beginning. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Free www. Saturated hydrocarbons burn with blue non-sooty flame. For example.Dibromoethane (ii) Addition of hydrogen : Ni  CH2 = CH2 + H2 → 573K Ethene Hydrogen CH2 . The incomplete combustion gives soot or smoke which is due to carbon.2 BURNING OF SUBSTANCES WITH OR WITHOUT SMOKY FLAME : When coal or charcoal burns n an ‘angithi’. This is because the percentage of carbon in these compounds is comparatively higher (than saturated compounds). Therefore. Unsaturated compounds such as alkenes contain double bond between carbon atoms. On heating. unsaturated hydrocarbons burn with yellow sooty flame. Because of the presence of double bond. This is because a flame is only produced when gaseous substances burn. On the other hand. The vegetable oil such as ground nut oil. When reacted with hydrogen in the presence of nickel as catalyst.2-Dicloroethane CH 2− CH 2 Br Br 1. when a copper wire is heated in the flame of the a gas stove. petroleum have some amount of nitrogen and sulphur in them.15. they are burnt to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. a bluish green colour is obtained. the flame is sooty due to the presence of unburnt carbon particles. Bhopal Ph. (i) Addition of halogen to alkenes: CH2 = CH2 + cI2 CCI 4→    CH 2− CH 2 CI CI Ethane Chlorine CCI 4→ CH2 = CH2 +Br2   Ethene Bromine 1.tekoclasses. The fuels such as coal. Vegetable oil + H2 Ni →  Catalyst Vegetable ghee or Vanaspati ghee (Unsaturated hydrocarbons ) (Saturated hydrocarbons) 15. all the carbon does not get oxidised completely in the oxygen of the air. This is because the percentage of carbon in these compounds is low which gets oxidised completely by the oxygen present in the Director : SUHAG R. they undergo addition reaction. When wood or charcoal is ignited.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 30 . they are converted into vanaspati ghee which is solid at room temperature like butter or ghee. The colour of the flame is characteristic of that element. Hydrogenation reaction is used in the manufacture of vanaspati ghee from vegetable oils. A luminous flame is also observed when the atoms of the gaseous substances are heated and start to glow.2. These are the major pollutants in the environment.1 (d) Addition Reaction: The reactions in which two molecules react to form a single product having all the atoms of the combining molecules are called addition reactions. Due to incomplete combustion. cotton speed oil and mustard oil contain bonds (C = C) in their molecules. which are released in the atmosphere.CH3 Ethane This reaction is called hydrogenation. sometimes it just glows red and gives out heat without a flame.

Coal is formed from the remains of plants and animals (fossils) which died about millions of years ago. The hydrocarbons formed rose though porous rocks and got trapped between two layers of impervious rock forming an oil trap.4 SOME IMPORTANT CARBON COMPOUNDS : 15.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 31 . It is a very slow process and may have taken thousands of years. they sank to the bottom and got covered by sand and clay. Ethanol is colourless liquid having a pleasant smell. KARIYA (SRK Sir).4 (a) Ethanol or (Ethyl alcohol): Ethanol is the second member of the homologous alcoholic series. Over a period of millions of years. This process of conversion of plants and animals buried inside the earth under high temperature and pressure to coal is called carbonisation. Ethanol boils at 351 K.15. Structural formula. These are believed to be formed from biomass which has been subjected to various biological and geological processes inside the earth.3 FORMATION OF COAL AND PETROLEUM: Coal and petroleum are the fossil fuels. Petroleum is formed form the bacterial decomposition of the remains of animals and plants which got buried under the sea millions of years ago.tekoclasses. clay and water. H H H−C−C−O−H H H (i) Properties of Ethanol: (A) Physical Director : SUHAG R. Bhopal Ph. These remains gradually got buried deep in the earth during earthquakes. volcanoes etc. these remains got converted into hydrocarbons by heat. the fossils got converted into coal. Free www. Due to high temperature and high pressure and the absence of air inside the earth. It is also known as methyl carbinol. It is miscible with water in all proportions. When these organisms died. pressure and catalytic action. It is a nonconductor of electricity (it does not contain ions) It is neutral to litmus. 15. These remains were covered with sand.

Alkaline KMnO 4→  CH3CH2OH       CH3COOH or K 2 Cr2 O 7 + H 2 SO 4 Ethanol Ethanoic acid (C) Reaction with sodium: Ethanol reacts with sodium to produce hydrogen gas and sodium ethoxide.tekoclasses. water molecule is removed from ethanol. C2H5OH + 3O2  → 2O2 + 3H2O Oxidation (i) By mild oxidizing agent CrO3 (Chromic anhydride).(B) Chemical properties : Combustion : Ethanol burns in air with a blue flame to form CO2 & H2O. 2 C2H5OH + 2Na  → 2C2H5ONa + H2 (↑) (iv) Reaction with carboxylic acids : [ESTERIFICATION] The process of formation of an ester by the combination of an alcohol with carboxylic acid is known as etherification/ O O Conc. Conc. (v) Acton with concentrated sulphuric acid : Ethanol reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid at 443 K to produce ethylene.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 32 . CrO 3  → CH2CHO CH3CH2OH    In glacial acetic acid (ii) By strong oxidizing agent (K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 or alkaline KMnO4). H SO 2  4→ CH3COOH + C2H5OH     Ethanoic Ethanol acid CH3COOC2H5 + H2O Ethyl Ethanoate Esters are sweet smelling substances and thus are used in making Director : SUHAG R. H SO 2  4 → R − C − OR'+H O R − C − OH + HO − R'     2 Carboxylic Alcohol Alkyl Alkanoate acid (Ester) When ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid ethyl ethanoate and water are formed. H SO 2  4→ CH3CH2OH     CH2 = CH2 + H2O 443K Ethanol The concentrated sulphuric acid may be regarded as a dehydrating agent because it removes water from ethanol. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Conc. Free www. Bhopal Ph. This reaction is known as acidic dehydration of ethanol because in this reaction.

Solution of ethanol prepared in pharmaceutical industry are known as tinctures. copper sulphate etc. pyridine. medicines. It is used in radiators of vehicles in cold countries. (iv) Power alcohol : Alcohol.4 (b) Some Important Terms : (i) Denatured alcohol : To prevent the misuse for drinking purpose.20% Ethanol (ii) Ethanol is used to sterilize wounds and syringes. Free www. Beer Whisky Wine = = = 3 .4 (c) Uses of Ethanol: (I) Ethanol is a constituent of beverages like beer. it may cause serious poisoning and loss of eyesight. KARIYA (SRK Sir). (iv) It is used in manufacture of paints.15. does not mix with petrol. is added as a co-solvent. pure alcohol (C2H5OH = 100%) is obtained.6% Ethanol 50% Ethanol 10 . therefore.tekoclasses. wine. It consists of a mixture of absolute alcohol petrol roughly in the ratio 20 : 80. Since alcohol itself. This is called absolute alcohol. It damages liver if taken regularly. (ii) It causes addiction (habit forming) and mixes with blood. ether etc. One distillation. It may even cause death. 15. (iii) Absolute alcohol : Rectified spirit is heated under reflux over quicklime for about 5 to 6 hours and then allowed to stand for 12 Director : SUHAG R.4 (d) Harmful effects of drinking alcohol : (i) If ethanol is mixed with CH3OH and consumed. 15. It is known as denatured alcohol. (ii) Rectified spirit : Ethanol cottoning 5 percent water is known as rectified spirit. a third solvent such as benzene. soaps and synthetic rubber. which is used for generating power is called power alcohol. (iii) Higher amount of consumption of ethanol leads to loss of body control & consciousness. (iii) Antifreeze : It is a mixture of ethanol and water which has a much lower freezing point than that of water. des.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 33 . Bhopal Ph. whisky and other liquors. the alcohol supplied for industrial purpose is rendered unfit by mixing it with some poisonous substances like methanol.

(D) CO2 8. Rectified spirit is (A) 50% ethanol 2. Bhopal Ph. This means that (A) food is not cooked properly.15.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 34 . sulphuric acid ? (A) CH3CHO (B) CH3COOH (C) CH3OH (D) CH3CH2OH Which of the following will react with sodium metal ? (A) Ethanol (B) Ethanol (C) Ethane Ethanol on complete oxidation gives (A) CO2 and water (B) acetaldehyde 4.2 1. (B) fuel is not burning completely. Free www. Which of following gives ethane when heated with cons. KARIYA (SRK Sir). H2SO4 the product formed is (A) C4H8 (B) C2H4 (C) C3H4 When alcohol reacts with sodium metal the gas evolved is(A) O2 (B) CH2 (C) CO Power alcohol contains (A) 50% petrol and 50% ethanol (B) 80% petrol and 20% ethanol (C) 25% petrol and 75% ethanol (D) 70% petrol and 30% ethanol (D) C2H2 7. 5.tekoclasses. (C) acetic acid (D) acetone 6. Sometimes during cooking the bottom of the vessel becomes black from outside. What is denatured alcohol ? How is it prepared ? What are the harmful effects of drinking alcohol ? What is an antifreeze ? Do alcohols give litmus test ? Give the important uses of ethyl alcohols.1 1. 2. When ethyl alcohol is heated with conc. (C) fuel is burring completely. SUBJECTIVE DPP -15. (D) Ethane 5. (D) fuel is dry. 3. 4.DAILY PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 15 OBJECTIVE DPP . (B) 80% ethanol (C) 95% ethanol (D) 100 % ethanol Director : SUHAG R.

(iv) The melting point of ethanoic acid in 290 K and hence it often freezes during winter in cold climates. (A) It reacts with a solution of sodium hydroxide to form sodium ethanoate and water...1 (b) Chemical properties : (i) Acidic character : Ethanoic acid is a monobasic acid. Its dissolution in water takes place with the evolution of heat and decrease in volume of the solution. Therefore. Bhopal Ph.tekoclasses.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 35 .1 ETHANOIC ACID (OR ACETIC ACID) : (i) Molecular formula : CH3COOH H O (ii) Structural formula : H − C − C − O − H H (iii) It dissolves in water.. 16.. KARIYA (SRK Sir).com Director : SUHAG R. it is names as glacial acetic acid. alcohol and ether. propanone etc.the support A S S E S CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS  16. It has a replaceable hydrogen atom in its .R C L .COOH group. but does not dissolves in non polar solvents such as alcohol. Free www. CH3COOH+ NaOH  → CH3COONa + H2O ←  Sodium Ethanoate Sodium ethanoate is an ionic compound which dissolves in polar solvents such as water. it neutralizes alkalies. Therefore...

(iv) Ethanoic acid finds application in the preparation of propanone.1 (c) Uses : (i) Dilute aqueous solution (5-8%) of ethanoic acid is called vinegar. (iii) As cellulose ethanoate. (iii) Decarboxylation : When sodium ethanoate is heated with soda lime. is formed. etc.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 36 . methane is formed.) (ii) Pure ethanoic acid is used as a solvent and chemical reagent.The aqueous solution of sodium ethanoate is alkaline due to hydrolysis. H + → CH COOC H + H O CH3COOH + HOC2H5   ←  3 2 2 Ethel ethanoate This process of Easter formation is called etherification. 16. pickles. Free www. a sweet smelling ester. CaO CH COONa + NaOH   → CH + Na CO 3 4 2 3 Sodium ethanoate Methane The term’ decarboxylation ‘ is used when the elements of carbon dioxide are removed from a molecule. KARIYA (SRK Sir).1 (d) Tests for Ethanoic Acid : (i) Litmus test : Add small amount of blue litmus solution to the given compound. zinc and magnesium to liberate hydrogen gas. it indicates that the organic compound is ethanoic acid. 2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → 2CH3COONa + H2O + CO2 ↑ CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2 ↑ (C) It reacts with metals like sodium. ethanoates of metals etc.tekoclasses. (vi) It is used in the preparation of white lead. choroethanoic acid. (v) It is widely used in the manufacture of textiles. CH3COONa H2O CH3COOH Weak acid + NaOH Strong base (B) It reacts with sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate with the evolution of CO2 gas. it is used in making photographic films and rayon. 16. which is used to preserve food (sausage. If the blue litmus solution turns red. H2CO4 ethyl ethanoate. 2CH3COOh + 2Na → 2CH3COONHa + H2 ↑ 2CH3COOH + Zn → (CH3COO)2Zn + H2 ↑ (ii) Ester formation : When ethanoic acid in heated with ethanol in presence of small quantity of conc. Bhopal Director : SUHAG R.

which contains salts of magnesium and calcium. 16. The structure of soap can be represented as: where represents the hydrocarbon group and Θ represents negatively charged carboxyl Director : SUHAG R. According to this definition of detergents. (A) Hard water contains salts of calcium and magnesium. is produced. There are two types of detergents : (a) Soapy detergents or soaps (b) Non .COC15H31 + 3NaOH CH2O. reacts with soap to form magnesium and calcium salts of fatty acid. sodium palmitate. Hard water.soapy detergents or soapless soaps.Na+.COC15H31 fat or oil (Tripalmitin) CH2OH CHOH + 3C16H31COONa CH2OH Soap (sodium palmitate) (ii) Limitation of soaps : Soap is not suitable for washing clothes with hard water because of the following reasons. (i) Preparation of soap : Soap is prepared by heating oil or fat of vegetable or animal origin with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (caustic soda solution). Hydrolysis of fat takes place and a mixture of sodium salt of fatty acids and glycerol is formed. a fruity smelling ester. C17H33COO. Evolution of carbon dioxide with brisk effervescence shows the presence of carboxylic acid.tekoclasses. A soap has a large non-ionic hydrocarbon group and an ionic COO-Na+ group. CH2O. When soap is added to hard water. 16. calcium and magnesium ions of hard water react with soap forming insoluble calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids. Since the salt of fatty acids thus formed are used as soap so alkaline hydrolysis of oils and fats is commonly known as saponification.Na+.Na+ and sodium oleate. ethyl ethanoate. Free www. C17H35COO. COC15H31 CHO. Bhopal Ph. KARIYA (SRK Sir).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 37 .(ii) Sodium bicarbonate test: Take a small portion of the organic compound in a test tube and add a pinch of solid sodium bicarbonate. Some example so soaps are sodium stearate. (iii) Ester formation : When a mixture of ethanoic acid and ethanol is heated in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid. Sodium salts of fatty acids are known as hard soaps and potassium salts of fatty acid are known as soft soaps.3 (a) Soap: A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of some long chain carboxylic acids (fatty acid). C15H31COO. soap is also a detergent and has been used for more than two thousand years.2 SOAPS AND DETERGENT : The word ‘detergent’ means’ cleansing agent and so the detergents are substances which remove dirt and have cleansing action in water.

Therefore. a lot of soap is wasted if water is hard.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 38 .tekoclasses. Example : Sodium p-dodecyl benzenesulphonate Sodium lauryl sulphate Washing powders available in the market contain about 15 to 30 percent detergents by weight.  → (C17H35COO)2 Ca ↓ + 2NaCI White ppt. which stick to the cloth being washed. Therefore. it interferes with the cleaning ability of the soap and makes the cleaning process Director : SUHAG R. Free www. (B) When hard water is used. 16. soap forms insoluble precipitates of calcium and magnesium salts. Alkaline hydrolysis of oils and fats is commonly known as saponification. These calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acid are insoluble in water and separate as cruddy white precipitate. A synthetic detergent is the sodium salt of a long chain benzene sulphonic acid or the sodium salt of a long chain alkyl hydrogen sulphate.3 (b) Detergents: These are also called synthetic detergents or soapless soaps.2C17H 35COONa + MgCI2 Soap (Hardness of water) 2C17H 35COONa + CaCI2 (Hardness of water  → (C17H35COO)2 Mg ↓ + 2NaCI White ppt. KARIYA (SRK Sir). sulphuric acid and converting the product into its sodium salt. Bhopal Ph. (i) Preparation of Synthetic Detergents : Synthetic detergents are prepared by reacting hydrocarbons from petroleum with conc.

no curdy white precipitates are obtained in hard water and hece. 5 Soaps are biodegradable.tekoclasses.) with calcium and magnesium which are present in hard water and hence. Calcium and magnesium salts of detergents are soluble in water and. 16.16. The hydrocarbon part is however soluble in non-polar solvents and is sometimes called lipophilic. soaps are not suitable for use with hard water. Bhopal Ph. (iii) Synthetic detergents are more soluble in water than soaps. COO. Synthetic detergents Synthetic detergents are sodium alkyl sulphates or sodium alkyl benzene sulphonates with alkyl group having more than ten carbon atoms. can be used even in hard water. 16. Free www. On the other hard. Synthetic detergents are prepared form the hydrocarbons of petroleum. Some of their advantages over soaps are : (i) Synthetic detergents can be used for washing even in hard water. soaps cannot be used in acidic medium because they are decomposed into carboxylic acids in acidic medium. The polar end in water soluble and is thus hydrophilic whereas hydrocarbon part is insoluble in water and is thus Director : SUHAG R.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 39 . (iv) Synthetic detergents have a stronger cleaning action than soaps. In a soap solution. 3 Soaps form insulable salts (curdy white ppt. On the other.3 (e) Cleaning Action of Soaps and Detergents : A molecule of soap is made up of two parts : a non polar part consisting of a long chain 12 . KARIYA (SRK Sir). Repulsion between similarly charged micelles keeps them dispersed in the solution. the hydrocarbon portions of several soap molecules huddle together to form aggregates of molecules (or ions) called micelles. (ii) Synthetic detergents can be used even in acidic solutions because they are not readily decomposed in acidic medium. cannot be used in hard water/ 4 Soad cannot be used in acidic medium and they are decomposed into carboxylic acids in a cidic medium.3 (d) Advantages of Synthetic Detergents Over Soap : Synthetic detergents are widely used as cleaning agents these days. therefore. They cay be used in acidic medium as they are the salt of strong acids and are not decomposed in acidic medium. The soap micelles are negatively charged due to the presence of carboxylate ions at the surface.3 (c) Comparison Between Properties of Soaps and Detergents : S. Some of the synthetic detergents are not biodegradable.18 carbon atoms and a polar part.No 1 Soaps Soaps are sodium salts of higher fatty acids 2 Soaps are prepared form natural oils and fats.

When water is added on to the surface of the cloth then water molecules tend to stay as close to each other as possible because of the strong forces of attraction (hydrogen bonding) for each other and do not wet the cloth properly. the dirt particles cannot be removed by simply washing the cloth with water. Soap or detergent helps in cleansing in another way. These are degraded more easily than branched chain detergents. Therefore. Now since the oil and grease are not soluble in water. this loosens the soil particles of dirt and they are removed. These branched chain detergent molecules were degraded very slowly by the micro organisms present in water bodies like lakes or rivers.COO. when soap is applied. These oil droplets (containing dirt particles) can be washed away with water along with dirt particles. For Director : SUHAG R. Therefore. the action of soap or detergents in to emulsify oil or grease.NA+ groups remain attached to water molecules. deplete the dissolved oxygen present in the water of lakes and rives.3 (f) Synthetic Detergent : A Serious Problem : It may be noted that in the past. Free www. However. the non polar hydrocarbon part of the soap molecules dissolves in oil droplets while the polar . These negatively charged oil droplets cannot coalesce and continue breaking into small droplets. Earlier the synthetic detergents were made from long chain of hydrocarbons having a lot of branched chains in them. 16. So. As a result of lack of oxygen.(i) Cleansing action of soap : Mostly the dirt is held to any surface such as cloth by the oil or grease which is present there. the widespread use of detergents caused pollution of rivers and other water bodies. Not only it emulsifies oil or grease but it also lowers the surface tension of water. they tend to remain in water bodies for a long time and make water unfit for aquatic life. these are biodegradable and create less problems. As a result of this water wets things more effectively. each oil droplet gets surrounded by negative charge. Water can now spread on the surface of cloth and can make it wet effectively. fish and other aquatic animals may die. Bhopal Ph. soap molecules arrange themselves between the water molecules on the surface of water and decrease the forces of attraction between the water molecules. Thus. In a soap molecule hydrophilic polar end in water soluble and hydrophobic hydrocarbon part is insoluble in water. detergents containing phosphates can cause rapid growth of algae and therefore. the detergents are prepared from hydrocarbons which have minimum branching.tekoclasses.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 40 . KARIYA (SRK Sir). To solve these problems. now-a-days. If some soap solution is added to this away then polar end of soap dissolves in water and non polar hydrocarbon end remains away from the water. In this way.

tekoclasses. Bhopal Ph. Which of the following will give a pleasant smell heated with ethyl alcohol. in presence of sulphuric acid (A) CH3COOH (B) CH3CH2OH (C) CH3OH (D) CH3CHO During decarboxylation of ethanoic acid with soda lime (NaOH + CaO).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 41 .potassium salts of fatty acids. (B) Soaps are sodium salts of higher fatty acids. (C) gaseous acetic acid. (C) Soaps are prepared from natural oils & fats.sodium salts of fatty acids. Which of the following is not correctly matched ? (A) Hard soaps . (B) Soft soaps . (B) solidified acetic acid. (B) sodium palmitate (D) Both B & C 7. CO2 is removed as (A) CO2 (B) CO (C) NA2CO3 (D) CaCO3 A by product of soap industry is (A) sodium hydroxide (C) glycerol 5. Which one of the following statements is incorrect about soaps : (A) Soaps are biodegradable.1 1. (D) Soaps can be used in acidic solutions. (D) frozen acetic acid. When ethanoic acid is heated with NaHCO3 the gas evolved is (A) H2 (B) CO2 (C) CH4 (D) CO 4. Glacial acetic acid is (A) 100% acetic acid free of Director : SUHAG R. 3. KARIYA (SRK Sir). 6. Vinegar is (A) 5% aqueous solution of acetic acid (B) 20% alcoholic solution of acetic acid (C) 100% acetic acid (D) none of these 2.16.DAILY PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 16 OBJECTIVE DPP . 8.water insoluble (D) None of these Free www. (C) Hydrophilic .

5. Describe the following (i) power alcohol (ii) denatured spirit 4. (B) emulsification of oil or grease. Why are detergents preferred over soaps ? Give the chemical reaction involved in the preparation of soaps.15 % (B) 15 .9. 10. Complete the following reactions (a) CH3COOH + NAaHCO3  → Conc. Although both acid and base are obtained from the salt of ethanoic acid.16.2 1. Cleansing action of soaps includes : (A) formation of Director : SUHAG R.30% (C) 50 . yet the overall aqueous solution of sodium ethanoate is alkaline. Free www.50 % SUBJECTIVE DPP . 2. (D) all of the above.60 % (D) 40 . KARIYA (SRK Sir). Washing powders contain detergent in the following range (A) 10 . (b) HCOOH + CH3OH  → H2SO 4 3.tekoclasses. (C) lowering of surface tension of water. Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 42 . Give reason.

1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 A 6 B 7 B 8 A 9 C 10 C SUBJECTIVE DPP . Bhopal Ph.12. KARIYA (SRK Sir).2 Sol.ANSWERS OBJECTIVE DPP .1 Sol.1 Ques Ans.14. H.1 Sol.13.CO .1 Ques Ans.Bromoethane (b) 1.4 To achieve the configuration of nearest noble gas element. .Hexyne (b) propan-2-ol (b) CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH (d) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH (c) Position isomers Sol. Y = X = Y O = C= O (CO2) OBJECTIVE DPP .2 Sol. 1 D 2 D 3 A 4 C 5 B 6 C 7 D 8 B 9 B 10 B SUBJECTIVE DPP .2 (a) Functional group isomerism (b) Position isomerism The common difference is -CH2.4 Sol.1 Ques Ans.1 Sol.tekoclasses.13.5 Free www.13.1 Sol.12. OBJECTIVE DPP .xPx H H Sodium chloride (NaCI) & Chlorine gas (CI2) Covalent. 1 A 2 B 3 D 4 A 5 N 6 D 7 A 8 C 9 C 10 A SUBJECTIVE DPP .2 Sol.4 Sol.) (a) Director : SUHAG R.2 Sol.3 Sol.3 Functional group (a) Propan-1-ol (a) CH3COCH3 (c) CH3COOH Ketone group ( .:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 43 .

15.2 Sodium ethanoate is a salt of strong base and weak acid.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 44 . Bhopal Ph. 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 A 5 C 6 B 7 B 8 B SUBJECTIVE DPP . (a) CH3COONa.1 Ques Ans. H2O Free www.1 Sol.3 Sol. KARIYA (SRK Sir). CO2. No.2 Sol.16. It is used in radiators of vehicles in cold countries.tekoclasses.4 It is a mixture of ethanol and water which has a much lower freezing point that than of water.16.1 Ques Ans. H2O (b) HCOOCH3. because they are neutral in nature.15.OBJECTIVE DPP . OBJECTIVE DPP .com Director : SUHAG R.2 Sol. 1 A 2 A 3 B 4 A 5 C 6 C 7 D 8 C 9 D 10 B SUBJECTIVE DPP .

. However.2 EARLY ATTAMPTS TO CLASSIFY ELEMENTS : (a) Metals and Non .W. In 1803.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 45 .g. For e. Lavoisier classified the elements as metals and non-metals. (B) According to Dobereiner the atomic mass of the central element was merely the arithmetic mean of atomic masses of the other two elements. J.. Elements of the triad Lithium Sodium Potassium Atomic mass of sodium = Symbol Li Na K Atomic mass 7 23 39 Atomicmass of lithium + Atomic mass of potassium 2 7 + 39 = = 23 2 Free www. 17.1 DEFINITION : A periodic table may be defined as the table giving the arrangement of all the known elements according to their properties so that elements with similar properties fall with the same vertical column and elements with dissimilar properties are Director : SUHAG R.Dobereiner a German Chemist gave this arrangement of elements... This formed an important basis of classification of elements. KARIYA (SRK Sir).2 (b) Dobereiner’s Triads : (i) In 1817. Bhopal Ph.the support A S S E PERIODIC TABLE & PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES S  17.Metals : Among the earlier classification. 17.2 17. John Dalton published a table of relative atomic weights (now called atomic masses).tekoclasses.R C L . this classification proved to be inadequate... (A) He arranged elements with similar properties in the groups of three called triads.

He started with the element having the lowest atomic mass (hydrogen) and ended at thorium which was the 56th element. I 35.2 (c) Newlands’ Law of Octaves : In 1866. 40. (B) Position of hydrogen along with fluorine and chlorine was not justified on the basis of chemical properties. Thus. ni and Ru. the properties of every eight element are a repetition of that of the first element. an English chemist. Free www. Director : SUHAG R. Te Average of atomic masses of the first and the third element 32 + 128 = 80 2 35. 88. Proposed a new system of grouping elements with similar properties. He tried to correlate the properties of elements with their atomic masses. Se. therefore discarded.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 46 .Some examples of triads are given in the table : S. Newland called this relation as a law of octaves due to the similarity with the musical scale. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Br. He observed that every eight element had properties similar to that of the first. Ba Sr. 127 3 Ca. 128 1 S. Newlands suggested that when the elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic masses.g. Rh. e. (i) Newlands’ arrangement of elements into ‘Octaves’: Notes of Music sa (do) H F CI Co and Ni Br re (re) Li Na K Cu Rb ga (mi) Be Mg Ca Zn Sr ma (fa) B AI Cr Y Ce and La pa (so) C SI Ti In Zr da (la) N P Mn As - ni (ti) O S Fe Se - Elements (ii) Limitations of law of octaves : The law of octaves has the following limitations : (A) The law of octaves was found to be applicable only upto calcium. Bhopal Ph. 137 (ii) Limitations of Dobereiner’s Classification : (A) Atomic mass of the three elements of some triads are almost same. he arranged the then known elements in the order of increasing atomic masses. 17. Co. John Newlands.5.tekoclasses. Triads Relative atomic masses 32.5 + 127 = 81.25 2 40 + 137 = 88.No.5 2 2 CI. Fe. It was not applicable to elements of higher atomic masses. Pd (B) It was restricted to few elements. 80.

Some of the important contributions of his periodic table are given below : (A) Systematic study of elements : He arranged known elements in order of their increasing atomic masses considering the fact that elements with similar properties should fall in the same vertical column. Similarly. When Mendeleev started his work. Similarly.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 47 .(C) Newlands placed two elements in the same slot to fit elements in the table. He examined the relationship between atomic masses of the elements and their physical and chemical properties. iron which has resemblances with cobalt and nickel in its properties has been placed for away from these elements. He also placed some unlike elements under the same slot. platinum etc. chlorine and bromine. it was realized that Newlands’ law of octaves worked well only with lighter elements. (ii) Merits of Mendeleev’s periodic table : Mendeleev’s periodic table was one of the greatest achievements in the development of chemistry. oxides and hydrides) were regarded as one the basic properties of an element for its classification. Eka-boron. the elements with similar properties recur at regular intervals.silicon names were given for scandium. chlorine and bromine. cobalt and nickel are placed in the same slot and in the column of fluorine.2 (d) Mendeleev’s Periodic Table : The major credit for a systematic classification of elements goes to Mandeleev. (B) Correction of atomic masses : The mendeleev’s periodic table could predict errors in the atomic masses of certain elements were corrected. He has been trying to group the elements on the basis of some fundamental property of the atoms. (i) Mendeleev’s periodic law : This law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses. atomic masses of indium. Among chemical properties. (C) Mendeleev predicated the properties of those missing elements from the known properties of the other elements in the same Director : SUHAG R. he selected these two elements because these are very reactive and formed compound with most of the elements known at that time. Mendeleev concentrated mainly on the compound formed by elements with oxygen and hydrogen. The formulae of the compounds formed with these elements (i. This is responsible for the name periodic law or periodic table. This means that when the elements are arranged in the order of their increasing atomic masses. KARIYA (SRK Sir). gold. 17. were corrected. But cobalt and nickel have properties quite different from fluorine. Thus.e.tekoclasses. Bhopal Ph. Properties predicted by Mendeleev for missing elements and those found experimentally were almost same. For example. with the help of this table. gallium and germanium (not discovered at the time of Mandeleev). this classification was rejected. atomic mass of beryllium was corrected from 13. Therefore. only 63 elements were known.5 to 9. For example. eka – aluminum and eka . Free www. Such orderly recurring properties in a cyclic fashion are said to be occurring periodically.

silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have been placed in group 1 along with alkali metals. according to Mendeleev’s classification these should be placed at different places depending upon their atomic masses.2 and 3 should be placed at three places. the Mendeleev’s periodic table has certain defects also.g. For example : The atomic mass of argon is Director : SUHAG R.7) Tellurium (at. mass = 126. mass = 58. but certain properties of hydrogen resemble those of halogens.9 ) is placed before nickel (at.9)/ (D) Some similar elements are separated. Free www. hydrogen isotopes with atomic masses 1. e. Bhopal Ph. manganese (Mn) is placed in the group of halogens. For example. However. neon (Ne) and argon (Ar) were mentioned in many studies. So. In these. Mendeleev placed elements according to similarities in their properties and not in increasing order of their atomic masses. Therefore. (C) Anomalous pairs of elements “ In certain pair of elements. KARIYA (SRK Sir). mass = 58. in the periodic table.6 ) is placed before iodine (at. Some of these are given below - (A) Position of hydrogen : Position of hydrogen in the periodic table is uncertain. On the other hand some dissimilar elements have been placed together in the same group. (iii) Limitations of Mandeleev’s periodic table : Inspite of many advantages.1 But argon is placed before potassium in the periodic table. barium (Ba) and lead (Pb). the increasing order of atomic masses was not obeyed.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 48 . It has been placed in 1A group with alkali metals.(D) Position of noble gases : Noble gages like helium (He). Cobalt (at. Similarly. they could be placed in a new group without disturbing the existing order. (E) Cause of periodicity : Mendeleev could not explain the cause of periodicity among the elements. For example copper (Cu) and mercury (Hg). mass = 127. isotopes have not been given separate places in the periodic table because of their similar properties. these gases were discovered very late because they are very inert and are present in extremely low concentrations.tekoclasses. it may be placed in the group for halogens as well/ (B) Position of isotopes : Isotopes are the atoms of the same element having different atomic masses. One of the achievements of Mendeleev’s periodic table was that when these gases were discovered. However. The positions of cobalt and nickel are not in proper order.9 and that of potassium 39. : Copper (Cu).

5 (B) 91. (D) decreasing order of atomic number.625 5. KARIYA (SRK Sir). The early attempts to classify elements were based on(A) atomic number (B) atomic mass (C) electronic configuration (D) none of these 4. According to Mendeleev’s periodic law which properties of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses ? (A) Physical properties only (B) Chemical properties only (C) Physical and chemical properties both (D) none of these 8. if this is Dobereiner’s triad and the atomic masses of CI and I are 35.DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLESM # 17 OBJECTIVE DPP . Mendeleev classified elements in(A) increasing order of atomic number (C) decreasing order of atomic masses.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 49 . then the atomic mass of Br is (A) 162.tekoclasses. (D) eight periods and seven groups. Mendeleev’s periodic table was divided into (A) seven periods and seven groups (C) seven periods and eight groups (B) eight periods and eight groups.1 1. 9. The law of octaves was proposed by (A) Newlands (B) Dobereiner (C) Lavoisier (D) Mendeleev Director : SUHAG R. The early attempt to classify elements as metals and non-metals was made by (A) Mendeleev (B) Newlands (C) Lavoisier (D) Henry Moseley 3. New lands could classify elements only upto(A) copper (B) chlorine (C) calcium (D) chromium 7.5 and 127 respectively. According to Newlands’ law of octaves 3rd element will resemble in its properties to(A) ninth element (B) eight element (C) tenth element (D) eleventh element 6. I.17. Br. CI. (B) increasing order of atomic masses.5 (C) 81. Noble gases were included in Mendeleev’s periodic table in the (A) 1st group (B) 7th group (C) 8 th group (D) None of these Free www. 10.25 (D) 45. Bhopal Ph.

B. 7. what is the atomic mass of elements ‘B’ ? Among the halogens F.17. 3.C are the elements of a Dobereiner’s triad. 8.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 50 . It the atomic mass of ‘A’ is 9 and that of ‘C’ is Director : SUHAG R. Free www. KARIYA (SRK Sir). CI. Br.SUBJECTIVE DPP . 6. 4. Why did Mendeleev leave the gaps in the periodic table ? What were the major defects of Mendeleev’s classification ? Why in the law proposed by Newlands called the Law of Octaves ? A.tekoclasses. and I which does not fit in the Dobereiner’s triad ? What does the word ‘Period’ signify in the periodic table ? What is common in the musical notes and the elements arranged by newlands ? How many elements were know when Mendeleev gave his periodic table ? 5.2 1. Bhopal Ph. 2.

..8.. Bhopal Ph.. an English physicist..8. KARIYA (SRK Sir).1 2.8. Henry Moseley showed that the physical and chemical properties of the atoms of the elements are determined by their atomic number and not by their atomic masses.1 (d) Cause of Periodicity : The periodic repetition of the properties of the elements is due to the recurrence of similar valence shell (outermost shell) electronic configuration (ns1) and therefore. The atomic number gives us the number of protons In the nucleus of an atom and this number increases atomic number.R C L .1 2. is called periodicity.8. the periodic law was modified.tekoclasses.18. have similar properties.8.1 2. Director : SUHAG R.1 (b) Modern periodic Law (Moseley’s Periodic Law): “Physical and chemical properties of an element are the periodic function of its atomic number”. Free www.32.1 (a)Introduction : In 1913.the support A S S E PERIODIC TABLE & PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES S  18.1 2.1 MODERN PERIODIC TABLE : 18. 18..8. 18.18. Alkali Metals Atomic number 3 11 19 37 55 87 Element Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caesium Francium Symbol Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Electronic configuration 2.18.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 51 .1 2.

Bhopal Ph. Free www.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 52 .tekoclasses. KARIYA (SRK Sir).com Director : SUHAG R.Modern periodic table is based on atomic number. not an atomic mass.

(v) Each period ends with a noble gas with outermost shell electronic configuration ns2 np6 except helium having outermost electronic configuration 1s2. Bohr and Bury. KARIYA (SRK Sir).tekoclasses. (C) 4 and 5 periods : These periods are called long periods because these periods contain 18 th th elements.2. (ii) This table is also referred to as Bohr’s table Since it follows Bohr’s scheme of the arrangement of elements into four types based on electronic configuration of elements.) 7th period starts from 87Fr to 111Rg. (vi) Each period starts with the filling of a new energy level. out of the 25 elements 14 elements belong to Actinoid series (90Th to 103Lr. (E) 7th period : This period is called as incomplete period. Free www. It contains 25 elements.5. Bhopal Ph. (iii) Each period starts with an alkali metal having outermost shell electronic configuration ns1. 18.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 53 . Werner.6 and 7. Out of the th 32 elements 14 elements belong to Lanthanoid series (58Ce to 71Lu).1 (e) Long Form of Periodic Table : (i) The long form of periodic table is based upon Modern periodic law. (D) 6 period : This period is called very long period. 6 period starts from 55Cs to 86Rn.4. 2nd periods starts from 3Li to 10Ne and 3rd period starts form 11Na to 18Ar. th th th Modern period table consists of seven periods and eighteen groups. (ii) There are seven periods numbered as 1. Long form of of periodic table is the contribution of Director : SUHAG R. (iii) Long form of periodic table consists of horizontal rows (periods) and vertical columns (groups).1 (f) Description of Periods : (i) A horizontal row of a periodic table is called a period . 4 period starts from 19K to 36Kr and 5 period start from 37Rb to 54Xe. (A) 1st period : This period is called very short period because this period contains only 2elements H and He. This period contains 32 elements.18. (B) 2nd and 3rd periods : These periods are called short periods because these periods contain 8 elements.

Period No.tekoclasses.4. KARIYA (SRK Sir). (ii) There are eighteen groups numbered as 1.13 to 17 are called normal representative elements. Na.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 54 . (g) Description of Groups : (i) A vertical column of elements in the periodic table is called a group. Bhopal Director : SUHAG R. (iii) A group consists of a series of elements having similar valence shell electronic configuration and hence exhibit similar properties. Elements present in a period have different properties. Of Elements Called as (1*) n = 1 (2 ) n = 2 (3rd) n = 3 (4th) n = 4 (5th) n = 5 (6 ) n = 6 (7 ) n = 7 th th nd 2 8 8 18 18 32 25 Very short period Short period Short period Long period Long period Very long period Incomplete period Different elements belonging to a particular period have different electronic configurations and have different number of valence electrons. (iv) The group 18 is also known as zero group because the valency of the elements of this group is zero.---------13.5.16. That is why elements belonging to a particular period have different properties. Free www. the elements of 18th or zero group are called noble gases. 18. (v) The elements present in groups 1.g. (vii) Elements present in group 17 are called halogens. K belong to the same group and have 1 electron in their valence shell.2. e.18. (vi) Elements of group 1 and 2 are called alkali metals and alkaline earth metals respectively.2. : Li. while elements present in a group have similar properties.

18.1 (h) Merits of Long Form of Periodic Table L
(i) The long form of periodic table is based on atomic number. Atomic number is a more fundamental property of a element as compared to atomic mass.

Not two elements can have the same atomic number.
(ii) In the long form of periodic table, different isotopes can be placed at the same place because they have same atomic number. On the other hand, isobars such as Ar (40) and Ca (40) have to be placed at different places due to their different atomic numbers. (iii) The long form of periodic table can explain why all the elements in a group have similar properties while the elements in a period have different properties. The basis for periodicity of elements is the similar electronic configuration of the outermost shell of elements of the same group. The similar electronic configuration of the elements are repeated at regular intervals so the properties of the elements are also repeated at regular intervals. (iv) It is easy to remember and reproduce the table.

18.1 (i) Limitations of Long Form of Periodic Table :
(i) Position of hydrogen is not accurate. (ii) Inner transition elements (lanthaoids and actinoids( have been given separate positions below in the periodic table.

Modern periodic law was proposed by(A) Mendeleev (B) Henry Mosley The long form of periodic table consists of (A) seven periods & either groups. (C) eight periods & eighteen groups.

(C) Werner

(D) Bohr and Bury


(B) seven periods & eighteen groups. (D) eighteen periods & eight groups.


In the long form of periodic table lanthanides are placed in the (A) 2nd period (B) 5th period (C) 6th period

(D) 7th period


All the members in a group of long form of periodic table have the same(A) valency (B) number of valence electrons (C) chemical properties (D) all of these Which of the following pairs of elements belong to the same period of the periodic table ? (A) C, Mg (B) N, Ar (C) Ca, CI (D) K, Cu


Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 55


The number of elements in the 4th period of periodic table are (A) 8 (B) 18 (C) 10

(D) 32


One important merit of modern periodic table is (A) it explains why elements in the same group have the same chemical properties. (B) hydrogen has been placed accurately. (C) isobars have not been placed separately. (D) it is based on classifying elements according to their atomic masses. Which of the following properties does not match to the elements of halogen family ? (A) They have seven electrons in their valence shells. (B) They are diatomic in their molecular form. (C) They are highly reactive chemically. (D) They are metallic nature. Which of the following sets does not belong to a group ? (A) Li, Na, K (B) N, O, F, (C) Be, Mg, Ca



(D) He, Ne, Ar


In the modern periodic table which one of the following does not have a appropriate position? (A) Transition elements (B) Inert gases (B) Inner transition elements (D) Halogens

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
What is a group and period in a periodic table ? State the modern periodic law. Why are 18th group elements called inert gases ? Name three elements with single electron in their valence shell. Name the metals among first ten elements in the modern periodic tale. Give the name and the electronic configuration of the second alkali metal. What is the similarity in the electronic configurations Mg, Ca and Sr ? On the basis of the periodic classification, identify each set belonging to either a group or a period. (a) Na, Mg, Al (b) K, RB, Cs (c) N, O, F (d) Ne, Ar, Kr

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 56




.......the support




(i) The electronic configuration of the atoms display periodic variations with increase in atomic number. (ii) The elements exhibit periodic variations of physical and chemical properties. Following are some the important properties of the elements (a) Valency (b) Atomic size (c) Metallic and non - metallic character

19.1 (a) Valency :
(i) The valency of an element may be defined at the combining capacity of the element. (ii) The electrons present in the outermost shell are called valence electrons and these electrons determine the valency of the atom. Valiancy of an element is determined by the number of valence electrons in an atom of the element.
The valency of an element = number of valence electrons (when number of valence electrons are from 1 to 4) The valency of an element - 8 - number of valence electrons. (when number of valence electrons are more than 4) (iii) Variation of valency across a period : The number of valence electrons increases from 1 to 8 on moving across a period. They valency of the elements with respect to hydrogen and chlorine increases from 1 to 4 and then decreases from 4 to zero. With respect to oxygen valency increases from 1 to 7. Variation of valency of elements of second and third periods : Elements of second period Li Be B C N O F Valency with respect to H LiH BeH2 BH3 CH4 NH3 H2O HF (1) (2) (3) (4) (3) (2) (1) Valency with respect to CI LiCI BeCI2 BCI3 CCI4 NCI3 CI2O CIF (1) (2) (3) (4) (3) (2) (1)

Valency of elements changes in a period.
Elements of third period : Na Mg AI Si P S CI Valency with respect to H NaH MgH2 AIH 3 SiH4 PH3 H2S HCI (1) (2) (3) (4) (3) (2) (1) Valency with respect to O Na2O MgO AI2O 3 SiO 2 P2O5 SO3 SI2O 7 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (iv) Variation of valency along a group : On moving down a group, the number of valence electrons remains the same and, therefore, all the elements in a group exhibit the same valency. e.g. All the elements of group 1 have valency equal to 1 and those of group 2 have valency equal to 2.

Free Director : SUHAG R. KARIYA (SRK Sir), Bhopal Ph.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 57

show abrupt increase in the atomic size of Ne. the atomic radii decrease with increase in atomic number. This is due to the reason that the values for other elements are covalent radii whereas that for Ne it is Vander Waals radius because it does not form covalent bond due to its stable configuration. This causes a decrease in atomic size. As a result the electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus by the increased nuclear charge. Atomic Radii of Elements of Second period Element Nuclear Charge 3Li 4Be 5B 7N 8O 9F 9F 10Ne +3 +4 +5 +6 +8 +9 +9 + 10 Configuration Atomic Radii (pm) 2s 1 2s 2 2s 2p 88 2 1 2s 2p 77 2 2 2s 2p 74 2 3 2s 2p 72 2 4 2s 2p 72 2 5 2s 2p 160 2 6 133 111 The values given in the table. In general atomic size may be considered as the distance between the centre of the nucleus and the outermost shell of an isolated atom. e. Reason : The decrease of atomic radii along a period can be explained on the basis of increase in nuclear charge. Bhopal Ph.tekoclasses. the nuclear charge increases progressively by one unit but the additional electron goes to the same shell. On moving from left to right across the period. KARIYA (SRK Sir).Valency of elements remains same in a group. Free www. (i) Variation of atomic size in a period : Within each period. 19. while Vander Waals radii is taken in case of gases.g.1 (b) Atomic Size : The term atomic size refers to the radius of an atom. Atomic radii decrease from lithium to fluorine in the second Director : SUHAG R.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 58 . Covalent radii is taken when electrons are shared between two elements.

(ii) Non-metals are located at the top right hand side of the periodic table. the effect additional energy level is more pronounced than the effect of increased nuclear charge. Free www. KARIYA (SRK Sir).2 METALLIC AND NON . Since. (iii) Non.2 (b) Non . Bhopal Ph. but at the same time there is a progressive increase in the number of energy levels. (iii) They have high melting and boiling points and are good conductors of heat and electricity.(ii) Variation of atomic radii within a group : The atomic radii increase from top to bottom within a group of the periodic table. Carbon is an exception as one of its allotropic forms. graphite is a good conductors of electricity.metals are usually solids or gases (except bromine whish is liquid) at room temperature with low melting and boiling points. Atomic radii decrease across the period. (ii) Metals are usually solid at room temperature (except mercury).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 59 . (iv) They are poor conductors of heat and Director : SUHAG R. the nuclear charge increases with increase in atomic number.Metals : (i) Non-metals do not lose electrons but take up electrons to form corresponding anions. 19. Atomic radii of alkali metals and halogens Alkali Element Atomic (pm) Radius Element Halogens Atomic (pm) Radius Li Na K Rb Cs 133 157 201 216 235 F CI Br I 64 99 114 133 Reason : In moving down a group. the distance of the outermost electron from the nucleus increases on going down the group. (i) Metals comprise of more than 75% of all known elements and most of them appear on the left hand side of the periodic table. 19.METALLIC CHARACTER : 19.tekoclasses. Atomic radii increase down the group.2 (a) Metals : The metals are characterised by their nature of readily giving up the electrons.

g. e. These elements are called semimetals or metalloids. Bhopal Ph. Te and Po. The difference between ions and atoms is of (A) relative size (B) configuration (C) presence of charge (D) All of these 2. while metallic character increases and non-metallic character decrease down the group. Alkali metals form M+ ions by losing one electron. NOTE : Metals generally form cations by losing electrons from their outermost shell. Its ion will be represented by (A) M (B) M+2 (C) M(D) M-2 Free www.tekoclasses.2 (c) Metalloids (Semimetals ) : (i) Some elements lying at the border of metallic and non. Which of the following has the largest size ? (A) Na (B) Na+ (C) Mg (D) Mg +2 3. Metallic character decreases and non-metallic character increases across a period from left to Director : SUHAG R. DAILY PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 19 OBJECTIVE DPP . while alkaline earth metals form M+ ions by losing two electrons from their outermost shell. (iii) Variation of metallic character across a period : Metallic character decreases along a period due to increase in ionisation energy. As.metallic character increases with increase in atomic number across a period. while non .metals generally form anions by accepting one or more electrons. This can be explained in terms of decrease in lionisation energy on going down a group fro top to bottom.metallic behaviour possess the properties that are characteristics of both metals and non . (iv) Variation of metallic character along a group : Metallic character increases on going down a group from top to bottom.19.metals. Sb. KARIYA (SRK Sir).:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 60 . Non .19. (ii) The metalloids comprise of the elements B. Si. Ge. An element M has a atomic number 9 and atomic mass 19.1 1.

then decreases 10. On moving left to fight in a period. in the periodic table. Bhopal Ph. the element having smallest size is (A) Na (B) Ar (C) CI (D) Si 7. Which of the following is the most reactive halogen ? (A) F (B) CI (C) Br (D) I 6. Which of the following has the maximum non-metallic character ? (A) F (B) CI (C) Br (D) I 5. in the periodic table. (iv) S2.2 1. size of an atom (A) increases (B) decreases (C) remains same (D) first increases. Director : SUHAG R. SUBJECTIVE DPP . In the third period of the periodic table.tekoclasses. 3. Which of the following elements has maximum metallic character ? (A) Li (B) N (C) Na (D) P 8. Why does the atomic size decreases from Na to CI when we move in the third period of the periodic table ? Show the variation of valency with respect to hydrogen in the 2nd period.4. KARIYA (SRK Sir). On moving from top to bottom in a group. Which of the following species are isoelectronic in nature > (i) Ca2+ (ii) K (iii) Mg2+ What is the valency of the elements that are placed in group 18 ? Name three elements which behave as metalloids.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 61 . 2.(v) CI- 4. then decreases 9. metallic character (A) decrease (B) increases (C) remains same (D) first increase. in the periodic table. valency (A) increase (B) decreases (C) remains same (D) first increases. Free www. then decreases On moving from top to bottom in a group.

Free www.1 All the elements have two electrons in their valence shell.1 Qus. K Sol. Electronic configuration = 2.5 Ca+2. Na.Si. KARIYA (SRK Sir). Sb.tekoclasses.2 Sol.8 Sol.2 Sol.6 Director : SUHAG R.8. As. Ans 1 B 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 D 6 B 7 A 8 D 9 B 10 C SUBJECTIVE DPP 18. Bhopal Ph. Be Second alkali metal = Sodium (Na). Ans 1 A 2 C 3 B 4 C 5 C 6 C 7 C 8 B 9 C 10 D SUBJECTIVE DPP 17.1 Qus.7 Sol.2 Sol. Ge. (a) Period (b) Group (c) Period (d) Group OBJECTIVE DPP 19.5 Li.& CI.ANSWERS OBJECTIVE DPP 17.ions are all isoelectronic in nature because they have 18 electrons.5 Element F Sol.4 Atomic mass of the B = 24 Sol. 4 Li.:(0755) 32 00 000 Page 62 . 8 63 elements OBJECTIVE DPP 18.3 Sol. Zero B. S2. Te and Po are the elements which behave as metalloids. Ans 1 D 2 A 3 C 4 A 5 A 6 C 7 C 8 A 9 A 10 C SUBJECTIVE DPP 19.4 Sol.1 Qus.