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Resource Project: Steal Away Home by Lois Ruby

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Information Compiled by: Hillary Lane Grade Level: Middle School
Made in partial fulfillment of English 512 in Spring 2014

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I.

Tab 1 a) Analysis b) Description of the book c) Editorial reviews

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II.

Tab 2 a) Analysis b) Student/customer review

III.

Tab 3 a) Analysis b) Teacher Resources/Student Guides

IV.

Tab 4 a) Analysis b) About the Author

V.

Tab 5 a) Analysis c) Culture and History

VI.

Tab 6 a) Websites used and websites that could be used for the book

VII.

Tab 7 a) Resources already made for the book

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Tab 1 a) Analysis b) Description of the book c) Editorial reviews

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Analysis of Reviews and Descriptions: Steal Away Home is a fascinating book about a young girl who finds a skeleton of a young girl, Lizbet Charles, in the walls of her home. Soon she finds the woman was a slave from the underground railroad. She was harbored by a young Quaker family, the Weavers. The benefits of this novel are astounding. The young adolescent protagonists, the historically significant time period, the religious implications on the family, the importance of determination through persecution, free/slave state relations and historical atmosphere of the time, and modern day significance of grassroots movements are all major reasons why I am including this book in my middle school classroom. Students can learn the importance of our American history through children their own age. Dana is of middle school age, probably sixth or seventh grade due to the way she talks about eighth graders. The other main character, James, is also middle school aged. These characters bring an authenticity to the typical story of the underground railroad. It brings life and depth to a story that students have heard over and over again. Their young lives, one living the experience and the other learning as she is reading Mrs. Weaver’s diary, demonstrate the importance of learning and discovery. These qualities are what I want in my students and I am happy to see Ruby’s incorporation of diligent and questioning young adults. The use of flashbacks and diary entries bring a unique and personal take to the struggles escaping slaves and those that harbored them, sometimes illegally, in their home. This novel will help students understand how children their age lived in the time of unrest. Steal Away Home makes the time period more tangible by being able to read about the actual time period through a character actually going through the events they learn about in English and history class. An

important legislative act during the time period was the Kansas Nebraska Act which determined the free and slave states. States became free or slave based on the voting and keeping the number of slave and free states even. This is key to the novel which is based in Kansas, Lois Ruby’s self proclaimed home town. Kansas was a free state which created one of the major conflicts in the novel. The grassroots civil rights movement and the Underground Railroad made this novel even more influential novel for the middle school student reader. The influence people like the Weavers had on the abolition of slavery was small, but significant. The flags and signs underground railroaders were told to look for really happened. People in our day and time tend to think some of these things were made up or were no important. The young black boy in Dana’s class would not have been in the classroom with white if slavery was not abolished and other civil rights campaigns were not successful. The modern implications of this historical novel creates an importance that can be felt and discussed by Dana and her classmates. The female students and any student of color or of foreign descent would never have been in the class. The importance of grassroots movements like the one Mrs. Weaver starts impacts students today. The religious implications of the Weavers influence how the husband and the wife in completely different ways. Mr. Weaver believes that the family should stay out of the conflict since Quakers are non-violent people. However, Mrs. Weaver believes that God wants everyone to be free and instead of fighting they should help the escaped slaves reach safety. The importance of religious views shows why some people promoted the freedom of the slaves or why they did not. The arguments the Weavers present are similar to some of the arguments abolitionists were having at the time. Also, learning about this cultural difference can help

student appreciate other perspectives and point of views. The reviews and book description also express the importance of this novel in the classroom. The book descriptions online for the novel are fairly uniform and captures the novel’s main points well. The Publisher’s Weekly description is much shorter and does not give the novel justice. I felt including it would give more diversity to the descriptions found concerning this novel, but it does not differ in content. The main description I found creates intrigue and mystery which was part of why I wanted to read this novel and teach a lesson in it. The description hooks the reader and gives many helpful details, but without giving away the ending. The editorial reviews I chose to include were the only ones I could find which I found from Amazon and Barnes and Nobel. The Amazon review has a unique perspective and the reviewer thought another book would be better. However, the title they suggested is much older than Steal Away Home. I liked the more modern take of the novel, so I disagree with his recommendation although never having read the suggested novel. Editorial reviews are often paid to give recommendations to other novels to buy. This could have been the aim of their review. The other two editorial reviews were from Barnes and Nobel. The Jan Lieberman review was more of a summary than a review although it was under the review sections. I did like that she mentioned the reward the novel received, but it seemed that she did not read the book and probably just the summary. Some reviewers are paid in general to write as many as possible without reading the novel in question which can mislead readers. The School Library Journal was the most helpful. It was written by a middle school teacher. I agree the older perspectives were easier to understand versus the modern day conversations between the students. Those

conversations were awkward and simplistic in my opinion. He did like the historical fiction focus the most which I do have to agree was redeeming. Out of the Editorial reviews I found, this last review was the most helpful. As a future teacher, I tend to value teacher or student recommendations more, as seen in tab two. Overall, I think this novel has a hidden importance that at first glance can be difficult to see. The historical importance and flashback timeline bring a unique twist to typical historical fiction. Ruby’s novel also comprises a large amount of cultural significance with the Quaker family and the runaway slaves and their interactions. Ruby demonstrated the tumultuous times in character perspectives and arguments specifically Mr. and Mrs. Weaver. Ruby’s novel is full of historical significance which is the most important part of this novel and why I want to teach it. I appreciate the middle school aged characters because that will make drawing connections to the student’s own lives easier and more informative.

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Book Descriptions:

! From Scholastic, Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and Goodreads: !

When twelve-year-old Dana Shannon starts to strip away wallpaper in her family's old house, she's unprepared for the surprise that awaits her: a hidden room containing a human skeleton! How did such a thing get there? And why was the tiny room sealed up? With the help of a diary found in the room, Dana learns her house was once a station on the Underground Railroad. The young woman whose remains Dana discovered was Lizbet Charles, a conductor and former slave. As the scene shifts between Dana's world and 1856, the story of the families that lived in the house unfolds. But as pieces of the puzzle begin to fall into place, one haunting question remains: Why did Lizbet Charles die? From Publisher’s Weekly found on amazon.com When Lois discovers a diary and a human skeleton in a hidden room, she learns that her house was a station on the Underground Railroad; scenes alternate between 1856 and the present. Ages 8-12.

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Lois Ruby website: When Dana Shannon discovers a full skeleton, sealed away in a little hidden room in the nineteenth-century house her family is restoring, she stumbles onto a mystery that draws her deep into the past. The old bones date back to just before the Civil War, when pro- and antislavery factions transformed the territory of Kansas into the battleground known as Bleeding Kansas. Told in chapters that alternate between Dana's detective work in the 1990s and the story of James Weaver and his anti-slavery Quaker family in 1856, Steal Away Home interweaves a contemporary suspense story with an engrossing historical drama. Chosen a Notable Children's Trade Book in the Field of Social Studies, "this skillfully rendered book," as The Horn Book observed, "will appeal to a wide audience and serve beautifully for a variety of teaching purposes.”

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Editorial Reviews:

! From Amazon: !

From BooklistGr. 7-10. Dana Shannon, 12, finds a skeleton in a small, secret room of her old house in Lawrence, Kansas. The body turns out to be the remains of Lizbet Charles, a conductor on the Underground Railroad who found shelter with the Quaker family living in that house about 140 years earlier. Ruby has clearly done her historical research, but she's thrown in far too much for one short novel. As the story swings back and forth between the 1850s and now, there are all kinds of contrivances and connections, including an old diary to provide commentary and a contemporary Vietnamese refugee to point out parallels. Virginia Hamilton's House of Dies Drear (1968), also about a kid today who discovers his house once sheltered runaway slaves, is far more compelling, focusing on a few people rather than trying to include a whole history of the times. Still, the core of Ruby's story is high drama: the courage of those who traveled, led, and provided shelter on the Underground Railroad. Hazel Rochman

! From Barnes and Noble: !

Children's Literature - Jan LiebermanThe discovery of a skeleton hidden in a secret room in the home Dana's family has recently bought triggers a historic search to identify the skeleton. The story alternates between the present and 1856. Dana and her friends recover an old diary that reveals some of the answers to their question. The skeleton is 130 years old and is that of a black woman, Lizbet Charles. Dana's "new" home may have served as a stop on the Underground Railway. The flash backs to the past help readers see how dangerous it was for the abolitionists and how determined slave holders were to retrieve their property. A nominee for the California Young Reader Medal.

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School Library JournalGr 6-8- Dana, 12, is helping her parents to restore an old house in Kansas as a bed-and-breakfast when she discovers a boarded-up room containing a human skeleton. With it, she finds the diary of Millicent Weaver, a Quaker and early resident of the house. She learns that the house was a stop on the Underground Railroad, and that runaway slaves were taken there by a former slave, Lizbet Charles. Of course, Miz Lizbet is Dana's skeleton, and the cause of her death at the age of 25 is finally revealed at the end of the novel. The story is told in alternating chapters, shifting between the present and 1856, when the events involving the long-dead young woman took place. The best developed character is young James Weaver, who struggles with his family's philosophy of nonviolence and with the secrets he must keep. The historical sections flow together well, revealing aspects of Miz Lizbet's life, which in some ways resembles Harriet Tubman's. The Weavers use traditional Quaker speech, liberally sprinkled with thee and thou. The modern-day scenes are somewhat less successful, and some of the conversations among the

young people are a bit contrived. Still, the book will make a nice addition to historical fiction collections about pre-Civil War events. -Bruce Anne Shook, Mendenhall Middle School, Greensboro, NC

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Tab 2 a) Analysis b) Student/customer review

Analysis of Customer Reviews: Student reviews of books are important to understand what the students are getting out of the reading, whether they enjoy it, and if we should continue to assign the book in future. I put a higher value on student and teacher reviews because they are important to knowing what students got out of the novel and the significance other teachers found in it. They have experience the novel in an academic setting, and, since that is how I will be using this novel, these reviews are more important than the few editorial reviews I found in tab one. Steal Away Home has mostly rave reviews, but some not so enthusiastic or had helpful suggestions on what ages to have read the book or what to discuss while reading it. The biggest complaint is that it was too slow after the first chapter. They tend to say there was not enough mystery to keep the reader interested. I have to say I agree with this, but the merits of a book should not just be about how much it captivates our attention. A novel needs to bring students to a new understanding and perspective then they have never encountered before. Steal Away Home has this in abundance. Some of the teacher and student reviews point out the historical importance. This novel brings in a subtle dose of history with each diary entry and moment we spend listening to the Weavers’ story. This novel subtly demonstrates the importance of history through showing the impact it has on today’s children. Ruby gives the reader a child just like the ones reading the novel in order to help foster the understanding of history. This novel is a little slow, but the historical implications can add to the student’s knowledge especially when paired with certain times they are learning about the slave laws and slavery. Student reviews like the Anonymous review from Barnes and Nobel on April 9, 2006, demonstrate the forethought that goes into lesson planning, and, when it is done right, helps students to form connections on their own.

Student reviews are helpful to determine whether they enjoy what they are reading. For English teachers, this is one of the most important reasons why we go into our profession. We always want to create intelligent, curious readers. If there is a book that no one enjoys, likes, or can find anything redeeming about it then why should I teach it? Student reviews help teachers see what is working and reaching students. We want them to be engaged, not bored. Another reason student reviews are important is that they encourage student feedback for teachers. Sometimes teachers feel books are a wonderful source of information and knowledge, but if students do not read because they dislike a book then that is a disservice to them. Teachers should also revise their teaching methods each year. If a unit does not work or a book does not fit with the class then they should change their lessons or pick a new book. Teachers should continue to look for new and innovative ways to reach students and engage them in class. Having students review books, helps teachers understand their point of view. Student reflection is another important reason for teachers to have students review a novel. It helps students to understand the overall themes, perspectives, history, and character arcs that are in the novel. It also forces them to reflect on their own learning. Student reviews can be a fun way to help students review for a unit test as well. Reflection can help them understand why teachers pick the books they do. I chose customer reviews from Goodreads, Amazon, and Barnes and Noble. I chose these cites because I use them to help me find books on my free time. They have tons of reviews and typically customers say the same thing, but I tried to pick ones that were slightly different or had a unique perspective. I also chose a few adult or teacher reviews and student reviews. These will

help with determining how well students will respond to the novel as well as the potential for them to learn from it. I chose the most reviews from Goodreads because it is a recently popular book review cite and no one is being paid to review books unlike the editorial reviews. They were also the longest and went more in-depth on why they liked or disliked the novel. Gale was the most insightful. She integrates a summary, but she really enjoyed the book and the author since this book was her first by Lois Ruby. She appreciated the historical context and the flipping between past and present. I agree that the book was engaging because of the time fluctuation. I also liked that she left her review open-ended to encourage dialogue with teachers which can be helpful. The review from Rachel was mostly a summary and focused mostly on Dana’s plot line. This one was not as helpful other than the fact she enjoyed the novel. The final review from Alexis was one of the more unique Goodreads entries. Alexis thought Steal Away Home was a letdown. She thought the novel had tons of potential, but after the first few chapters it started to became boring. I do have to agree slightly with this. The novel was mysterious, but it took so long to reach the ending of the mystery that the mystery lost its intrigue. There are more reviews as well, but these were the most interesting and unique. The Amazon reviews started out with a lot of the same things Goodreads had. The first reviewer copied and pasted the description of the novel and wrote she liked it and thought it was fascinating. Many entries were like this until I came to Kathy and Katherine whose reviews were short and sweet. Kathy thought it was a great book and that it was good for all ages. Katherine was a teacher because she gave it to her fifth graders and they liked it. However, Katherine did not. Amazon had mostly positive reviews and seen through these and others.

Barnes and Nobel was also helpful and I found three anonymous reviews from all students. Until I got to Barnes and Nobel there were not many student reviews. They all eventually enjoyed the novel, but two out of the three had problems understanding the complicated writing until they read it a second time. I think that might have been aided with time line or character maps to help them keep everything straight. They all liked it in the end, but I do see where they could get confused especially if they were reading it on their own or their teacher did not finish going over it like Alexis’ teacher. This response influenced tab three since I put in organizers and other student aids to help them keep the plot organized. All in all, the reviews were very positive and instructive on how students will respond to this novel. Book Review: Steal Away Home by Lois Ruby was an interesting and historically significant novel. Ruby started with an intriguing beginning. Ruby replaces this mystery with dual timelines and two narrators struggling with adolescence. These young people are the age of her middle school readers and will help them make deeper connections with the historical content in the novel. Even though this novel is written for a middle school audience, Steal Away Home has enough historical intrigue to satisfy older audiences. This novel is more of a summer reading book or an early semester teaser for the fun to come. The novel has a fresh and new take on old facts and makes new understanding with religious importance and character development. Steal Away Home is light and fun read for those students that do not like to read some of the more serious novels. It is fun historical fiction that can entertain and inspire. I enjoyed this novel immensely when I read it, but it was slow and lost it’s mysterious edge after the first few chapters. I also wanted a deeper influence of how the events in the past influenced Dana’s present.

Customer Reviews: From Goodreads:

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Gale: This is my first book by Lois Ruby, so I don't know her literary track record, but I must say: I am impressed! She offers detailed scholarship, twisting plots with tantalyzing revelations of the mystery, good character development and the ability to juggle two different story lines--some 130 years apart. This book will capture the interest of today's teens; the coexisting stories feature a girl of the 90's and a boy of the pre Civil War era. While enjoying the mystery and trying to piece together the historical puzzle, readers will effortlessly absorb information about the antislavery movement in Kansas, Quaker lifestyle and the underground railroad.

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Through it all as the chapters flip-flop in time, there emerges the character of a strong heroine-one Lizbet Charles, 23, an escaped slave and self-proclaimed "conductor". This undaunted young woman dedicates her life to aiding fugitives seeking freedom in Canada. Her sudden arrival impacts the home of the Weaver family, already embroiled in the anti-slavery wars in the Midwest. Ma risks her marriage to shelter escaped slaves, while Pa works through legal channels to establish Kansas as a Free state. All of which poses a difficult moral dilemma for young James; to fight fire with fire (and a gun) or to stand by the family's religious convictions. How will a conscientious Quaker youth respond under pressure? Whose Right has greater precedence? And how can the kids of the present honor the homespun heros of the past? What would be the most fitting memorials to Lizbet's courage and James' dedication? This is one fast and fascinating read!

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Rachel Clink: Steal Away Home by Lois Ruby was an excellent book. The plot was about a girl named Dana Shannon who lived in a 75 year old house. Dana and her mom were redoing their walls and found a hidden room. Behind the door was an old room that contained a cot with a dead body on it. The dead body belonged to the former slave Lizbet Charles. This house had very long history dealing with slaves. It was part of the underground railroad in 1856. The characterization of Dana Shannon was a relaxed young 12 year old girl. She lived with her family which was made up of her mom and sister. Dana was a very outgoing character. She loved meeting new people. Dana and her mom traveled together just to meet new people. Dana as a 12 year old girl was very interested in the new discovery in their house. Her and her mom were dying to find out who the body belonged to. The mood of the story was mysterious and interesting.

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Alexis: This book started off with so much promise. So. Much. But it wasn't long before I found myself becoming too uninterested with the plot and the characters.The first few chapters are good, and

managed to give the story a great start to become something great, but as it went on I found myself growing really bored and just wanting to get reading the book over with. This is another book we had to read in class in sixth grade and we ended up never finishing it because the end of the year caught up with us before we could, and for that I'm glad. It was a letdown.

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Ron M This book was not exciting, It gave me no thrill. I would not read it again if I had to. It switched from present to past every chapter. This confused me very much. James, he main character, finds a skeleton in their home, and realize that its a dead slave from the underground railroad. In my opinion, this was the worst book I have read in my life.

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Eden 12 year old Dana's parents are restoring an old house in Kansas, which they would like to turn into a bed and breakfast. One day, while working on one of the walls, Dana finds a secret room with a skeleton inside. Dana also discovers a diary from a Quaker woman who lived there in the house with her family more than 100 years ago.

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Really interesting story. I just found that I had to keep reading because I wanted to know what happened next. From chapter to chapter it switches from the present time and to the past when the Weaver family lived. It was really well done and as Dana learns the Weaver family's and Lizbet Charles story, the reader does too. I really liked the characters and probably my favorite parts of the book were the chapters from the past. I think there is a sequel to this and I think I'd really like to read it since I enjoyed this one quite a bit. Janet Forest I chose this book as a vacation challenge with the students over Christmas break. I am embarrased to say that several of them came back with it completed and I did not.... Oh well they probably didn't have to cook Christmas dinner. Anyway, I was rather disappointed with this book. It was a historical fiction about the unrest in Kansas over its statehood and slavery. The story flipped back and forth between present day and 1856 in Lawrence Kansas. The current day portion of the story was completely unnecessary and a rather clumsy vehicle for the story. The historical portion seemed to be written better and was much more believable and engaging. I am interested to see what the students thought of it.

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Chris Murray Dana Shannon and her mother are renovating an old house in Lawrence, KS to turn it into a bed and breakfast inn. They discover a boarded up room with a human skeleton inside. Also hidden in this room is a diary dated from 1856. Forensic tests determine that the skeleton is that of a young woman, and the diary tells the story of the Quaker family who originally owned the house and their secret involvement with the Underground Railroad. By reading the diary and

investigating local historical records, Dana is able to solve the who/what/why of the mysterious skeleton. Could be a girl or boy book. The story in present time is told by a girl. The diary of the past is that of a boy

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Aziza When twelve year old Dana Shannor starts to strip away wall paper in her family’s old house and she unprepared for the surprise. With the help of a diary found in the room, Dana learns her house was once a station on the Underground Railroad. The young woman whose remains Dana discovered was Lizbet Charles, a conductor and former slave. As the scene shifts between Dana's world and 1856, the story of the families that lived in the house unfolds. I felt sad when the main character dies. But I want to know how she died. Also in the book it doesn’t tell how the character died.

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Fionna Steal Away Home is the story of a 12 year old girl's discovery of her home's history as part of the underground railroad. After finding a mummified body enclosed in a closed off room of her house, the girl goes about finding out who this person was and why they died there. By alternating between the modern-day story and the story of the underground railroad, the author does a fairly good job of portraying the life of the previous owners and their feelings about slavery. A decent historical novel for a young teen, but older teens and adults would probably want something 'beefier'.

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Robert B. Miller Steal Away Home is a story about a young girl who discovers a human skeleton in a secret room in her new home. She also finds a diary that unfolds some of the mystery of who the skeleton may have been. The book flips back and forth from the point of view of the young girl and a young boy that lived in the house just prior to the Civil War. A book that will intrigue young readers and may spark an interest in the Underground Railroad and the risks that station owners took to help runaway slaves escape to freedom. submitted by Kristy, Fall 09.

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Plume45: This is my first book by Lois Ruby, so I don't know her literary track record, but I must say: I am impressed! She offers detailed scholarship, twisting plots with tantalyzing revelations of the mystery, good character development and the ability to juggle two different storylines, some 130 years apart. This book will capture the interest of today's teens; the coexisting stories feature a girl of the 90's and a boy of the pre Civil War era. While enjoying the mystery and trying to piece together the historical puzzle, readers will effortlessly absorb information about the anti-slavery movement in Kansas, Quaker lifestyle and the underground railroad.

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Through it all as the chapters flip-flop in time, there emerges the character of a strong heroine--one Lizbet Charles, 23, an escaped slave and self-proclaimed "conductor". This

undaunted young woman dedicates her life to aiding fugitives seeking freedom in Canada. Her sudden arrival impacts the home of the Weaver family, already embroiled in the anti-slavery wars in the Midwest. Ma risks her marriage to shelter escaped slaves, while Pa works through legal channels to establish Kansas as a Free state. All of which poses a difficult moral dilemma for young James; to fight fire with fire (and a gun) or to stand by the family's religious convictions. How will a conscientious Quaker youth respond under pressure? Whose Right has greater precedence? And how can the kids of the present honor the homespun heros of the past? What would be fitting memorials to Lizbet's courage and James' dedication? This is one fast and fascinating read!

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monkey123: The book Steal Away Home by Lois Ruby is very good.There are two main characters. One is twelve-year-old James Baylor Weaver, who lives in Lawrence, Kansas, in the year 1856. His house is a station on the Underground Railroad, but only while his father is away. James and his mother and his sister Rebecca must keep this a secret from James's father. The other main character is twelve-year-old Dana Shannon, who lives in James's house about 140 years later. When she discovers a human skeleton in a hidden room behind a wall in her house, she and some scientists work hard to find out who the skeleton is. (Or was.) But Dana has something that the police don't - a diary that she found in the room, the diary of Millicent Weaver, James's mother. From the diary, she learns that the skeleton is Lizbet Charles. But why did Lizbet die? To find out, read this book. It is a very interesting book and I would reccomend it to anyone who likes to read.

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A Kid's Review: What would you do if you found a skeleton in your closet? This happens in the book Steal Away Home by Lois Ruby. Dana, a 7th grader, finds one in her new house. Next to the skeleton she finds a diary which contains the clues to the mystery. Dana and her friends use the diary to investigate the case and see who the skeleton was. The diary they discover was written during the time of slavery and was written by a woman named Millicent Weaver. The Weavers were a Quaker family that used to live in Dana's house. Slaves were running away using the Underground Railroad to escape slavery. Slaves came to the Weaver's house and the Weavers didn't know what to do with them.

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Dana, the main character in this story, is willing to take any risk in order to solve the case. She has a good relationship with her parents even though she keeps the diary a secret for a while. When she makes a promise she keeps it which is why she has a lot of friends and is a likable person. When she gets an idea in her head nobody can get it out of her head which is why she tries hard to solve the mystery and not give the diary to the police.

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I think that the theme of this book is to learn how to keep trying and not to give up if you fail. I like this book because it has a lot of detail and at the end of each chapter it leaves you in suspense. This book takes you on a journey from present to past and back again many times.

When I first picked up the book and started reading it, I was so into the book that I couldn't put it down. As I read I felt eager to find out what would happen next. I felt as if I were with Dana and the Weavers. If you like mystery and suspense then you will like reading this book. Don't forget to also read its sequel, Soon Be Free

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A Customer: Dana and her parents bought and moved into a 100 year old house. But when thay bought it, they didn't except to find a dead body inside. The next chapter takes you back 100 years to when the house was brand new. I've never read a book like this before but I got it because it sounded interesting. " Behind the wall was a small room, and in the eerie shadows......was a small crock, two cots, and on one of them, a full skeleton." page 5. This ;part really catches the reader. You know inside Dana's head was confusion and that's what I felt. This book should be read by interested readers. People that like to sit on the edge of their seats.It is a book that most people would like.

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A Kid's Review: Dana's taking down wallpaper in a room and decides to get a hammer and knocks down some of the wall out. She finds a secret room with a skeleton a cot with a diary. She finds out about the life people lived in the 1850's from the diary. Such as the Weaver's are hiding slaves. There were different things I did and didn't like about the book. I didn't like how every other chapter the plot would switch from the Weaver's life to Dana's. I did like how they used references from the Bible such as "Always do God's will". Among the Hidden by Margaret Peterson Haddix and Steal Away Home are related books in a way. It has to do with not allowing third born children living a normal life. They must do chores inside the house and must not go outside, and must not communicate or be seen by civilized people. The two books are related because the people in the books are prejudice against people who are different

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Kathy R.: This book is great for all ages. Can't wait to buy the sequel. Awesome book and would definitely recommend to anyone. Katherine: Not my favorite, but a decent read on civil war times and slavery in the United States. I read it with my 5th grade class. They seemed to like it.

! From Barnes and Noble (all anonymous): !

April 29, 2007 At first when I read this book in the 7th grade I couldn't understand it and the more I tried to understand it ,the more I thought how bored I was. So I put it down.I'm in the 8th grade now and the other day I picked it back up from my closet and I can't put the book

down!I love it!But if you're not into the 'old days' or history, then I wouldn't suggest this book to you.

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April 9, 2006 This book was a great book! I am in 5th grade and what i was learning in school was in this book. But this book is more exciting than school!! I think everything is more fun than school of course. I recommend every child to read Steal Away Home! You also have to read slowly because it’s a bit complicated but still great!! August 21, 2002 This was an awesome book for me to read! The pages are full of suspense, yet historical information. When Dana first discovers the skeleton and the diary, she is excited yet baffled by the fact that her new house holds mystery and secrets. While her parents turn her house into a bed-and-breakfast, she unfolds the mystery that is hidden in the walls of her house. This is an outstanding book and I enjoyed every word of it. June 7, 2008 This is the best book ever........ Im in the 6th grade... And we read it with the best teacher ever Mr. McCracken at north west middle school.........Best book. February 22, 2008 This book had so many descriptive real feelings but it is also fiction. It was an outstandingly great book!
May 22, 2005

My class was assigned to read this book as a bookreport book and my whole grade hated it!! It was soo incredibly boring and if you don't want to die of boredom please don't read it. Chapter one was interesting so I continued reading the book but after the first chapter I nearly died, as did the rest of my class. I seriously could not get through reading this book and I generally love reading. I definately would not recomend this book to anyone of any age. It was a waste of time and if you really want to read a good book read Harry Potter or Pride and Prejudice if you have not already.
October 18, 2001

This historical fiction book is about a twelve-year-old girl whose name is Dana. She has just moved to an old house, on Tennessee Street. While ripping off paper in the upstairs

barn she finds a skeleton in a small room. How did it get here? She immediately asks. Right beside the skeleton she finds a small, little, black diary. While reading the diary entries, the best scientists try to un- reveal the mysterious mystery. Was her house an Underground Railroad? Was they family who once lived here Quakers? Where they hiding a slave by the name Lizbet Charles? The biggest question of all, though, was how and why did Ms. Lizbet die? I really enjoyed reading this historical fiction book. It is very interesting yet suspenseful. I would recommend this book to almost everyone, especially historical fiction fans. It tells you that no matter how big or small you are always helpful in many ways. What made me pick this book up and read, was that I love reading about historical fiction, especially about slaves. How they survived following the North Star and while helping others reach freedom, as well. I thought that the book was not going to be about a girl finding out a huge mystery, but I guess it turned out to be the exact opposite of what I had thought. If I were to rate this book 1-5 I would rate it a 4, because the author could have added a little more detailed and made the book even a little longer.
May 26, 2001

This book is neat. Every other chapter is today then the past... It is a great way to discover history. I strongly recommend it.
April 24, 2000

Steal Away Home is a book about a 12 year old girl named Dana Shannon. When helping her her parents she finds a diary behind the wall of her house. I enjoyed this book because it goes back and forth from different timelines. It also has some history in it and I enjoy books like that. Also I like that it's like reading to stories in one book.
December 28, 1999

I think that if I was younger this book would be harder to understand. You have to be able to go back and forth in different worlds and still understand it. I really didn't like that part, but I thought it was a good book. I enjoyed the characters very much especially James. I think that this book was a good example of historical fiction mixed with everyday life. I enjoyed reading this book, but I think that my recommended books are better for historical fiction.

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Tab 3 a) Analysis b) Teacher Resources/Student Guides

Analysis on Resources: There were few lesson plans available, but I did find a lot of helpful resources that can help students comprehend the novel and organize the plot structure. However, I found one lesson plan that was free from Scholastic. All of the other lesson plans I found were on teachers pay teachers, included in tab six. I am focussing on free resources, so I did not buy them or include them. The one I found on Scholastic was on Soon Be Free a different novel by Lois Ruby, but it did have some of the same information students need to know for Steal Away Home. This is the sequel to Steal Away Home, so it has similar time switch and has the same characters. The warmup activity will be changed to the underground railroad activity found on Scholastic’s website. The teaching plan will remain the same due to the similar time switches back and forth. For number two, I will use my chapter organizer to help them keep a log of important events. Their final project for the novel will be a time line showing the past and present and the connections between them. Lauren Gold, the creator of this lesson plan, has a whole list of books on the underground railroad to help students and teachers supplement the text as well as a list of Ruby’s other novels. This will be helpful to extend the learning into comparative writing assignments on how the authors portrayed the Underground Railroad. There were many other helpful resources I found online through a basic Google search. I found many helpful items searching for Steal Away Home to come up with activities that the students will learn from and benefit the instruction of this novel and help scaffold those that may have a hard time keeping up with the reading. From Polk Middle School, I found quizzes which will help me assess how well the students are comprehending the novel. It is confusing plot wise so this will help me test where they are having trouble. I also found a powerpoint with the first

few chapters on time, character, and setting which will help me to teach these to the kids in order to help them better understand the novel and why Kansas history and Ruby’s background is important to the overall novel. This can help students understand the literary concepts that they need to know for the SOL. I have also found a jeopardy game for chapters seven through twelve that will help them to review before the quiz and make it fun and interesting. I also discovered a wonderful plot worksheet from a teaching strategies document specifically for Steal Away Home. This worksheet maybe the most helpful item I found. Students can fill in the plot structure which is arguably the most complicated part of this novel. The most common complaints from the student reviews was the difficulty of keeping the plot structure straight. This worksheet could help students better connect to the novel because they will understand what is happening. It also leave room for a reflection section which I love. I think it is important for students to express their opinions on the things they read. Another helpful worksheet I found was a chapter summary organizer. It has two grids so the students can put ten chapters on each sheet. This will also help students keep track with what is going on as well as improve comprehension. These worksheets will address one of the biggest complaints I heard from students, found in tab two. The discussion questions can help students understand larger concepts and critical thinking. The questions are from both Barnes and Nobel and Lois Ruby’s websites. I like it when a book comes with discussion questions. It means a writer has thought about the discussions people will have about their novel before they even publish it. This resource will prove to be a beneficial review for the test. Ruby also had writing assignment suggestions. Some of the choices had research options and other elements to promote further independent learning from

the student. They are also good for critical thinking which is something students are tested on in the middle school SOL. The subject lesson I found is an online activity to explore the Underground Railroad which is a prominent portion of this novel. It is historical fiction after all. The Scholastic website has an interactive game that students and I can use together to see what it was really like. I remember using tools like this in elementary and middle school. They really helped me to do something active and different then just having a lecture. Students that learn on a kinesthetic level can have something non-traditional to help them learn as well. There are more subject lessons on the historical and cultural significance of Steal Away Home in tab five. To help student vocabulary, I found a book vocabulary list and organizer. The vocabulary organizer that will demonstrate the meaning as well as synonyms and word association. I was horrible with memorization. This will help students go one step further than just definition and meaning. It will help them to focus on what it means to them. This is also a critical thinking skill that students need for the SOL. It can also be easily transformed into flashcards to study for the vocabulary quiz. Students need to know new language and this organizer will help students better understand the content they are learning. Vocabulary is an important skill for students to learn and will help them in high school. I also found character flashcard program online that will also help students keep the characters straight. This is not as big of an issue when compared to the plot confusion most students complained about in their reviews, but characters can sometimes be easily confused. The flashcard program can help students review before the test and help those that have difficulty keeping characters straight. I found many helpful resources and student guides. The most helpful

items I found were the jeopardy game, organizers, and flashcards. Those students that find memorization difficult can use these to study and test their knowledge before a quiz. The quizzes and study questions will also be a good resource for preparing for the final test and assess the comprehension as students read Steal Away Home. I plan on using all of these strategies to help my students understand the novel. The lesson plans I found were minimal, but they are helpful to understand the background of the author and historical content. This novel is lacking on lesson plans, but there were many helpful supplemental resources. I would use these to help my students with problems understanding the plot, characters, writing for future assignments, and preparing for tests and quizzes. I think these were good quality resources that will help anyone understand the novel better and the literary and historical importance of this novel. There were also some helpful YouTube videos I found that can help introduce the novel and Ruby’s perspective, these are located in tab seven. When I made my own lesson, located in tab seven, I incorporated many of the supplementary items like the review jeopardy game, the character flashcards, and the discussion questions from Ruby’s website to help students review for their quiz on the novel. I also made an online website for the lesson I wrote, the link can be found in tab seven. I think all of these resources are very practical and can be helpful to scaffold student learning, especially with students who struggle to make deeper connections. I also think that these resources are less traditional worksheets and have more fun options for those that are easily tires of monotonous worksheets. Focusing on these free items helped me to see how few there were on the internet and encouraged me to make one myself with links to these other resources that I thought were helpful.

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Teacher Resources/Student Guides:

! Classroom Activities: ! Chapter 7-12 Jeopardy Game for review: https://jeopardylabs.com/play/enter-title127263 ! Quizzes: ! Name _____________________________ !
! ! ! Date ___________________ Steal Away Home
Key 1 - Answer ID # 0461542

Chapters 1-6"
1. What was Mr. Weaver's occupation?

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2. How old was Dana? !

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3. What name did Dana and her friend, Ahn, give the unknown dead girl? !

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4. How long had Dana's found body lay dead? !

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5. What did Mrs. Weaver do when Mr. Weaver was out of the house, away on business? ! !

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6. Why did Millicent Weaver want to keep their overnight visitors' stay a secret from her husband? How did little Rebecca almost break their secret?

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Chapters 7-12"
7. How did runaway slaves know when it was safe to stop at Weaver's house?

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8. What crime was Baraby Watts, whom Mr. Weaver was representing, charged with? !

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9. How did Ahn reply to Derek's dare to name one thing she had seen that was scarier than one of the "Freddy" movies? !

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10. Who were the first two arrested in the scuffle between Lawrence citizens and Marshall Fain and his posse? !

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11. What did it mean to follow the drinking gourd? ! 12. Describe how Millicent and James each felt about Miz Lizbet Charles when she first arrived. How do you think little Rebecca perceived the special visitor? Include story details to support your opinions.

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Chapters 13-20"
13.Why did Miss Lizbet have free rein of Weaver's house during most of July, 1856?

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14. What did Lizbet do after hearing three gunshots that killed her husband? !

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15. What arrangement did Millicent Weaver and Miz Lizbet agree to, so that Mr. Weaver wouldn't learn about their fugitive slave business? !

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16. All alone at home, why did Dana go to the basement with a radio, flashlight, and a bag of M&M's? ! ! ! !

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17. Who was Solomon?

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18. Summarize Lizbet's story about William and Ellen Craft, who managed to escape from Georgia to Philadelphia. Include details of why they were able to travel first-class and why they eventually ended up in England.

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Chapters 21-26"
19. Why did Ma Weaver ask James to save the chimney ashes from the fireplace? !

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20. Why did Millicent turn over her diary to Miz Lizbet on November 20, 1856? !

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21. What did James notice when he yanked off Lizbet's boots, exposing her bare feet? !

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22. What campaign did Dr. Shannon pursue with a vengeance? !

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23. What did Dr. Olney feel caused the typhoid fever that ran rampant in and around Lawrence? ! !

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24. Many times in her diary entries, Millicent wrote about the sketches twelve-year-old James drew of houses, windows, and buildings. As Dr. Shannon researched the Wolcott Castle, he discovered that the architect who designed the home was James Baylor Weaver. What can we conclude about James's life as he grew from a child to the Wolcott architect?

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Chapters 27-31"

25. What did the preserved patches of Miz Lizbet's tissue reveal to Dr. Baxi?

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26. How had James Weaver honored the lives of Matthew Luke and Elizabeth Charles in 1877, after completion of the Wolcott Castle? !

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27. In what year were weather conditions intensely cold, thus preserving Lizbet's body? !

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28. What did Dr. Baxi hypothesize to be the cause of Lizbet's death? !

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29. Where did Dana, Ahn, Jeep, Derek, Mike, and Sally hold Miz Lizbet's funeral? ! !

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30. Miz Lizbet changed the lives for many runaways seeking freedom in the mid 1800's. Explain how Lizbet changed Dana's life, over one hundred years later.

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Worksheets/Homework ideas: From students.unca.edu/emsheldo/story%20graphs.docx

Name_________________________________ Date _____________________________

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Plot Worksheet for Steal Away Home
Exposition:
What is the setting of Dana’s portion of Steal Away Home? ______________________________________________________________________" " ______________________________________________________________________" " ______________________________________________________________________

! What is the setting for James’s part of the story? ! ______________________________________________________________________ ! ______________________________________________________________________ ! ______________________________________________________________________ ! ! _____________________________________________________________________ ! ___________________________________________________________________________ !
___________________________________________________________________________

Who are the main characters during Dana’s story? Also give some character traits about the characters.

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Who are the main characters during James’s part? Also give some character traits about the characters.

! ____________________________________________________________________ ! ____________________________________________________________________ ! ____________________________________________________________________ ! ! ! !
What information does the author give to the reader about Dana’s portion that is important to our understanding of the text? What Dana’s basic conflict?

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ !
Rising action:
What is the rising action for Dana’s story? What other secondary conflicts arise? Remember you do not need to include every detail about every event or conflict that was in the book. Just write down the main ones that are related to the main conflict.

What information does the author give to the reader about James’s story that is important to our understanding of the text? What James’s basic conflict?

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ !

_____________________________________________________________________________

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ !
What is the rising action for James story? What other secondary conflicts arise? Remember you do not need to include every detail about every event or conflict that was in the book. Just write down the main ones that are related to the main conflict.

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ !
Climax:

What do you feel the climax was for Dana’s part of the story?

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! What do you feel the climax was for James’s part of the story? ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! ! !
Falling action:
What events occur during the falling action of Dana’s story?

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! What events occur during the falling action of James’s story? ! _______________________________________________________________________ !
_______________________________________________________________________

! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ !
Resolution:
How does Dana’s story resolve?

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! ! ! How does James’s story resolve? ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ !
Other Questions about the book:
Although this book includes two different plots, One for Dana and one for James, they are not unrelated. How are the plots interwoven? How does the author connect them?

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ !

_______________________________________________________________________

! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! Do you feel that this was a good strategy for creating this book? Why or why not? ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! _____________________________________________________________________________ ! _______________________________________________________________________ ! !
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Questions/topics for discussions: From loisruby.com and Barnes and Nobel:

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• In 1856, James Weaver's life is changed forever when he meets Lizbet Charles, a one-time
slave who now helps others find freedom via the Underground Railroad. More than one hundred years later, how does Lizbet also change the life of Dana Shannon?

• Dana's friend Ahn is a refugee from Vietnam, a country that suffered through an especially
long and devastating war. Compare Ahn's twentieth-century experience to those of Lizbet Charles back in the nineteenth-century. What are the important similarities? What are the important differences?

• As Dana explains it, her parents never tell her what to do. They lay out her choices, let her
know what they think she should do, and then leave it to her to decide. Did James Weaver's parents have a similar philosophy? What are the pros and cons of being allowed to make your own decisions?

• Talking about her husband, Mrs. Weaver tells her son, "Pa and I are of the same mind on this
slavery business. He's doing it his way, I'm doing it mine." What is Mr. Weaver's way of fighting slavery? What is Mrs. Weaver's? Which approach would you have taken?

• According to James's grandfather, " . . . a Quaker never raises his hand in wrath against
another man . . . Neither does he roll over and play dead, son. Time comes, thee will know what to do." When does James have to decide how to act on his beliefs? What does he do? Why?

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• Despite James's concern that his mother was breaking the law once again, Mrs. Weaver agrees
to teach Lizbet to read and write. Why do you think it was illegal to teach basic literacy skills to slaves? What threat did educated slaves pose to their owners?

• Solomon, a free black man, could have used force against the slave trader who wanted to
illegally capture him, but he didn't. Why? Would you have shown the same restraint if you were in Solomon's predicament?

• Can laws be unjust? In the nineteenth century, abolitionists believed that laws permitting

! ! Subject lessons: ! From scholastic.com ! To introduce The Underground Railroad !

slavery were wrong. But what about today? Are there any current laws that you think she be overturned?

With Scholastic’s “The Underground Railroad: Escape From Slavery” (grades 4-12), students travel back to 1860 to follow a young slave as he flees a Kentucky plantation for Canada along the Underground Railroad. The interactive slideshow (with audio) lets students read a short article at each stop. They can click on accompanying images to read pop-ups with more information. In this compelling online activity, students get a unique, first-hand account of what life was like for slaves, encounter the dangers of the Underground Railroad, meet brave abolitionists who helped runaways, and compare life in the North and South. • On the Plantation: Here, students “meet” Walter, a young slave sold to a plantation in Kentucky. • Escape!: Walter sneaks away during the night, headed for the Ohio River. He runs all night and hides during the day. • Reaching Safety: Walter crosses the Ohio River, encountering a family in Ohio who has helped many slaves. They put him up and plan his route to freedom in Canada. • Reaching Freedom: With help from more abolitionists, Walter passes through Cleveland, his last stop before crossing Lake Erie to Canada. • Tell the Story: In this writing activity, students imagine themselves as slaves in 1870 and answer a set of questions about their journey on the Underground Railroad. Students can read actual interviews with former slaves for more research and inspiration.

! Soon be Free Lesson Plan by Lauren Gold !

Subject Area: Language Arts Reading Level: 5.1 (Advanced) Book Summary " In Soon Be Free, Lois Ruby puts an unusual twist on the historical fiction genre. The engaging story spans two different time periods — the 1850s and the present day — and shuttles the reader between two worlds in the blink of an eye. In modern times, Dana and her friends must solve the mystery of the couple snooping around her parents' bed-and-breakfast, which was once a stop on the Underground Railroad and home to James Baylor Weaver, a famous architect. Back in 1857, James Weaver, along with his family and friends, must risk their lives to rescue runaway slaves and give them a safe haven in their home. As the novel twists and turns through time and space, will Dana and James's worlds collide? Objective " Students will explore and deeply understand the narrative structure of a novel. They will accomplish this learning goal through examining time lines, discussion, noticing details and historical facts, sequencing events, and creating a double time line that illustrates the novel's structure. Standard: Understands specific devices an author uses to accomplish his or her purpose (narrative structure) Warm-up Activity " Review the opening section, "What Happened and When" (pp. vii-ix), with the class to get acquainted with the novel's historical background. Note that certain dates refer to actual historical events, while others are fictional." Discuss: Based on this time line of events, what do you expect to find in this book? Make predictions about the novel's plot, characters, setting, etc. When needed, briefly explain key historical events. Teaching Plan 1. Read Chapters 1 and 2. What do you notice about the structure of the novel? How does this affect your reading? Do you see any connections between the two stories? Students will discuss how the story is set in two different time periods — the 1850s and the present. They will comment on how the book transports the reader quickly between the past and present, which may be confusing at first, but keeps the reader interested. They may also find connections between the story lines: Dana and her friends are trying to solve a mystery related to James Baylor Weaver, and the second story is about James Weaver's role in the Underground Railroad as a young boy. 2. While reading the novel, ask students to keep a running log of important events for each chapter. Include both historical and fictional events (Example: In Chapter 12, James and his family discuss the Dred Scott case that was passed that day, and Mrs. Weaver decides that James will travel to Kentucky to meet the runaway slaves.) 3. Explain to the class that for their final project, they will construct a Past & Present Time Line. Using their journal notes (see Step 3) and the time line from the book (see Warm-up Activity), create a double time line that charts major events from the two intersecting

stories. For example, the 1850s time line will mark events in the life of young James Weaver, as well as significant historical moments. On the other hand, the modern time line will highlight events in Dana's journey to solve a mystery which traces back to the 1850s. In this way, students will visually represent the novel's dual story line and understand how the two stories intersect and weave together. Other Books About Slavery in United States History " Letters From a Slave Girl: The Story of Harriet Jacobs" by Mary E. Lyons " A fictionalized account of the life of Harriet Jacobs, written in the form of letters she might have penned during her slavery in North Carolina and before her escape to the North in 1842. Something Upstairs" by Avi" When his family relocates from Los Angeles to Providence, Kenny realizes that his new home is haunted by the ghost of Caleb, a black slave boy who asks Kenny to travel back in time with him to the 1800s and prevent his murder by an evil slave owner. Freedom's Wings: Corey's Diary, Kentucky to Ohio, 1857 (Dear America)" by Sharon Dennis Wyeth " Having learned to read and write from his father, Corey Birdsong records in his diary his daily life as a slave on the Hart Farm. But when Corey's father flees to the North, Corey's fate changes as he and his mother make the dangerous journey along the Underground Railroad. Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky" by Faith Ringgold " Cassie Louise has lost her little brother, Be Be. He has gone back to the time when there were slaves. Now it's up to Cassie Louise to find Be Be before the bounty hunters find her. Will Cassie Louise encounter anyone who can help her? The Drinking Gourd" by F.N. Monjo " A young boy learns that his home is a secret station on the Underground Railroad and helps a family of slaves follow the "drinking gourd" (Big Dipper) north to freedom. The House of Dies Drear (Dies Drear Series)" by Virginia Hamilton " Thomas Small and his family discover tunnels, ghosts, and unexpected treasures when they move into Drear House, home of the legendary abolitionist, Dies Drear. Other Books by Lois Ruby " Steal Away Home (companion to Soon Be Free)" Swindletop" Pig-out Inn" Skin Deep Teaching Plan written by Lauren Gold

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Writing Assignments: From loisruby.com and Barns and Nobel:

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Although it's unlikely that you'll stumble onto a skeleton, dig deeper into the history of your own home. With the help of your parents or older family members, find out when the building was constructed and why. Learn as much as you can about earlier occupants. Did they leave anything behind after they moved? The Religious Society of Friends, commonly called the Quakers, continues to attract believers. If possible, invite a member of the Society of Friends to speak to your class or group about their philosophy of pacifism. How do modern day Quakers act on that belief? During such major wars as World War I, World War II, and the Vietnam War, how did Quakers respond? Years after Lizbet dies, James remembers her heroism with a small marker. Who are the real-life, but little known, heroes and heroines in your community? Brainstorm ways you can pay tribute to them now. The Drinking Gourd, the constellation better known as the Big Dipper, helped guide runaway slaves to what they hoped would be freedom in Canada. Go outside and search the sky one clear night. Take your own long look at the Drinking Gourd. Research the life and legacy of John Brown, the abolitionist whose violent tactics attracted James's friend Will and repulsed James's devoutly Quaker father. Do you think John Brown did harm or good to the anti-slavery cause? Why? Imagine that you are James, just arrived on the Kansas frontier in 1856. Write letters to your friends back in Boston. Be sure to include a description of your new hometown and your thoughts about the ongoing struggles between pro-and anti-slavery factions. The Underground Railroad had many stops throughout the northern United States. Was one of them in your hometown? If your community was established before the Civil War, research its history during that period. There are many fine documentaries available about the anti-slavery movement and the coming of the Civil War. Search for them in libraries or video stores. Compare their nonfictional treatment of the war with the fictional account you've just read. Which approach do you prefer? Why?

From https://docs.google.com/a/cnu.edu/document/preview hgd=1&id=1FOjDhz7uie0VlQgnBDiASdJ67eTBiwIEBqbFmvPuvyY

! Steal Away Home Journal Prompts 2012 ! !

Ch 1-3 The Weaver family practices the Quaker religion believing in nonviolence to solve disputes. Mrs. Weaver secretly goes behind her husband to aide runaway slaves, which is uncommon for women in the mid 1800’s. Is Mrs. Weaver brave or foolish in her endeavors? Why? Ch 4-7

In chapter 4, you learn read about “Beecher’s Bibles”. Do you think it is right for a man of the church, Preacher Harry Beecher, to have his congregation be donating their money for the purchase of rifles? Support your response.

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Ch 8-10 In chapter 9, Caleb Weaver is representing a man named Barnaby Watts who is charged with helping a Negro slave escape. Mrs. Weaver quotes from the bible to make her point to her husband how she is angry at his position in defending Watts when he doesn’t believe the man is really innocent. “On one side is God’s law, and the other side is man’s law. What does Mr. Weaver mean by this statement?

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Ch 11-14 In chapter 14, Lizbet tells the story of Miz Ellen Craft. How did Craft escape? Ch 15-18 Tell me the background story of Mathew Luke Charles, Lizbet’s husband. p. 106-108

Ch 19-21 Throughout this novel, Mrs. Weaver, Rebecca and James keep the secret of harboring slaves in their home from their father. Are the three of them wrong in doing this? Why or why not? Ch 22-24 Tell me about the origin of the term “Hush Puppies”.

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Ch 25-27 At then end of chapter 26, Miz Lizbet returns in the snowstorm and helps James take care of Solomon. Mr. Weaver is out. Predict what you think Mr. Weaver’s reaction would be if he walked into his home and found her there nursing Solomon. Ch 28-31 Dana's friend Ahn is a refugee from Vietnam, a country that suffered through an especially long and devastating war. Compare Ahn's twentieth-century experience to those of Lizbet Charles back in the nineteenth-century. What are the important similarities? What are the important differences?

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Closing novel journal: Lizbet and Mrs. Weaver were unusually brave women for their times in 1850 America. Tell me how Lizbet and Mrs. Weaver were very similar. Give at least three examples from your reading. Book Lessons: PowerPoint for Chapters 1-18 dealing with time, characters, and setting:

mrsfavors.weebly.com/uploads/2/3/6/1/.../steal_away_home.pptx

Study Guides: Vocabulary study guide http://drobinson5liveoak.com/DCSS%20Vocabulary%20%20Study%20Guides.pdf

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Dougherty County School System Fifth Grade Vocabulary Study Guide 2nd 9 Weeks: Week 10 Steal Away Home Chapter 1-4 1. witticisms – witty remarks or jokes 2. dawdle – wasted time, moved slowly 3. autopsy – inspection and dissection of a body after death, as for determination of the cause of death 4. raucous –in harsh, rowdy manner 5. impenetrable – not penetrable; that cannot be penetrated, pierced, entered, etc. 6. coroner – an officer of the county whose chief function is to investigate any death not clearly resulting from natural causes. 7. whittle – to cut, trim, or shape (a stick, piece of wood, etc.) by carving off bits with a knife 8. ruffians – tough, unlawful persons 9. enraptured – fascinated, entranced, and captivated 10. domestic – pertaining to the home or to the household 11. economical – sparing; avoiding waste or extravagance

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Dougherty County School System Fifth Grade Vocabulary Study Guide 2nd 9 Weeks: Week 11 Steal Away Home Chapter 5-12 1. brusquely–energetically;inalivelymanner 2. forensic–relatingtotheuseofscienceortechnologyintheinvestigation and establishment of facts or evidence in a court of law 3. civilly–peacefully,withoutmakingtrouble 4. regenerated–reproduced;recreated;restored 5. skeptical–inadoubtfulmanner;suspiciously 6. diversion–somethingthatdistractsthemindorattention 7. intricate–complexorcomplicated;elaborate;fancy

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Dougherty County School System Fifth Grade Vocabulary Study Guide 2nd 9 Weeks: Week 12 Steal Away Home Chapter 13-14 1. derivative – copied or adapted from others; not original 2. chauffeur – a person employed to drive a private automobile or limousine for the owner 3. etiquette – conventional requirements as to social behavior; a set of rules that are established in any class or community or for any occasion 4. vile – disgusting; highly offensive, unpleasant, or objectionable 5. fugitive – a person who is fleeing from prosecution, intolerable circumstances etc.; a runaway

6. indignant – a feeling, or expressing strong displeasure with something considered offensive, insulting 7. cloak – a loose outer garment, such as a cape or shawl 8. stampede – a sudden, rush of a hear of frightened animals, especially cattle or horses 9. Kansas-Nebraska Compromise – this compromise gave Kansas and Nebraska the right to choose if they wanted to be a slave or free state. It was hoped to reduce tensions and perhaps provide a solution to the slavery issue in the United States, but it lead to increased violence over slavery.

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Dougherty County School System Fifth Grade Vocabulary Study Guide 2nd 9 Weeks: Week 13 Steal Away Home Chapter 15-19 1. avidly – excitedly; enthusiastically 2. incorrigible – hopeless; bad beyond correction or reform 3. quinine – a medicine used chiefly in the treatment of resistant forms of malaria 4. carcass – the dead body of an animal 5. ague – a fever marked by periods of child, fever, and sweating 6. feigned – pretended; faked 7. raiment – clothing apparel; attire

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Dougherty County School System Fifth Grade Vocabulary Study Guide 2nd 9 Weeks: Week 14 Steal Away Home Chapter 20-26 1. jaundiced – yellow or yellowish discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes etc., due to an increase of bile pigments in the blood. 2. gangrene – a serious infection leading to the death of body tissue 3. quest – a search made to achieve a goal 4. barbarian – an uncivilized or crude person 5. corn dodgers – oval cakes made of cornbread and fried hard in a skillet (hush puppy). 6. dominion – power or control over something 7. ulcerations – secretions of sores; abscesses 8. abolitionist – a person who supported the ending of slavery in the United States.

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Dougherty County School System Fifth Grade Vocabulary Study Guide 2nd 9 Weeks: Week 15 Steal Away Home Chapter 27-31 1.chromatograph – a piece of equipment that separates mixtures for analysis 2.covetous – wanting something or someone’s belongings in a jealous or envious manner

3.demoralizing – discouraging; upsetting; disheartening 4.catapult – to fling into the air with great force; launch 5.discreet – cautious; careful; watchful 6.degeneration – process in which a tissue deteriorates or weakens 7.snidely – in a hasty; superior manner

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Dougherty County School System Fifth Grade Vocabulary Study Guide 2nd 9 Weeks: Week 16 Poetry II 1. literal – of the nature of or involving a figure of speech 2. idiom – a language, dialect or style of speaking peculiar to a group of people 3. prose – the ordinary form of spoken or written language, as different from poetry or verse 4. personification – a character or inanimate objects having or taking on the attributes of a human 5. metaphor – a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is used to compare to unlike things without using the words ‘like’ or ‘as’ 6. simile – a figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared using the words ‘like’ or ‘as’ 7. fluency – able to speak or write smoothly, easily, or readily 8. figurative – of the nature of or involving a figure of speech 9. alliteration – is a repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words 10. hyperbole – an obvious and intentional exaggeration

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From teacherweb.com/GA/.../Steal-Away-Home-Study-Guide-for.docx

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Steal Away Home Study Guide for Steal Away Home Test, Part II Name __________________________________________ (due Friday) Fill in the following blanks and then study each night for Friday’s test on November 8th. The two protagonists in the novel Steal Away Home by ____________ ______________ are a girl named __________________ and a boy named _________________ who live in different time periods. In Dana’s time there is no antagonist, just a mystery surrounding the cause of Elizabeth _______________’s death. In James’ time the antagonist is ____________________ ___________, a man who wants to catch the _______________________ family because he knows they are _____________________ slaves. The two states at war against each other in the mid-1850s were ________________________ and ________________________. These states disagreed about the future of _____________________. Border ruffians from _________________________

would often attack people in ________________________. The Marshall was on the side of the ______ _________________ (the group of ruffians). Elizabeth Charles, a runaway slave, was married to a man named ___________ _____________ __________. He was ________________________ by his owner’s wife because she resented him. Solomon, on the other hand, wasn’t a slave at all, but was captured by a _________________ __________________ who refused to accept Solomon’s ______________ ______________. Since Caleb Weaver was a _________________________, he worked hard to rescue Solomon and bring him back home. James’s sister, Rebecca, gets sick with ___________________ _______________, followed by Solomon and Elizabeth. The only one of them to actually die from it is _________________________, so James and his father build a ___________ to hide her body from _____________________ ______________ and his men. Dana, _________________, and ________________ decide to break into _________________ Castle in their home town to see if they can learn anything new about James who was the ________________________. They don’t discover much, except that Jeep almost ________________ when he fell through the floor of a ___________________. A few days later he and the kids returned to the castle for a ____________ __________________, hosted by Dana’s father.

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Some of the funny anecdotes throughout the novel: • Elizabeth says the fever is cured by ______________ ______________ but Dr. Olney says it’s _____________________ that does the trick. • Elizabeth’s dead husband has three _________________ something Elizabeth likes to joke about. _________________,

• Dana’s cousin constantly quotes _____ ________________ ____ _________ when teasing Dana. • James’ grandfather tells James that he could someday be just like the famous artist ___________________________. • Ma hints to Marshall Fain that he might be _____________________________, but he responds, “I read good enough.” • Elizabeth wishes the letter _____________ had never been invented.

• If you are trying to stop bounty hunters from chasing slaves, feed their dogs some ___________ _________________. • If you wanted to head north to freedom in the 1800s, you need to follow the _________________ ____________________ • When Elizabeth Charles refuses to discuss it anymore, she simply says _____________, and that’s the end of the conversation. • To honor Elizabeth Charles and her husband, James ________ ____ _____________ and places a __________________ at Wolcott Castle.

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character flashcardshttp://quizlet.com/13796457/steal-away-home-characters-flash-cards/ Dana She found a skeleton behind a wall. James He was the architect who designed Wolcott Castle. Jeep He was an African-American friend of Dana. Rebecca James's little sister. Will James's friend. "Ma" Millicent Weaver A Quaker woman who hid slaves on the Underground Railroad. "Pa" Caleb Weaver A Quaker who was a lawyer. Miz Lizbet A runaway slave who is leading other slaves to freedom. Soloman A free slave who worked for Dr. Olney.

Grandpa Baylor He said, "Thee must fight fire with fire, James.”

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"Ma" Millicent Weaver She tried to teach Miz Lizbet to read and write. Rebecca She became sick with feaver and Miz Lizbet made her tea from Wild Indigo Root. Dana She decided to keep the journal, black book or diary, and from the police and turn it in to the police on July 1st. "Pa" Caleb Weaver He said, "James, bear in mind that a Quaker never raises his " hand in wrath against another man. Neither does he roll over and play dead.” Soloman Miz Lizbet was "sweet on him.” Miz Lizbet The skeleton that was found in Dana's attic belonged to this " person. James He had trouble deciding if it was right to be violent or " nonviolent when fighting against slavery. "Pa" Caleb Weaver He is trying to change the Constitution so that slavery is illegal " and Kansas is a Free State. He researched Miz Lizbet and found out that she may have " died from Typhoid Fever.

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Will He came to James's house on his way to fight with John Brown dressed in Levi trousers, red leggings, and a leather belt with a gun.

Graphic organizers: Vocabulary: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-HcozOEi1Bms/T4xaWqv1dwI/AAAAAAAABF8/InciRhwXVqA/ s320/Vocabulary+Graphic+Organizer+Center+png+pic1+white.png (Next Page)

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Chapter Organizers: From http://bainbridgeclass.blogspot.com/2012/10/graphic-organizers-for-big-kids-and.html https://docs.google.com/a/cnu.edu/file/d/0ByqNOZyPC_-0cVVZcTc2V29LOXc/edit? pli=1

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Tab 4 a) Analysis b) About the Author

Analysis of Author Background: Louis Ruby’s background is integral to understanding the novel as a whole. I would use Ruby’s background because it influences her writing completely. Ruby is an eccentric personality with a lot still to offer as a newer and, albeit older, young adult fiction writer. She is in her mid to late fifties and started writing in her forties. Ruby said in an interview most students think that she is a twenty year old hipster in a leather jacket before meeting her. Ruby writes with such a young spirit that I think my students will find interesting and can be seen in her writing. She used her professed home state of Kansas, although she is really from California, as the historical backdrop and setting, her background in adolescent literature to write her novels, and the history of Kansas to create meaningful novel. They focus on not just a good story, but historical content that almost anyone can learn. Lois Ruby lives in Kansas and was a young adult librarian before she began to write. This previous experience with adolescent literature helped Ruby to understand what needs to be in a good work of young adult fiction. Ruby is also well known for her historical fiction which helps extend learning through the Weaver family and tie in real world application through Dana’s experiences. Ruby also travels to schools around the country. This could be beneficial to bring her to the school to talk to the children about the novel and her research. Ruby knows how important it is to keep learning even after reading a book, so her website is full of discussion questions and essay questions for students, which are in tab three. These resources could lead a final essay on a test or a future research project. One of the most important parts of her discussion questions is the history of Kansas and the time period in which she writes James’ narration.

In Steal Away Home, the novel is set in Kansas and during the past time period which was before the Kansas Nebraska Act came into effect. Ruby’s novels are set in Kansas which gives an element of historical significance and reality to her novels. She considers Kansas her home state instead of California which is where she grew up. Ruby uses her surroundings to tap into the creative mind that has written fifteen novels in less than thirteen years. The living breathing history Ruby inhabits everyday gives her novels an authentic feel. Ruby focuses on the Underground Railroad which is another historically important movement in the Civil War era and historically impacted Kansas since it was a free state. By writing this novel in Kanas, she refutes a typical early conception that the Underground Railroad only occurred in the South. This is seen through the Weaver’s timeline since they are battling against the slave states and Mrs. Weaver helps escaped slaves. This concept is also seen in the diary entries Mrs. Weaver wrote which demonstrated the concepts of Quaker ideology and the history of Kansas, more on this concept in tab five. This novel was one of her most time consuming and hardest to write. She started with a mental image of finding the skeleton, but the history that surrounds her is what helped make the story possible. This creativity Ruby possesses is a wonderful role model for young adolescents wanting to write. An interesting warm up would be to have students image a situation and come up with how they would solve the mystery getting them to write and use their critical thinking skills. Ruby is early in her career in writing, so in a way she is in a teenager like stage. She knows rejection as well which sometimes is hard for students to understand not all authors are immediate successes. Some of her novels were rejected 15 to 20 times before they were published, so she is an excellent example of a determined writer. This is a good model for

students who give up writing because it is too hard. A good thing to remember though is that each time Ruby was rejected; she kept writing. This demonstrates a work ethic some early writers can look up to that even a published author has to revise. She also loves using word differentiation. If Ruby cannot find a good word for what she is trying to say, then she will wait until it comes to her. The vocabulary lists I have found, located in tab three, are very helpful since she uses some great words middle school students should know and she chooses her words carefully. This combined with the vocabulary organizer, also in tab three, can help students learn and understand the vocabulary used in her novels. A major characteristic in Ruby’s writing is the dual time frame. She uses past and present events to create significance for the young adult reader. She uses characters similar in age to those in middle school. This creates a link between reader and subject. Ruby writes the character in the past similar to the modern age character which is much easier for students to draw connections between them. These characters also experience some of the same social pressures like parental expectations and societal pressures that students have to deal with today. Dana and James are also going through a period of adolescence which my students are going through. This helps create more attachment to the characters uncovering the historical timeline while the other is discovering the historical impact in her own life in today’s society. Ruby does a fantastic job making these characters self-reflexive and complicated while maintaining an interesting in the historical significance. Ruby also loves television and media which she explains why she loves dual storytelling and timelines. The dual timelines also help to make the story suspenseful which is one of the key elements she uses in her novels. It keeps the students reading more, but unfortunately it sometimes fell flat.

I think introducing the author’s back ground information will help students understand her writing style better and the overall importance of the work. With Ruby’s ability to research her home state, students will be intrigued to research their own state for historical importance to the Civil War or other historic events. Ruby’s natural creativity can also inspire children to be creative in writing projects in class. I know I wanted to know more about Kansas’ involvement in the free slave movement. Her imagination combined with her knack for research created an interesting read full of historical significance not just for the Kansas Nebraska Act, but also the Underground Railroad. Ruby uses her ingenuity and personal background to create an authentic story. James’ timeline is key to understanding the historical implications of the time, but Dana’s timeline helps students to understand how it impacted us today. The historical importance of the area is also important to her subject matter since Ruby sets most of her novels in Kansas where she can see its influence and write about it in her novels. She is very conscious of her audience since she was a librarian for many years before becoming an author. Ruby knows her audience and it is to her credit that she does. She incorporates sometimes mundane factual information with action pact events and storytelling. Unfortunately, since Ruby’s writing is mostly historically centered, she loses some of the more traditional literary devices. Ruby’s style is mostly simplistic since she is so focused on the historical content. However, this is not a failing on her part, but it does make finding subject lessons on literary content difficult for older grades. She does have the elements middle schoolers are tested on such as: setting, themes, and plot. Ruby seems like a wonderful guest speaker since she explained on her website she makes school visits. I think using the author’s background will help add another layer to the understanding of Steal Away Home.

About the Author: From Steal Away Home: Steal Away Home began as a mental image of a skeleton, which haunted Lois Ruby for several months. Writing the book was a way of fleshing out the bones and giving them real life. Once a young-adult librarian, Ms. Ruby now spends most of her time writing and teaching creative-writing workshops. She is the author of two short story collections for teenagers, as well as several novels for and about young people, including Skin Deep, Miriam’s Well (an ALA Best Book for Young Adults), and Soon Be Free, the sequel to Steal Away Home. Ms. Ruby lives in Wichita, Kansas, with her husband. From the Lois Ruby website: Lois Ruby began working on Steal Away Home, her fifth novel for young readers, when a mental image of a skeleton, sealed away behind a wall, began to haunt her thoughts. Once she had decided that the skeleton belonged to a runaway slave, Ms. Ruby started researching the history of Kansas just before the Civil War. She was soon hooked, and the story began to pour out at a furious pace. A former young-adult librarian, Ms. Ruby now spend most of her time writing and leading creative-writing workshops. She and her husband live in Wichita, Kansas, and are the parents of three grown sons. From Goodreads: Lois Ruby is the author of fifteen books for middle-graders and teens, including STEAL AWAY HOME, SKIN DEEP, and THE SECRET OF LAUREL OAKS. She and her husband live in Albuquerque, New Mexico, at the foothills of the awesome Sandia Mountains. Lois explores lots of haunted places, including ghostly locations in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and even a few spooky spots in Australia and Thailand. No spirits have tapped her on the shoulder yet, but she hasn't given up hope.

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Lois Ruby is the author of several novels, including Steal Away Home, which was named an IRA Young Adults' Choice and a Notable Children's Trade Book in the Field of Social Studies (NCSS/CBC). Before she turned to writing, she was a young adult librarian for the Dallas Public Library. In her spare time she serves on the board of Inter-Faith Inn, a homeless shelter in Wichita, Kansas, and sometimes teaches minicourses to seventh and eighth graders. “The place I feel most comfortable,” she says, “is among teenagers, laughing.” The mother of three sons, she

lives in Wichita with her husband, Thomas. - See more at: http://authors.simonandschuster.com/ Lois-Ruby/1316304#sthash.Poots5dU.dpuf

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From washburn.edu: Lois Ruby sneaked in the back door as a writer for young people. That is, she was a Young Adult librarian for the Dallas Public Library, and after reading a thousand or so books in her department, she decided she could write the stories herself. Why not? Her first book was published in 1977. Since then, fourteen more have seen print, and she’s no longer a working librarian. Instead, her time is divided among her family, research, writing, and visiting schools to energize children and teenagers about the joys of reading and the ideas in books for young readers. Lois shares her life with her psychologist husband of 46 years, Dr. Tom Ruby, and their three sons, daughters-in-law, and five brilliant grandchildren. Lois was raised in California and seasoned in Texas and Kansas (which she considers home). She lived in Wichita, Kansas, for 30 years, raising her children and publishing her first 11 books there. Lois succumbed to the enchantment of New Mexico’s ever-changing mountains and resettled in Albuquerque. She loves writing and gets lost for days in the library or her office, where her husband checks in every so often to make sure she’s still breathing. Her latest book, Strike! Mother Jones and the Colorado Coal Field War, about the notorious early 20th century rabble-rouser, Mother Jones, once called “the most dangerous woman in America!," will be her initial foray into non-fiction. When asked how long she has been writing Ms. Ruby stated, "I've pretty much been writing since first grade, when I first learned to read by the ancient method of the "Dick and Jane" books. Those primers were so awful that I decided to write my own stories with the limited vocabulary I had. And I've just kept going since then! My first book was published in 1977. My 15th will be out this year, and it's my first non-fiction title, also aimed at middle graders and teens. Next year my next teen novel will be published.” Letter from the author: From Lois Ruby website: I'm older than you think. Kids tell me they expect me to arrive at their school in a flak jacket and black lipstick, or at least to have some visible body piercings. But I'm just somebody's chubby mom, and even some people's grandmother. Don't hold that against me, because I made a promise to myself long ago never to grow up totally. My children, who did grow up, can attest to that vow. Guess how dull my childhood was. As a very small kid I lived in the Dominican Republic one year, but otherwise, I stayed pretty close to my hometown of San Francisco. Imagine a time when TV flickered only three hours a day - black and white, on a screen smaller than your

monitor. Of course, there were no computers or video games or cell phones, so what's an only child to do? Well, every Saturday morning I walked 12 blocks to the nearest San Francisco Public Library branch and checked out a stack of books which I began reading on the walk home, dodging motorcycles and cars with blaring horns. Saturday afternoons I went to the movies. That cost 20¢, plus a nickel for a Licorice Twist. All those years I made up stories, too. In seventh grade I won an essay contest on the topic, "Use Your Garbage Can." It's safe to say that essay stunk. As a sophomore I wrote a satire on the most popular kids in my school, firing off every snide observation I could. It was pretty cold, but somehow it got published in Teen magazine, which certainly didn't help my popularity. If you could go back and find that story (which I hope you can't), you'd see that I understood and lived the awkwardness and mixed feelings that define being a teenager. I've never forgotten. Determined to be an adventurous bachelor girl who had exotic romances all over the world, I met my future husband, Tom Ruby, the very first day of college at the University of California, Berkeley, during the tumultuous '60s. Five years later we were married, and we still are. Meanwhile, I finished my degree in English and a master's in library science. That's how I got to know books for teens - as a Young Adult librarian for the Dallas Public Library. What I read way back then was so poor that I figured it would be a cinch to write books for young people. Boy, was I wrong! Our sons were born while their dad was working on his Ph.D. in psychology. Can you beat this? - a husband that I've grown up with over the last 40+ years, three sons who have never been in trouble, a couple of amazing, strong-willed, creative daughters-in-law, and a bunch of grandchildren, all of whom are brilliant and highly photogenic. My sippy cup runneth over. David, our oldest son, is a lawyer and financial analyst preparing for a new career as a teacher and a consultant to non-profit projects. His beautiful redheaded daughter is Jocelyn, born in 1998. Kenn, whose curse is to be the "middle child," is a software quality assurance analyst in Cincinnati. He knows more than you'd ever want to know about movies and sports, and is a professional contributor to numerous online fantasy sports websites. His wife, Julie, has carved time out of her busy HR career to be a full-time mom to Jacob, born in 2006, and Evan, born in 2011. Jeff is the chief dining critic at Chicago magazine and the author of Everybody Loves Pizza, numerous magazine articles, and a bundle of stories and scripts ripe for publication. His wife, Sarah, is the brains and brawn behind Jeff's writing. She's an inspired teacher and the mother of Hannah, born in 2005, Max in 2007, and Abigail in 2012. Their dog is Easy, but I don't fully claim her as a grandchild.

These twelve people are the ones I love most in the world. They give me both the roots I need to stay grounded and the wings I covet to soar. I've had lots of jobs. I've been . . . a waitress in a truck stop restaurant, a statistical typist, the director of a summer day camp and a Hebrew school, an art and music librarian, and a full-time mother, community volunteer, and office manager for a psychologist. I don't relish any of those jobs as well as my real job, which is writing, visiting schools to talk about writing, and teaching writing. You see the trend, here? Anything else you'd need to know about me you'll find in my books. So, read on!

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Frequently Asked Questions: From Lois Ruby’s website

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Is it easy to get a book published?" Not for me. Just about every one of my books has been rejected, some 15 or 20 times. My rule is, if three different editors turn the book down, I read it carefully to see what needs to be fixed. With the help of my critique groups, I fix it and try again. How long does it take you to write a book?" From the first glimmering of an idea (in the form of a character), through the thinking, the research, the first draft, and the rewrites, figure on three to five years. I've actually worked on one book for 25 years and haven't gotten it right yet. Isn't it boring working on one book for so long?" I'm usually researching one book, writing another, and revising a third all around the same time. That keeps me from going nuts with boredom. Do you write on a computer?" I write every scene really fast, with a nice pointy pen on the back of used paper. Then I start slowly revising the scene as I type it into my Mac. So, do you revise a lot?" You decide: does 10 or 15 revisions for each book seem like a lot to you?

Do you like the covers of your books?" Usually not, but I have nothing to do with what goes on the outside of the book. All that's decided by the art department of the publishing house. They send me a draft from time to time, but there's not much opportunity to make changes. So, I'm not responsible for goofy covers! I am responsible for the one that has my son's picture on it. See if you can figure out which one that is. Are there mistakes in your books?" There's a big mistake in just about every book of mine, even after careful research and editing. I try not to blush or turn snarly when someone points these errors out to me. What's your favorite book?" That I wrote? I couldn't possibly pick a favorite, any more than I could pick a favorite son. That someone else wrote? Okay, I'll give you a few kids' books I love. For middle-grade readers, Jerry Spinelli's Maniac Magee, Lois Lowry's The Giver, Gennifer Choldenko's Al Capone Does My Shirts, Christopher Paul Curtis's Elijah of Buxton, and Patricia McLachlan's Sarah, Plain and Tall. For older readers: Rob Thomas's Rats Saw God, Francisco X. Stork's Marcelo in the Real World, most of Pete Hautman's books, especially Godless, and every word Robert Cormier ever wrote. My favorite adult novel is Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck. And if you want a good, gentle cry every time you come to the last page, pick up the exquisite picture book, Pink and Say, by Patricia Palacco. What are some of your other favorite things?" Colors/blue. Foods/avocados and enchiladas. People/my family. Animals/pigs. Cars/anything that starts on a winter morning. What do you do in your spare time?" What spare time? I'm on a few boards and committees; hit about 30 schools, libraries, and book festivals each year; visit my kids around the country; and occasionally fly to fascinating places like China and Australia and New Zealand. All the while, I read for fun and do lots of research. In my spare time I write books! Do you ever write about people you know?" I try not to, because I don't want to embarrass anyone, or be stuck writing about what really happened. It's more fun to make things up. Hey, can you put me in a book?" You'll probably recognize yourself in one of my stories, but you'll have a different name. Is writing a lonely job?" Certainly not! I've got intriguing people trotting around in my head, and I can make them do anything I want, but only for a while. Eventually they take on a life of their own and they lead me down unexplored trails.

What are you writing now?" I never talk about works in progress, because if you say too much about them, they evaporate into mist. What advice would you give young writers?" Read everything, from cereal boxes to Dr. Seuss to War and Peace. Read out loud to hear how words sound, how they feel rolling around on your tongue and not just on the back of your eyelids. Spy on conversations. Feed your curiosity. Ask "why?" and "what if?" Keep a journal. Jot down fascinating tidbits, what the writer Joan Didion calls "bits of the mind's string too short to use." Use them. Don't censor your work as you write. Write down your first thoughts fast, without worrying about spelling or grammar or punctuation. Then go back and fix it all up carefully. Let somebody you trust give you feedback. Most important: write and write and write . . Interviews: From Lois Ruby’s website: Kansas English, Volume 85, Number 1, Spring 2000, pp.84-89, published annually by the Kansas Association of Teachers of English, an affiliate of the National Council of Teachers of English. An Interview with Lois Ruby" (by John T. Ikeda Franklin, Editor) Lois Ruby, noted author of adolescent/young adult literature, spoke at the 1999 KATE conference. After she addressed and entertained us, I asked if she might be willing to participate in an "e-mail interview." She agreed. To prepare for the interview I read some of her works, including Skin Deep and Miriam's Well (both of which I recommend highly), after which I prepared some leading questions ranging from realism in her work, to her use of vocabulary, to her thoughts on conventions and expectations and rewards for both writer and reader, to how she would teach her novels, to new projects, to an opportunity to express her concerned opinion about the contemporary "community" of young people who are our students. She formed her responses into a series of thoughtful, insightful essays which she calls: SOME MEANDERING THROUGH YOUR QUESTIONS On Realism" I will admit that I'm wildly envious of the success of the Harry Potter books. Nothing like this phenomenon has ever happened in the history of children's literature. Realistic novels for young people even if penned by Judy Blume could never reach the gargantuan popularity and stunning numbers J.K. Rowling's books have achieved. And yet, realism is where I choose to dwell,

because it is far more interesting to me than wizardry and high jinks. Realism is where people are, not where they wished they were. If my characters wish they were somewhere else, that somewhere is to be found within them, not in an alternate universe where the rules are turned topsy-turvy. The key to realistic literature is that characters have to figure out just what those mysterious and elusive rules are, then decide when to live within them, and when to change them to fit real-life circumstances. So, how to fashion realism? You mentioned brand names as one device, but this is tricky. I have to select brands that are universally recognizable, yet time-and-place specific and not so faddish that they'll be out of vogue before the ink is dry. Brand names also say a lot about socioeconomic conditions and about the choices a character makes. For example, a snobbish girl may be defined by the specific brands she doesn't select (e.g., K-Mart) and yet may shop for trendy "vintage" clothes at the DAV. Another kid might wish he had the money for Old Navy, but must settle for Wal-Mart. You can make similar distinctions with brand name restaurants, hair products, pens, computers just about anything that's in popular culture. There are other techniques I use, some unconsciously, to suggest realism. Details have to be as accurate as I can make them at the time I'm writing the story. If I say two streets in a known city intersect, they'd better. If the setting of a scene is fairly esoteric, I'd try to choose details that paint a picture with a few carefully applied brush strokes. I want characters to see a clear image, although the picture they see in their mind's eye is going to be quite different from the one I envision. In writing dialog or first-person musings, I try to "hear" my characters talk and think so they sound like real, contemporary kids, yet people whose language choices and speech patterns are distinctive from one another. Again, the trick is to use language that sounds like today, but won't be embarrassingly obsolete if the book should happen to stay in print a few years. (Most books for teenagers have a shelf life slightly longer than that of cottage cheese.) I write a lot of historical fiction, and of course the language must sound like the specific yesterdays in which the story is set. Research is essential, not just so the language sounds and feels timely, but also so I don't allow anachronisms to intrude on the realistic setting. A family sitting down to breakfast in Civil War times isn't going to be pouring homogenized milk on corn flakes while the noise of helicopters drowns out family table chatter! Such juxtapositions work delightfully in humorous essays, but what I'm writing, I hope, are serious novels with humor interwoven in them, and thus, the humor has to fit the time and place as well. And that brings up another point. I believe books for young people absolutely must contain humor. A humorless story is as dry as winter skin. Humor is indigenous to kids. It lightens the load of heavy realism and, as Mary Poppins said, "a spoonful of sugar makes the medicine go down." To be realistic, humor might sound stupid in the mouth of a cool 14-year-old, or might just roll off the lips of another who's a bit geeky or pretentious. But, enough about realism.

On Vocabulary" I adore words. As a species, we spill so many words, yet use so few. It's like eating vast quantities of peas and radishes, when thousands of varieties of vegetables are available in the world's markets. I talked a little about dialog and word choice to create realism, so let me just add a few . . . "words." It's unfair for an author to pepper a story with his or her own inflated vocabulary. No need to show off; we were all English majors! It's much more fun to seek out words I wouldn't dream of using in my own life and put them in the mouths and thoughts of character who aren't at all like me. There are times when I'm immobilized while looking for the right word. I may try 10 or 12 apparent synonyms (and a few not so synonymous) until I hit the one that pleases me, i.e., creates the right mood in the most efficient way. Other times words rush like water through a brook, but they splash all over and mercifully evaporate on dry land. Now, you asked if I see my writing as a way to enhance my readers' vocabulary skills. Absolutely not. Lots of kids aren't reading, but those who are already have good language skills. I just want my words to create pictures in their minds that arouse a response. On My Own Conventions, Expectations, and Rewards" I like your analogy of a piece of literature as a game played between the author and the reader. Yet I'm not sure I agree with it. I think it's a game played on the court in the author's mind. Will this particular serve land the ball right where I want it to? Will it enable the character to return it? Will it knock him out of the game? Will it violate rules, enhance skills, create fights, model justice or injustice? Is it winnable? Is it worth playing at all? I have to answer those questions and make those decisions before I ever give a thought to a reader. I won't say much about conventions, since my work is pretty conventional, as compared to Francesca Lia Block and her Weetzie Bat books which leave me totally bewildered. (I'm old, that's why.) But as to rewards and expectations: ah. What I expect from my books is what I expect from any decent piece of literature I enjoy reading. I expect a story to inform, touch, shock, disturb, and ultimately comfort me. Above all, I expect a story to make me think, to explore unfamiliar territory with the touchstones of a few familiar landmarks, and make me think in new ways. The rewards? Discovering something new, whether it be a country, a Supreme Court decision, a cultural phenom, a psychological insight, a weird food or just a fresh way of thinking about something that's grown old and stale.

On My Readers' Conventions, Expectations, and Rewards" I suspect readers look for something more concrete than what I've described above, but I actually have no idea what they want. All my years as a reader, a writer, and a librarian have given me insights as to the genres kids love, but I still know very little about what their expectations are from the things they read. And I must consider also that my books are read as often by teachers and librarians and parents as they are by kids. Perhaps the adults are looking for something more like what I described above (for provocative classroom discussions, etc.), or are looking for something safe for the young people in their care to read. I honestly can't concern myself with what adult readers expect from my books, because the stories are about and for young readers. So, what do kids want? First and foremost, they want to be entertained by a story. If the book is boring or irrelevant or antiquated or patronizing, they'll know half way down page one. I think they want characters they can identify with - people who are like them, but not so much like them that the characters can't have and do things in the story that are beyond what the reader experiences. Readers expect to be transported from their own lives into the lives of others. They expect to find a variety of answers to prickly questions in their minds about drugs, alcohol, sex, violence, identity issues, family problem, and all sorts of moral and ethical decisions that confront them each day. They don't expect to be preached to; they expect non-judgmental information and viable options. The rewards come in two areas. One is the pleasure of spending solitary hours with a book that moves them off of dead center, and the other is using information and ideas in the book to sort out their own troubles as they ease (or catapult) into adulthood. On Influences from Other Forms of Expression" Wow, this is tough! I'm a librarian in my 50's and therefore prejudiced toward books as opposed to film, although I love movies. TV is largely a wasteland which delivers not with a whimper, but with a bang (to tweak T.S. Eliot). I use the metaphor of painting a picture to describe what happens with words on paper, because we visualize images constantly while reading. How else could we bring the abstract down to a chewable level? I know that my writing has been influenced by the visual media. It's always been my style to tell a story from two, sometimes diametrically opposing, points of view, or in two different time periods. But recently I've been experimenting with writing shorter scenes from multiple points of view in a more kaleidoscopic, filmic way. Rob Thomas does this so well in Slave Day, but of course his main love is screenwriting, so he comes by it naturally. I'm struggling with this technique but finding it great fun to play with. Whether it works for me or not, it's too early to say. Check with me in five years. A quick note: one of my early books was optioned for a movie. This terrified me, as the producer had full discretion to change anything and everything, and yet my name would appear as the author of the original work. Would I even want my name associated with the final product in

which I could barely recognize my own voice? Fortunately, the option was dropped after two years, and I didn't have to answer that question, nor did I have to worry about a gown for the Oscars! On Teaching My Novels" My [high school] senior English teacher would never teach one of my novels. The very stench of anything so contemporary and banal would send her to the teachers' lounge in pursuit of smelling salts. She would find my writing a severe disappointment and would be mortified that I mentioned her name in the presence of so many other English teachers who should know better. However, I would love the opportunity to teach one of my novels in a middle or high school. I enjoy controversy, but I don't think I'd choose Skin Deep, unless I felt very comfortable with the class and secure in my job. Incidentally, I know the book's been used in some schools in conjunction with units on the Holocaust and First Amendment issues. But the one I'd teach is Miriam's Well. Miriam is a 17-year-old in a Wichita public school. She's a rigid fundamentalist Christian whose unconventional religious beliefs prohibit her from seeking medical care. Naturally, I gave her a disease that was bound to kill her. The book's about how all those around her respond - her family, her church and minister, her friends, her new boy friend (who happens to be Jewish), the teachers, the doctors, and the lawyers. Of course, Miriam's response is the essential one. For the first time in her life, her faith is flagging, and she is wavering in the stark reality of pain and imminent death. The book deals with her personal dilemma and the dilemma of those who care most about her, along with the issue of the First Amendment right to freedom of religion. I'd teach the book as an extended debate centering around these three questions and all the issues they inevitably arouse: (1) Do you want to live in the kind of country that allows a 17-year-old kid to die unnecessarily?" (2) Do you want to live in the kind of country that denies the constitutional right to practice religion according to one's own conscience?" (3) Given the questions above, how would you deal with Miriam"s life-and-death dilemma? On New Projects" It's difficult to discuss works in progress as they tend to vaporize with over-exposure. The fun of writing is discovering the unexpected just around the corner, and if I talk about the work too much, there are no surprises for me. In that case, why bother writing the book at all? I do have two books that will be out this year [2000]. They're both for middle grade readers, as it's much harder to get the hard-edged contemporary young adult novels published. (I'm still in there slugging, however.)

Swindletop (named for the numerous "swindles" of the time) is set in 1900-1901, in the aftermath of the great hurricane that virtually destroyed Galveston, Texas. The kids in the story (a boy and a girl narrator) are immigrants from Lithuania, and they're involved not only in the rebuilding of the city of Galveston, but in the incredible boom that followed the discovery of oil at Spindletop in Beaumont, Texas. The second book, Soon be Free, is the sequel to Steal Away Home. It follows the contemporary girl, Dana, as she discovers the ongoing efforts made in 1857 to free Miz Lizbet's family from slavery, along with the injustices done to the Delaware Indians of Kansas. James, the boy from the 1850's, is dispatched to Kentucky with his friend Will and the free Negro Solomon to find Miz Lizbet's people and help them escape to Kansas. James is faced with a searing dilemma that forces him to betray either these freed Negroes or the Delaware Indians. The book, published by Simon & Schuster, should be available at the end of the summer [August 2000]. On the "Community" of Young People Today" Like you, I am very troubled about the environment in which our young people are growing up. People often ask me if teenagers are different today from in my day, and I answer, "No, not at all," and also, "Yes, profoundly." The not at all part is obvious, but the yes, profoundly bears some scrutiny. For one thing, AIDS makes a big difference. Never before in human history has love been lifethreatening. Some kids growing up in the 50's, as I did, were frightened and nihilistic because of the fear of the bomb. I was oblivious. No one today can be oblivious to AIDS. And incidentally, the reality of AIDS affects how sex is handled in books for young people, but we don't have time to get into that. There's a certain mean-spiritedness that pervades our culture, and that filters down to young people from television, MTV, video games, etc. Sometimes this lack of kindness and shared respect degenerates into rage and violence. Again, we don't have time to get into that right now. Volumes could be written on the subject. Another big difference is that family life has degraded. When you're in a classroom where the two-parent family is a vanishing minority, you can't escape the effects: cynicism, divided loyalties, lack of supervision, economic problems, and the absence of a safe place to call home. In fact, it saddens me to realize that so many kids don't feel safe anywhere not in their families, their homes, their neighborhoods, or their schools. All the more reason why teachers (and teachers of teachers) need to seed schools that are secure physically, emotionally, and intellectually. People like me can help in some small part. If our books occasionally get into the hands and hearts and minds of teenagers, we can contribute to this sense of a secure community, not by feeding young people pap and pabulum, but by

providing books that are honest and true and thought-provoking and give readers something to grasp as they tiptoe through the landmines of their lives. [Let us all] give them something normal, some hope that their better selves are worth the effort and that the universe isn't indifferent to their highest aspirations. From Lois Ruby’s website and washburn.edu: Interview With a Kansas Author" by Linda Jones McCoy, Ed.D, 1997 (excerpts) Lois Ruby is a full-time author of young adult books. She lives in Wichita with her husband and has three grown sons. She was interviewed at her home on February 25, 1997. Linda" To get acquainted with you, I'd like to begin today with some background information about your growing up years, your early career, and what led you to Kansas. Lois" I grew up in San Francisco with no brothers and sisters. When I was three, my father died, and shortly afterwards my mother and I lived in New York and the Dominican Republic. My husband, Tom Ruby, and I met at Cal/Berkeley when we were still in our teens. We graduated and moved to Texas. I was the Young Adult librarian for the Dallas Public Library, which is how I got interested in books for teenagers. Twenty years ago my first book was published, but I've actually been writing as long as I've been reading. When our boys were pre-schoolers, we came to Kansas for Tom's first job after his Ph.D. He's a clinical psychologist in private practice here in Wichita, and a really sweet guy. Our more worldly relatives say nothing ever happens in Kansas, but this state has a fascinating history and endless areas to explore in writing. Linda" Who are the people who have had influence in your development as a writer - from childhood until now? Lois" There were few books in my house other than the ones I brought home from the library. Librarians in those days were ogres. Still, I have my neighborhood librarian to thank for the fact that I started reading adult novels from age nine, rather than risk tiptoeing past her to the children's room. So I was exposed to good writing way before I knew about quality books for children.

Creative writing was considered a waste of time when I was in school, yet somehow I yearned to write stories - and did - for my own pleasure and to entertain my friends. My senior English comp teacher in high school taught us how to hone the perfect five paragraph essay through daily grinding practice, which we all hated. Looking back, I realize I've adapted her method to every length and type of writing, including fiction outlines. Thanks, Miss Garrett! I took one ten-week creative writing class at WSU [Wichita State University] from Ben Santos, a remarkable Philippine writer and superb teacher. My husband is my idea man and sounding board and gentle editor. Otherwise, the greatest influence comes from my writers' critique group. They don't let me get away with lazy writing. Linda" Describe your writing process. Lois" I have a little room in my house where I do all my work. I am surrounded by books and papers 800 books, stacks of papers on the floor, and index cards. All different kinds of things that give me the security of knowing that if I need quick research on something, the answer is there or the clues are there as to where I need to go next. I have a Macintosh computer, but I write everything by hand on the back of used paper. That way if I really flub it up, it's easy to just throw it away, and I don't feel like it's been such a waste. I get a scene done to the best of my ability for the first draft, then I type it into the computer. I need that visceral feeling of the pen scratching across the paper. I like to be able to go through something and just scratch it out and then see it after it"s scratched out. If you write another sentence and you realize the first was actually better, you still have it right there. I edit by hand, put the revisions into the computer, and keep doing that and doing that. I will try to hone a chapter thoroughly before I go on to the next chapter. I keep plodding along to the end and then quite often I'll be surprised by the ending. The things I planted in the story no longer directly lead to the ending. Then I have to go back and make some changes, make sure all the clues I need are placed in there and that there are no false leads. Usually what happens is a pretty automatic, magical thing that I can't explain. But somehow the way the human mind works, we do lead to inevitable conclusions, and if we're lucky we have planted things along the way that will get us there. I never know how the story is going to end. I like to be surprised, just like the reader likes to be surprised. Then I have to make sure that I got there through some kind of logic. I have a lot of note cards I arrange by subject so if I am doing research on a particular theme or idea or historical period, I have everything in little stacks. For example, on the book Skin Deep, I don't have a natural understanding of the music of white supremacist teenagers. But I had someone who taught me about the music, and I had a contraband tape and transcriptions of some

of the lyrics, so I have a whole section of cards an inch thick about the music. When I had to write a scene that involved a skinhead concert, for example, I took out my whole little stack of notes. I read through them until I could feel like I was placed in the scene. In Miriam's Well I needed a lot of medical detail as well as religious detail, so all that is arranged by subject. Even though it's fiction, I feel that fiction has to be as accurate as you can make it, because a lot of kids will get their information from fiction and will not pick up nonfiction on a subject. Somebody who writes for kids has a responsibility to make sure that anything factual in the book is as accurate as you can get it for that time. Linda" Do you spend a set period of time writing each day? Lois" The ideal time for me to write is 5:30 in the morning until about 8:00. That's the time my mind is most alert. If I am deeply into a project, close to the middle and moving to the end, I could easily work 16-17 hours a day and be totally lost in it and have a wonderful time. Unfortunately, other things intrude. My kids are grown, so I don't have those kinds of interruptions, but during February, March, and April I do a great deal of traveling to make school visits, so I can't do any writing while I am traveling like that. Which is not to say that I can't write anywhere besides in my little room, because I have written lots of chapters sitting in the orthodontist's office - I had three teenagers at one time, so we spent a lot of time there - or stranded at an airport. All I have to do is find a little quiet corner. I can have people all around me and noise going on, and that doesn't bother me as long as they are not requiring a response from me. Linda" Except for those bursts of writing when you could go all day or half the night, would you say about half a day is a pretty good chunk of time and then you need to go do something else? Lois" I would say three or four hours and then go do something to get back in touch with the real world. Then maybe a couple of hours later in the day. Linda" . . . the thing I noticed in your books is the character development. Those characters seemed so different from each other and yet so real. The characters are what make the story go more than a plot line that you figured out . . . Do you see it that way? Lois" Yes! Well, I am delighted to know that that is what comes across because that's exactly the way it works for me. Every story starts with a character, not a plot or an idea or problem or place or time. I always start with a character who takes over my mind, follows me around and taps me on

the shoulder and says, "Ask me the questions. If you ask me the right ones, I can maybe have a story for you." I just have to figure out what the questions are. I have about 40 or 50 questions on my computer. If they net some interesting answers, then I will pursue that character further. If I just find that it's a dead end, then that character has to go, and I wait for another one to come. But once I start asking the questions - I start with the demographic information then get deeper into the emotional geography of the character - then I know what the conflicts are. If the conflicts are intertesting enough, then I can see where the plot might be heading. At that point I have to stop and do the research to fit it into a time and place and get all the technological detail or whatever I need to flesh out that story. The characters are operating in one part of my mind; it feels like an animal waiting there to pounce! So the characters are sitting there saying, "let's get this thing going." But then the librarian half of me is saying, "wait a minute, you can't tell your story until I know what the details are that you have to fit your life into. If you're a character living in 1856, you can't tell me about that time until I know something about that historical period, and I know how you dressed and what you ate and what the political, historical, and geographical realities were at the time. Then, when I have all that head work done, you can tell me the story, and it will start to make sense to me." So, it's like a constant battle between these two things going on in my head. I guess it's the librarian and the author parts trying to figure out who's going to be dominant here. That's the way it has worked in every book - except for one. Skin Deep was a book I was asked to write, which made it very difficult because I did all the research on this painful subject before I had the character. It was only after a great deal of research that the character of Dan came to me, a boy not unlike my own son, whom I could care about and understand how he might be drawn into this kind of a movement [skinhead]. Then the underpinning of all the research came together with the character, and the story did begin to write itself. Linda" It was almost as if events took him there rather than him making the decision that he wanted to live this lifestyle. It was almost like he was never really a part of that skinhead movement. Lois" I never saw him as a very strong person. He was swept along. He lived with these women who were running his life. Then he had a girlfriend, and he abdicated some responsibility to her. Then this movement came along, and he was easily drawn into it. So I didn't see him as a person who was ready to take a stand on anything, until he reached the point where he really needed to get out of it. I don't think you only have to write about strong, upright characters. Books for kids

have all kinds of different role models, and some kids do just drift until either the right thing or the wrong thing comes along for them. Linda" In Miriam's Well, I kept trying to figure out what would happen in the end. I don't know whether you deliberately are foreshadowing, or the readers are just anticipating. But you think one of two or three things will happen: they're going to come and save her, or there is going to be a miracle cure, or she is somehow going to extricate herself from this religious belief. But in the end when you see that she stays with the family and the religion, you understand again that the character is driving that. . . . Because of her character you couldn't have the miracle cure, or you couldn't have the change in belief and have her still be her own character. Lois" I think you're right. I am not interested in neat endings, and I'm not interested in miracles or fantasy. What I am interested in is the day-to-day miracle of just surviving and making choices that lead you somewhere. I think in books for kids, for teenagers in particular, the whole thing is about choices, options. So, none of my stories have neat, tidy endings, and this is the biggest criticism I get from teenage readers. Linda" They can't stand that, can they? Lois" They're very unsatisfied with that. I refuse to accede to their request that I tie things up neatly, because . . . if a kid reads a book and slams it shut and never thinks about it again, then the writer has failed that reader. But if the kid has to stop and think - what happened? what are the possibilities? - as if those characters had lives beyond the printed page, then the writer has done a service, has achieved something other than just an interesting story. Very little that happens in our kids' lives causes them to think. How do they get through life without learning to reason things out and come to their own conclusions? So what I want to do in my books is provide characters who are not unlike them, just ordinary kids in extraordinary situations, who have lots of different choices. Some choose well and some don't. Sometimes the choices are so ambivalent that you don't know what you're choosing. The idea is for kids to look at these characters and think there are lots of options, there is always a way out, no matter how grim life may be at a given moment. It may not come out just the way you always wanted, but there are always choices beyond that choice, as well. [A couple of pages are skipped here] Linda" Why did Skin Deep need to be set in Colorado?

Lois" I exported Skin Deep from Kansas very deliberately. My husband was apprehensive about my writing on this subject, afraid that it was dangerous. And I didn't want skinheads coming to my house and burning crosses on my lawn. My youngest son was in college in Boulder, Colorado, and it was the perfect place to set the story because it's a bizarre enough town that every kind of movement, from the most radical to the most conservative, happens right there in this little college town. Besides that, it's a beautiful place. The four years that my son was there we visited him often, and he did a lot of foot work for me. In fact, the book is dedicated to him because he was inestimable help in understanding this whole youth culture thing that was so alien to me, and in getting a real sense of place in Boulder. Linda" Since we're talking about Skin Deep, let's go into the banned-book question. Is that your only book that has been banned? Lois" Has it been banned? Linda" I thought you said it had. Lois" Well, no. It would be great if it would, because it would sell like crazy. Not one person has challenged Skin Deep that I know of, which surprises me because it has violence and vulgar language in it. I've had librarians and teachers say, "I like the book but I am not going to put it in the middle school." I understand and support that completely. [some middle schools do have it.] However, I had . . . an incident over Miriam's Well. There's a section in the book that says some pretty scathing things about the Mormon church. I got a letter from a professor at Brigham Young University who teachers children's literature. He said, "I think that this is an excellent book, but I cannot recommend it to my students because of the defamatory things you said about the Latter Day Saints." Well, I flipped to that page of the book and was horrified, until I realized that the character who was saying these things about the Mormon church had already been established as an unreliable person. He was crude, he was dumb, and so I thought it was clear that anything that issued from his mouth was not the gospel. I wrote back to this professor, asking him to look at the context of this passage and see whose mouth these words are in. I said, "I trust teenagers to be discriminating readers, to know whatever this boy says is not what they are to take as true, that obviously this boy doesn't know what he's talking about." You know, this professor wrote me back and apologized! He said he would recommend the book to his students. . . . I expect something to erupt from Skin Deep. Of course, if librarians just choose not to put it in the library, that saves potential problems.

Linda" How do you feel about that? Lois" I don't think you have time to hear how I feel about that! I'm a very liberal-thinking person; I believe in total access to information for everybody, including teenagers. But I also realize that parents have a right to determine what is appropriate for their children. They don't have the right to determine what is appropriate for other people's children. So, I think libraries should have everything available. Linda" What about age, though, with some of the teenage type books? Lois" Well, here's the thing. The difference between a sixth grader and an eighth grader is enormous in terms of maturity and experience. So unfortunately in those schools that have sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, you are going to have a wide range of suitable material. Just because it's not appropriate for a sixth grader does not mean that it should not be accessible to an eighth grader. I know it's a problem for the teachers on the front line. If the material is more appropriate to high schoool, it should be available there, but we also know that high schoolers don't read young adult books nearly as much as junior high and middle school people do . . . There are some sixth graders who are very mature. As a librarian, I wouldn't give Skin Deep to a sixth grader. I would question giving it to a seventh grader, but I would give it to an eighth grader without trepidation. But I'm not on the front lines; I don't deal with the battles with parents and administrators. I understand that they have to take some precautions to save their own hide. But I also understand that librarians have a responsibility to make things available to people who need the information. Linda" Do you have something about ready to come out? Lois" I have five books that are done, not one of which has been accepted for publication yet. It's a very mysterious and lengthy process. I have no idea what I need to do to get something published; it's hit-and-miss every time. Linda" Do you believe in multiple submissions, or are you very straight-laced about one publisher at a time looking at a book? Lois" I suffer from too much ethical conscience! The idea is that you are not supposed to submit to more than one publisher at a time. Publishers will keep things for a year, and you won't get an

answer. It's really not fair, but at the same time, it's the way it's done now. I think it's going to have to be changed. Linda" I read something about that. If you say you're doing multiple submissions, or you're not waiting any longer before you send it to someone else, it is the death knell for that book. Lois" That's right, because their biggest fear is that somebody else is going to want it the same time they want it, which means you're going to have to pay more for it if there is a bidding war. So I sweat it out for months. If they haven't rejected it outright and it's been read by a couple of editors, you have a slightly better chance than starting cold with another publisher. It's a very frustrating process. Of all the things about the writing career, that is definitely the most distressing thing and one that would drive me out of it. [A couple of pages are skipped here] Linda" Is there anything about your writing or about your books that you would like this audience of classroom teachers, reading teachers, and librarians to know? Lois" A couple of things. One is I would want classroom teachers and librarians to be willing to take the risk, to have materials available to kids who need them. This isn't to say that they have to hand a book that may be problematic to a kid, but if that book is available in the classroom, then that student could pick it up. I think that's a very brave thing for the teacher to do. Kids get a lot of their factual information from novels. They don't all have the benefit of parents who will explain things to them that they need to know, particularly on controversial subjects - sex, birth control, and drugs - so a lot of what they pick up will come from books. I appreciate teachers who have that kind of courage, and I hear from them all the time. The other thing I would like for them to keep in mind is that everything that appears in the book is not the author's opinion. There are a variety of opinions and views that appear in a given book. I would not want them to extrapolate from what they read in the book and think this is what the author is trying to tell them, because I am not interested in messages per se; I am interested in options, possibilities. I don't want to be pushed into a corner as representing a particular point of view or moral perspective other than the moral perspective that we all have responsibility for one another. I wouldn't want anyone to use my books in a didactic way: "See, this is what she means, this is what she is saying, this is what you should do." I would much rather have kids read all the options in my books, other people's books, anything they can get their hands on, and then make their own decisions. That's what it's all about, the options that are available out there, the reasoned decisions people make based on the information that they gather.

From youtube.com https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRSZLrIVyR8 - Lisa and Tom Ruby interview with 50 in 52 Journey Published Work: from washburn.edu Steal Away Home ( Aladdin Historical Fiction 1999) " Secret Of Laural Oaks (Starscape Press 2008)" Soon Be Free (Aladdin Paperbacks 2002)" Shanghai Shadows (Holiday House 2002)" Mirriam Well (Scholastic 1993)" Skin Deep (Scholastic 1994)" Journey To Jamestown (Kingfisher 2005)" Pig Out Inn Fawcett Juniper 1988)" Arriving At A Place You Never Left (Dell Publishing 1980)" What Do You Do In Quicksand (Viking Press 1979)" This Old Man (Fawcett 1986)" Two Truths In My Pocket Random House 1983)" The Moxie Kid (Eakin Press 2003)" Swindletop (Eakin Press)" Strike! Mother Jones and The Colorado Coal Field Wars (2012) AWARDS

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From washburn.edu: Chair, National Book Award Panel on Literature for Young People, 2004." Recipient of the Professional Celebrate Literacy Award, Wichita Area Reading Council, 1996." Arriving at a Place You Never Left: “Best Books for Young Adults List, 1977,” by the American Library Association." Two Truths In My Pocket: a “Notable Children’s Trade Book in the Field of Social Studies, 1982,” by the National Council for Social Studies and the Children’s Book Council; one of “Fifty Notable Children’s Books of Jewish Interest, 1980-1984,” by the Jewish Book Council." Miriam's Well: “Best Books for Young Adults List, 1994,” by the American Library Association; “Books for the Teen Age, 1994,” by the New York Public Library; finalist, Juvenile Fiction Division, 1994, Society of Midland Authors; candidate for the following state awards: Sequoya Young Adult Award, 1995-1996 (OK) and Iowa Teen Award, 1997-1998.! Skin Deep: “Books for the Teen Age, 1995,” by the New York Public Library; candidate for the Nevada Young Readers’ Award, 1998; selected for the Simon Wiesenthal Center Library, Museum of Tolerance, Los Angeles." Steal Away Home: a “Notable Children’s Trade Book in the Field of Social Studies, 1995,” by the National Council for Social Studies and the Children’s Book Council; “Books for the Teen

Age, 1996,” by the New York Public Library; Young Adult Choice List, 1996, by the International Reading Association. Candidate for the following state awards: Charlotte Award, 1995 (NY); California Young Reader’s Medal, 1996-1997; Sunshine State Award, 1996 (FL); William Allen White Award, 1996-1997 (KS); Heartland Young Adult Literature Award, 1996-1997 (KS); Tennessee Young Reader’s Award, 1996-1997; and Golden Sower Award (NE), 1997-1998; Twelve Favorite Books about Kansas or by Kansas Authors, Kansas Center for the Book, 2007.! Shanghai Shadows: a Bank Street College book of the year, 2007; a Kansas Notable Book, 2007." “Jubilee Year,” a short story: First prize, fiction category, 1987, Kansas Authors’ Club; honorable mention, short story competition, 1991,Writer's Digest. Bibliographic information: From Google books: Title: Steal Away Home Aladdin Historical Fiction Author: Lois Ruby Edition: reprint Publisher: Simon and Schuster, 1999 ISBN: 0689824351, 9780689824357 Length: 208 pages Subjects: Juvenile Fiction › People & Places › United States › African American Juvenile Fiction / Fantasy & Magic Juvenile Fiction / Girls & Women Juvenile Fiction / Historical / United States / 19th Century Juvenile Fiction / Historical / United States / General Juvenile Fiction / People & Places / United States / African American

! Analysis of Ruby: !

From encyclopedia.com:

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In her novels and short stories for young adults, Lois Ruby confronts and addresses issues that shape many of her readers' lives in a society far different that that of their parents and teachers. According to Sharon Clontz Bernstein in Twentieth-Century Young-Adult Writers, "Ruby's skillful incorporation of [controversial] themes into detailed story lines … and the strength of her characters in confronting [such] dilemmas head on—sometimes with the help of traditional faith, but often not—results in compelling fiction that is relevant to today's young people." Celebrated as a perceptive writer who tackles difficult issues while remaining impartial, Ruby places great value in showing teens "how important it is to be open to ideas, feelings, and new experiences," as she once explained to SATA. "It's often a lonely world we live in, and if we can touch and be touched by others, we cross that chasm between strangers." Ruby was born in San Francisco in 1942, and was raised in an urban environment. "As a city child, I led a breathlessly exciting life," she once recalled to SATA. "I walked ten blocks to the library at least twice a week and read all the books about doctors. Early on, leprosy became a sentimental favorite of mine. Sometimes I took the trolley downtown, or the bus out to the beach, where you'd freeze to death, and no one dared swim because of the sharks. The big attraction at the beach midway was the Laughing Lady. She was obese and had bad skin and a boring job. I never could understand how she could laugh all the time. I guess it got me wondering about how people who laugh on the outside feel deep within themselves." A reserved person, Ruby played the role of observer through much of high school, a role common to many budding writers. "I watched all the coolest of my classmates, to see if I could figure out what they had that I didn't. Since I couldn't figure it out, I did what I could do: I began [writing] parodies of them," she once explained to SATA. Unfortunately, her writing abilities got her into some trouble. "My mother sent one such embarrassment to a teen magazine, which actually paid fifty dollars to publish the story," the author remembered. "When it came out in bold black print, and when all the ‘Cool Kids’ read it, any hope I once harbored of being ‘IN’ was out." Dauntless, Ruby kept on writing, regardless of what others might think. She continued to write through college, as well as through her marriage and after the birth of her three children, although she did not summon the courage to submit anything to a publisher until the early 1970s, a period during which realistic stories were in vogue with both publishers and the reading public. Ruby became confident that she could spin an honest yarn—"about kids who had something more important going on in their lives than a new gown for the prom or a new crankshaft for the jalopy," she once told SATA. Her prose did not pull any punches, despite the fact that her audience was youthful: "I was sure that teenagers weren't a separate species of animal, but that they were just like other humans—with problems, triumphs, heartbreaks, fears, dreams. Actually," Ruby added, "my approach hasn't changed much since then." Ruby's first published book was the 1977 short-story collection Arriving at a Place You've Never Left. Containing seven short works that focus on teens attempting to cope with the crises in their lives, the book received enough positive critical response to encourage its author to pursue her

writing further. While noting that "some of the stories are diffuse in structure or weak in endings," a reviewer for the Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books added that Ruby's short fiction contains "diversity and drama," and that her "writing style shows promise." A reviewer for Booklist agreed, noting that "Ruby's first book is indeed an impressive achievement." Ruby's first young-adult novel, What Do You Do in Quicksand?, was published in 1979 and features Leah, an unhappy teen living with her widowed stepfather. When sixteen-year-old Matt moves in next door with his infant daughter, Leah quickly offers to help out with the baby. Matt, pressured by efforts to support his family, keep up with schoolwork, and cope with the demands of an infant, is grateful for Leah's help, until she attempts to steal the baby in an effort to fill the emotional void in her own life. Dubbing the work "far from a run-of-the-mill-novel," a critic in the Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books praised Ruby's portrayal of the increasingly obsessed Leah, calling What Do You Do in Quicksand? "strong and moving … well structured and paced, with good characterization and dialogue and a candid exploration of human relationships." A Publishers Weekly reviewer called the novel "Ruby's amazing feat," adding that it "spotlights not only the actions but the emotions of characters who couldn't be more real and affecting." What Do You Do in Quicksand? was followed by Two Truths in My Pocket, a collection of short stories that center on Jewish teenagers. Voice of Youth Advocates contributor Sari Feldman noted that Ruby "has done a beautiful job of combining the universal elements of adolescence with the unique experience of Jews in America," while in Horn Book Ann A. Flowers asserted that the "strength of centuries of religious observance and the power of belief shine through every story." The author then wrote several other novels that confront controversial topics of interest to teens, including sexual molestation, prostitution, racism, and religious controversy. For example, in Skin Deep, Laurel Grady and Dan Penner become high school sweethearts at the beginning of their senior year, but the stresses of school, athletics, and family push Dan into acting out his personal frustrations by joining a local white-supremacist group. Abandoning Laurel for the acceptance of his new friends, Dan eventually realizes that he is no longer acting in accordance with his own personal beliefs and must now attempt to refocus his life. A Kirkus Reviews commentator maintained that Ruby "portrays skinhead culture and racial hatred with terrifying clarity in this well-written novel," and in Publishers Weekly a critic called the story's conclusion "satisfying without offering easy answers." Booklist critic Frances Bradburn, noting the depth in both Laurel and Dan, called Skin Deep "a complex novel, one that is hardly ‘skin deep’!" In Miriam's Well, Ruby explores the concept of religious freedom through the relationship of two classmates, shy Miriam Pelham, a Christian fundamentalist, and Adam Bergen, a popular, outgoing Jewish boy. When Miriam is diagnosed with bone cancer, her fundamentalist sect disallows medical care for religious reasons, but as a minor the courts order her to accept treatment. As Miriam and her family cope with the legal and philosophical issues involved in the young woman's situation, Adam becomes increasingly drawn into her life as well. As his understanding and acceptance of Miriam's religious values grow, "the reader becomes more knowledgeable about Fundamentalist and Jewish beliefs and customs," according to Barbara

Flottmeier in the Voice of Youth Advocates. Flottmeier concluded that Miriam's Well presents two diverse religious philosophies "with clarity and compassion" as well as with "teen appeal." In the Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, Betsy Hearne noted that Ruby explores "some controversial issues of religion and civil rights, without making her characters mouthpieces," a "real achievement" for the writer. Steal Away Home started out "as a bunch of bones rattling around in my head," Ruby once recalled. "As I interviewed the bones, it became clear that they were the remains of a runaway slave in 1856, and that led me to the research, and that led me to more characters and their conflicts, and then all I had to do was record the story as the movie in my mind rolled before my eyes." Combining history with an engaging story, Steal Away Home follows twelve-year-old Dana Shannon as she discovers a skeleton in a hidden room of the old Kansas house she and her parents are restoring. An old diary dating from the pre-Civil War Era provides the parallel tale of the Weavers, a Quaker family who lived in Dana's house more than 140 years ago and who helped guide escaped slaves to freedom as part of the Underground Railroad. The diary gives Dana clues as to the skeleton's origins and helps the police solve a century-old mystery; it also gives teen readers insight into the issues surrounding the institution of slavery in the United States. Ruby's "skillfully rendered book will appeal to a wide audience," noted Margaret A. Bush in Horn Book. Writing in the Voice of Youth Advocates, Patsy H. Adams noted that the author's "fluid transition and realistic portrayal of life in the present and the past make [Steal Away Home] … one of the best young adult books I have read in a long time." The story begun in Steal Away Home continues in Soon Be Free. Like Steal Away Home, half of the sequel is told from Dana's perspective. The alternating chapters continue the story of James Weaver, who, at Dana's age, made decisions on behalf of escaping slaves that sometimes made him question his own loyalties. In Soon Be Free, James decides to hide a treaty between the United States and the Delaware Indians, endangering the cause of the Delaware people to protect the escaping slaves. Although characterizing the switch between narratives as sometimes "confusing," Hazel Rochman noted in Booklist that "both worlds are complex." Referencing the difficult decision James makes in the novel, a reviewer wrote in Horn Book that "Dana's [Image not available for copyright reasons] parallel story illustrates the enduring consequences of long-ago decisions." To flee Nazi Austria in 1939, Ilse Shpann and her family flee to Shanghai in Shanghai Shadows, another of Ruby's historical novels. Though Ilse is at first preoccupied with her own woes—her family lives as refugees, and the only possession they have is her father's violin—she begins to realize the importance of freedom. The citizens of Shanghai are struggling under Japanese occupation, and Ilse's mother is eventually arrested by the Japanese government. Soon afterward, Ilse joins a resistance movement, befriends a street urchin and another refugee, and struggles not only to survive but to strive toward freedom. Noting that the Jewish exodus to Shanghai is a little-told part of World War II history, Bradburn wrote that Ruby's story combines "careful

research, courageous characters, low-key descriptions of fear and misery, and understated examples of love, friendship, and courage." In addition to her novels and stories for young adults, Ruby is the author of Pig-Out Inn, a middle-grade novel that describes how the operation of a restaurant/truck stop run by fourteen-year-old Dovi and her mother leads to a custody battle for a nine-year-old boy left behind by his trucker father. A Publishers Weekly reviewer called Pig-Out Inn a "warm and funny novel" in which Ruby "has created a memorable and original situation." Geared for middle-grade readers, The Moxie Kid tells the story of Jonathan's summer before sixth grade. He wishes for excitement and fun, and misses his friend Randy, who is away at church camp. Although Jonathan is Jewish, he contemplates joining his friend so he will not be left out. Adventures start to happen, however, when Jonathan meets Mr. Caliberti, an aging neighbor who tells the preteen that he has "moxie." "The fast-paced plot features a humorous, convincing first-person narrative," wrote Laura Scott in a School Library Journal review. For Ruby, the process of writing a book begins long before research trips to the library or setting down plot outlines on paper. As the author once told SATA, "a book starts in my mind as a character who taps me on the shoulder and says, ‘Hey, lady, check me out. If you ask me the right questions, I might just have a story to tell you.’ So, I bombard this mental pest with a hundred questions, and if I'm intrigued by the answers, I write the story." "I hope that kids will like the stories I write," Ruby once told SATA, "but to be honest, I write them to please myself first. I like to do stories that are emotional roller coasters. You leap over a peak, your heart in your throat, and plunge down into a valley with your stomach doing flipflops. Then you coast for a while until the next peak catches you off guard." Although she writes to please herself, Ruby is also aware of her audience. She told an interviewer for the Raven Stone Press Web site: "With every word and thought I put to paper, I'm conscious of the enormous responsibility of writing for young people. These are the things I worry about: Did I model proper English with at least one character in my story? Did I get the facts right? … Am I out of touch, or are there stories and values that transcend time and place and generation gaps? Despite these worries, I'm ultimately aware of the great privilege I have in doing the work I love most and seeing young people read and think robustly about my stories." In teaching the craft of writing to others, Ruby discounts the old adage "Write what you know." "I say, write what you want to know," she once explained to SATA, "then find out all you can about it." Her own practice is to research a book for months, sometimes even years, collecting piles of notecards, drawers full of files, and things tacked up on the walls and stacked in piles on the floor of her office. "Sometimes I cower under the load of all those details," the author admitted. "I have to be careful not to pack too many of them into my stories. Fiction needs to be true, that is, true to the way the human heart behaves, but not absolutely factual."

Ruby also offered the following advice to young writers on her home page: "Read everything …. Read out loud to hear how words sound, how they feel rolling around on your tongue and not just on the back of your eyelids. Spy on conversations. Feed your curiosity…. Keep a journal. Jot down fascinating tidbits…. Use them. Don't censor your work as you write. Write down your first thoughts fast, without worrying about spelling or grammar or punctuation. Then go back and fix it all up carefully. Let somebody you trust give you feedback. Most important: write and write and write….”

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Tab 5 a) Analysis b) Culture and History

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Analysis of Culture and History:

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The importance of American history in Steal Away Home is overwhelming. While

researching for lesson plans I came into issues finding information on the novel, but there was a surplus of historical and cultural significant lessons. The cultural significance was lacking information and lesson plans more than the history, although, the culture does play into the historical significance. Ruby’s hometown, Kansas, was an inspiration to her novels because of the historical environment in which she lives. Many of these lessons also have vocabulary, more found in tab three, and work on writing skills which will be tested on the SOL. The vocabulary in the lessons will help the students grasp larger concepts in older grades as well as in their history classroom. The cultural pieces I found were a recording of the song “Steal Away” and a synopsis from PBS about the song. The recording will help students understand the meaning behind the song as well as how it would have sounded. The history behind it demonstrates the use of code songs for the Underground Railroad. I also found a lesson plan on the history of slave songs that includes not only “Steal Away,” but also “The Drinking Gourd” and other songs like them. The slaves songs were important to help escaped slaves find their way to their next stop. Another cultural element that goes along with the Underground Railroad was the Quaker culture in the novel. The Quakers’ culture will help students understand the different beliefs they have to our own. This is a major concept in Ruby’s novel, so cultural and religious background on this religious group may help students understand their beliefs in a new light. This is especially true with Mr. and Mrs. Weaver’s differing views on helping escaped slaves which is a major conflict. The lesson I found discusses the importance of Quaker theology and how they

rule their lives. It is also a major difference between Dana and James the two protagonists and betweenJames’ parents. Mr. and Mrs. Weaver differed completely when it came to their ideas of how to deal with the escaped slaves coming to Kansas. It would be easy to see how each of their views would be supported by the ideologies I found in the Quaker lesson plan. This could be an easy writing assignment or essay question for students to answer. The historical significance is the major reason why I am choosing to make a resource guide on Steal Away Home. The importance of the Kansas Nebraska Act, the Underground Railroad, and the importance of Civil Rights Movements are all historically important events that can be linked to this novel. Andrea Seifkes’ lesson plan on the Brown v. Board of Education follows the entirety of the Civil Rights Movement. This multi-subject lesson plan helps students conduct research as well as make further connections to the history of Kansas. This will help students understand why the history in Steal Away Home is important to the development of Civil Rights and the Civil War which both came after the time period in this novel. It focuses on how a small event impacts a larger historical moment. This will help students understand the importance of grassroots movements and why Mrs. Weaver was so crucial to the Underground Railroad. The history of the Kansas Nebraska Act is during the book’s time line which causes a major and more apparent connection than Brown v Board of Education. I have found several middle school and high school lesson plans and activities on this period in time. This was a tumultuous time between deciding if states were going to be free or slave during western expansion. Tension ran high and as seen in the novel some people did not always agree with the decision of the court. The multiple age ranges and activities can help determine what to cover for

the appropriate ages and can help differentiate the lesson for average and honors sixth grade classes. Steal Away Home has a lot of historical important which makes it a great companion book with the history teachers in the school. If English and history are covering the same time period these instructional lesson plans can help show a creative interpretation of a sometimes mundane and over factual history lesson. Having a creative historical work, like Steal Away Home, will help students to make further connections and to be able to recall information when it is tested in the future. The key historical element in Steal Away Home is the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad is a significant part of the history behind the novel and why Lizbet Charles is found dead. This historical movement can be seen in the song that the title received its name, Mrs. Weaver’s actions, and the interstate conflicts. Since this is historical fiction, any number of Underground Railroad activities can work, but the interactive one from Scholastic is in my opinion the best and most unique. The students can pretend to be an escaped slave trying to get to the North and, eventually, Canada. The path the escaped slaves took was scary and potentially deadly. Giving students an in-depth and interactive learning experience. They will know what it feels like to be the one running away to freedom and why it was so important for Mrs. Weaver to help those escaping. The history and culture in Ruby’s novel is the most important parts why she wrote the book and why it should be taught in the classroom. The cultural differences of the Quakers and the importance of slave songs in the Underground Railroad. This was all impacted by the history of the Kansas Nebraska Act. These historical moments eventually impacted Brown v Board of Education and Civil Rights in the United States. This novel is a prime example of one person

sacrificing everything to make a difference. The United States was founded on principles similar to what Mrs. Weaver uses to help escaped slaves go to the North. Steal Away Home is a wonderful novel full of interesting historical importance and will help students connect major events in a more creative and interesting way.

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Culture:

! Music: ! Steal Away Home Song Recording : ! https://archive.org/details/DinwiddieColoredQuartet-StealAway1902 ! From PBS: !

STEAL AWAY is another religious song that has acquired many valences. In a narrow sense, it is important because it was traditionally the first spiritual sung in public by the young Fisk Jubilee Singers in 1871. The group had been singing formal European choir music when, at a church convention in Ohio, their director urged them to sing one of the old slave songs they had heard their fathers and mothers sing. The result was an introduction of black folk music to the American public. But far before then, "Steal Away" was being used for quite another purpose: as a code song urging slaves to run away to the North on the Underground Railroad. " " Steal away, steal away home," I ain't got long to stay here. " " Nat Turner, leader of a slave rebellion in Virginia, used the song to summon his followers to secret meetings, and some feel he might have actually written the song in about 1825. From http://www.library.pitt.edu/voicesacrosstime/LessonPlans/documents/SlaveCodeSongs.pdf Slave Code Songs: The Basics Time Required: 5 hours of instructional time Subject Areas: 7th Grade American History Expansion and Reform, 1800-1860 Common Core Standards Addressed: Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-12 Author

Barbara Bacon (2004) The Lesson: Introduction This lesson is part of a unit on slavery. It can be included after covering slave resistance and introducing the Underground Railroad. The secret and dangerous nature of these topics particularly appeals to middle school imaginations, and identification with slave and fugitive conditions can happen readily. Before beginning this lesson, I would have shown The Sellin’ of Jamie Thomas, a film about a fugitive slave family’s escape on the Underground Railroad (appropriate for upper elementary and middle school students). I would also connect this lesson with an art activity on the possibility of hidden messages in slave quilts. Guiding Questions • What three water bodies were escape routes to Canada, free states, and slave states? • How can song lyrics contain hidden meaning? Why would singers not want everyone to know the meanings of the lyrics? Learning Objectives • The student understands historical chronology and the historical perspective. • The student understands U. S. history to 1880. • The student understands the interactions of people and the physical environment.

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Preparation Instructions Print copies of “THINKING ABOUT A SONG” worksheet A copy of the film The Sellin’ of Jamie Thomas Star chart, which includes the Big Dipper Atlas or political and physical maps of the United States Songs used in this lesson:

“Follow the Drinking Gourd” “O Canaan” “Wade in the Water” “Steal Away” Lesson Activities Procedure: • Read aloud Velma Maia Thomas’ powerful definition of spiritual from her book, No Man Can Hinder Me, page 12. • Assign a write-pair-share activity: o Write about a childhood experience that involved secrecy or communicating in code. o Describe methods used, objectives (conceal or reveal?), materials necessary (signals, symbols, code words, etc.). o Share this assignment with a classmate. • Present the following ideas through a class discussion or lecture: o Codes and signals are useful in real life (military and government, computer abbreviations that teens know and parents don’t, etc.). o Throughout time, poetry and songs have been a means of conveying hidden ideas (nursery rhymes with political references, “Puff, the Magic Dragon,” etc.). o Songs have power through their words, meaning and/or melody and music. (At this point, ask students to think or free write about a song that has a message or particular meaning in their own life.) o Spirituals (religious songs that convey a strong belief in God and heaven) were the songs

that communicated powerful feelings and meaning for slaves. o While the need for secrecy and the oral tradition of slave songs severely limit the amount of information available in slave code songs, we can glean some details about hidden messages in a few spirituals. o The most well-known slave code song is “Follow the Drinking Gourd.” Explain that lesser known spirituals also conveyed hidden messages to slaves. We will examine three of these, as well as revisit “Following the Drinking Gourd,” in the following activities. Activity I (5 minutes) • Have pairs or triads brainstorm a written list of today’s popular songs that have hidden messages and then share the list with the class. • Elicit the idea that songs of all eras have meaning that is sometimes obvious, sometimes hidden. Activity II (10 – 15 minutes) Using a classroom map or an atlas source, have students locate these places that were geographic goals of fugitives or hidden references in spirituals: • the Mason Dixon Line • Ohio River • Canada • Tennessee River • Tombigbee River Label these places on an outline map of the United States. Students should also use color or shading to signify which are slave states and which are free states. Activity III (30 minutes)

Many students have been exposed to this song and the story of Harriet Tubman in elementary grades. This is meant to be a review activity. There are many website lesson plans for this particular song. • Distribute the words to “Follow the Drinking Gourd.” • Have a star chart available. Ask students to locate the Big Dipper. Review the significance of the hidden messages, as needed. Refer to the locations on the map that are thought to be part of the hidden messages in this spiritual. • Divide students into pairs or triads and distribute the THINKING ABOUT A SONG worksheet (in Resources). Have students discuss the questions and write their ideas. • Share with the class in a group discussion. • Play the song before or after the worksheet activity and have students sing along. (Harris, Music of the Underground Railroad.) Activity IV (60 minutes) • Review biographical details about Frederick Douglass (from textbook, website, etc.). • Distribute the passage from Frederick Douglass’s Autobiography, which is his comment on singing among slaves. Ask students to read silently and then briefly react in writing or orally. • Read aloud Frederick Douglass’s words about his escape. (Preview this first to decide on the appropriate length.) • Distribute the words to “O Canaan.” If it’s possible to find a recording, play it for students as they read the words. • Use the questions from the THINKING ABOUT A SONG worksheet (in Resources) to generate a

class discussion. Activity V (40 – 50 minutes) • Assign a brief essay (100 words): “Describe a time when you were scared. What in particular were you most afraid of before the experience? After the experience, did it seem that your earlier thoughts and fears were worse than the experience itself? Why or why not?” • Discuss which physical features (landforms and water bodies) have advantages and disadvantages to someone fleeing from danger. Why would a river or water body be important to someone who is fleeing? What fears might be real or imagined when a fugitive has to face challenging physical features? • Distribute the words to both versions of “Wade in the Water.” Play the music and have students sing along. (“African American Spirituals”) • Discuss what the words and ideas in both versions might convey to a fugitive slave. • Have students illustrate an aspect of the hidden message in this song. A caption should be included on their drawing to explain its meaning. Activity VI (15-20 minutes) • Distribute the words to “Steal Away.” Play the song and have students sing along. (“African American Spirituals”) • What is the meaning of steal in this spiritual? What metaphors are used? What could the thunder, trumpet and green trees stand for? Why is the sinner trembling? Assessment Activity VII (20 minutes) To be used with the film The Sellin’ of Jamie Thomas. • Write a brief essay (approximately 100 words): What songs do you think might have inspired Jamie Thomas and his parents? Consider the period before they began their Underground Railroad experience as well as the flight itself. Support your ideas with clear reasoning. Activity VIII (40 minutes)

• Elicit ideas about situations in today’s world where a coded song might be useful or necessary. Photocopy and share a news article about a current event with which students are familiar (e.g., the war on terror in Afghanistan, Guantanamo detainees, hostages in Iraq). • Discuss what type of song and what words/phrases might be used to convey hidden meaning about the situation described in the news article. • Assign one of the slave code songs in this lesson for the following writing assignment: Using the assigned slave song, write new lyrics that relate to the current situation of the news article. Include a paragraph explanation of what your lyrics’ codes and meanings are. Be prepared to share in class. Activity IX (40 minutes) Imagine that you are a conductor of the Underground Railroad and want to give a coded message to slaves you are planning to help flee to Canada. Create 2 or 3 verses to a well-known tune that will inform the fugitives. The tune can be as simple as “Row, Row, Row your Boat,” “Lullaby and Good Night,” etc. Choose your words carefully. Consider including familiar local places as you compose. Be prepared to explain the coded words and ideas before presenting to the class. Note to teacher: It might be helpful to have the class create a list together of well-known, slow songs that could be used for this activity. Resources THINKING ABOUT A SONG WORKSHEET GROUP MEMBERS: ____________________________________________ 1. What does this song seem to be saying? 2. What words do you think had possible hidden references or meanings? 3. Where do you imagine this song being sung? Under what circumstances? Describe two possible scenarios. a. b. 4. What would an outsider listening to this song think about it?

5. Why did this song work as a successful coded song? Lyrics "Follow the Drinking Gourd" Follow the drinking gourd, Follow the drinking gourd, For the old man is waiting for to carry you to freedom If you follow the drinking gourd. When the sun comes back and the first quail calls, Follow the drinking gourd. For the old man is waiting for to carry you to freedom If you follow the drinking gourd. The riverbank will make a very good road. The dead trees show you the way, Left foot, peg foot traveling on, Following the drinking gourd. The river ends between two hills, Follow the drinking gourd. There’s another river on the other side, Follow the drinking gourd. Where the great big river meets the little river, Follow the drinking gourd. The old man is waiting for to carry you to freedom, If you follow the drinking gourd. "O Canaan" Together let us sweetly live; I am bound for the land of Canaan, Together let us sweetly die, I am bound for the land of Canaan! Chorus: O, Canaan, sweet Canaan,

I am bound for the land of Canaan, O, Canaan, it is my happy home, I am bound for the land of Canaan! The way the holy prophets went, I am bound for the land of Canaan, The way that leads from banishment, I am bound for the land of Canaan! "Wade in the Water" The lyrics of this particular song seem to be very elusive, most likely due to the oral tradition of spirituals. Below are versions from a) “African American Spirituals” and b) http:// www.localdial.com. a) Chorus: Wade in the water, wade in the water, children, Wade in the water, God’s gon’ trouble the water. V erses: I looked over Jordan, and what did I see? A band of angels coming after me. They’re gonna take me to the heavenly place, Where the streets are paved with gold, and they got pearly gates. Some say I’ve never been redeemed, Just follow me down to Jordan stream. I tell you how the Lord has set myself free, When I get to heaven, how happy I’ll be. b) Wade in the water (children) Wade in the water Wade in the water God’s gonna trouble the water

If you don’t believe I’ve been redeemed God’s gonna trouble the water I want you to follow him on down to Jordan stream (I said) My God’s gonna trouble the water You know chilly water is dark and cold (I know my) God’s gonna trouble the water You know it chills my body but not my soul (I said my) God’s gonna trouble the water. (Come on let’s) wade in the water Wade in the water (children) Wade in the water God’s gonna trouble the water Now if you should get there before I do (I know) God’s gonna trouble the water Tell all my friends that I’m comin’ too (I know) God’s gonna trouble the water Sometimes I’m up lord and sometimes I’m down (You know my) God’s gonna trouble the water Sometimes I’m level to the ground God’s gonna trouble the water (I know) God’s gonna trouble the water Wade in the water (children) Wade out in the water (children) God’s gonna trouble the water "Steal Away" Steal away, steal away, steal away to Jesus, Steal away, steal away home, I ain’t got long to stay here.

My Lord he calls me, he calls me by the thunder, The trumpet sounds within my soul. I ain’t got long to stay here. Green trees are bending, poor sinner stands a trembling, The trumpet sounds within my soul, I ain’t got long to stay here. Suggested Meanings of words found in slave songs: Canaan – Canada Additional Spirituals Thought to Be Slave Songs: “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot” “Nobody Knows the Trouble I’ve Seen” “Good News Member” “We Shall be Free” “Run to Jesus” Spirituals Found in Voices Across Time: “Let us Break Bread Together,” page 1.42 “Go Down, Moses,” page 3.82 “Deep River,” page 4.78 Bibliography: African American Spirituals: The Concert Tradition, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1994. Allen, William Francis; Garrison, Lucy McKim; and Ware, Charles Pickard. Slave Songs of the United States. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1992. Bradford, Sarah. Harriet Tubman: The Moses of her People. New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, 1961. Dobard, Raymond G. and Tobin, Jacqueline L. Hidden in Plain View: A Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad. New York: Anchor Books, 1999. http://www.capcod.net/nhwixon/ railroad.htm Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass An American Slave. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1969. Finkelman, Paul, ed. “Rebellions, Resistance, and Runaways Within the Slave South.” Articles on American Slavery, Vol. 13. New York: Garland, 1989. Fisher, Miles Mark. Negro Slave Songs in the United States. New York: The Citadel Press, 1953. “Flight to Freedom: The Underground Railroad.” Princeton, New Jersey: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1995. Harris, Kim and Reggie. Music of the Underground Railroad. Ascension Records, 1993. http:// www.ket.org/underground/resources/music.htm Monro, F. N. The Drinking Gourd: A Story of the Underground Railroad. Scranton: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993.. Root, Deane L.; Donley, Susan K.; Haines, Kathryn Miller; and Whitmer, Mariana S. Voices Across Time. Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh, 2004. “The Sellin’ of Jamie Thomas.” Princeton, New Jersey: Films for the Humanities, Inc., 1996. Thomas, Velma Maia. No Man Can Hinder Me. New York: Crown Publishers, 2001. Thurman, Howard. Deep River and the Negro Spiritual Speaks of Life and Death. Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 1975. Work, John W., ed. American Negro Songs and Spirituals. New York: Crown Publishers, 1940.

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Quakers: From http://learningtogive.org/lessons/unit39/lesson3.html:

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Purpose: Students will research the "Society of Friends"/ Quakers and describe how this group promoted the common good. The Quakers pushed for religious freedom and freedom of choice, which are Core Democratic Values. As a group, they formed organizations to promote social change in the areas of slavery, prison conditions, poverty, Native American affairs and other social causes. Duration: One Forty-Five to Fifty Minute Class Period Objectives: The learner will: • • describe and evaluate contributions of Quakers to American life. explain how the beliefs and actions of the Quakers helped to further the common good and democratic values. Practices Core Democratic Values

Materials: • •

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Instructional Procedure(s): Anticipatory Set: Ask the students what they would do if they were not allowed to practice their religion and were even punished because of it. Would they consider moving to another country? Would they try to help the people who mistreated them? • Using print sources or the Internet, ask the learners to research the Society of Friends (Quakers) to obtain basic information about their founding, coming to the New World, beliefs and practices. Remind the learners that, while the Quakers were created in 1652, the group still exists today. After a sufficient amount of time has been provided for the research, ask for the information learners have found. Introduce the initial Quaker movement into the new land. Talk about why they came and what happened to them when they got here (see Bibliographical References for background information). Distribute copies of Practice (Attachment One). Read it and discuss together. Distribute copies of Core Democratic Values (Attachment Two). Have the students compare the contributions of the Friends to the Core Democratic Values. Which ones are

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similar? Can it be said that the beliefs and actions of the Quakers helped to further the common good? How did the actions of the Friends show respect for others? • Put the term philanthropy on the chalkboard. Explain that it is the giving of one's time, talent or treasure for the sake of another or for the common good. Do the actions of the Society of Friends constitute examples of philanthropy? How? Is acting philanthropically good for the community or nation? Ask students to orally evaluate the consequences of Quaker beliefs, values and actions on American life.

Assessment: Students' contributions to research information, as well as making the connections to the Core Democratic Values, may be used as assessments.

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Cross-Curriculum Extensions: In 1688, a group of Friends in Germantown, Pennsylvania, took a public stand against slavery. This is believed to be the first stirrings within a religious organization of the abolitionist movement in America. As a homework assignment or an extension of the day's learning, have students further their research to investigate the role of the Friends in the abolition movement. Practices: The Quakers have made significant contributions in the promotion of tolerance, peace and justice than any other Christian denomination during the colonial period in North America.. They have been influential beyond what their numbers would suggest in many areas: promotion of world peace, abolition of slavery, fair treatment of Native Americans, universal suffrage, prison reform, improvement in mental hospitals, etc. Some of the Yearly Meetings publish a Book of Discipline or a book on Faith and Practice. These are not sets of strict rules. They are general guidelines for living and include Quaker history, excerpts from the journals of old and weighty Friends and poetry. Also included are monthly queries, which the individual member and meetings can use to explore what they are doing to make a positive impact on the world. The New York Yearly Meeting's Faith & Practice document can be seen at: http://www.nyym.org/index.php?q=faith_and_practice Women obtained equal status to men throughout most of the Quaker movement early in its history - centuries earlier than in most other denominations. In England and some areas of the US, meetings are held in silence. Attendees speak when moved to do so. Elsewhere in North America, services have programmed orders of worship, usually led by a pastor. They usually arrange the congregation in a square or circle, so that each person is aware of everyone else, yet no one person appears raised above another in status. Business meetings seek to reach a consensus; no voting is used.

Throughout their history, Quakers have refused to take oaths. Because they believe in the truth at all times, oaths are not necessary. Taking an oath implies that there are two types of truthfulness: one for ordinary life and another for special occasions.

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Core Democratic Values Fundamental Beliefs Life Liberty The Pursuit of Happiness The Common Good Justice Equality Diversity Truth Popular Sovereignty Patriotism Constitutional Principles The Rule of Law Separation of Powers Representative Government Checks and Balances Individual Rights Freedom of Religion Federalism Civilian Control of the Military

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History: Brown v Board of Education: From http://legacyofbrown.com/?q=node/4: Creator:" Andrea Seifkes" Prairie Hills Middle School" Buhler, Kansas Topic:" Kansas History Grade:" Middle School Abstract:" You have recently read and studied the book Steal Away Home in your Language Arts class. In the book, the main character, Dana Shannon, discovers a full skeleton sealed away in a little hidden room in the nineteenth century house her family is restoring. The aged bones date back to just before the Civil War, when pro- and anti-slavery groups transformed the Kansas Territory into the battleground known as Bleeding Kansas. Dana and her friends unravel the secrets of the skeleton as they study the past and learn about themselves as well. Dana’s good friend, Jeep, is an African American teen that learns about some of the struggles some of his ancestors may have faced. At first Jeep is angry learning about the fight for slaves to become free. He then comes to realize that learning more about the past will give him a better appreciation of the rights he enjoys today. Segregation in our country traces its roots to slavery. Your task is to educate your classmates and raise personal awareness of the Civil Rights Movement. Based on what you have learned in class and a personal interview you will create web pages focusing on a brief history of the Civil Rights movement and the impact on individuals. The Legacy of Brown v. Board of Education! UbD Unit Cover Sheet! Submitted by: Andrea Siefkes, 7th Grade Social Studies! Prairie Hills Middle School! Buhler USD 313! ! ! March, 2007!

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Performance Task! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! You have recently read and studied the book Steal Away Home in your Language Arts class. In the book, the main character, Dana Shannon, discovers a full skeleton, sealed away in a little hidden

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Name____________________________ Hour________"

room in the nineteenth century house her family is restoring. The aged bones date back to just before the Civil War, when pro- and anti-slavery groups transformed the Kansas Territory into the battleground known as Bleeding Kansas. Dana and her friends unravel the secrets of the skeleton as they study the past and learn about themselves as well. Dana’s good friend, Jeep, is an African American teen that learns about some of the struggles some of his ancestors may have faced. At first Jeep is angry learning about the fight for slaves to become free. He then comes to realize that learning more about the past will give him a better appreciation of the rights he enjoys today. Segregation in our country traces its roots to slavery. Your task is to educate your classmates and raise personal awareness of the Civil Rights Movement. Based on what you have learned in class and a personal interview you will create web pages focusing on a brief history of the Civil Rights movement and the impact on individuals.

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1st Web Page" ** Include a quote or slogan relating to the Civil Rights movement" What are Civil Rights?" Create Timeline include and explain the following events:" - 13th Amendment! - 14th Amendment! - 15th Amendment! - Plessy v. Ferguson! - Brown v. Topeka BOE! - Civil Rights Act of 1964! - Voting Rights Act of 1965!

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2nd Web page" Going further" Select one event from your timeline and describe its impact on the Civil Rights Movement"

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3rd Web page" What was Jim Crow?" List at least 3 - 4 Jim Crow laws and create a photo collage with 3 – 4 photos showing examples of these laws. 6th Web page" Reflection" -What did you learn that " surprised you the most about the Civil Rights?" -What do you think you would have " done to support the Civil Rights " movement if you had been a " teenager during this period ?" -What could you do now to support " Civil Rights?"

5th Web page" Civil Disobedience – What is it and was it effective way to fight segregation?" Create a photo collage showing at least 3 – 4 examples of Civil Disobedience.

" 4th Web page" Personal interview " Conduct an interview with someone who personally experienced or witnessed segregation and discrimination and prejudice. Include the following:" -Name of the person you are interviewing " and your relationship to them" -Where did the incident take place?" -Describe the incident of discrimination" -What, if any, was the impact of this " incident on the person you interviewed?" -Include a photo that relates to the "

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7th Web page"
Resources" Site your sources on this page."

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Content Standard(s) Kansas History Ks H S 3 B 7 I 14 Use a timeline to trace the events that led to the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Topeka Board of Education US H S 4 B 2 I 10 Describe changes in political and economic positions of African Americans in the North and South, including challenges to freedom (ex. Black Codes, sharecropping, Jim Crow, Amendments 13, 14, 15, Plessy V. Ferguson). US H S 4 B 3 I 13 Examine historical documents, artifacts, and other materials, and analyze them in terms of credibility, as well as the purpose, perspective, and point of view for which they were constructed. CG S 1 B 2 I 1 Recognize that a nation’s values are embodied in its constitution, statutes, and important court cases (ex. Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Topeka Board of Education).

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Essential Questions: How should we balance the rights of individuals with the common good? What impact can individuals or groups have? What is the role of government in affecting social and cultural change? Who are the winners and the losers? Students will know: The roles of key individuals and groups involving Civil Rights. Key vocabulary terms (on a separate sheet) The role of the courts in the Civil Rights Movement. How stereotyping affects people’s attitudes. Students will be able to: Identify important court cases that impacted race relations in the United States Describe changes in the political and economic positions of the African Americans, including challenges to freedom (ex. Jim Crow, Amendments 13, 14, 15) Use a timeline to trace the events that led to the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

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Subject Knowledge

Excellent - 4
Subject knowledge is evident throughout the project. All information is clear, appropriate, and correct. All sources are properly cited. The sequence of information is logical and intuitive. Menus and paths to all information are clear and direct. The project shows significant evidence of originality and inventiveness. The majority of the content and many of the ideas are fresh, original, and inventive. Project runs perfectly with no technical problems. For example, there are no error messages, all sound, video, or other files are found.

Good - 3
Subject knowledge is evident in much of the project. Most information is clear, appropriate, and correct. Most sources are properly cited. The sequence of information is logical. Menus and paths to most information are clear and direct. The project shows some evidence of originality and inventiveness.

Satisfactory - 2
Some subject knowledge is evident. Some Information is confusing, incorrect, or flawed.

Needs Improvement -1
Subject knowledge is not evident. Information is confusing, incorrect, or flawed. No sources are properly cited. The sequence of information is not logical. Menus and paths to information are not evident. The work is a minimal collection or rehash of other people's ideas, products, and images. There is no evidence of new thought.

Citing Sources Organization

Few sources are properly cited. The sequence of information is somewhat logical. Menus and paths are confusing and flawed.

Originality

The work is an extensive collection and rehash of other people's ideas, products, and images. There is little evidence of new thought or inventiveness. Project runs minimally. There are many technical problems when viewing the project.

Technical

Project runs adequately with minor technical problems.

Project does not run satisfactorily. There are too many technical problems to view the project.

Score: _______________ (60 points possible)

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Directions for getting started with iWeb 3. Turn on computer – push round button 4. Log-in as PHMS student – password is cougar 5. Go to the top of the screen and click on file 6. Create new folder and name it with your name and class hr Example: Susie Cue 1st 5. Click on the iWeb icon on your dock at the bottom of the page 6. Go to file and click on new site 7. Name the new site your name 8. Choose a template for your webpage – click on Travel and then double click on the Welcome page 9. On the left side of the pg. double click on Welcome and change the name to Civil Rights, push enter 10. Go to file new page – double click on About Me 11. On the left side of the pg. double click on About Me and change the name to Going Further 12. Go to file new page – double click on Photos 13. On the left side of the pg. double click on Photos and change the name to Jim Crow 14. Go to file new page – double click on About Me 15. On the left side of the pg. double click on About Me and change the name to Interview 16. Go to file new page – double click on Photos 17. On the left side of the pg. double click on Photos and change the name to Civil Disobedience 18. Go to file new page – double click on Blank 19. On the left side of the pg. double click on Blank and change the name to Reflection 20. Go to file new page – double click on Blank 21. On the left side of the pg. double click on Blank and change the name to Resources 22. When you are ready to close go to File and click on Publish to a Folder - Click on Desktop and then double click on your folder and click on Choose 23. On the pop up menu that says Content Rights click on continue – then, click OK 24. Click out of the program – if you have a message that ask you to publish again just click don’t publish 25. To close down the computer go to the apple at the upper left corner of the screen and click on Shut Down – click on Shut Down Again

Do Not close the lid until the screen is BLACK – this is very IMPORTANT!!!!!
Put the computer back in the correct spot and make sure it is plugged in correctly!!** Save
photos dragged from the Internet to your folder and periodically hit Apple S to save work

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Two great sites for Jim Crow laws and pictures are: http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/what/ homepage.htm http://academic.udayton.edu/race/02rights/jcrow02.htm

! CIVIL RIGHTS TERMS ! Directions: Choose from the following terms to correctly fill in the blank using the Civil Rights
Name_______________________________ Hour________

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PowerPoint on the 7th grade Social Studies web page. ! !

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“All Deliberate Speed”

Executive order Integration

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Racism Segregation Separate-but-equaldoctrine

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13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment
Abolition Assassination

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Jim Crow Ku Klux Klan Literacy Tests
Lynching

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Sit-ins

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Boycotts Brown v. Topeka B.O.E.
Civil Rights Act

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NAACP

Unconstitutional

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National Guard Civil Disobedience Prejudice

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Voting Rights Act of 1965

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___________________________ - the elimination of slavery. ___________________________ - this amendment abolished slavery as a legal institution. Came about as a result of Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.

3. ___________________________ - The amendment was designed to grant citizenship to and

protect the civil liberties of recently freed slaves.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ___________________________ - this amendment guarantees the right of citizens of the United States to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of slavery. ___________________________ - deeply rooted prejudice which may be expressed in the idea that one race is superior to another ___________________________ - term that came to personify the system of governmentsanctioned racial oppression and segregation in the United States ___________________________ - elaborate voter registration procedures whose primary purpose was to deny the vote to those who were not white. ___________________________ - the separation of the races by law in all aspects of society schools, housing, restaurants, club, buses and trains, theaters, and all kinds of public and private facilities. ___________________________ - the legal principle, first set forth in the 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson, that separate facilities and accommodations for Black people were constitutional so long as these resources were equal in quality to those provided for the white community.

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10. ___________________________ - a negative attitude or opinion about a person or group based

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upon that person or group's race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, accent, gender, disability, or other external characteristic.

11. ___________________________ - group originally formed to terrorize and scare blacks 12. ___________________________ - murder by mob violence, without due process of law 13. ___________________________ - Landmark Supreme Court Case that effectively denied the legal basis for segregation in schools 14. ___________________________ - words used by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1955 in its ruling on how communities were to implement the Court’s Brown v. Topeka Board of Education decision of the previous year. 15. ___________________________ - a rule or order issued by an executive branch of a government (ex. the president of the United States) and carrying the force of law. 16. ___________________________ - an armed force recruited by the states and equipped by the federal government which can be called into action by the state or federal government. 17. ___________________________ - a civil rights organization. It works to end discrimination against blacks and other minority groups 18. ___________________________ - the practice of avoiding violence as a means to resolve conflict or end injustice. 19. ___________________________ - a refusal to deal with an individual, organization, or business. 20. ___________________________ - an act of occupying seats in a racially segregated establishment in organized protest against discrimination 21. ___________________________ - legislation enacted by Congress during the Johnson administration in 1964, banning segregation in public facilities as well as racial discrimination in employment and education.
22. In the century following the Civil War, African Americans in the South faced overwhelming obstacles to voting. Despite the 15th and 19th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which had enfranchised (given the right to vote) black men and women. Southern blacks also risked harassment, intimidation, economic reprisals, and physical violence when they tried to register or vote. As a result, African Americans had little if any political power, either locally or nationally. In Mississippi, for instance, only five percent of eligible blacks were registered to vote in 1960. The ___________________________ of 1965, meant to reverse this disenfranchisement (inability to vote)

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23. ___________________________ - removing all barriers and placing all groups of people together. 24. ___________________________ -the murder of a political leader or public figure. 25. ___________________________ - illegal by reason of failing to comply with the principles of the United States Constitution.!

Kansas - Nebraska Act: From http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/kansas-nebraska-act-1854-popular-sovereignty-andpolitical-polarization-over-slavery#sect-activities: GRADE LEVEL 9-12 TIME REQUIRED 2-3 class periods SUBJECT AREAS • History and Social Studies > People > African American • History and Social Studies > U.S. > AP US History • History and Social Studies > Themes > Civil Rights • History and Social Studies > Themes > Demographic Changes • History and Social Studies > U.S. > Expansion and Reform (1801-1861) • History and Social Studies > U.S. > Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877) • History and Social Studies > Themes > Economic Transformation • History and Social Studies > People > Other • History and Social Studies > People > Women • History and Social Studies > Themes > Immigration/Migration • History and Social Studies > Themes > Politics and Citizenship • History and Social Studies > Themes > Reform • History and Social Studies > Themes > Slavery • History and Social Studies > Themes > U.S. Constitution SKILLS • Critical analysis • Critical thinking • Debate • Discussion • Evaluating arguments • Gathering, classifying and interpreting written, oral and visual information • Historical analysis • Interpretation • Making inferences and drawing conclusions • Map Skills • Online research

• Representing ideas and information orally, graphically and in writing • Using primary sources • Writing skills AUTHORS • Lucas Morel, Washington & Lee University (Lexington, VA) • Constance Murray, Grace Christian High School (Staunton, VA)

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Activity 1. The Kansas–Nebraska Act: Mapping the Slavery Controversy in 1854 By 1854 the United States had fulfilled its "manifest destiny" of occupying all of the geographical expanse from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. The rapid settlement of the West raised to a new level of intensity the persistent question of whether or not to permit slavery to extend into the new territories. This activity requires students to contrast the maps of 1820 and 1854 so that they can see how much the nation had grown in the thirty-four year period, and to analyze new developments in the map of 1854 in order for students to appreciate the urgency of the arguments advanced in the national debate over slavery. Students will work with an interactive map of the United States in 1854, observing how the country had changed from 1820 to 1854. As with the map of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (see Lesson One of this unit, An Early Threat of Secession), two sets of questions have been provided for this map: one to be used for a comparative study of states and territories, and the other for an analytical study of changes brought about (a) since the 1820 Compromise and (b) as a result of the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854. Two map analysis worksheets that have direct links to the map, provided on page 2–3 of the PDF, can be downloaded, printed, and distributed to students for recording their answers to the questions. Activity 2. The Kansas–Nebraska Act: A Debate between Two Illinoisans The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 shattered whatever peace was gained by the Compromise of 1850. In addition to organizing the U.S. Territories of Kansas and Nebraska, the act attempted to deal with the extension of slavery into this region by allowing the settlers in each territory to decide the question for themselves. U. S. Senator Stephen Douglas, who championed this policy of popular sovereignty and included it in the Kansas–Nebraska Act, unwittingly set off a firestorm of protest among those committed to stopping the spread of slavery. One such person was former Congressman Abraham Lincoln, who strongly opposed any policy that could extend slavery into the territories. This activity has four parts. Students will:

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read excerpts of two speeches, one by Douglas and the other by Lincoln answer questions about the speeches, provided in chart form available in the PDF debate the issues raised in the speeches participate in a follow-up discussion

Part 1: Read Lincoln and Douglas speeches This activity will involve students with arguments used by Douglas to promote popular sovereignty and those used by Lincoln to counter it. The speeches are also located in the PDF, along with the question and answer worksheets, and can be downloaded and printed for student use. Part 2: Note salient points in both speeches Depending on the amount of class time available for this lesson, Parts 1 and 2 can be accomplished in one of three ways: (a) On-line assignment—Instruct students to go on-line to the websites for the speeches by Douglas and Lincoln. In the worksheets they will answer the questions for each speech." " (b) In-class assignment—Make copies of the two excerpted speeches and the worksheets, and hand them out to students to work on in class. They may work on them individually or in groups." " (c) Homework assignment—To save time, make copies of the speeches and the worksheet one class period ahead of time, and hand them out to the students for homework. Instruct the students to have the speeches read and the charts completed by the next class period. Part 3: Debate Begin after students have answered the questions. Divide the class into three groups: • Group A will represent Douglas's viewpoint; • Group B will represent Lincoln's viewpoint. Both groups will meet together to compare their answers and craft the best possible argument for their side of the mini-debate. Each group appoints one or two students to advance the argument. • Group C will evaluate the two arguments. While Groups A and B are working on their arguments, Group C will collaborate and make a list of the main points of each side of the argument that they will listen for during the debate. A graphic organizer for listing the main points of the speeches by Douglas and Lincoln is provided on page 10 of the PDF, and can be printed and distributed to students in Group C.

After a sufficient amount of time has been given to prepare for the debate, allow the two groups an allotted amount of time to present their arguments. After the debate is over, Group C gives the class the strong points made by each side and, if desired, declares the winner of the debate as determined by a vote taken within the group. Part 4: Follow-up Discussion. After the student debate is concluded, ask the students for their thoughts on the issue of this activity: namely, the dispute between Douglas and Lincoln over Congress' authority to restrict the extension of slavery. Invite the class to consider the larger issue of the inevitable struggle in a democratic republic between competing viewpoints, and about how the issues become more complex when human rights are involved. Ask them to give examples of issues today that illustrate the ongoing clash of differing opinions and values. From http://www.teachushistory.org/kansas-nebraska-act-bleeding-kansas/lesson-plans: Lesson Plans The Kansas – Nebraska Act of 1854 Written by James Scanlon, Worcester Public Schools

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This multi-lesson unit is designed for the High School teacher, be that teacher a History Teacher, BD Specialists, Inclusion Specialist, or other Special Educator, teaching students who are studying United States History I. It can be adapted to address the needs of many academic level

students or classes of students. It offers ways the teacher can address the various learning styles of his or her students. The focus of the unit is the Kansas – Nebraska Act of 1854, other events leading to KansasNebraska, and the impact of slavery on the development of the new territories of the United States as well as its impact on the start of the American Civil War. It will focus on the cause and effect of several events and how they came about. Each lesson is designed to make this part of American History real, that is to show the student that the events are not just lines in a history text book but involved real people and places and the ideas of people who did not always see eye to eye on thing that had great impact on the growth of our country. In order to make the events as real as possible, each lesson will use as its central element a primary source document. These documents will be presented in their original form whenever possible, but will also be offered in other, sometimes more usable forms. A student can use almost any United States history textbook for background information needed to place these events into historical perspective; however, these lessons will provide other materials that can replace the use of a text. Because some teachers may feel that they do not have the background in this subject to adequately teach it, additional information has been provided to augment their understanding of this subject. Teachers who are not history teachers or who feel that they are not as familiar with the subjects will find suggested readings that might be done to better acquaint them with the subject which might make them feel more comfortable teaching this content. The unit is made up of three lessons. The first addresses the events that led up to the passing of the Kansas – Nebraska Act, primarily the plans for the building of the Railroads to the West. The next lesson deals with the attempts to populate the new territories after the bill was passed. The last lesson approaches the long-range effects on the development of the United States that the Bill had. Guiding Question How was the issue of American slavery dealt with politically from the writing of the Constitution to the American Civil War? Learning Objectives • Students will be able to list the major events that led to the American Civil War. • Students will discuss: # # the 3/5's Compromise provision in the Constitution the Missouri Compromise of 1820

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the Compromise of 1850 the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Eli Thayer's attempt to keep the Kansas Territory a free state

Massachusetts Framework Standards Addressed This Unit addresses many of the following Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks listed below. In some case other consideration must be included in addressing them as well: The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1877 USI.35 Describe how the different economies and cultures of the North and South contributed to the growing importance of sectional politics in the early 19th century. (H) USI.36 Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War. (H) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The Missouri Compromise (1820) The South Carolina Nullification Crisis (1832-1833) The Wilmot Proviso (1846) The Compromise of 1850 The publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1851-1852) The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) The Dred Scott Supreme Court case (1857) The Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858) John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry (1859)

10. The election of Abraham Lincoln (1860) USI.37 On a map of North America, identify Union and Confederate States at the outbreak of the war. (H, G) USI.38 Analyze Abraham Lincoln’s presidency, the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), his views on slavery, and the political obstacles he encountered. (H, C) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address (1863) and Lincoln’s second inaugural address (1865) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Lincoln’s “House Divided” speech (1858)

Note: highlighted standards are directly considered, others indirectly Preparing to Teach This Unit In order to teach this unit, you must understand the chronology of events, which led up to the passing of the bill. You must understand the relationship of one event to another thought out this time period as well as its impact on the American people. You must be able to put it into the proper context. You should consider a careful reading of the textbook used by your students, follow up on any recommended reading offered in that text as well as the following suggested reading: • Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, Doris Kearns Goodwin, Simon & Schuster, 2005. Chapter 5, The Turbulent Fifties offers a very good sketch of the period and factors leading to the Act. The Impending Crisis: 1848 – 1861, David M. Potter; The New American Nation Series; Harper Colophon, 1976. Chapter 7A Railroad Promotion and its Sequel; Chapter 9, Two Wars in Kansas; as well as other parts of the book. “The Genesis of The New England Emigrant Aid Society”, Samuel A. Johnson, The New England Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Jan. 1930), pp. 95 – 122 (access at: www.jstor.org) “The Railroad Background of The Kansas – Nebraska Act”, Frank Heywood Hodder, The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. XII, No. 1, June 1925, pp. 3 – 22 (access at: www.jstor.org) “Kansas Crusade: Eli Thayer and The New England Emigrant Aid Company”, Horace Andrews, Jr., The New England Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Dec. 1965) pp. 497 – 514 (access at: www.jstor.org) A review of any of the Web Links listed on this Unit Plan

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Unit Lessons 1. Eli Thayer and the Kansas-Nebraska Act 2. How We Got to Kansas-Nebraska

Primary Source Documents to be considered 1. Douglas railroad 2. 3. The Act that chartered the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid company Letter regarding passing of bill banning slavery (transcript also at this site)

Web Links To Helpful Kansas – Nebraska Act Sites • Time line of event leading to the American Civil War • An Act to Organize the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska

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The Trial and Execution of John Brown A secondary source documenting the New England Emigrant Aid Society and its work in moving people from the New England area to Kansas Bleeding Kansas and the Enduring Struggle for Freedom National Heritage Area Challenges facing the new Territories concerning expansion of slavery. Stephen Douglas site which is good with student who have reading issues List of subscriptions, Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company

Lesson Plan 1 "Eli Thayer and the Kansas-Nebraska Act" Introduction This lesson will connect the organization of the Kansas and Nebraska Territories to Massachusetts through the work of Eli Thayer of Worcester. Guiding Question In what ways did the citizens of Massachusetts, and later citizens of New England, affect the spread of slavery into the newly-organized areas of the United States? Learning Objectives 1. Students will understand how Eli Thayer planned to help to insure that the newlyorganized territory of Kansas would become a "free" state according to the tersm of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 2. 3. Students will discuss reasons that Thayer's plan might not work. Students will be able to list some of those groups of people, especially in Massachusetts, who were able to supprt Thayer's plan.

Preparing to Teach This Lesson The teacher teaching this lesson should be familiar with the events leading to the creation of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. A good resource for the teacher to use to gain this background is David M. Potter's The Impending Crisis, 1848- 1861. The Kansas Crusade, by Eli Thayer, was written in 1889 and published by Harper and Brothers in New York. This volume is available at some university libraries and also at the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts. This would be helpful reading and is very readable by high school students, but is not a necessary read to cover this topic. Students should read any high school United States history text for background on this topic. The Kansas Crusade was an attempt to persuade citizens of Massachusetts, and later from all of New England, to move to the newly-organized territory of Kansas in order to prevent it from becoming another slave state when it entered the Union. Thayer was from Worcester,

Massachusetts, and he was a member of the House of Representatives. Thayer also founded the Oread Institute, the first secondary school designed for female students. Other sources for students are: • • • • • http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=28# http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASkansas.htm http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1476 http://www.civilwarhome.com/kansasnebraska.htm http://www.kshs.org/publicat/khq/1943/43_3_barry.htm

A secondary source documenting the New England Emigrant Aid Society and its work in moving people from the New England area to Kansas • http://www.civil-war.net/pages/timeline.asp

Time line of event leading to the American Civil War Kansas Crusade: Eli Thayer and the New England Emigrant Aid Company" Horace Andrews, Jr., The New England Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Dec., 1962), pp. 497-51, Available at www.Jstor.com Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, Doris Kearns Goodwin, Simon & Schuster, 2005. Chapter 5, The Turbulent Fifties offers a very good sketch of the period and factors leading to the Act. These sites offer both the teacher and student considerable resources concerning Kansas – Nebraska, as well as many links to other sites that also are very helpful. Activities 1. The students will complete background reading in their textbook regarding KansasNebraska. 2. 3. 4. Each student will be given a copy of the excerpt from The Kansas Crusade and will be asked to read and study it. A class discussion will center around the objectives of the lesson. Each student will be asked to produce an essay that discusses Thayer's efforts to insure the status of Kansas.

Assessment Student essays will be assessed. Questions on quiz or test can be used and should be centered on the Objective and Guiding Questions for this lesson. Massachusetts Framework Standards Addressed USI.36 Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War. (H) F. the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Time Required Depending on the time available and involvement of your stduents, this lesson should take between one and two 56-minute lessons and two homework extensions. Skills Used Students will use their skills of deduction and cause and effect, as well as use methods of analysis to complete this assignment. Lesson Plan 2 “How We Got to Kansas-Nebraska” Introduction This lesson will explore several of the causes of the American Civil War. It will consider, through the examination of primary source documents, the 3/5's Clause, the Compromise of 1789, the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise of 1850, the Dred Scott decision, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The students will study the evolution of the issue of American slavery in the American political system. Guiding Questions 1. How have American political leaders dealt with the question of slavery from the time of the writing of the Constitution of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854? 2. How did these activities help to lead the country to the Civil War?

Learning Objectives Students will be able to describe each of the events and its relationship to the causes of the American Civil War. Students will be able to explain why the question of slavery was such a major issue, especially in the westward expansion of the United States. Preparing to Teach This Lesson

Teachers of this lesson should be familiar with the events considered in the primary source documents. That is the 3/5's Compromise in the United States Constitution; the Missouri Compromise of 1820; the Compromise of 1850, esp. the Fugitive Slave Act; and the formation of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company. The following sources will be of help to teachers who need some additional background information in these subjects (in many cases, they may be used with students as well): http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/art1.htm The U.S. Constitution, see article 3 of section 1 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h511t.html Brief, but good background on Missouri Compromise http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=22 A look at the actual Missouri Compromise Document http://www.nationalcenter.org/FugitiveSlaveAct.html Background on the Fugitive Slave Act http://books.google.com/books?id=xGgOAAAAIAAJ&dq=eli +thayer&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=37BKriBTP1&sig=EKo6SVThouxRAXQA9X nKnsafOcM#PPP7,M1 Students should have completed the reading of the events leading to the start of the American Civil War in their United States History textbook. Activities 1. Students will be divded into four teams. 2. 3. 4. 5. Each team will be given one of the primary source documents. Each team will be instructed to study the primary source and research it on the internet. Each team will answer the following question in a short essay: What effect on slavery did this event have? Each team will report (read the essay) to the class on their findings.

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Members of non-reporting teams will take notes on the report... they too must answer the driving question "How did the United States deal politically with the question of slavery until the Civil War?" Each student will produce an essay which answers the driving question listed in the above activity.

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Assessments 1. Each student's participation in the team activity will be assessed. 2. 3. Each student will share the team's grade on their response to the question of how their event effected slavery. Each student's essay will be assessed and graded.

Massachusetts Framework Standards Addressed USI.35 Describe how the different economies and cultures of the North and South contributed to the growing importance of sectional politics in the early nineteenth century. (H) A. the Missouri Compromise (1820) D. the Compromise of 1850 F. the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Time Required This lesson will require two 56-minute classes and one homework extension.

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The Underground Railroad:

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From http://eduscapes.com/ladders/themes/under.htm https://www.teachervision.com/slavery-us/lesson-plan/4166.html The Underground Railroad Grade Levels: 6 - 8 Objectives • Students will use vocabulary related to the Underground Railroad. • Students will identify key facts related to the Underground Railroad. • Students will evaluate their personal responses to the Underground Railroad. • Students will make a judgment about the morality of the Underground Railroad. Materials Discussion questions Set aside time for students to gather as a group and share and discuss their activity worksheet responses. • Challenge the whole group to discuss the moral issues (e.g., right vs. wrong) that the Underground Railroad posed. Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. bounty hunters = people being paid to hunt for runaway slaves and return them to their masters conscience = the sense or character that gives a person the feeling to do right or good derogatory = negative fugitives = people running away from something illegally stamina = endurance terrain = a piece of land or geographical area • •

Discussion Questions

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1. 2. 3. 4. What was the Underground Railroad? Who traveled this path and why? Why was the Underground Railroad so dangerous? Why did the runaway slaves need to make it all the way to Canada?

If you had been a slave in the 1850s, would you have tried to escape on the Underground Railroad? Why or why not? 6. If you had been a white person living along the path of the Underground Railroad, would you have allowed runaway slaves to hide on your property? Use the back of this sheet or a separate piece of paper to explain your reasoning. Assessment • Use a checklist to assess students' understanding of the factual, legal, and moral implications of the Underground Railroad. Assign a point value to each item. 1. _____ The student accurately answers the factual questions posed on the worksheet."

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_____ The student is able to articulate his or her feelings about the Underground Railroad." _____ The student supports his or her opinion with facts."

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_____ The student participates in a discussion of the moral issues posed by the Underground Railroad."

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Find a variety of assessment techniques to use with this lesson.

Extension Activities • • • Choose from a large collection of cross-curricular activities for all grade levels. Explore outstanding lessons and activities in the Black History Month theme. Have students use the Internet to select slavery topics they are interested in learning more about. Direct students to work in small groups and conduct panel discussions on the practice of slavery. Have students find a timeline showing the order of events in the history of slavery. After studying the timeline, students can write questions about the timeline to quiz each other.

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Tab 6 a) Websites used and websites that could be used for the book

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Resources List :

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Tab 1: Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Steal-Away-Aladdin-Historical-Fiction/dp/0689824351 Amazon has summaries, customer, and editorial reviews used in tab one and two. Barnes and Noble: http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/steal-away-home-lois-ruby/1103275845? ean=9780689824357 This resource has customer reviews, books summary, and editorial reviews. Tab 2: Goodreads: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/450088.Steal_Away_Home Goodreads has a book summary and customer reviews from students and teachers. Tab 3: Scholastic: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/book/steal-away-home#cart/cleanup http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/lesson-plan/soon-be-free-lesson-plan This site has a lot of helpful interactive as well as author information and lesson plans. It is easy to navigate because of it’s directional tabs. I also used this source for tab four.

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Google Search: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-HcozOEi1Bms/T4xaWqv1dwI/AAAAAAAABF8/InciRhwXVqA/ s320/Vocabulary+Graphic+Organizer+Center+png+pic1+white.png mrsfavors.weebly.com/uploads/2/3/6/1/.../steal_away_home.pptx http://drobinson5liveoak.com/DCSS%20Vocabulary%20%20Study%20Guides.pdf http://quizlet.com/13796457/steal-away-home-characters-flash-cards/
https://jeopardylabs.com/play/enter-title127263

http://www.polk.k12.ga.us.schools.bz/olc/page.aspx?id=9256&s=323 students.unca.edu/emsheldo/story%20graphs.docx http://bainbridgeclass.blogspot.com/2012/10/graphic-organizers-for-big-kids-and.html http://www.google.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=12&ved=0CGgQFjAL&url=http%3A%2F %2Fmrsfavors.weebly.com%2Fuploads %2F2%2F3%2F6%2F1%2F23618366%2Fsteal_away_home.pptx&ei=LAApU4vbBYiQ0AHsyI HgCg&usg=AFQjCNFlfQDrzjuP1clS8_Dga1UYVPfR8Q&sig2=ztBjyM9fE2DKHtDWrv9Pag &bvm=bv.62922401,d.dmQ - powerpoint https://docs.google.com/a/cnu.edu/document/preview? hgd=1&id=1FOjDhz7uie0VlQgnBDiASdJ67eTBiwIEBqbFmvPuvyY

All of these resources were found off of Google. I did simple searches on the novel and what I needed for each section. These were resources made by other teachers and free.

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Could be used: Teachers Pay Teachers: http://www.teacherspayteachers.com Another great resources for lesson plans, but you have to pay for them and I focused my energy on free resources. These would be good to use if you are willing to pay for them.

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Tab 4: Lois Ruby’s website: http://www.loisruby.com/teachers/studyguide.html There were many helpful resources for both tab three and four. She has interviews, discussion questions, and author

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Simon and Schuster: http://authors.simonandschuster.com/Lois-Ruby/1316304 This contained publisher information and author Google Search: http://books.google.com/books/about/Steal_Away_Home.html?id=XvgEHx7q3DgC This had the publisher information. wahsburn.edu: http://www.washburn.edu/reference/cks/mapping/ruby/ This had awards and honors for Ruby. They also had biographical information and interviews. Encyclopedia: http://www.encyclopedia.com This resource has biographical information, interviews, and honors and awards for Lois Ruby. Tab 5: PBS: http://www.pbs.org/americanrootsmusic/pbs_arm_es_religious.html This has extra-resources like videos and discussions of culture and historical events. Google Search: https://www.learntogether.org.uk/Resources/Documents/KS4%20Oxfam%20Global%20Music %20Lesson%20Plan%204.pdf http://www.kshs.org/teachers/classroom/pdfs/struggling_for_kansas_schmitz_2011.pdf http://www.auditoriumtheatre.org/media/Education%20Pages/Lesson%204%20Sounds%20of %20Slavery.pdf http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/score_lessons/datahi/underground.html http://www.library.pitt.edu/voicesacrosstime/LessonPlans/SlaveCodeSongs.htm http://www.territorialkansasonline.org/~imlskto/pdf/tko_lesson_secession.pdf

http://learningtogive.org/lessons/unit39/lesson3.html: http://www.teachushistory.org/kansas-nebraska-act-bleeding-kansas/lesson-plans http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/kansas-nebraska-act-1854-popular-sovereignty-andpolitical-polarization-over-slavery#sect-activities https://www.teachervision.com/slavery-us/lesson-plan/4166.html https://archive.org/details/DinwiddieColoredQuartet-StealAway1902 More free resources and lesson plans found through Google created by other teachers. They are on slave songs and the underground railroad.

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Legacy of Brown: http://legacyofbrown.com/?q=node/4 This website is devoted solely to Brown v. Board of Education resources with helpful lesson plans.

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Tab 7: YouTube: Homework: http://youtu.be/Y1riWSeeyJ0 http://youtu.be/lRSZLrIVyR8 Lesson: http://youtu.be/GlwDAwKNfTU http://youtu.be/-O5hz5KnSdc These videos are to be used as an instructional guide to help introduce the book, the author, and information about slave songs.

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My Website: http://laneenglish06.weebly.com I created this website for my lesson plan. It uses links from tab three and YouTube Videos.

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Tab 7 a)Resources already made for the book

CNU LESSON PLAN FORMAT

Teacher Hillary Lane Course Title English 6 Date Unit Topic Steal Away Home: Songs of Slavery

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Grade Level 4/21/14

6

! Lesson Topic: Steal Away Home and Songs of Slavery !

SOL Correlation: 6.5 Demonstrates comprehension of fictional texts a) Identify the elements of narrative structure, including setting, character, plot, conflict, and themes. g) Explain how character and plot development are used in a selection to support a central conflict or story line. e) Use prior and background knowledge as context for new learning. l) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.!

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Lesson Objective(s): Teach students about the underground railroad and slave songs Assess student comprehension of the novel and the videos Create song or quilt design and how it relates to the overall concept

! Procedures (including times for each part): ! 1. Introductory Activities (including time estimates): !
Last minute questions 2 minutes Quiz 5 Minutes 2.

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Instructional Activities/Procedures (including time estimates): Listen to Steal Away song 5 minutes Underground railroad lesson 10 minutes

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Writing exercise to demonstrate the incorporation of slave songs 10 minutes 3. Closing Activities (including time estimates):

Draw a quilt or write a slave song to demonstrate the principles learned in the youtube video (group work) 15 minutes

present exercise 10 minutes

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student review of book other questions 3 minutes

Class website http://laneenglish06.weebly.com Youtube videos Homework: http://youtu.be/Y1riWSeeyJ0 http://youtu.be/lRSZLrIVyR8 Lesson: http://youtu.be/GlwDAwKNfTU http://youtu.be/-O5hz5KnSdc

! Blank paper and markers to draw quilts and write song ! Student Evaluation: ! Writing assignment ! Quiz ! Presentation of drawing and song ! Supporting Assignments (Homework): !
Before lesson Mandatory Watch book report and lois ruby video

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Extra credit or optional Visit Lois Ruby’s Website Fill out the discussion questions on our class website Review for the quiz with jeopardy and flashcards After Lesson Find another slave song or quilt design not discussed in the video we saw in class, and explain its importance to the Underground Railroad. or…

Find another youtube clip on slavery and/or the Underground Railroad and write ten facts about the history behind it.

! Adaptations/Accommodations/Differentiation: ! Students will be asked to write down five facts during the video for writing learners. ! Video provided for visual and auditory learners with writing component. ! Activity tied to the video and the writing assignment to help kinesthetic learners. ! Alternatives for homework assignments for those that want creativity and those that do not ! Comments about the lesson for revision: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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Name: _______________________________________ Date:_______________________________

! ! Steal Away Home Quiz !

1. Who wrote Steal Away Home? a. Lois Lowry b. Graham Salisbury c. Lois Ruby d. John Mayer 2. What are Mrs. Weaver’s reasons to help Lizbet? a. She felt sorry for her b. She felt it was her religious obligation c. She was being defiant to the slave owners d. She wanted to express her independence from her husband 3. Who is Dana’s best friend? a. Jeep b. Solomon c. Sally d. Ahn 4. What is going on between the states during the novel? a. Free and slave state disputes b. Underground Railroad c. Escaped slaves d. All of the Above 5. Who narrates the flashbacks? a. Lizbet b. Mrs. Weaver c. James d. Solomon 6. To what did Dana compare the diary in her pocket? a. date book b. the weight of a secret c. heavy as Lizbet’s death

d. a small dog 7. Who’s diary does Dana find? a. Lizbet’s b. James c. Mrs. Weaver d. Solomon 8. What did Dana find in the walls of her house? a. Mrs. Weaver b. Lizbet c. Solomon d. James 9. Who is Solomon? a. Mrs. Weaver’s helper b. Lizbet’s love interest c. James’ friend d. Mr. Weaver’s work hand 10. What religion are the Weavers? a. Catholic b. Baptist c. Quaker d. Buddhist

! Extra credit: What is Lois Ruby’s newest novel? ! ! !