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Unit 9- Computer Network Assignment 1

Contents
Task 1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 Different type of network: .................................................................................................................. 3 1. 2. 3. 4. LAN .......................................................................................................................................... 3 WAN ........................................................................................................................................ 4 MAN ........................................................................................................................................ 4 PAN.......................................................................................................................................... 4

Topologies ....................................................................................................................................... 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ring ..................................................................................................................................... 5 Star ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Mesh ................................................................................................................................... 5 Tree ..................................................................................................................................... 6 BUS ...................................................................................................................................... 6

OSI and TCP/IP Layer model ............................................................................................................... 7 Physical............................................................................................................................................ 7 Data link .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Some layer 2 Protocol include .................................................................................................... 8 Ethernet 802.3: ....................................................................................................................... 8 Token-Ring 802.5: ................................................................................................................... 8 Network........................................................................................................................................... 9 Protocols: .................................................................................................................................... 9 IP ............................................................................................................................................. 9 Apple Talk................................................................................................................................ 9 Transport......................................................................................................................................... 9 Protocol: ...................................................................................................................................... 9 TCP .......................................................................................................................................... 9 UDP ......................................................................................................................................... 9 Session .......................................................................................................................................... 10 Presentation .................................................................................................................................. 10 Application .................................................................................................................................... 10 FDDI:.......................................................................................................................................... 10 Wireless technologies ................................................................................................................... 10 3G .............................................................................................................................................. 11 Bluetooth .................................................................................................................................. 11 802.11 ....................................................................................................................................... 11 P.Jesugeevegan

.............. 11 Application layer protocols ... 13 Peer-to-peer and client-server network ................................................................................................................. 12 Task 3 ..................................................................................................................... 13 Benefits ..................................................................................................Computer Network Assignment 1 Infrared ........................................................... 11 HTTP ..................................................................................................................................................... 11 DNS....................... 13 Benefits ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 13 Peer-to-peer:.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Client-server: ..................................................................... 13 P..................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Task 2 .........................................................Unit 9......................................................................................................... 12 Why different network standards and protocols are necessary ................................................................................................... 12 SMTP .................................................................................Jesugeevegan ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 POP ...................... 11 DHCP ......................................................

i By expanding the definition of a LAN to the services that it provides.Computer Network Assignment 1 Task 1 Different type of network: There are different type of network based on their size of data transfer speed and their reach.is known as Local Area network. 1.g.” P. house. it is a type of network that connects group of computer which all belongs to the same organisation. two different operating modes can be defined:   In a "peer-to-peer" network. in which communication is carried out from one computer to another. and where each computer has the same role. without a central computer. LAN. E. in which a central computer provides network services to users. company. LAN connection can be very fast due to data traveling over a small geographic are. in a "client/server" environment.Unit 9.Jesugeevegan . it can usually operate at speed of Giga bit.

for example your area where you live will be a WAN then your house would be a LAN and all the other house as well. however it has a restriction range of less than 10 meters. it can be set up by person to transfer files like email. Laptop and mobile phone. and USB. 3.Unit 9. P.Computer Network Assignment 1 2. WANs can be choose the appropriate path for the data to reach a network node by using a router. You can use your mobile phone as a modem to allow other devices to be connected like a PDA. A MAN is made from switches and routers to connected to one another using a high-speed line such as fibre optic cable 4. MAN. PAN – Is known as Personal Area Network.is known as Metropolitan area network.Jesugeevegan . This then connects to the WAN to be connected to the internet. PAN is a special type of LAN that support one person instead of a group. digital photo and music. Personal area network can be constructed with a cable or wireless. this connects LANs to one another over a wide range. WAN – is known as Wide Area Network. The speed is determents on the cost of the connection such as quality of the cable and length of the cable. it connects LANs to one another over a wide range distance.

this has a disadvantage displays all the message on each computer which it travel before it gets to the destination.Unit 9. The benefit from this is that if one computer fail/disconnected. it is easy to install and use.Computer Network Assignment 1 Topologies 1.Jesugeevegan . 3. Star: the star topology uses hub which all the computer is all connected to it. The message goes through all the computer till the destination. P. all the computers are connected with each other on the network. it is simply for sending packages by using one wire. however all data must pass through the hub. 2. the data can be still be send to the right one. Ring: this network is one of the easiest to use. the other computer still can be communicated. Mesh: this type of topology is difficult than other topologies but its similar system.

this is the cheapest and easy way of installing a small network. for example you can connect two or more computers in your home which is linked to a central cable know as a bus. This can allow the computers or devices to be communicated. They are connected to other star network using line topology.Jesugeevegan . 5. it contain 10 star topology in a tree.Computer Network Assignment 1 4. BUS: in this network all the computers are connected to one cable.Unit 9. Tree: tree topology is combination of star and line topology. a star topology can contain up to 30 computers usually. P.

this layer also represents physical properties such as cables and network cards.Computer Network Assignment 1 OSI and TCP/IP Layer model In OSI model there are 7 type of player. The cable that the physical layer uses would be Coaxial and UTP.Jesugeevegan . Coaxial cable UTP Cable Data link This layer is the second layer of the OSI model. It carries out the binary transmission. The first layer is: Physical physical layer is the first layer of the OSI (Open System Interconnection). The function on this layer is to get the data that it receives and divide into distinct frames that can be transmitted by the physical layer. in this layer it controls the communication between the network layer and the physical layer. This is an important layer due to carrying the signal for all the other layers. P. this is because it’s where the transmission and receives raw bit stream. this comes in stages. The frames are groups of information which are bits it a way of sending data along with address information and error checking.Unit 9. voltage levels and data rate.

This method works by each computer which is connected to the cable listens before it sends anything along the network. If the network is clear. if a computer does not have information to transmit. This protocol works by moving around the computer in a ring motion with an electronic token which passes through all the computer in the ring. star. Then the two computer will have to wait and send one by one. The Ethernet protocol allows for linear bus. the information is only transmitted when the token is held.5: Token.ring Protocol is when all the computers are connected to each other and the signal travels from one computer to another in a ring motion. it simply passes on to the next workstation. This protocol can transmit over wireless point. coaxial. The computer will have to wait until the line is clear.Jesugeevegan . P. or tree topologies. the computer will send the signal. Token-Ring 802.3: Ethernet is a protocol which computers are connected to a cable which uses a method called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/collision Detection). The token ring protocol requires a star-wired ring. twisted pair. or fibre optical cable at a speed of 10Mbps up to 1000Mbps.Computer Network Assignment 1 Some layer 2 Protocol include: Ethernet 802. a collision will occur. using twisted pair or fibre optical cable. however if other computer is already transmitting on the network.Unit 9. the transmission speed of 4 Mbps or 16Mbps. If two computer transmit at the same time.

The equipment’s that is at this layer is a Router which uses IP address to route packets. P. This protocol is commonly used in YouTube. this determines the best path or routes that the data is travelling. When the data arrives it is responsible for the coming packets into their original state and without errors. Each packets can be send in different routes across the internet. To ensure the data is delivery without any errors. There are three type of way which data can be routed to their destination. Third. It is a reliable protocol to be use. To put them back together Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is used. the radios of the divides can be up to 1000 feet apart. Protocol: TCP: TCP protocol is when the sender and the receiver using a socket which determined by the IP address. It is determined on how fast the receiving computer can accept the data segments. the transport layer builds an error control mechanism provided by the network layer. The data transmission at speed of 230.Jesugeevegan . Transport Transport is the fourth layer of the OSI model. One of the main function is to allow two different networks using conflicting addressing schemes to be able to send data to each other. This layer is also responsible for the flow control. The packets are tracked until the delivery is made to insure it had delivered to the receiver and if not it can be resent. When sending and receiving data from the internet it is divided in to small parts called packets. it a Local Area Network communication which it can support up to 32 devices. Since there aren’t any way of tracking the packets.Computer Network Assignment 1 Network Network is the third layer of the OSI model. it used to ensure that the data send from one computer arrives reliably. there are no way of asking the sender to retransmit because of an error. First. Protocols: IP: Internet protocol is the method of sending data from one computer to another on the internet. however each packets will come in different order. Apple Talk: Apple talk is protocol made for apple computer. this is mostly used in secure website for example Emails. send through network using changing paths in order to prevent hold-up. which is the rate of transmission. static line only used by the sender and receiver. Which the packets some in any order. IP address is the identity of a computer on the internet.Unit 9. Second.4 Kbps. static rout which don’t change. in this layer it involves in the Address. UDP: UDP protocol is unreliable because it’s not guaranteed that the packets will be delivered between the sender and receiver.

Unit 9. its main objective is to translate between the application and the network. When transferring files. For example Wireless LANs or local area networks provide flexibility and reliability for business computer users. Wireless technologies Communication channels between computers by radio waves or microwaves. this can allow data to be send in either direction at the same time or only one direction. Syntax layer is when the data is encrypts to be sent across the network which gives freedom from capability’s problems. This protocol transmission speed is at 100Mps over a fibre optic cable. The session is refers to a connection for data exchange between two parties. The data encryption and decryption is the security for the data. this layer takes care of the incompatibilities and allows good transfer between systems. topologies. For example when receiving jpeg image it comes packets and the presentation layer will translate the raw data into the form that the application can accept. transmission occurs on one of the ring. checkpoint allows the system to start downloading at the last known checkpoint. The protocols include how they are accessed. It opens and closes the communication link between the two. This layer also reduces the number of bits needed to send the packets of information. To use this protocol it will need token-passing. file transfer. and type of cables they use and the speed of the data transfer. FDDI: Fibre Distributed Data Interface Protocol is join two or more Local Area Network (LAN). When a large file is been transmission and the system crashes. if a break occurs the system will still move the information using the second ring to create a new complete ring. P. Application Application is the seventh layer of OSI model.Computer Network Assignment 1 Session Session is the fifth layer of OSI model. it is responsible for creating communication between two nodes on the network. its role is to provide services that support the user to the software such as interface. It needs modems to send the signal to the receive. Presentation Presentation is the sixth layer of OSI model.Jesugeevegan . in this layer there are many protocols are used to give the application access to the network. etc. Network protocols and standards Network protocols are rules for communication between computers on a network. It translates the raw data into the form that the application layer can accept. Wireless networking is a more modern then wired networking which relies on copper and/or fiber optic cabling between network devices. email. There are two ring topology in FDDI. some computer store file names or represent text line differently.

then releases and renews these addresses as devices leave and re-join the network. Bluetooth communication speed of 1 Mbps. 3 Definition: DHCP allows a computer to join an IP-based network without having a preconfigured IP address. however the browser understand IP address. computer or network adopter to request IP address from a server.11 802. 3G is mostly used with mobile phones and handsets as a means to connect the phone to the Internet in order to make voice and video calls. placing two infrared devices within less than 5 meters of each other.Unit 9. Likewise.232.htm 3 http://compnetworking.11 is wireless LAN and has speed of 1 or 2 Mbps. 802.com/cs/protocolsdhcp/g/bldef_dhcp.Internet service providers usually use DHCP to help customers join their networks with minimum setup effort required. Infrared can transfer files and other data within the two devices.about.15 Mbps IrDA-FIR (fast speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 4 Mbps Application layer protocols: DNS 2 DNS is application layer that translate domain names in IP address.com/od/homenetworking/g/bldef_infrared.com/cs/domainnamesystem/g/bldef_dns. It’s normally found on a mobile phone or a computer.Computer Network Assignment 1 3G It is the third generation of wireless technology.htm http://compnetworking.4 GHz using two type of frequency. 3G network can has speed of up to 3Mps which can download 3minutes of Mp3 song in 15second.about. Infrared Infrared is a method of communication with other devices using a short range wireless signal.4 DHCP DHCP is a communicate method used by devices such as router. Bluetooth network can transmits signal up to 10 meters of distance. hopping spread spectrum and direct sequence spread spectrum. home network equipment like broadband routersoffers DHCP support for added convenience in joining home computers to local area networks 1 2 http://compnetworking.about. this is a protocol that automatically translate the name we type in in our web browser in to IP addresses of the web server you are entering. DHCP is a protocol that assigns unique IP addresses to devices. to download and upload data and to surf the net. Example of IP address is 198.    1 IrDA-SIR (slow speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 115 Kbps IrDA-MIR (medium speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 1. Its communication range is sort. The reason that it translate to IP addresses is because domain name are in alphabetic.105.htm P. it transmission in the 2.Jesugeevegan . Bluetooth It is a device that allows you to exchange date from a short distance by radio frequency.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol). Networks are like languages. P. this is why standards are introduced in to manufactures in terms of computer and the components. iiAn example of Protocol is when two people talking on the phone. iiiAn example is if you and your neighbours were all using the same type of routers and all had wireless enabled with the WEP key not activated then you would have a problem. Modern browsers doesn’t required HTTP in front of the URL because it’s the default method of communication. Network standards are also set of rules so that the hardware is compatible with other similar computer this is because if each company has its own protocol standards and this will not allow it to talk with other computer or devices. they communicate differently. this is used to allow software to transmit email over the internet. Task 2 Why different network standards and protocols are necessary The reason that protocol are necessary because they are sets of rules which is used allow communicate between computer. Most emails application use the POP protocol however. its job is to retrieve emails from email server. If both talk and both listens there are no data been exchanged. the newer email uses IMAP (internet Message access Protocol) SMTP SMTP is known as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. most emails are designed to use SMTP for communication when sending email. if same protocols are used it can improve in data transfer. therefore the network will not work to its standers. if the both device don’t have the same language it will not understand the communication. they both have different objective. POP Pop stands for Post Office Protocol. Protocols and standers are what makes different computer with different components communicates with each other. Different networks standards are needed because they all are different.Jesugeevegan . The HTTP recovers the Web page from the World Wide Web by communicating with web browser to the web server. they all have different language.Unit 9. Then they reverse. one talks and other listens. It also sees what action is needed by the web server and browser should take in order for the web server to direct the request web pages. So network standards and protocols are need because they are what allows different company computers running different software to communicate with each other. this is determent how the text are transferred. It’s important to set different protocols so that you can identify which computers is using what and where it is. and the talkers becomes the listener. The most common used protocol is TCP/IP. This only works for outgoing messages. when communicating with other devices you will need to make sure that the device you are using has the same language as the device you are communicating.Computer Network Assignment 1 HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is a protocol used by the World Wide Web.

The peer-to-peer does not have security other than permission and to login to the computer. Client server are mainly used in large businesses because it many have different departments. this means that the files are not centrally organised and it will hard to locate if the user done not have filling system. However. Peer-to-peer network is found at home and other small business. If one computer in peer-to-peer network fails to run.Unit 9. in case you lost the work. Benefits In Clients server network the shared data is controlled. To set up Peer to Peer network you will need networking program like Gnutella Net. this means the computers are independent. Peer-to-peer network doesn’t require any special knowledge of P. you will not need an expensive server because each computers are used to reach the files. it can be a benefit for employees to share files without the expense of physically sharing files. the files are stored on individual computer. However.Jesugeevegan . It allows staff to store their works centrally. peer-to-peer has much as disadvantages. Benefits Peer-to-peer networks is easy to set up and you will not need special knowledge to operate because each users will not need to set their own permission as which file would like to share. and the network doesn’t require network operating system. the disadvantage of client server network is that the servers are expensive to buy and if a part of the network corrupts it can do a lot of disruption. the client server will have all the shared files and other information saved on the computer. The files cannot be centrally backed up. the user will need to enter IP address of another computer in the same network. As your work is on the server it easily to make a back0ip of it. Bill will need to spend money to buy a Network Interface Card in order to connect the desktop to a network. when Peer to Peer is used in Business. Peer-to-peer network is cheap to set up. you have assign passwords to own individual profiles so that nobody can access your document.Computer Network Assignment 1 Task 3 Peer-to-peer and client-server network Peer-to-peer: Peer-to-peer network is a network that has no central computer that acts as a client server. this will then make a one to one connection with both users which then. each department can use a server to connect to each other. all the files are stored in the central computer. To share the files in the peer to peer network. I think that Bob and Bill should get Peer-to-peer network. Peer to Peer allows group of computer to be on the same network to connect each other and directly access files from one another. Client-server: Client server network is an online network which has a main computer that acts as a server. however Bill has an old desktop which had no network capabilities. it is also frequently backed-up and secured. this computer then directs the network services to the other computer. it will not disrupt the rest of the network. this software is allows users to exchange all type of files. it can be easily recovered. because you will not need to spend any money on setting up or buying a central computer. he/she can share files between them. It’s more secured then peer-to-peer network.

Types of networks.Unit 9. Bill and Bob are able to share comics.kioskea.Computer Network Assignment 1 networking to set up and maintain. kioskea.yahoo. (). When connecting a printer to peer-to-peer network they need to make sure that they connect the printer to the fast performing computer.com/question/index?qid=20080229131516AAhHb3b ii P. this will determine who can access the file and who can’t. ii http://answers.yahoo. films and music by setting up the permission which is the access to the files.net/contents/266-types-ofnetworks. Available: http://en.com/question/index?qid=20080229131516AAhHb3b iii http://answers. With this type of network they will be capable of playing games against each other due to sharing files and internet. Last accessed 25/09/2013.Jesugeevegan .