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HISTOLOGI SEL & ORGAN PADA SISTEM LIMFOID

Nur Signa Aini Gumilas Bagian Histologi Kedokteran FKIK Unsoed

Lymphoid tissue: primary and secondary sites
 Primary lymphoid tissue - Bone marrow - Thymus  Secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) - Spleen - Lymph nodes (LN) - Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) : Bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), Nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), Peyer’s patches (PP)

 Sistem imun t.a. struktur & sel yg didistribusikan ke seluruh tbh, dimana fxnya adlh : melindungi organisme (tbh) thdp invasi dan perusakan oleh mikroorganisme & zat asing.

 Sistem imun ini meliputi baik struktur tunggal (nodus limfatikus, limfa) dan sel bebas (sel limfosit, sel fagosit mononukleus & jaringan penyambung).

Cairan limfe 2. Jaringan & organ limfatik 5. Sel limfosit 4. Suatu sistem yg berperan utama dalam sistem imun ini adalah sistem limfatik. Sumsum tulang . Jaringan pembuluh limfe 3.  Sistem limfatik meliputi : 1.

The lymphoid organs and lymphatic vessels are widely distributed in the body. The lymphatic vessels collect lymph from most parts of the body and deliver it to the blood circulation primarily through the thoracic duct. .

Cells and organs of the immune system Lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow of the thymus (primary lymphoid organs) and then congregate in lymphoid tissues throughout the body (secondary/ peripheral lymphoid organs) The distribution of lymphoid tissues in the body Primary lymphoid organs Secondary lymphoid organs Musketeers Course 2008 8 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The cells of the immune system derive from precursors in the bone marrow Musketeers Course 2008 9 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The cells of the immune system derive from precursors in the bone marrow Bome marrow Primary lymphoid organs Musketeers Course 2008 10 .

Cells and organs of the immune system Thymus Primary lymphoid organs Development of T lymphocytes Chapter 7 Musketeers Course 2008 11 .

Cells and organs of the immune system All the cellular elements of the blood including the cells of the immune system arise from pluripotent hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow Musketeers Course 2008 12 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The myeloid lineage comprises most of the innate immune system Musketeers Course 2008 13 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The myeloid lineage comprises most of the innate immune system Musketeers Course 2008 14 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The myeloid lineage comprises most of the innate immune system Granulocytes or Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes Chapter 2 Musketeers Course 2008 15 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The myeloid lineage comprises most of the innate immune system Granulocytes or Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes Chapter 9 and 13 Musketeers Course 2008 16 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The myeloid lineage comprises most of the innate immune system Granulocytes or Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes Chapter 9 and 13 Musketeers Course 2008 17 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The myeloid lineage comprises most of the innate immune system Chapter 13 Musketeers Course 2008 18 .

Cells and organs of the immune system The lymphoid lineage comprises the lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system and the natural killer cells of innate immunity Musketeers Course 2008 19 .

Cells and organs of the immune system Lymphocytes are mostly small and inactive cells Stimulation induce lymphocyte to become active Musketeers Course 2008 20 .

saat terstimulasi dpt berdiferensiasi mjd. kanker. dikenal sebagai sel besar bergranula.  Limfosit B (pematangan di sumsum tulang) terutama berperan dalam imunitas humoral.  Terdiri atas Limfosit T. . bereaksi melawan virus. sel plasma dan dpt menghasilkan antibodi/imunoglobulin (Ig).Sel Limfosit  Semua limfosit berasal dari sumsum tulang → migrasi.  Limfosit T (pematangan di timus) (sel imunokompeten) terutama berperan dalam imunitas selular.  Sel NK. Ex : pd keadaan inflamasi. Limfosit B & sel NK (Natural killer). bereaksi melawan dan membunuh mikroorganisme.

Immature CD4— and CD8— T lymphocyte precursors are transported by the blood circulation from the bone marrow to the thymus. . to seed the secondary lymphoid organs and transit through the blood. B lymphocytes and natural killer lymphocytes are formed in the bone marrow and leave the bone marrow already mature. where they complete their maturation and leave as either CD4+ or CD8+ cells.Origin of the main types of lymphocytes. and connective tissues. epithelia.

timus. jaringan limfoid di apendiks.Jaringan & Organ Limfatik  Jaringan & organ limfoid terbagi mjd : Jaringan limfoid terkait mukosa (tidak berkapsul)  Contoh : tonsila. plak Peyeri dlm mukosa usus halus. lien/limpa . Organ limfoid (berkapsul)  Contoh : limfonodus. jaringan limfoid di saluran pernafasan. dll.

limfoid terkait mukosa. kolumner pseudokompleks bersilia).  3 kelompok besar tonsila : tonsila palatina. Kadang limfosit sampai menerobos epitel. & pd lamina propria (jar. berkontak dgn epitel sal. ikat) tersebar di antaranya kelompok2 nodulus limfatikus & limfosit. cerna (ep.TONSILA  Mrkpn jar. & tonsila lingualis . skuamus kompleks non keratin) atau epitel sal. pernafasan (ep. tonsila faringeal.

& dipisahkan oleh jar ikat (lamina propria). limfosit hidup/mati. dimana mengandung sel2 epitel yg terlepas. suatu invaginasi epitel ke dalam parenkim. & bakteri dlm lumennya. . jar. Tonsila palatina : terletak pd dinding lateral faring bagian oral. limfoid yg berupa nodulus2 dgn pusat germinal yg lebih pucat.  Tonsil membentuk kripte. terletak di bawah epitel skuamus kompleks berkeratin.

TONSILA PALATINA .

 T. lipatan2 mukosa dgn jar.a. Tonsila faringeal : mrpkn tonsila tunggal terletak pd supero-posterior faring. Ditutupi o. .  Tidak mempnyai kriptus. limfoid difus & nodulus limfatikus. epitel kolumner pseudokompleks bersilia.

TONSILA FARINGEAL .

Ditutupi oleh ep. Di bawahnya pd lamina propria tersebar nodulus limfatikus. membentuk kriptus. Tonsila lingualis : terletak di pangkal lidah. . skuamus kompleks non keratin.

TONSILA LINGUALIS .

Plak Payeri  Plak Payeri adlh kumpulan limfoid besar yg ditemukan dlm mukosa usus halus. .

lipatan paha. di abdomen (mesenterium) & thorak. tmpt aliran vena keluar & tmpt keluarnya cairan limfe/pemb limfe eferen. lipatan aksila. btk mirip ginjal.  Sebagian besar tdpt. .LIMFONODUS  Mrpkn. organ limfoid (bersimpai/berkapsul). leher. tersebar di tubuh sepanjang jalannya pembuluh limfe. Hilum mrpkn tmpt aliran arteri masuk.  Nodus limfatikus mempnyai sisi konveks (tmpt masuk cairan limfe/pemb limfe aferen) & sisi konkaf (hilum). pd.

serat retikular. permukaan korteks luar tdpt sinus subkapsularis yg dibentuk o.Lanjutan Limfonodus  Jaringan ikat kapsul mengelilingi setiap nodus. Pd korteks luar banyak tdpt sel limfosit B. korteks dalam & medula. .  Korteks :  Korteks luar : pd.  Setiap nodus mengandung : korteks luar. & nodulus limfatikus. Sinus subkapsularis berhub dengan sinus medularis melalui sinus intermedia. makrophag. membentuk trabekula yg masuk ke bagian dalam. sel retikular.  Korteks dalam (parakortikal) : Tdpt nodulus & mengandung limfosit T.

cairan limfe. serat retikular & makrophag. Sinus ini mengandung limfosit B & sel plasma. korda medularis (yaitu su cab. & tersusun atas sel retikular. dan korda medularis ini dipisahkan o/ sinus medularis.a. . perluasan dari korteks).Lanjutan Limfonodus  Medula : t.

LIMFONODUS .

LIMFONODUS .

pemb. . masuk melalui sisi konveks nodus limfatikus  sinus subkapsular  nodus pd korteks luar  nodus pd korteks dlm (parakortikal)  sinus medula  dikumpulkan o. pemb limfe eferen  hilus. limfe aferen.Sirkulasi  Aliran cairan limfe dibawa o.

Schematic representation of the structure of a lymph node. entering through the convex side of the node and leaving through the hilum. The left half of the figure shows the primary components of the organ and the circulation of lymph within a lymph node. The right half depicts part of the blood circulation. .

.  Sebagai sistem deteksi dini jika ada infeksi atau kelainan patologi pd jaringan/organ.Histopatologi  Fungsi nodus limfatikus :  Sebagai penyaring partikel asing (99%) sebelum kembali ke sistem sirkulasi darah.  Dilihat pd letaknya (perifer & organ2 yg kemungkinan besar mudah terkena infiltrasi partikel asing)  deteksi dini.

.Lanjutan Histopatologi  Infeksi & perangsangan antigenik menyebabkan nodus limfatikus membesar & membentuk pusat2 germinativum yg banyak dgn ploriferasi sel yg aktif.

lamina basalnya terputus2 & adanya serabut penambat.a. bakteri & debris.  T. t. serta mencegahnya utk kembali ke jaringan/cairan ekstraseluler. selapis sel endotel yg pd tepiannya saling menumpuk. : pembuluh kapiler limfe.Sistem Vaskular Limfatik  Pembuluh limfe membawa cairan limfe dari perifer ke sistem venosus. pembuluh kecil limfe & pembuluh besar limfe/duktus limfatikus (duktus torasikus). virus.  Pembuluh kapiler limfe : berasal dari jaringan perifer. .a.  Struktur tsb diatas menyebabkan kapiler limfe mudah menyerap cairan dan zat terlarut spt protein.

media & adventisia). Pembuluh kecil limfe : struktur serupa dgn vena. kontraksi otot rangka pd dindingnya & kontraksi otot polos dlm dinding pembuluh limfe . Mempnyai bnyk katup intern.  Aliran limfe ini jg dibantu o. kecuali bhw dindingnya lebih tipis & tdk ada pemisahan jelas di antara ketiga lapis (intima.

Adventisia relatif tdk berkembang. . Struktur otot memanjang & melingkar. hny ada penambahan otot polos pd lapisan media. Struktur duktus limfatikus mirip dgn vena.

The valve is a fold of that part of the vessel wall known as the intima.Pembuluh Limfe This plate shows an afferent lymphatic vessel near a lymph node. Lymph is formed in part from materials and fluid that leave the capillaries and venules of the blood vascular system. . The lymph vessel is lined with endothelium and has a valve that opens toward the node. are essential for the movement of lymph to major lymphatic trunks. Valves. by preventing retrograde flow.

tmpt pembentukan & pengaktifan limfosit. tmpt destruksi bagi eritrosit.) sel fagositik.  Struktur umum : limpa dibungkus o. ikat yg menjulurkan trabekula yg membagi parenkim mjd kompartemen2. bnyk m. .  Terdiri atas pulpa putih & pulpa merah. kapsul jar.LIMPA  Mrpkn organ limfoid terbesar.  Fx : pertahanan thdp mikroorganisme yg msk ke sistem sirkulasi.

bercabang membentuk arteri penisili  kapiler arteri sederhana yg mencurahkan darah ke dalam sinusoid (sinus pulpa merah).  Cara pengaliran :  Sirkulasi tertutup : kapiler lngsng mencurahkan isinya ke dlm sinusoid  Sirkulasi terbuka : darah merembes melalui celah2 di antara sel2 korda pulpa merah & kemdn ditampung di dlm sinusoid.  Stlh dari sinusoid.  Bukti2 terakhir menyatakan bhw sirkulasi limpa manusia adalah yg sirkulasi terbuka. . yg terletak di antara korda pulpa merah. darah menuju ke vena pulpa merah  msk ke trabekula membentuk vena trabekularis  hilum sebagai vena lienalis.Sirkulasi Darah Limpa  Arteri lienalis msk melalui hilum  arteri trabekula  arteri sentralis/arteri pulpa putih  meninggalkan pulpa putih.

McGraw-Hill. To understand the structure of the white and red pulp follow the flow of the blood from the trabecular artery to the trabecular vein.) . Weiss L: Histology. periarterial lymphatic sheath. from Greep RO.Schematic view of the blood circulation and the structure of the spleen. PALS. 3rd ed. Splenic sinuses (S) are indicated. 1973. Theories of open and closed circulation are represented. (Redrawn and reproduced. with permission.

jar. .  Sedangkan pulpa putih perifer (peripheral white pulp) terutama tersusun oleh limfosit B.Pulpa Putih  T.  Sel2 limfoid yg mengelilingi arteri sentralis (periarterial lymphatic sheath/PALS) terutama adlh limfosit T. limfoid yg menyelubungi arteri sentralis.a.

. limfosit.  Sinusoid yg berjalan memanjang tersusun o. sel plasma & sel2 darah (eritrosit.Pulpa Merah  T. Selain sel & serat retikular jg tdpt makrophag.a. jaringan retikular membtk korda limpa(korda Billroth). ikat retikular. granulosit). sel endotel & diselubungi jar. trombosit.

Red pulp: Loosely textured lymphatic tissue. Formed of anastomosing cords of tissue (Billroth's* or splenic cords) rich in cells that separate the venous sinuses. Capsule: Dense fibroelastic tissue containing some smooth muscle fibers. . Capsule Mesothelium: A single layer of mesothelial cells that covers the free surface of the spleen except at the hilum.SPLEEN.

LIMPA The spleen is the largest single accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the human body. Iron is removed from heme. . Its primary function is to remove (1 X 10 6/second) wornout red blood cells and to store and recycle their component parts. conserved. it is also the most important in-line filter for the blood vascular system. Hemoglobin (without the iron) is converted into bilirubin. and reused within the bone marrow to synthesize new hemoglobin. which is excreted by the liver as a part of bile.

Lymphocytes are the predominant cellular element.LIMPA White pulp: Compact lymphatic tissue sheath surrounding the central arteriole. macrophages. . The enlargements. This sheath forms ovoid enlargements at intervals. but plasma cells. known as lymphatic nodules. Blends into the adjacent red pulp. splenic nodules or Malpighian* corpuscles. may have germinal centers. and other free cells are also found.

sel2 hati.HISTOFISIOLOGI  Pembentukan & pengaktifan limfosit  tjdnya proses metaplasia mieloid pd keadaan leukimia. .  Dekstruksi eritrosit  menghasilkan bilirubin yg dikeluarkan dlm empedu o.  Pertahanan organisme : mengandung limfosit B dan T  fagositik organisme asing.

ikat yg masuk ke dlm parenkim & membagi timus dlm lobulus2. .  Setiap lobulus memiliki korteks (zona perifer gelap) & medula (zona pusat terang).  Memiliki suatu kapsul jar.TIMUS  Timus adlh organ limfoidepitelial yg terletak di mediastinum. mencapai puncak perkembangan selama usia muda dan mengalami involusi setelah pubertas.

tjd proliferasi limfosit yg aktif pd korteks  stlh matur. . limfosit meninggalkan korteks menuju medula. makrophag & sel retikuler epitel yg tersebar.  Selama masa embrionik & pubertas. limfosit T.a. Korteks Timus : t.  Sel retikuler adlh sel stelata dgn inti oval yg berwrn pucat.  Fungsi sel retikuler adlh sbg barier sawar darah & sekresi hormon. Sel stelata saling bergandengan dgn sel stelata lain yg berdekatan melalui desmosom.

yg berdegenerasi & penuh dgn granula keratohialin. memberikan rupa lebih terang pd daerah ini. yg mrpkn sel retikular epitel yg tersusun konsentris. Medula Timus : me.  Struktur khas : badan Hassal. .  Sel2 dlm medula tidak berkumpul padat.) limfosit & sel retikular epitel.

. 55 x.TIMUS Human infant. C. . B.. A. 35 x. The primary function of the thymus is to produce immunocompetent T lymphocytes. 10% formalin. 87 x.

In B. composed of densely packed lymphatic tissue. They vary in size and are formed of concentrically arranged polygonal or flattened cells with a hyalinized degenerated core. The latter are characterized by a large pale nucleus and are derived from embryonic entoderm rather than from . composed of looser lymphatic tissue containing Hassall's corpuscles. a Hassall's* corpuscle is seen at higher magnification. The latter are diagnostic for the thymus.TIMUS In A. and the medulla. note the cortex of the thymic lobule. Note also the abundance of lymphocytes and the epithelial reticular cells.

TERIMA KASIH SELAMAT BELAJAR .