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RUNNING HEAD: Hattiesburg HPE Project Step 1: Community Needs Assessment

What is the name of the organization/group with which you will implement the HPE project? What is the name & contact information for the individual with whom you will collaborate to complete the HPE project? What is your PRIORITY ISSUE that you plan to address with this group? Gather the perspective of the key stake holders:  Write a summary of the views of the stakeholders related to your intended project related to their interest in this type of project and their areas of concern Examine the Literature  Examine the literature for research about projects, communities, and issues related to your priority issue  Examine previous evaluation findings of similar projects  Review the literature regarding similar types of projects and recommendations for designs/appropriate interventions The Dixie Darlings

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Tracy Smith; DIXIEDARLINGDIR@aol.com

The priority issues are eating healthy for an athlete, eating on a regular schedule, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle while managing a busy college schedule. The Dixie Darlings dance with the Pride of Mississippi at all of The University of Southern Mississippi‟s home football games and pep rallies. They also have a competition team that competes in the spring semester. In addition, they complete many community service projects and appearances. The Dixie Darlings are interested in staying healthy while balancing dance team with school and other extracurricular activities. Some of their specific concerns are eating enough calories for being very active young women, staying hydrated on game or competition days, and making sure to eat a balanced diet while being busy throughout the day.

Abstract 1 Torres-McGehee, T. M., Green, J. M., Leaver-Dunn, D., Leeper, J. D., Bishop, P. A., & Richardson, M. T. (2011). Attitude and knowledge changes in collegiate dancers following a shortterm, team-centered prevention program on eating disorders. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 112, 711-725. doi: 10.2466/06.PMS.112.3.711-725

Females ages 18-25 years old who were part of either a majorette, color guard, or dance team in the Southeastern United States participated in this study. The purpose of the study was to determine if an educational intervention would have a positive effect on behaviors related to eating disorders and to determine if the educational intervention would change the participants‟ level of knowledge related to nutrition and eating disorders. Each team that participated was, as a whole, assigned to the control or intervention group. The participants had to have been a part of an auxiliary dance team for at least one year. The intervention took place over a four week time period and included two sessions each week. The

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intervention was lead by peer leaders who each taught scripted lessons to groups of five participants. Each participant in the intervention group received a sport nutrition and training guide. The intervention group had an increase of nutrition knowledge compared to the control group. The intervention group also had a significantly lower level of depression and a decreased drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and maturity fears than the control group. Abstract 2 Doyle-Lucas, A. F. & Davy, B. M. (2011). Development and evaluation of an educational intervention program for preprofessional adolescent ballet dancers nutrition for optimal performance. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 15, 6575. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6e0 f21b3-92b8-4363-b0a8d42f422b8311%40sessionmgr13&vid=2&hid=26

The study consisted of 321 male and female pre-professional adolescent ballet dancers that ranged from ages 13-18. The main purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a nutrition educational intervention through a DVD series. The objectives related to the purpose of this study included increasing participants‟ knowledge of sports nutrition, the Female Athlete Triad, and self-efficacy to increase healthy eating habits. The subjects for the study were participating in a summer intensive program with professional ballet companies. The sample was divided into two groups, Group One (n=231) was the experimental group who participated in the nutrition education, and Group Two (n=90) was the control group and did not receive nutrition education. The experimental group was assessed at baseline, after each nutrition education session, and six weeks after the program. The control group was assessed at baseline and six weeks after the baseline assessment. Assessments of dietary status included questionnaire to determine demographics, Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Behavior Questionnaire (SNKBQ), and Food Frequency Questionnaire. Group One increased by 25% on the SNKBQ compared to Group Two that

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increased by 8%. Over the course of the study Group One also decreased candy intake by 33% while Group Two decreased by 11%. Significant improvements on perceived severity of Female Athlete Triad (p<0.05) and self efficacy (p<0.05) resulted for Group One. Abstract 3 Abood, D. A., Black, D. R., & Birnbaum, R. D. (2004). Nutrition education intervention for college female athletes. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior, 36(3), 135-139. A pretest-posttest control group design was conducted on female college athletes to examine the effects of a nutrition education intervention on changes in knowledge, self-efficacy to make healthy choices, and dietary intake. A women‟s soccer team with 15 participants and a women‟s swim team with 15 participants were used as the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group attended nutrition education sessions that focused on increasing nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy to make healthy food choices, and dietary practices to determine the treatment effect. The control group attended a separate study hall at the same time of the intervention, but they did not receive treatment. Results indicated that the experimental group improved significantly in nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy (p<0.05), and total amount of positive dietary changes (p<0.03) compared to the control group. Researchers concluded that nutrition education interventions are desired for college athletes to meet increased nutrition requirements.
Collect Health Related Data About your Issue  Morbidity & Mortality reports related to your primary issue  Health behavior & practices related to your primary issue found in research journals  Health status data related to your primary issue (including social, economic, & environmental indicators)

Abstract 1 Torres-McGhee, T. M., Green, J. M., Leeper, J. D., Leaver-Dunn, D., Richardson, M., & Bishop, P. A. (2009). Body image, anthropometric measures, and eating-disorder prevalence in auxiliary unit members. Journal of Athletic Training, 44, 418426. Retrieved 25 September, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2707071/pdf/ attr-44-04-418.pdf

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A cross-sectional study design was completed at three universities in the southeastern United States to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and eating disorder behaviors in female auxiliary members (color guard, majorettes, and dance team). Researchers also compared body images and anthropometric measurements of participants. Each of the 101 participants was required to be between the ages of 18 and 25 years old. The participants also had to have been on an auxiliary team for at least one year. The researchers used surveys, anthropometrics, and a screening, to collect data. Data from surveys included basic demographic data as well as data pertaining to body image. The body image survey was a figural stimuli survey which consisted of silhouettes that were used as comparison for questions about perceived and ideal body image. An eating attitudes test was used to screen for eating disorders and eating disorder behaviors. The researchers found that approximately 29.7% of participants had eating disorder behaviors and were determined to be at risk for eating disorders. These at risk participants had significantly more dieting (p<0.01), bulimia (p=0.01), and oral control (p=0.02). The researchers concluded that auxiliary members are at a high risk of developing eating disorders, so unhealthy weight management behaviors should be examined.

Abstract 2 Herbrich, L., Pfeiffer, E., Lehmkuhl, U. & Schneider, N. (2011). Anorexia athletic in pre-professional ballet dancers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 1115-1123. doi: 10.1090/02640414.2011.578147 The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between sport-related anorexia and the prevalence of anorexia in preprofessional ballet dancers. An experimental study design was conducted among 52 females aged 13-20 years old who were recruited from two ballet schools in Germany. Inclusion criteria included striving to become a professional dancer and engaged in intense training for 10 hours per week. The ballet dancers were compared to two control groups; a group of 52 females the same age range with disordered eating patterns and a group of 44 non-athletic high school females. The researchers collected data by demographic questionnaires, physical assessments, clinical interviews, and selfconcept scales. The researchers concluded that the dancers were

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significantly higher in weight than the patients with anorexia nervosa (P < 0.001) and significantly lower in weight than the group of high school students (P <0.001). Statistics also showed 44.3% of the dancers were underweight, 73.1% of dancers showed disordered eating patterns. Over half (51.9%) of ballet dancers expressed a desire to lose weight compared to 19.2% of patients with anorexia nervosa, and 27.3% of high school females. A quarter (25%) of ballet students experienced amenorrhea, compared to 6.8% of nonathletic high school students and all anorexia nervosa patients. Overall anorexia is prevalent among pre-professional dancers and must be investigated further. Abstract 3 Dunn, D., Turner, L. W., & Denny, G. (2007). Nutrition knowledge and attitudes of college athletes. Sports Journal, 10(4), 45-52. College athletes (n=190) at a Southern university, aged 18-24, participated in the study to examine their knowledge of current dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, healthy food choices, and the relationship between diet and disease processes. Nutrition knowledge was assessed using the Nutrition and Knowledge Questionnaire, and nutrition attitudes were examined using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT 26). Participants had a mean nutrition knowledge score of 51.49% (SD=13.57%). Only 35% of the athletes knew there was a link between low intake of fruits and vegetables and health problems. Only 50% of the survey questions were answered correctly regarding healthy food choices. Researchers concluded that providing college athletes with nutrition knowledge could prevent poor athletic performance and potential problems with eating behaviors. Abstract 4 Greenleaf, C., Petrie, T. A., Carter, J., & Reel, J. J. (2009). Female collegiate athletes: Prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 57(5), 489-496. Female athletes are at risk for using unhealthy behaviors to manage their weight due to social pressures, pressure from coaches, physique-revealing uniforms, and performance demands. The

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purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating patterns among female college athletes. The study was a survey included 204 female NCAA Division I college athletes with an average age of 20.16 years. The participants were from 17 sports at 3 universities in the United States. The athletes had participated on their college team for an average of 2.10 years. The average BMI of participants was 23.10 kg/m2. Data was collected confidentially online using a questionnaire that assessed demographic and weight background as well as the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (QEDD) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). The QEDD was used to classify the athletes as asymptomatic, symptomatic, or eating disordered. The BULIT-R was used to assess the use of compensatory behaviors to control weight as well as binge eating behavior. The results of the study indicated that 54.4% of the women were dissatisfied with their current weight, 2.0% (n=4) of participants were eating disordered, 25.5% (n=52) were symptomatic, and 72.5% (n=148) were asymptomatic. Additionally, 22.55% (n=46) reported considering themselves a binge eater, 18.63% (n=38) reported binge eating at least once per week, and 25.5% (n=52) reported exercising at least 2 hours per day to burn calories. The authors concluded that a number of female college athletes participate in unhealthy weight control behaviors that may go unnoticed, and health professionals should work to recognize and provide resources to these athletes. Abstract 5 Friesen, K. J., Rozenek, R., Clippinger, K., Gunter, K., Russo, A. C., & Sklar, S. E. (2011). Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 15(1), 31-36. Female athletes are at risk for decreased bone density due to disordered eating, low body mass, and amenorrhea. The purpose of this study was to examine body composition, bone mineral density, eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate dancers. The study was a case-control design. The participants included 31 female collegiate dancers between ages 18 to 25 years and an agematched control group of non-dancers. Data was collected using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), fitness tests, three-day food records, and questionnaires. DEXA was used to measure body composition and bone mineral density. Body strength was measured by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Questionnaires

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were used to assess menstrual dysfunction and eating disorder history. Statistical analysis included MANCOVA and chi-square analysis. The results indicated that bone mineral density was greater in the dancers than the control group at the spine (p<0.05) and hips (p<0.05). Total body fat percentage as well as fat distribution in the android region was less in dancers than the control group (p<0.05). Dancers had a lower percent fat intake (p<0.05) and a higher incidence of eating disorder (p<0.05) and secondary amenorrhea (p<0.05) than the control group. Dancers had higher strength values for chest press (p<0.05) and leg press (p<0.05). The authors concluded that the dancers had a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction than the control group, and educators should encourage dancers to meet the necessary energy requirements to support the demands of their activities. Review Existing Mandates  Mandate of the organization/grou p with which you are working  Legislation, regulations, and/or health policies  Professional standards and ethical guidelines  Political agendas  Mandates of potential partners and/or competitors (Summarize findings from 1-2 of the bullets listed to the left) The Dixie Darlings meet Monday through Friday. On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, they meet from 3:30-6pm, and on Tuesday and Thursday, they meet from 4-6pm. In addition, they are required to work out on their own for 2 ½-3 hours each week in addition to keeping up with their classes and other extracurricular activities. The Dixie Darlings must meet a healthy standard related to body image to be able to participate in team events. The girls do not have to meet a weight requirement, but must not appear overweight in order to fit into the uniforms that are provided. The Dixie Darlings are required to complete two community service events each year. The events that they participate in range from reading to children at a local school to making an appearance at events around the city. The girls must also meet professional and ethical guidelines related to being a part of the team and the Pride of Mississippi. They must always portray themselves with integrity and are not allowed to wear team uniforms out in public. They are also not allowed to wear team t-shirts or logos when participating in events where alcohol is involved. When in uniform, the girls must meet strict requirements related to appearance. For example, no nail polish is allowed to be worn when in uniform. The girls must always be ready to talk to fans and show their Southern Miss spirit on game days. Please see literature review below.

Write a 2-3 page community needs assessment using the data collected above, using APA format & provide a reference list

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Write 3 PES statements that summarize the priority issue and tie with the information collected in the community needs assessment.

Inadequate energy intake RT busy and stressful lifestyle that leave little time for food consumption AEB food avoidance and lack of time to consume adequate meals. Increased energy needs RT physical activity requirements of the Dixie Darlings AEB underweight (BMI<18.5), team practice every day for 2-3hrs as well as required work out hours of 2.5-3hrs per week. Excessive physical activity RT Dixie Darling practice 5 days each week in addition to weekly gym hour requirements AEB low body weight averages in related literature. Literature Review Introduction

The Dixie Darlings Dance Team began as a nationally recognized dance team that was created in 1954 by band director Dr. Raymond Mannoni. The Dixie Darlings are a part of The Pride of Mississippi Marching Band, and they perform at pregame and halftime of all of The University of Southern Mississippi‟s home football games. In addition, they recently expanded to include a competition team that competes during the spring semesters. The Dixie Darlings practice Monday through Friday for two to three hours and also have workout requirements they must meet each week. Because of the demanding practice days, the team is very physically active. Game days or competition days for the Dixie Darlings can last 8 to 12 hours. The Dixie Darling Director, Tracy Smith, is very proactive in keeping all of the team members healthy during practice and on game or competition days (T. Smith, personal communication, September 19, 2013). The priority issues to be addressed with The Dixie Darlings include eating healthy for athletes, eating on a regular schedule, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle while managing a busy college schedule. Research Findings

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Current literature shows that college athletes, specifically dancers, have increased nutrition related needs, including increased calorie and protein needs as well as education needs on how to ensure a healthy lifestyle (Abood, Black, & Bimbaum, 2004). According to Dunn, Turner, and Denny (2007), in a survey of college athletes (n=190), only 50% of survey questions regarding healthy food choices were answered correctly. The researchers concluded that athletes had a need for nutrition education in order to improve athletic performance and prevent problems with eating behaviors (Dunn et al., 2007). Literature also shows that dancers have an increased risk for disordered eating and disordered thought patterns related to nutrition (Torres-McGee, Green, Leeper, Leaver-Dunn, Richardson, & Bishop, 2009). In addition to disordered eating behaviors, dancers are also at increased risk for engaging in other unhealthy weight control behaviors that might go unnoticed, including compensatory mechanisms such as excessive exercising and laxative use (Greenleaf et al., 2009). Female collegiate athletes are in danger of participating in harmful weight-control behaviors for a number of reasons, including pressure from coaches, physique-revealing uniforms, and performance demands (Greenleaf et al., 2009). Moreover, female athletes are at risk for decreased bone density due to disordered eating, low body mass, and amenorrhea (Friesen et al., 2011). Researchers conclude that sport-related anorexia is common among pre-professional dancers. During a research study conducted by Herbrich, Pfeiffer, Lehmkuhl, and Schneider (2011), dancers were compared to clinically diagnosed patients with anorexia nervosa and non-athletic high school females. The researchers revealed statistical differences between the groups: dancers were higher in weight than patients with anorexia nervosa (P<0.001) but were much lower in weight than non-athletic females (P<0.001). Over half (51.9%) of dancers expressed a desire to lose weight and a quarter of dancers were experiencing amenorrhea (25%).

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Research suggests that nutrition education interventions are beneficial in the collegiate dancer population. A short-term, team-centered prevention program targeting female dance teams that included scripted lessons and a sport nutrition and training guide resulted in a significant increase of nutrition knowledge in the experimental group compared to a control group. The intervention also resulted in a lower level of depression, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and maturity fears (Torres-McGehee et al., 2011). Another intervention targeting ballet dancers included nutrition education sessions on sports nutrition and resulted in a 25% increase in sports nutrition knowledge from the intervention group, as compared to an 8% increase in knowledge from the control group. The intervention also resulted in improvements in candy intake, perceived severity of the Female Athlete Triad, and self-efficacy (Doyle-Lucas, 2011). Moreover, an intervention targeting female college athletes that included nutrition education sessions focusing on increasing nutrition knowledge of healthy food choices further demonstrates the success of nutrition education for athletes. The experimental group improved significantly in nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, and amount of positive dietary changes when compared to the control group (Abood et al., 2004). Conclusion Female dancers in college are under increased pressure to maintain a thin appearance while performing strenuous activities. The above research showed that many collegiate dancers resorted to unhealthy behaviors to meet low body weight requirements of coaches and peers. In addition, female dancers were not eating enough of or the right kinds of foods to perform to expectations. It is known that proper and adequate nutrition can be beneficial to athletes. Therefore, it is imperative that female athletes receive proper education on nutrition. Due to the many benefits of nutrition education interventions, more research needs to be done on

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effectiveness of these interventions on the performance and health of female college dancers. In conclusion, more effort should be made by nutrition professionals to educate college female athletes on proper nutrition due to their increased needs.

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References Abood, D. A., Black, D. R., & Birnbaum, R. D. (2004). Nutrition education intervention for college female athletes. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior, 36(3), 135-139. Doyle-Lucas, A. F. & Davy, B. M. (2011). Development and evaluation of an educational intervention program for pre-professional adolescent ballet dancers nutrition for optimal performance. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 15, 65-75. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6e0f21b3-92b8-4363b0a8-d42f422b8311%40sessionmgr13&vid=2&hid=26 Dunn, D., Turner, L. W., & Denny, G. (2007). Nutrition knowledge and attitudes of college athletes. Sports Journal, 10(4), 45-52. Friesen, K. J., Rozenek, R., Clippinger, K., Gunter, K., Russo, A. C., & Sklar, S. E. (2011). Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 15(1), 31-36. Greenleaf, C., Petrie, T. A., Carter, J., & Reel, J. J. (2009). Female collegiate athletes: Prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 57(5), 489-496. Herbrich, L., Pfeiffer, E., Lehmkuhl, U. & Schneider, N. (2011). Anorexia athletic in preprofessional ballet dancers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 1115-1123. doi: 10.1090/02640414.2011.578147 Torres-McGehee, T. M., Green, J. M., Leaver-Dunn, D., Leeper, J. D., Bishop, P. A., & Richardson, M. T. (2011). Attitude and knowledge changes in collegiate dancers

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following a short-term, team-centered prevention program on eating disorders. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 112, 711-725. doi: 10.2466/06.PMS.112.3.711-725 Torres-McGhee, T. M., Green, J. M., Leeper, J. D., Leaver-Dunn, D., Richardson, M., & Bishop, P. A. (2009). Body image, anthropometric measures, and eating-disorder prevalence in auxiliary unit members. Journal of Athletic Training, 44, 418-426. Retrieved 25 September, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2707071/pdf/attr-44-04-418.pdf

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Step 2: Define Program Goals & Objectives Goal 1 Objective 1a. Increase knowledge and intake of nutrient-dense food choices among the Dixie Darlings. At the end of the session, 80% of participants will be able to list one nutrient-dense food choice for each meal time. At the end of the session, 90% of participants will state one personal goal for increasing nutrient-dense food consumption. At the follow up session, 75% of participants will report an increase in nutrient-dense foods. Increase knowledge of how to stay adequately hydrated on regular and game days among the Dixie Darlings. At the end of the session, 80% of participants will be able to state the amount of water needed to stay hydrated on a practice day and a game day. By the next session, 80% of participants will be drinking an adequate amount of water each day based on self reported intake. Increase knowledge and intake of healthy snacks and quick meals for a busy schedule in order to increase kcal intake among the Dixie Darlings. At the end of the session, 80% of participants will be able to plan out a day of quick, nutrient-dense meals and snacks for a busy school day or game day. At the end of the session, 80% of participants will report consumption of nutrient-dense meals and snacks for a busy school day or game day. Increase knowledge and behavior changes of healthy lifestyle strategies, including increased knowledge of eating disorders, the dangers of eating disorders, and how to avoid and treat disordered eating patterns among the Dixie Darlings. At the end of the session, 80% of participants will understand the dangers of disordered eating patterns. At the end of the session, 80% of participants will be able to identify at least two ways to avoid disordered eating patterns At the end of the session, 80% of participants will be able to identify at least 2 types of disordered eating.

Objective 1b.

Objective 1c. Goal 2

Objective 2a.

Objective 2b.

Goal 3

Objective 3a.

Objective 3b.

Goal 4

Objective 4a. Objective 4b.

Objective 4c.

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Data/measure/monitor needed (list ALL data that you will need to collect as part of your HPE project) Data will be collected on the Dixie Darlings knowledge of the dangers of disordered eating patterns and how to avoid them. Data will be collected on how Dixie Darlings will stay hydrated on game or competition days.

How will it be collected? Interviews, pre-/post-test, game, contest, anthropometric data, demographic data, etc. Post test question where the Dixie Darlings will write down two ways to avoid, prevent, or treat an eating disorder.

When will the data be collected? Before, during, and/or after the intervention Post test after intervention.

Data will be collected on the behavior of the Dixie Darlings related to the benefits of staying hydrated. Data will be collected on Dixie Darlings‟ knowledge of nutrient-dense snacks and quick meals for a busy schedule. Data will be collected on Dixie Darlings‟ application of knowledge of nutrientdense snacks and quick meals for a busy schedule.

Post test in which the Dixie Darlings must write down the amount of water they need to stay hydrated and how many bottles of water is required to meet that goal. At the beginning of the next sessions, the Dixie Darlings will be asked to write down the amounts of water they normally drink on regular and game days. A meal planning activity of quick, healthy meals and snacks for a game day as well.

Post test after the intervention.

A game will occur during the education session, and a post test will be given after the education session. The activity will occur after the education session.

A food journal kept during a busy school day or game day will be used to determine the Dixie Darlings‟ food choices and caloric intake during busy days. The Dixie Darlings will be asked to list one nutrient-dense food choice for each mealtime. The Dixie Darlings will be asked to list one personal goal for increasing nutrient-dense food consumption as well as achievement of the personal goal.

Data will be collected on Dixie Darlings‟ knowledge of nutrient-dense food choices. Data will be collected on Dixie Darlings‟ application of knowledge of nutrientdense food choices.

The activity will occur after the education session during a busy school day or game day and will be turned in at the following education session. The activity will occur after the education session. The goal will be listed after the education session, and the goal achievement will be listed at the following education session.

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Step 3: Develop a Program Plan Intervention Strategy Conduct a Target Contextual Analysis How many people might be Approximately 15-20 participants could be involved involved? in the program, depending on the number of girls who attend practice. At what times are the potential The participants will be able to attend sessions during participants able to attend practice, which takes place on weekday afternoons. sessions? What are the ages of the The participants are ages 18-22. potential participants? What race, gender, ethnicity, The Dixie Darlings are made up of Caucasian and and social class are the potential African American females who belong to lower, participants? middle, and upper social classes. What is the best way to The best way to disseminate the information to the disseminate the information to Dixie Darlings is through interactive lessons that the participants (based on type include discussion and provide handout resources to of information and demographic reference. characteristics of the participants)? Why do the potential The participants will be required by their director to participants want to enroll or be attend practice as well as the program, which will involved in the program? occur during practice. Are the potential participants The participants are motivated to learn the material as motivated to learn this material, it will help them have more energy and perform to the and if so, what are the primary best of their abilities on game days. motivators? What are the costs (for example, There are no costs to the participants. The program is for fees, loss of job time, travel, free of charge and will occur during time that is and childcare) to the potential already set aside for their practice. participants for attending the program? Outline the Instructional Plan

HATTIESBURG HPE The overall program is titled, “Healthy Living for High Performance.” The lesson plans are titled “Smart Eating”, “Hydration 101,” “Fueling Up on a Busy Schedule,” and “Dangers of Eating Disorders.” TBD when practice times for the Dixie Darlings are finalized. Session One: The participants will be able to identify macronutrients and which foods are good sources. The participants will state one personal goal for improving dietary intake. Session Two: The participants will be able list the amount of water needed to stay hydrated on game and nongame days. The participants will be able to list 3 benefits of staying hydrated. The participants will intake the adequate amounts of water each day by the next session. Session Three: The participants will be able to list three quick, nutrient-dense meal and snack options for a busy school day or game day after the session. The participants will report consumption of nutrientdense meals and snacks for a busy school day or game day by the next session as evidenced by a food journal. Session Four: The participants will be able to list a danger of disordered eating, and one way to prevent an eating disorder. Session One: Students will be divided into 3 groups. The presenter will write carbohydrate, protein, and fat on a white board as headings. Each group will be given a different colored marker. Each marker will represent a fat, protein, or carbohydrate. The presenter will announce several healthy food options of each macronutrient for the participants. Brown rice, sweet potato, wheat bread, banana, and green beans will be written under the carbohydrate heading. Avocado, olive oil, and peanut butter will be written under the fat heading. Fish, chicken, turkey, lean beef will be written under the protein heading. The participants will be asked, “What are some healthy carbohydrates, protein, and fats that you can incorporate into your diet?” Session Two: During session two, Groups of cups will be placed in the front of the room. One will contain 8 cups, one with 12 cups, and one with 14 cups. The participants will be asked, “If these cups

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Course/Session Title(s)

Proposed date(s) and timeframe for implementation of the intervention Learning Objectives

Proposed activities

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Assessment plan

were filled with water, which group would be adequate for a day‟s intake on a game day?” They will also be asked, “Which one would be adequate for a day‟s intake on a nongame day?” The correct answer for question one is 14 cups. The correct answer for question two is 12 cups. In addition, discussion will be led to ask the question, “What are some ways to make sure you have enough water or drinks available for when you are thirsty on game and nongame days?”. Session Three: Prior to the activity, the importance of properly fueling for athletic performance and tips on how to plan meals for a busy schedule will be quickly discussed. Questions will be asked to encourage group participation, such as “Do you ever feel that you don‟t perform as well when you have not eaten well during game days?” and “What are some ideas that you all have for making sure you fuel your body properly on busy days?” The participants will then be divided into two teams to play the „Meal Planning in a Hurry‟ game. Each group will have a basket food items, including fruit, snack bars, peanut butter, nuts, etc. The teams will race to plan three nutrient-dense snack/meal options for a busy game day or school day. The team that finishes first will win a prize. After the game, the participants will be asked to list three nutrient-dense meal/snack options for a busy school day or game day. The participants will also be asked to keep a log of the food and beverages they consume on at least one busy school day or game day, which will be turned in at the following session. Session Four: During session four, a poster board will be in front of the audience with two pictures of women and a description of an eating disorder will be underneath the picture. The descriptions will be of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa. After the Dixie Darlings have had a chance to see the photos and read the descriptions, they will be asked if they know or are able to guess which eat disorders were described. Session One: The Dixie Darlings‟ participation in the game and discussion will be assessed for the informal assessment. The participants will list 3 healthy sources of each macronutrient for the formal assessment.

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Estimated time

Lesson Plans

Session Two: Session two will consist of a quiz in which participants will answer the questions, “About how many cups of water should you drink on game days?” “About how many cups of water should you drink on nongame days” and “What are three benefits of staying hydrated?”. Session Three: For the informal assessment, the Dixie Darlings‟ participation in the discussion and game will be assessed. For the formal assessment, participants will list three nutrient-dense meal or snack options for a busy schedule. In addition, a food journal will be turned in at the following session to assess the participants‟ dietary intake of nutrientdense meals and snacks on busy school and game days. Session Four: The informal assessment will consist of informal questions asked throughout the session such as, “Who can tell me some types of eating disorders?” “Can anyone tell me a danger of eating disorders?”, “Would anyone be willing to share an idea or way to prevent an eating disorder? “ These questions will be answered by calling on those who raise their hand. The formal assessment will also include a post-test that will be distributed after the session to determine that the participants can identify dangers of eating disorders and two ways to prevent an eating disorder. Session One: Session one will last approximately 1015 minutes. Session Two: Session two will last approximately 10-15 minutes. Session Three: Session three will last approximately 10-15 minutes. Session Four: Session one will last approximately 10-15 minutes. See below.

Marketing the Program (The 4 P‟s) Product The purpose of the program is to provide education and promote health to The University of Southern Mississippi‟s Dixie Darlings. The program consists of four education sessions tailored especially to the Dixie Darlings that will increase the team‟s knowledge about

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Price Place

Promotion

healthy lifestyles for college athletes. Education sessions include basic nutrition for female college dancers, proper hydration, eating a balanced diet on a busy schedule, and healthy lifestyle strategies, including skin care, stress management, and how to avoid disordered eating patterns. The program has no charge to participate. The program will take place at The Payne Center at The University of Southern Mississippi, where the Dixie Darlings practice. The Dixie Darlings will already be a practice when the program takes place; however, strategies will be used to promote the program, including flyers, emails, and social media.

Marketing/Promotion Plan Name of Program and Proposed Dates

Target Audience List of promotional materials used to advertise Timeline for dissemination of promotional materials

Healthy Living For High Performance- The dates of the program will be determined once the Dixie Darlings set their practice times for the Spring semester. The Dixie Darlings Email will be used to send out a flyer to advertise the program. The flyer will also be posted at the Payne Center. The flyer is below. The flyers advertising the program will be posted and sent out through email 2-3 weeks prior to the first lesson of the program.

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Healthy Living for High Performance

During practice in Spring 2014, join Southern Miss Dietetic Interns, Ashley Bryant, Laura Ewoldt, Bryan Moss, and Theresa Price, to learn how to optimize nutrition in order to perform at the highest level!

Sessions will include Smart Eating, Fueling Up on a Busy Schedule, Hydration 101, and Skin Care, Stress Management, and Eating Disorders.

Sessions will be given on February 9, 2014 and March 23, 2014.

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LESSON PLAN FOR Smart Eating Name of Intern: Bryan Moss Setting: HPE Time Allotment: 10-15 minutes Estimated Number of Learners: Approximately 15-20 participants I. # 1. Goals and Rationale (5 points) Goal Increase knowledge and improve intake of proper nutrition among the Dixie Darlings. Rationale for Goal The Dixie Darlings‟ should eat proper nutrition to perform well and live a healthy lifestyle.

2. 3. 4. II. # 1. Objectives (5 points) Objective After the session, 90% of the participants will be able to identify at least two healthy sources of each macronutrient they can incorporate into their diet. Teaching/Learning Procedures (5 points) The teacher will introduce himself and thank everyone for attending. The teacher will then ask the participants what they know about macronutrients. Three volunteers will be asked to participate from the audience. The presenter will write carbohydrate, protein, and fat on a white board as headings. Each volunteer will be given a different colored marker. Each marker will represent a fat, protein, or carbohydrate. The volunteers, with help from the audience, will write in as many sources of each macronutrient as they can. After the volunteers are done, the presenter will announce several healthy food options of each macronutrient. Brown rice, sweet potato, wheat bread, banana, and green beans will be written under the carbohydrate heading. Avocado, olive oil, and peanut butter will be written under the fat heading. Fish, chicken, turkey, lean beef will be written under the protein heading. The participants will be asked, “What are some healthy

III.

Motivation/Introduction

Teaching/Learning Activities

Closure

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Informal Assessment Formal Assessment

carbohydrates, protein, and fats that can incorporate into your diet?” The presenter will then ask the participants to state one personal goal that would like to achieve to improve their dietary intake. The Dixie Darlings‟ participation in the game and discussion will be assessed The participants will list 2 healthy sources of each macronutrient.

IV.

Materials/Media (5 points) (attach a sample) White board

markers

Assessment of Participants’ Learning

Sample form: 1. List 2 healthy food sources of each of the following: Carbohydrates_________________________ _________________________ Fat____________________ ____________________ Protein________________ _____________________ Summary of Results Fifteen Dixie Darling dancers and their coach for the Smart Eating lesson plan. The lesson took place at the “On Your Toes” dance studio in Petal, MS. The introduction went well and many participants stated that they would like to eat healthier. For the learning activity, the participants were very eager to volunteer. After separating three volunteers for each macronutrient, they were asked to name healthy sources of each macronutrient with the help of the audience. The Dixie Darlings‟ participation in the learning activity was assessed for the informal assessment. It was noted that the participants had a difficult time determining

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food sources of carbohydrates. However, the participants seemed to really enjoy the learning activity. The session went very well, and all 15 participants (100%) were able to list two healthy food sources of each macronutrient.

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LESSON PLAN FOR Hydration 101

Name of Intern: Laura Ewoldt Setting: HPE Time Allotment: 10-15 minutes Estimated Number of Learners: 15-25 V. # 1. Goals and Rationale (5 points) Goal Learners will understand the impact dehydration has on dance performance. Learners will know the amount of water that is needed each day on a game day as well as a nongame day. Learners will intake the proper amount of water each day after the session. Objectives (5 points) Objective After the session, 90% of participants will be able list the amount of water needed to stay hydrated on game and nongame days. After the session, 90% of participants will be able to list 2 tips to ensure an adequate amount of water intake each day . After the session, 90% of participants will intake the adequate amounts of water each day by the next session based on a 3 day log. Teaching/Learning Procedures (5 points) Groups of cups will be placed in the front of the room. One will contain 8 cups, one with 12 cups, and one with 14 cups. The participants will be asked, “If these cups were filled with water, which group would be adequate for a day‟s intake on a game day?” They will also be asked, “Which one would be adequate for a day‟s intake on a nongame day?” The correct answer for question one is 14 cups. The correct answer for question two is 12 cups. The Rationale for Goal Proper intake of fluids allows dancers to be less tired and perform to the best of their abilities. Understanding the amount of water needed on game and non game days will prevent dehydration. The proper intake of water will keep participants healthy and hydrated.

2.

3.

VI. # 1. 2. 3.

VII.

Motivation/Introduction

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amount of water you need is based on your activity level each day. Next, the participants will be asked to state how many cups of water/fluid they normally drink in one day. Teaching/Learning Activities Three myths will be explained to the participants about hydration: The instructor will say, “The first myth is every person needs the same amount of water each day. Although I stated that everyone needs 12 or 14 cups of water depending on your activity level each day, water needs are highly individualized. 12 or 14 cups is a great starting point to go by, but you also have to listen to your body to determine how much water you need. One way to know if you‟re drinking enough water is to look at the color of your urine. If it is dark yellow, you are dehydrated. If it is light yellow to clear, you are well hydrated. Another way to know how much water you need is how much you sweat during a workout. The more you sweat, the more water you are losing and the more water you need to stay hydrated.” “The second myth is you need to drink lots of water before beginning a workout. While it is important to hydrate before a workout or game day, during a workout or game day, and after a workout or game day, you should spread your water intake throughout the workout/day. Drinking too much water at one time can cause excessive urination. Too much water is also known as overdrinking and can cause dizziness or confusion. To avoid overdrinking, listen to your body and drink when you are thirsty.” The instructor will then attempt to involve the participants in discussion by asking, “What are some ways to make sure that you have water or other drinks available for when you are thirsty on game days and nongame days?” Some optionally answers if participants do not name them are to plan ahead for the amount of water you will need, keep bottled water or powerade in the dance bag, and drink from water fountain when available. A water bottle will be used to show the girls how I make sure I get enough water everyday and how easy it is to carry around with me. “The third myth is that all water requirements have to come from water. Especially when completing physical activity, it is important to drink powerade or other sport drinks to replenish the electrolytes that are lost in the sweat. Water is also found in foods that we eat. Oatmeal is

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84% water and is a great breakfast for a day full of class and workouts. Low fat milk is 90% water and also provides vitamins that are important for women athletes. Milk can be a great recovery drink as it provides carbohydrates as well as electrolytes that are lost during workouts in greater amounts than sports drinks. Milk also contains protein that helps with muscle recovery. Lettuce is 96% water. In addition, other fluids that you drink will help you stay hydrated.” Closure It is important to know that hydration can affect the way you perform when you dance. An inadequate amount of hydration can cause confusion as well as a decreased level of performance. On game days and non game days, you should listen to your body and drink fluids before, during, and after workouts and be sure to drink electrolytes during and after workouts. Participants will then be challenged to drink adequate amounts of fluid and keep a log at least three days before the next session. Questions will be asked throughout the education session, such as “Which group of cups has enough fluid for game/nongame days?” and “What are some ways you can make sure you stay hydrated throughout the day?” These questions will be used to informally assess the participants‟ learning throughout the session. A quiz will be given that can be found below. The participants will be asked about the amount of water/fluid they should aim to drink on game and nongame days.

Informal Assessment

Formal Assessment

VIII. Materials/Media (5 points) (attach a sample) Cups IX. Assessment of Participants’ Learning (5 points) (attach sample and summarize results)

1. About how many cups of water should you drink on game/competition days?

2. About how many cups of water should you drink on nongame days?

3. What are three benefits of staying hydrated? X. Hydration Log

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Please fill out this log for at least three days, listing how much water you drank and your daily goal. Day Goal Actually drank 1 2 3

Summary of Results Four dancers and the dance coach were present for the Hydration 101 Education Session. The session took place in a studio room at the Payne Center at The University of Southern Mississippi before one of their practice sessions began. The participants were excited and involved throughout the session. They answered questions informally and nodded their heads to indicate understanding during the education. The session was completed based on the above lesson plan, and no changes had to be made. After the session, the participants were asked to answer three questions related to the lesson, which are shown above on the assessment of participants‟ learning. Out of the four surveys, 100% answered the first question correctly. Answers that were accepted include 12 to 14 cups. On question two, 100% of the answers were correct. Answers that were accepted included 8 to 12 cups. On question three, 75% of participants correctly listed two ways to ensure that they are able to stay hydrated throughout the day. One survey response only indicated one answer, which was to check the color of your urine. Other answers that were written and accepted included drink out of water fountains when available and carry a water bottle. After the session, the participants were asked to fill out a hydration log for one day, instead of three (which is indicated on the lesson plan). Four logs were completed

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and returned at a later date. The participants were instructed to choose any one day and record the amounts and types of fluid that they drank throughout the day. One log indicated that the participant consumed three bottles of water and one bottle of powerade throughout her day. The second participant indicated that she consumed four bottles of water and one bottle of powerade throughout her day. The third and fourth participants indicated that they consumed eight cups of water and one cup of juice throughout their day. Overall, the session was a success. The post test results showed that the participants learned information from the session, and the participants were actively involved throughout the session. In addition, 100% of participants consumed an adequate amount of fluid according to their hydration logs.

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LESSON PLAN FOR FUELING UP ON A BUSY SCHEDULE Name of Intern: Ashley Bryant Setting: Dixie Darling practice at On Your Toes Dance Studio in Petal, MS Time Allotment: 10-15 minutes Estimated Number of Learners: 15-20 XI. # 1. Goals and Rationale (5 points) Goal Increase knowledge and intake of nutrient-dense snacks and quick meals for a busy schedule in order to increase energy intake among the Dixie Darlings. Rationale for Goal The director of the Dixie Darlings requested the sessions include information about healthy eating on a busy schedule. Collegiate dancers have increased caloric needs; however, due to busy schedules, the increased needs are often not met. Current literature shows that nutrition education sessions focusing on healthy food choices and sports nutrition results in positive outcomes for the collegiate dancer population, including but not limited to increase in nutrition knowledge, lower body dissatisfaction, self-efficacy, perceived severity of the Female Athlete Triad, and positive dietary changes.

XII. # 1. 2.

Objectives (5 points) Objective After the session, 80% of participants will be able to list three quick, nutrient-dense meal and snack options for a busy school day or game day after the session. At the following session, 80% of participants will report consumption of nutrient-dense meals and snacks for a busy school day or game day by the next session as evidenced by a food journal.

XIII. Teaching/Learning Procedures (5 points) Motivation/Introduction The teacher will introduce herself and the lesson topic, how to eat nutritious foods on a busy schedule. The teacher will briefly reiterate the topics of the previous education sessions, basic nutrition and hydration for athletes. The importance of properly fueling for athletic performance, struggles of eating on a busy schedule, and

Teaching/Learning Activities

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tips on how to plan meals for a busy schedule will be quickly discussed in a group format. Questions will be asked to encourage group participation, such as “Do you ever feel that you don‟t perform as well when you have not eaten well during game days?” and “What are some ideas that you all have for making sure you fuel your body properly on busy days?” Afterwards, nutrient dense foods will be displayed on a table and discussed. The discussion will include what macronutrients each food provides, the benefits of the food (ie. energy and muscle building) as well as how the foods can be used in simple breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack ideas. Example foods are fruits, nuts, peanut butter, oatmeal, yogurt, beans, tuna, protein powder, granola bars, seeds, and whole grain bread. Next, tips for eating on a busy schedule will be discussed. Some tips for eating on a busy schedule include: -Cook in bulk, using the refrigerator, microwave, and crockpot if possible -Pack a cooler or lunchbox the night before -Prepare foods for breakfast the night before (overnight oats) -Never skip breakfast. Choose quick options like cereal, microwaved egg whites, protein shakes, etc. -Always keep snacks (granola bars, nuts, fruit) in a bag for easy access -Choose quick, nutrient-dense options that you can make in your dorm room like sandwiches, yogurts, smoothies, oatmeal etc. After the quick discussion, two volunteers will be asked to participate in a „Meal Planning in a Hurry‟ game. The participants will race to prepare a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. The person who completes the activity the quickest wins. Afterwards, the instructor will tell the participants that this is an example of how quickly a nutrient dense snack can be prepared. The teacher will thank the participants for their time and attention. The teacher will encourage the participants to include a variety of nutrient-dense foods in their diet in order to improve their athletic performance and will ask the participants to keep a log of the food and beverages they consume on at least one busy school or game day to turn in for evaluation. After the session, the participants

Closure

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Informal Assessment

Formal Assessment

will be asked to complete the formal assessment form. The teacher will evaluate the Dixie Darlings‟ attention and participation in the discussion and game. Sample questions for the informal assessment include, “Do you ever feel that you don‟t perform as well when you have not eaten well during game days?” “Do you feel that any of these options might work for you?” and “What are some ideas that you all have for making sure you fuel your body properly on busy days?” After the session, the participants will be asked to list three nutrient-dense meal/snack options for a busy school day or game day. The participants will also be asked to keep a log of the food and beverages they consume on at least one busy school day or game day, which will be turned in to their coach.

XIV. Materials/Media (5 points) (attach a sample) Plates and spoons (for game) Post-assessment forms Variety of food items (including Handout/Food Log a variety of nutrient-dense foods and snacks…fruits, nuts, oatmeal, yogurt, beans, tuna,etc) Prizes (individual packets of nuts) Pencils Sample Handout:

HATTIESBURG HPE Assessment of Participants’ Learning (5 points) (attach sample and summarize results) Sample Post-assessment form: 1. Please list three nutrient-dense meal or snack options that will fit into your busy day. a. b. c. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME!  Summary of Results Fifteen dancers and their coach were present for the Fueling Up on a Busy Schedule session, which took place at a dance studio in Petal, MS following the Smart Eating session. The introduction for the session included a quick group discussion of struggles with eating with time constraints and ideas for eating healthy on busy days. The participants actively engaged in the discussion, nodding their heads and answering questions. After the introduction, nutrient dense foods were displayed on a table and were discussed. The discussion included what macronutrients each food provides, the benefits of the food (ie. energy and muscle building) as well as how the foods can be used in simple breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack ideas. Foods included fruits, nuts, peanut butter, oatmeal, yogurt, beans, tuna, protein powder, granola bars, seeds, and whole grain bread. Suggestions for eating on a busy schedule were discussed, including packing a lunch the night before, choosing quick options, and finding nutrient dense foods for the dorm room. After the discussion, several participants asked questions.

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Afterwards, two volunteers raced to prepare a sandwich, which took about 20 seconds. This was used as an example to show the participants that nutrient dense meals do not have to take a long time to prepare. For the Fueling Up on a Busy Schedule session, the informal assessment was conducted as planned. The Dixie Darlings‟ participation in the discussion and game was assessed. The formal assessment was also conducted as planned. The participants listed three nutrient-dense meal or snack options for a busy schedule. In addition, a food journal was presented to the participants to be turned back in to their coach. The form will be picked up at a future date and will be used to assess the participants‟ dietary intake of nutrient-dense meals and snacks on busy school and game days. Overall, the session was a success. All 15 participants (100%) participants were engaged and actively participated in the session, and 15 of 15 participants (100%) were able to list three nutrient-dense foods and snacks that they will fit into their busy day. All 15 participants agreed to keep a food log to be turned in at a future date.

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LESSON PLAN FOR Dixie Darlings: Dangers of Disordered Eating Name of Intern: Theresa Price Setting: Dixie Darling Practice Area (Payne Center/Campus Gym) Time Allotment: 10-15 minutes Estimated Number of Learners: 15-20 women XV. # 1. Goals and Rationale (5 points) Goal Increase knowledge and behavior changes of healthy lifestyle strategies, including increased knowledge of eating disorders, the dangers of eating disorders, and how to avoid and treat disordered eating patterns among the Dixie Darlings. Rationale for Goal It is important for young college dancers to take care of their bodies and eat a healthy balanced diet every day. The director of the Dixie Darlings requested the sessions include information about healthy lifestyles on a busy schedule. Collegiate dancers have very busy schedules. Current literature shows that professional dancers have a higher risk of disordered eating patterns due to the pressures to stay fit and thin for performances; therefore, nutrition education sessions focusing on healthy lifestyle choices results in positive outcomes for the collegiate dancer population, including but not limited to, and lower body dissatisfaction and healthier eating habits.

XVI. Objectives (5 points) # 1. 2. 3. Objective At the end of the session, 80% of participants will be able to identify the dangers of disordered eating patterns. At the end of the session, 80% of participants will be able to identify at least two ways to avoid disordered eating patterns At the end of the session, 80% of participants will be able to identify at least two types of disordered eating patterns.

XVII. Teaching/Learning Procedures (5 points) Motivation/Introduction Intern will introduce self: “Hello, my name is Theresa Price and I am one of the USM Interns who is presenting some health topics to you over this semester. Today we will be learning about eating disorders.” The intern will start off with an ice breaker game. A poster

Teaching/Learning

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Activities

board with two photos of women with eating disorders will be placed in front of the room. Underneath the pictures will be a description of one of two specific eating disorder, including bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa. The Dixie Darlings will state which eating disorder they think each has been described. The intern will first discuss eating disorders. Informal assessment- Who can tell me some types of eating disorders? The intern will pass out a handout with information regarding eating disorders, including types, dangers, and ways to avoid them. There are several different types of eating disorders but the most common are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and avoidant/restrictive food intake. Eating disorders are a group of serious conditions in which the person is very preoccupied with food and weight and think of little else. Eating disorders can cause serious physical problems, which can become life-threatening. There are treatments for eating disorders that include different types of therapies, nutrition education, counseling, medication and sometimes hospitalization. Anorexia Nervosa- is the restriction of food intake and significantly low weight. The people diagnosed with this disorder have an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Bulimia Nervosa- is characterized as binge eating followed by induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, fasting, or excessive exercise. Binge eating disorder- also characterized as binge eating, but mainly alone and without any self control- the main difference between this disorder and bulimia nervosa is there is no compensatory method in binge eating disorder. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder- persistent failure to meet the recommended nutrient needs Informal Assessment- Can anyone tell me a danger of eating disorders? Dangers of eating disorders: Can damage vital organs such as the brain and heart,

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dehydration, stomach rupture, tooth decay, loss of nutritional value. Informal Assessment- Would anyone be willing to share an idea or way to prevent an eating disorder? Ways to prevent eating disorders among one another: o Find help from a doctor if beginning to notice any symptoms. o Encourage healthy eating habits and avoid dieting. o Reinforce a healthy body image o Reach out if a friend is suspected of having a disorder o Become a critical view of the media and how thinness is portrayed o Choose to value self, based on goals, accomplishments, and talents. o Establish regular pattern of nutritionally balanced meals and snacks o Ensure adequate but not excessive levels of intake o Avoid dietary behaviors Wrap up session by asking participants if they have any questions. Pass out post-test to participants. Informal assessment questions will be asked throughout the session and participants will raise hands in answer of the questions asked. Who can tell me some types of eating disorders? Can anyone tell me a danger of eating disorders? Would anyone be willing to share an idea or way to prevent an eating disorder? Post test will be passed out at the end of session with open questions for participants to write down at least one of the following: two types of eating disorders, a danger of disordered eating, and two ways to prevent an eating disorder.

Closure Informal Assessment

Formal Assessment

XVIII. Materials/Media (5 points) (attach a sample) Poster with two photos and two descriptions. Post Test with 3 questions Assessment of Participants’ Learning (5 points) (attach sample and summarize results)

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Formal assessment: Post test 1. Which of the following are considered eating disorders? a. Anorexia Nervosa b. Bulimia Nervosa c. Dieting d. Both A & C e. All of the above 2. Which of the following are dangers of eating disorders? a. Damaging vital organs, dehydration, tooth decay b. Damaging vital organs, over hydration, low nutritional value c. Damage to the brain, damage to the heart, stomach rupture d. Both A & C e. Both A & B 3. List two ways to avoid, prevent, or treat an eating disorder.

Summary of results

Four dancers and the dance coach were present for the Dangers of Eating Disorder Education Session. The session took place in a studio room at the Payne Center at The University of Southern Mississippi before a practice session began. They answered questions informally by nodding their heads and informally answering

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questions out loud to indicate understanding during the education. The session was completed based on the above lesson plan. The informal assessment consisted of three questions throughout the session, “Who can tell me some types of eating disorders?”, “Can anyone tell me a danger of eating disorders?”, and “Would anyone be willing to share an idea or way to prevent an eating disorder?”. Two participants named two types of eating disorders, one person named two dangers of eating disorders, and two participants shared ideas of how to prevent an eating disorder. After the session, the participants were asked to answer the formal evaluation, which consisted of three questions assessing knowledge of eating disorders, which are shown above on the assessment of participants‟ learning. Out of the four surveys, 75% answered the first question correctly. Answers that were accepted included both A and C. On question two, 75% of the answers were correct. Answers that were accepted included both A and C. On question three, 100% of participants correctly listed two ways to avoid, prevent, or treat an eating disorder. Answers that were written and accepted included creating a healthy meal plan, participating in the correct amount of physical activity, and seek physician help. The session was successful. All four participants (100%) were actively listening and engaged during the session and were able to answer the informal questions. Most of the participants answered the formal post test questions correctly as well, but overall seemed to have a good knowledge of what different eating disorders are present in the athletic culture, what the dangers of eating disorders are, and how to avoid, prevent, or treat an eating disorder.

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