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636. / Document No.j^VICE SCHOOLS V WAR DEPARTMENT.»' . ')•/ * <*. Office of The Adjutant General.

(3) . A.WAR DEPARTMENT. 1917. [062.] order of the Secretary op War: TASKER H. Acting Chief ofMaff. o. MoCAIN.G. Washington^ July. H. P.24. BLISS. Official: Major General. The followingpamphlet on Close Combat Weapons is published for the information of all concerned.22. The Adjutant General.

nor are any parts of their contents to be communicated either directly or indirectly to the press. 1917. The Adjutant General. General's Office. nor to any person not in the military or naval service of the United States. P. H. McOAIN. June 19. (4) . are to be regarded as strictly confidential. Washington. nor farther to the front than the usual post of the officers to whom issued. They are to be kept at alltimes in your personal possession and are not to be copied. order oir the Secretary of War. which may be furnished to you from this office. InEurope these documents are not to be carried into the front line trenches. Strict compliance with this injunction is enjoined upon every officer into whose hands any of these confidential documents may come. To allOfficers of the Army: Youare advised that this and allsubsequent documents of a similar character.The Adjutant War Department.

Anenergetic volley of short duration will suffice to paralyze the enemy. are of decisive importance in the success of grenade combat. .CLOSE COMBAT WEAPONS. Allmen belonging to the fighting force. \u0084 5 5 6 7 7 8 13 14 15 16 HAND GRENADES (Handgranaten. 1917. The precision. CONTENTS. SECRET AND CONFIDENTIAL—FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY—NOT TO BE TAKEN INTO FIRST LINE TRENCHES. as well as a well regulated supply of munitions. Translation from the French of a German officialdocument of Janvary 1. Instruction . Edited at the Army War College. 1917. 1. - Hand grenades General notes. irrespective of the branch. 2. Capture of blockhoxise or machine-gun position Destruction of obstacles Grenade mortars Rifle grenades. . (5) . Page. should be skilled in the throwing of grenades and familiarized with all the circumstances of grenade combat. 4595°—17 . The grenade plays as large a part in close combat as does the rifle or pistol.) GENERAL NOTES. range and rapidity of the throw of each grenadier.. Attack Defense Storage and transportation. July. .

as well as the commander of the detachment. trench mortars.6 3. the support of other forces (machine guns. capture of isolated trench elements.during an attack. The men and groups having special duties to perform at certain points of tactical importance in close combat may receive a larger supply of grenades. and if they find themselves withinthrowing range. Itis necessary to take special measures for the replenishment of grenades. and artillery). receives from six to eight handle grenades. or pistol. and two small canteens. and farms) generally require. and then jump into the trenches without allowing anything to hinder them. 4. . whereas the ovoid grenade produces a great number of very effective fragments. Grenade attacks executed as independent enterprises (offensive reconnaissance. 9. whilethe rest pass them the hand grenades and guard them. it should be destroyed by means of a prolonged — hail ofhand grenades. Inan attack against isolated enemy positions for example. The grenades actually inuse in the German Army are supplied with time fuses. pioneer tool. of blockhouses. to annihilate or paralyze an adversary stationed in or behind a shelter who can not be reached by firearms. occupation of craters. They can be thrown farther. or a slightly larger number of ovoid grenades. rifleor carbine slung over the shoulder. If. Generally. all the men. Grenades serve specially. the assailants silence the fire of the enemy's trenches. Neither haversacks nor cartridge boxes are ordinarily carried (cartridges are carried in the pocket of the jacket or in the pouch). bag with four days' reserve rations. The equipment ofmen supplied with grenades differs according to their duty. against flanking positions. ATTACK. during an attack. 8. on account of the effect of their explosion. each man. The following is the usual equipment: A steel helmet is worn. should cover the en'emy's trenches with grenades. two sandbags filled with grenades and hung around the neck over both shoulders. Ovoid grenades are thrown from under cover as much as possible. The handle grenades (Stielhandgranaten) do not operate by their fragments. 5. in order to make him cease allresistance. "or during the progressive occupation of enemy — trenches only a few men are generally used for throwing. small woods. 7. 6. thanks to their superior shape and reduced weight. If they encounter an incompletely destroyed obstacle at this time. or special pockets for hand grenades. then lie prone to await the explosion. beside minute preparation. gas mask. while they are running.

consisting of primed grenades. the positions of the close defense guns. in the combat trenches (barricaded). 18. Unprimed grenades may be placed in quantities of 400. thrown at the enemy at the moment when he rushes forward to storm the trench. The first supply. above all. whenever . and in commander or of the platoon comthe vicinity of the company " mander. In case of a criticalsituation. Grenades with time fuses. The use of grenades is of importance only when firearms can not be used. in the neighborhood of the flanking machine guns. in dead angles. Hand grenades should be distributed accordingly.. at a maximum. the path to be followed inreaching these depots. 15. even in " the bomb-proof subterranean shelters. Hand grenades should be deposited in sufficient quantities in the subterranean shelters for the picket detachments and the reserves. or when the enemy entrenches near our own positions. or when the enemy has penetrated to some point of our own trenches. It is necessary to indicate in an exact manner. There should be no accumulation of primed grenades. the batteries. 11. in shell craters. 17. but provision should be made so that they can be rapidly obtained in all other parts of the position. 10. in the bomb-proof subterranean shelters situated in the rear positions. 14. thus causing no damage. to act as reserves. The observation and combat posts. Experienced grenadiers should. receive fortheir own defense a suitable stock of grenades. The advance posts and patrols always receive grenades. and in the recesses and places under fire. These localities must not be used . so that the troops will not lack them for counter attacks. 12. The best weapons for repelling an enemy attack are machine guns and rifles. be stationed at the exits ofthe communicating trenches. etc. The shelters for the personnel should. and recognizable even at night. Other supplies of grenades should be deposited in the positions and lines to the rear. often explode only after the enemy has passed them. Storage and Transportation. or tp prime grenades. 16. 13.7 DEFENSE. itis best to distribute grenades to allmen stationed in the first line. the positions oftrench mortars and others oflikeorder. is placed in hermetically sealed boxes.as workshops. in the interior wallof the trench. which are deposited in a recess. supported by wooden planks.

Grenades are transported either in the cases in which they arrive from the interior (these cases should never be opened before they are used). for the replenishment. it is recommended that they be . The hand grenades (as Well as the spherical and lenticular grenades. they should be transported without being primed. the reassortment. and the confidence of the troops in the handling of grenades is increased. are avoided. the fuses and unset grenades should foe arranged separately. under their own responsibility. or in sacks or small boxes. only goods of a nondangerous nature should be carried at the same time. The men should be inculcated withthe principle that they are to keep and use their grenades withas much care as their other arms. primed and unprimed.8 possible. All commanders should see. because rain. Iffor any reason they are removed from their cases. In the depots the best means of storing is to leave the grenades in their original cases. To carry on the above. The aim of the instruction should be perfect safety in the use of grenades. that grenades are not used for any other purpose than that for which they were intended. the distribution. INSTRUCTION. The handle grenades are carried six to eight in a sandbag (a man can carry four on his shoulders). 21. be placed not less than 20 meters (21. To give the men a taste for these drills and waken their ambition.87 yards) from the 19. and cold^influence the range and precision of the throw. as well as for their maintenance and transportation. Exact instructions should be given for the priming of the grenades in the depots. a firmconviction that the grenade presents absolutely ho danger to the man throwing it(ifhe handles it as prescribed). the unit commander gives more exact instruction. according to the position and the nature of the surroundings. grenade recesses. The men should be equipped as for an attack. 20. In the latter case. and the storage of grenades. Thus accidents. whichstillexist in the supplies) are carried in covered chests with compartments. and an absolute confidence in its results and efficiency. In transporting grenades in wagons or on narrow-gauge railways. Instruction should be pushed continually and energetically. The drills should be frequent. Itis usually only forcombat that grenades are brought primed into the first line. wind. other than those caused by the enemy's fire. particularly in moments of leisure. and the drillsshould be held in all weather. 22. — 23. The detonators and fuses are carried by special men in closed chests.

The instruction is given on drillgrounds specially prepared. 0000 Gnzters. .a '-. a: Q }} a aa w bs :- 0 r a *:" c 0 oV O O°| 0 O *1 >^ *-Ok *. 100rt*>.). elements of overturned trenches. practical experience of combat. forest. and should possess.TWr y a aa. a. Avoid having the drills last too long. officers. destroyed obstacles. or that prizes be offered to the best grenadiers. as well as the sergeants and officers up to the company commander. Of = • \ a. 24. These drillgrounds should also permit of throwing on sloping ground. as far as possible.pl*O ( o o o r/^flfr o. The instructors. ) ) a a <v \ °*a.9 rewarded by being excused fromsome duty. 25. as well as the features of the terrain (shell craters. ® \lO 0 ' a i 1i 1 a a «\u25a0\u25a0""** *M a. xxxxww *-v-^-* Wire entang/ement Afeeh - O O eioned officers and men should be selected to form the personnel of the "sturmtrupps" (assaulting troops) and of the "stosstrupps" (following-up troops). etc.the details. on which the German positions and the enemy's positions in all their details are marked out. and sergeants. - a °- \* a^ Bfi \u25a0 *a.: « a^i oil « p o °« o aa a. A • sporting contest acts as a stimulant. should be familiarized \u25a0with all. The troops should themselves establish drillgrounds in the neighborhood ofeach cantonment. Figure 1gives a model for a small drill ground. All the men of the fighting force should receive grenade instruction. In the Infantry and the Pioneers as large a number as possible of experienced and intrepid noncommis- \*—3om « Q.

. (2) -U lyingprone is executed without the man's Q rising. The instruction begins by talks on the various models of grenades. I )f 27. If a man has thrown his grenade while running. \~Y? the motions that would be necessary in handling primed grenades.. In training to throw at. Inorder to acPo£/t/pnofthet/)rower custom the men to throw surely and not too fast in the grenade drills. only rising after (?) D/fferentkindS ' the explosion has taken place.3. he «2J -. in the latter case. A throw oftarfetS. and the measFig. Even withsham grenades. and running.A'. a 29. These motions should pass through the subconecious mind of the grenadier and be 4 executed automatically. they may be required to throw by the numbers.-. Itis important in this drill to preserve the accuracy and direction. j. weight. throw the grenade. \u25a0\u25a0\u25a0 \u25a0 i. 28.10 26. lying prone. always execute all T.Z. standing. their transport. Wl l ft nr Hs. and drop down quickly. or in rising to a kneeling position J -§> d for a short time only.„ fi) & ~ 7 he should rise. their use. a great distance. or with with sham sham grenades i corresponding inshape.U—m iU . the grenades fallingoutside of the track do not count. and dimensions to the real grenades. and the distance Attained is announced. Grenades should always be thrown at definite targets. The drills should be executed mdi vidually and in groups. on the mode of action of the fuse and of the charge or explosive. The drillis Trench executed by one man after another. It is only under these conditions that he willnot forget to reproduce them during the excitement of combat. on the preservation of grenaides.up for a moment.. to be executed I I\u25a0 I f thm l th fnafi I oremarlaa without the fuse. It continues with drills in the throwing of grenades. it is advantageous to establish tracks as shown in figure 2. j. kneeling. should then lie prone. their priming. ures of security to be taken inregard to them. particularly on the composition and action of the fuses.ij ~: £ \u0084»^.

and. first without a protecting . The object of the drillis attained when the grenade lands within 1 meter (about 1 yard) of the indicated target and the fuse explodes at once. 31. In all trench drills. withand without fuses. as they will crowd each other and willnot find sufficient shelter from the grenades thrown at them. Use drill grenades. On the drillground laid out as shown in figure 3.4). for this drill use drill grenades with fuses. The throwing of grenades from one sap head to another is to be practiced like the preceding drill. care must betaken that the grenade is not knocked out of the hand by hitting the wallof the trench. or a cord stretched between two posts of 4 meters (4. 32.87 to 32. over which the grenade should be thrown. Very special importance should be attached to drillsin throwing from one trench to another. then both. few drills. If they are composed of well-drilledmen. By preference. After a Mrefence 4/nfttfA. The two groups of grenadiers practice one after the other. the man throws a grenade at the designated wooden target. In order to obtain a plunging fire. both trenches should be occupied. The men in the trench should not be placed too near together. at the same time. The same drill willafterwards be executed from a sheltered position with loaded grenades.374 yards) in height. establish between the two trenches a fence of about 4 meters (4.374 yards) in height. at the command of the sergeant. In throwing by groups. First occupy only one trench.8 yards) (fig. First. drillthe men one at a time inlanding the grenade in the enemy's trench under time conditions such that the enemy can not pick itup and throw itout of the trench. a man placed in the opposing trench should seek to take shelter from grenades as rapidly as possible. set the grenade and throw it.11 30. distant about 20 to 30 meters (21. Use two trenches with sap heads. The man should identify his target at a glance. the two groups may practice simultaneously.

traverses. . drill them with loaded grenades. When the men have acquired sufficient ease inthrowing. The throwing of grenades from behind trees and stumps. use grenades supplied with a hook. at a definite target. Only those men who have successfully thrown many loaded grenades can be considered as having terminated their instruction. The instructor should arrange the drillso that he can followand conduct it. or should keep at a proper distance. Drill also inthrowing froma shell crater at an enemy placed in another crater. 36. 34. and shell craters). They stay caught to the grating and destroy it. Allaccidents should be absolutely avoided. itis necessary to drilleach man in the throwing of these grenades. requires special training. Spectators should be placed well under shelter. first alone and then in groups. To permit of the use of enemy grenades found in the captured trenches.12 grating and then over the top of a grating. 33. so as not to cause the men to lose confidence in the grenades. The grenadiers should be able to obtain complete shelter. 35. The safety measures adopted should never be of a nature to awaken fear in the men. When the adversary has erected similar gratings. Such of these grenades thus picked up as are not needed for the immediate instruction of the troops should be sent to the rear to be converted into drillgrenades. corresponding as nearly as possible with that sought in actual combat (trenches. these can easily be made by hand out of wire.

The liaison men at 0 pass the grenades toward the front. observes the throwing and indicates the direction and distance of the jT&Z Trenches formed by craters. by means of a rifle or pistol. t CAPTURE OF A BLOCKHOUSE OR OF A MACHINE-GUN POSITION. by holding the embrasures continually under fire. The leader of the group. One attacks the nearest traverse by means of handle grenades. He also protects the group. For the distribution of groups. The two grenadiers placed at Aat first act alone. While one or two crack shots or a machine gun occupy the attention of the enemy machine guns or blockhouse. who are used as carriers. For this drill.works of the type represented by figure 8 should be constructed. Substitutes should immediately occupy the posts whichhave become vacant. the rest of the group makes a . stay in the vicinity of the rear traverse and protect the flanks against a lateral enemy attack by means of two men armed with a rifle or pistol. The rest of the group at D. in order to prevent the enemy bringing up grenades. as. then in winding trenches. 38. throw. Each man in the group should be instructed in the different rdles to be filled. 6. and 7.13 S7. see figures 5. B. and lastly inzigzag trenches or those formed by shell craters. To the regular instruction outlined above are added drillswith a given object. The men are distributed in such a manner that they can avoid enemy grenades fallinginto the trenches. against a counter offensive from the front. the progressive capture of trenches and the fighting against blockhouses and machine guns. the other throws ovoid grenades beyond the first. for instance. The advance in the trenches should first be practiced in rectangular trenches.placed laterally. This drillis also practiced with an adversary. The losses are announced by the umpires.

B. until the enemy is put out of action and they can take the works. c/tevaux defrJse Vcurd wiredbrush wood. attach the grenades to itso as to leave an. The mouths of the grenades should allbe headed in the same direction. They then overwhelm the embrasures and the entrance to the blockhouse withgrenades. A long charge (Gestruckte Ladung) serves to cut a breach through a wire entanglement. They are inno way suitable. 40. and approaches the flank and the rear of the enemy till"within grenade range. DESTRUCTION OF OBSTACLES.pole whose length corresponds with the depth of the wire entanglements. however. model to draw from in conducting the instruction. Two men creep up with the . To transmit the explosion fromone grenade to another. grenades may be used for the destruction of Obstacles. place in each mouth a detonator held in place by means of a littlewooden wedge. interval between them of about 15 centimeters (5. 41. Take a rod or . Vockhouse Zm. especially of shell craters. I Frenches obstructed with %un *»»«*/ co/'/sofm're. for loading a mine chamber. Only the general outline of the attack and the end in view need be uniform.9 inches). taking advantage of all the accidents of terrain.14 rush to the side. They are only intended as a Fis. 42. when there are no other explosives or inflammable materials at hand. Paragraphs 29 and 32 must not be understood as laying down an obligatory mode of instruction. In case of necessity.

which is attached about half way up the obstacle. > directly at or under the obstacle. removes the igniter and throws the charge into the center of the obstacle. 44. 9) A man placed in a sheltered position fires the detonator by means of a string of sufficient length. GRENADE MORTARS (GRANATENWERFER). throw grenades furnished with hooks. Grenade mortars are used principally to attain an objective which can not be reached by hand grenades. They have a range of 300 meters (328 yards). The charge is prepared for lightingby fastening into the last grenade a handle with a detonator (see fig. Obstacles of metal grating and of abatis of branches can also be destroyed by throwing a concentrated charge . If this / type of operation can not be adopted.9. and then exploded by pulling out the igniter. Itis not necessary in this case to attach a detonator to each grenade body (see fig.46 yards).15 long charge and slide itunder the wire entanglements or throw it on the latter. rti. 10). prepare a small. The dispersion in range is 50 . Aconcentrated charge is prepared by attaching six or a larger number of grenade bodies to a grenade. A man creeps to the edge of the wire entanglements to be destroyed. The dispersion in direction varies from 3to 5 meiers (3. . Hepreparesthe charge for lighting(byfastening the handle to a detonator).28 to 5. 45. 43. long charge. To destroy an obstacle in the shape of a metallic grating.

The rapidity of fire is six rounds a RIFLE GRENADE (GEWEHRGRANATE) 49. meters (54. can not effectively fire on the more advanced trenches of the enemy. 46.the points from which the fire comes. They then fire on the rear ofthe enemy and help inrepulsing counter attacks. or by surprise volleys by night or day. see the instructions "Grenade Mortar 16. For the organization of the personnel of the grenade mortar service. 48. is used more to annoy the enemy than to obtain any radical effect. grenade mortars should be. better still. serve to constantly subdue the enemy. if he has already penetrated. or. and to hamper him in his works. During an enemy attack barrage fire executed by grenade mortars may render itdifficult for the enemy to make inroads into our position. on account of the close proximity of the opposing position. on account ofthe small accuracy that characterizes it (wind. lies in the fact that the fireis difficultforthe enemy to locate. for covering dead angles and for strong fire on a large surface. This result is obtained by firinground by round. The riflegrenade. two or three minutes before the start.). It is necessary to make frequent changes of position. For this reason.. Itis wellto combine rifle grenade fire withinfantry fire coming from different points. behind the first line. etc. During our attacks the grenade x mortars have proved excellent in the preparation of the assault. The simultaneous entrance of several rifles into action is recommended to prevent the enemy's defiling. established." which accompanies each grenade mortar.16 minute. uninterruptedly. Their action is particularly effective for flanking fire. so as to hamper the enemy in determining . During an advance the grenade mortars follow the assaulting columns and are rapidly installed in the captured lines or in the neighboring shell craters. : o . to occasion him daily losses. in comparison withthe trench mortar. The chief advantage of the grenade mortar. grenade mortals stationed in or. may oblige him to abandon the position by covering with projectiles the elements of the trench occupied by him.68 yards). particularly when our artillery fire. 47. at a maximum. This is the reason their manufacture has been abandoned. In the defense. in groups of two to six in a flanking position. whenever possible. etc.

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