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Theory is a simplified explanation of complex events or situations with the purpose of being able to explain and predict those events and situations. The overall goal is to understand so that you can change behavior. Theory is important in health promotion because the entire purpose of the profession is to change behavior. To change behavior one must have a working knowledge of what makes people do, or not do, certain behaviors, in certain events, or situations. A working knowledge of those key areas enables a health promotion professional to devise a plan to help create behavior change in the, individual, family, or community, who stands in need of improved health.

2. I chose the health belief model and would like to apply it to smoking. I would like to apply the HBM to the following case study. A 15 year-old Brazilian, male, who has been smoking for 5 years. His first introduction was when he was 10 years old. The Boys father would send his son down to the corner store, from a very young age, to buy the father cigarettes. After a few years of doing this the boy decided to sneak some of the cigarettes and try smoking himself. He has been smoking ever since. Cue to action: Saw a public service announcement on television about smoking and its link to lung cancer. Demographic variables: 15 year-old, Brazilian, Male.

Sociopsychological variables: Low-income social class, legal for his age group to smoke in the country and he has friends who smoke. Smokes because it is cool and makes him feel grown-up, also is addicted. Structural variables: Does not know much about Cancer and other diseases associated to smoking. Has no family or close friends who have smoking related diseases. Perceived susceptibility: Has no real prior education that would teach him the dangers of smoking but always knew deep down inside that smoking cant be good for you. Continued to smoke because he never saw any immediate negative affects. Believes he has a very low susceptibility of getting cancer because he is young and healthy. Perceived seriousness/severity: Because of the public service announcement the young man now believes that if he got cancer it would be very severe and he would most likely die because of it. Perceived threat: The young man thinks that there is no real threat right now but one day there could be a real reason to be concerned. Perceived benefits: Doesnt really feel threatened so does not see any real benefits. Could possibly see how quitting may improve overall health many years down the road. Mother would be happy and supportive with the decision to stop smoking. Perceived barriers: What would his friends think if he quit smoking? Would they make fun and shunned from his social circle? Doesnt think he can stop, feels like he needs to smoke everyday. Father still smokes so would always have access to free cigarettes. Likelihood of taking action: Because of the lack of education and the

possible social implications this young man is less likely to make the decision to quit smoking. When the young man understands that his health is at risk now, not just later and establishes self-efficacy, he will have the courage to stop smoking and wont care what his friends think.

3. The value of using a planning model to develop a health promotion program is great because they provide frames on which to build plans. (pg.122) Each planning model has a different emphasis, sequence, or method that might appeal to different practitioners in a myriad of settings. The five components that seem, to be the most common to planning models are: 1. Assessing the needs of the priority population 2. Developing appropriate goal and objectives 3. Creating an intervention that considers the peculiarities of the setting 4. Implementing the intervention 5. Evaluating the results