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- The Soil Profile: Cross-sectional soil layers from the surface of the soil down to the bedrock.

- B Horizon: Layer commonly known as the subsoil. Plant roots penetrate this area, but there is much less hummus and more inorganic content that the A Horizon. - C Horizon: This layer is made predominately of the parent material for the soil. The layer in a soil profile below the B horizon and immediately above the bedrock, consisting chiefly of weathered, partially decomposed rock. - O Horizon: The surface layer of partially and completely undecomposed plant residue such a leaf litter. - A Horizon: This layer contains a high amount of decomposing organic material known as hummus, and most of the living organisms that dwell in the soil. *A Horizon: The upper most layer of the soil commonly known as topsoil. - In ABC soil, the lowermost zone, consisting mainly of unconsolidated, weathered rock fragments. - Living organisms in the topsoil, physical structure of the soil, and decaying materials make good quality soil