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FRANCE AFTER WWI: Although a victor (regaining territory along France/German border lost during Franco-Prussian War), utterly

devastated by the trench warfare fought against the Germans on French lands. Suffered a high loss of life, destroyed industrial region and economic devastation. France did gain additional territories though. In addition to lands along the Rhine (from Germany), also gained part of Germanys African territories, and multiple territories in former Ottoman Empire (Middle East). GERMANY AFTER WWI: Severely weakened due to loss in WWI. Loses its overseas territories. No longer a serious challenger to the UK and USA as leading world powers. Loses territory to France. But the loss is not utterly devastating. Still had most military and industrial capacity in place, just unable to reach potential in these areas due to peace treaty signed to end war. Germanys economy and morale would decline, giving rise to Nazi party, which would crank up war machine again, becoming dominant once more in the 1930s, precipitating WWII. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AFTER WWI: Austria would be forced to cede large parts of empire, including Hungary and Balkan territories (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia), minimizing it to a fraction of its size going back centuries, trimmed down to primarily cover areas dominated by Austrian-German populations. Upon the loss of Austria-Hungary in WWI, it was forced to divide into natural states according to ethnic groups. Therefore, Hungary became independent at conclusion of war, but lost possession of significant Hungarian population inside Transylvania, which was awarded to Romania by the Allies. BRITAIN AFTER WWI: Victorious, gains even more territory (especially in Middle East), but weakened due to high loss of life and financial damage. Experiences increasing difficulty in controlling its overseas empire. While distracted with WWI, Ireland begins Independence movement, leading to Irish Independence in 1921. RUSSIA As communists secure their hold on power within Russia, they attempt to reassert authority over pre-war territories lost to the Central Powers. Soviet Russia is unable to prevent the independence of several former dependent states, such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland. It does manage to reassert control over Belarus and Ukraine. OTTOMAN EMPIRE AFTER WWI: The Ottoman Empire is forced to accept an Allied occupation of Anatolia (modern Turkey - the heart of the Ottoman Empire). France and the UK annex Palestinian and

Mesopotamian territories. This capitulation by Sultan causes a revolutionary movement in Turkey to drive out Allies and to drive the Greeks out of western Asia Minor, establishing modern Republic of Turkey. However, it was drastically reduced compared to the days as the Ottoman Empire.