CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

Term Project (Phase – I,II,III,IV)

“EFFECT OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ON THE PURCHASE OF REFRIGERATORS”

Submitted by Group 1 Bharat Singh Chauhan (08XPGDM16) Chinmaya Nagaraj (08XPGDM17) Gaurav Upadhyaya(08XPGDM22) Susheel Kumar Singh (08XPGDM51) Vijay Jaret(08XPGDM54)

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Executive PGDM – 2008-2009
Table of Content Phase – I 1. Introduction 2. 1 A 4

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are sincerely grateful to Dr. Neena Sondhi, IMI Delhi, under whose able guidance this study is being undertaken. We would also like to thank Mr.& Mrs. Mohit Aggrawal, Mr.& Mrs. Srinidhi, Mr.& Mrs. Jignesh Patel, Mr.& Mrs. Vikas Saxena, Mr.& Mrs. Randheer Singh Ahluwalia who have all been very prompt in replying to all our queries and have been supportive to us in completing the Phase-I of this study.

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

INTRODUCTION
Company’s ability to maintain satisfying customer relationships requires an understanding of consumer buying behaviour. This refers to the buying behaviour of consumers who purchase products or services for their personal or household use. Consumers have limited time, energy and financial resources. Within the available resources, they make purchase and consumption choices as they wish. Consumers purchasing decisions take place over a period of time. The overall goal during this decision process is to evaluate various alternatives and choose the product that satisfies the consumer in an optimal way. Consumers get influenced by several major factors while they make their decisions. These factors can be grouped as: • • • • social, cultural, psychological personal factors etc.

The consumer’s degree of interest in a product and the importance he/she places on this product determines the consumer’s level of involvement. High-involvement products are usually expensive and are visible to other people such as a Diamond ring/jewellery or a Expensive car. Low-involvement products are less expensive and have less social risk associated with them such as a cup of coffee or daily consumption items. When buying frequently purchased, low-cost mundane items that require very little search and decision effort, they demonstrate routinized response behaviour. When buying products occasionally or when they need to get information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category, they use limited problem solving. When they buy unfamiliar, expensive products, they use extended problem solving.

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Phase – I Findings
Objective : The purpose of this study is to understand key external variables influencing the buying behavior of a particular segment of customers towards the product category of Refrigerator. Consumers get influenced by several major factors while they make their decisions. These factors can be grouped as demographic, social, cultural factors etc. Consumers try to purchase and maintain a variety of products that satisfy their current and future needs.

Segment/Sample profile Chosen : The consumer segment chosen for this study is Males
in the age group of 30 to 40 years, working professional and married.

External Factors
The External factors that influence the purchase decision of consumer in the age group of 30 to 40 for a Refrigerator. 1.) Demographic Details 2.) Media Habits 3.) Indian Culture 4.) Ethnic Subculture 5.) Occupational Subculture 6.) Family 7.) Social Class 8.) Reference Groups 9.) Celebrity and Opinion leader

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

External factors and their influence on Refrigerator purchase
1.) Demographic Details: • • Prefer Style as it fit to home décor Maximum budget allocated for a refrigerator purchase is Rs. 15000.

2.) Media Habits •

Use media to gather information (i.e. thru advertisements) Prefer internet to compare features so more & more information should be available on internet.

3.) Indian culture
• •

Bright colors preferred but no one wants Black Color. People prefer to buy on auspicious occasions and festival like Diwali & Navratri.

4.) Ethnic subculture • • Aggrawal: prefer low cost for same utility. Saxena : Prefer more features.

All consumers want value for money and after sales services is important for all. Vegetarians look for more vegetable box space where as non-vegetarians look for spacious deep freezers . 5.) Occupational subculture • • Working Professional : Needs medium capacity range refrigerator. Monthly income doesn’t play significant role in deciding the capacity of refrigerator. 6.) Family • Spouse is the major influencer (Advice of other family members like mother and family friends also plays an important role).

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators 7.) Social Class • All social class – value for money & many even consider it as style as it fit to home décor.

8.) Reference Group • • Influenced by sites and brand ambassadors. Neighbors also play a role of reference group

9.) Celebrity and opinion leader. • • Purchase is influenced by Salesmen in showrooms Celebrities was an important opinion leader and play role as influencers.

Marketing Implications 4 P approach
1.)

Product
Aesthetics (looks, color) are major considerations while purchasing Refrigerators so wide range of color should be available to fulfill the demand of maximum customers. After Sales Service is the main attributes being looked while purchasing the product. More feature and maximum shelf space inside also looked while purchasing the product so more shelves to be provided in door side of the refrigerator so that more bottles can be kept inside it.

• •

2.)Price
• • • All customers look for Value For Money. Mostly people are price conscious while purchasing the product. Low price also acts as a social barrier as people consider low price refrigerator as a low quality product. Price is not the major constraint if we are providing additional feature needed by the customers. Group 1 7

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

3.) Place
• Location of showrooms is not the most sought after criteria in the purchase decision because refrigerator is a high-involvement product and customers are ready to travel for purchasing refrigerators. But show room should be at such a place where other competitors are also available because people always want to make comparison. Since India is very rich in its customs and traditions, a number of festivals are celebrated throughout the year. People prefer to do major purchases during festival and special occasions so marketer should take this as an opportunity and provide maximum range of the products.

4.)

Promotion
Focusing on the promotion element of the four Ps, good communication is the key to effective marketing. Potential customers go through a purchase cycle: pretransactional (ie before a purchase), transactional (ie at the time of purchase) and post-transactional (ie after the purchase has been made). The AIDA model encapsulates this sequence and can assist in the planning of any communications campaign: A – awareness/attention - making the consumer aware of the product and getting their attention I – interest – generating interest in the product/service on offer D – desire – creating a desire for your product /service – on two levels: first, related to the target’s needs/wants; and, second, relative to your competitors A – action – stimulating the target to purchase the product/service


Advertisements should be focused on homemakers because they are the primary influencers, mostly joint decision is taken whereas the financers husbands. Extended after Sales Service can be used as pull strategy of promotion to attract the customers as all customers consider it as main attribute while purchasing the product. Internet is other sources of gathering information about refrigerators and hence the product should be heavily promoted there.

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Advertisements should also highlight the style and aesthetic appearance of the product to position it as home décor. Salesmen should be properly trained to educate the customers as they are the major opinion leaders in this segment of the market.

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INTERVIEWS
INERVIEW 1:
Respondent : Mohit Aggrawal Demographic Details: • Age: 31 • • •
• •

Gender: Male Qualification: B.Tech, DY.Mgr. Reliance Energy Income : 5-7 Lac p.a. Religion: Hindu Native Residence: Pilibhit U.P., Currently Living in Gzd.

Media Habits: • Newspaper: Regular
• •

Television: Frequently, News and Entertainment Internet: Regularly used to checking mails, social networking sites, educational and informational sites

Attributes of the Culture: Indian • Patriotic • • • • Believer of mythology Respect for elders Committed to friendship and relations High involvement with family

Attributes of the Subculture Aggrawal • Value for money •
• •

Food-lover Celebrates festival like Holi, Navratri, Diwali.
Follows Hindu rituals

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators
Working Executive


• • •

Strict schedule Monthly/bi monthly Watching movies in theaters Dining out in food joints with family & friends Weekly personal Shopping (Preferably sales)

North Indian • Different food preferences like Dal-Rice, Rajma.

Mostly prefers homemade food Celebrates main festivals as Holi and Diwali

Family Structure Spouse, Daughter, Mother, Younger Brother (unmarried – pursuing graduation in Bareilly) and himself • Initiator: Spouse and mother.
• • • • •

Information gatherer: Self Influencer: Spouse, mother and friends Decision maker: Joint decision (self and wife) Purchaser: Self User: Multiple users

Group
1. Work Group, Family Group


• •

Group plays an influential role in purchase Watching movies Monthly/bi monthly Dining out on weekends Prefer Shopping through sales

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Product: Refrigerator 275 Liters (Videocon) Influence of demographics on purchase of the product Looks for, 1.) Price (Discount offer thru promotion schemes) 2.) Brand and Quality 3.) More shelves in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinks 4.) After Sales Service 5.) Look for Moon Silver Color 6.) Maximum space for Vegetables and Dairy Products Media Influence: Uses media to gather information about the product Prefers Internet to gather information Indian Culture Influence Preference to purchase on Diwali Subculture Influences 1. Hindu/Aggrawal • • Also look for low cost, but without sacrificing in the utility. Deep freezer was not important as all members in family are vegetarian

2. Professional • • Value for money Style plays an important role as it fits in décor of the house

3. Northern India influence on his purchase • More shelf space in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinks

Influence from family Spouse and Mother gets involved in the purchase and acts like an influencer. • Decision maker is he and his wife.

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Brand preference: Videocon Brand Ambassador: Shah Rukh Khan (Actor) and MS Dhoni (Cricketer)

INERVIEW 2:
Respondent : Srinidhi Demographic Details: • •

Age: 31 Gender: Male Qualification: BE, PGDCM Income : 4.5 - 6 Lac p.a. Religion: Hindu Native Residence: Bangalore.

• •

Media Habits: • • • Newspaper: Regular Television: News and Entertainment Internet: Regularly used for checking mails and information search on Google

Attributes of the Culture: Indian • • • • Theist Respect for elders Committed to friendship and relations High involvement with family

Attributes of the Subculture

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Hindu / Brahmin • • • • Value for money Foody and pure vegetarian Celebrates festival like Diwali, Sankranti etc Strict follower of Brahminical rituals and practices

Professional • • • Good disposable income Watching latest movies Ardent Traveler

South Indian • • • Avid curd user User of fresh food with lots of green vegetables Frequent religious ceremonies and get together at home

Family Structure Himself and his Wife
• • • • • •

Initiator: Wife. Information gatherer: Himself Influencer: Wife and Cousin Decision maker: Himself and his Wife Purchaser: Himself User: Wife

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Family Group
• •

Family Group is major influencer for purchase Traveling with family on weekend

Product: Refrigerator Influence of demographics on purchase of the product Looks for, 1.) Maximum space for Vegetables and Dairy Products 2.) Limited Deep freezer capacity mainly for Ice Creams 3.) Double Door 4.) Frost-free, 250 Ltr capacity 5.) Bright color, no black Media Influence: Uses media to gather information about the product Prefers Internet to gather information Indian Culture Influence Preference for a bright color, No Black color Subculture Influences 1. Hindu/Brahmin and South Indian • • Limited deep freezer space desired due to pure vegetarianism Auspicious buying periods dictated by Brahminical norms

2. Professional • • Value for Money Fits into the décor of the house

Brand preference: Videocon Executive PGDM Group 1 15

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Brand Ambassadors: Sharaukh Khan and MS Dhoni

INTERVIEW 3:
Respondent : Jignesh Patel Demographic Details: • •

Age: 33 Gender: Male Qualification: BE, Chemical Income : 5-7 Lac p.a. Religion: Hindu Native Residence: Vapi, Gujarat

• •

Media Habits: • Newspaper: Regular •

Television: Less frequently, only for News and Entertainment Internet: Regularly used for checking mails, social networking sites, and other informational sites

Attributes of the Culture: Indian • Patriotic • • • • Believer of mythology Respect for elders Committed to friendship and relations High involvement with family

Attributes of the Subculture Gujarati • Value for money

Celebrates festival like Navratri Group 1 16

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators •

Prefer to do major purchases in Navratri. Follows Gujarati rituals for marriage etc Window Shopping

Westren Indian • Different food preferences like Dal Dokhli, Gujarati kadi,Khaman etc. •

Mostly prefer homemade food Celebrates main festivals as Holi, Navratri (Dandia Nights) and Diwali

Social Standing • Belongs to Upper Middle class • Works In an MNC Company

Family Structure Parents, Wife, Kid and himself
• • • • • •

Initiator: Wife and himself. Information gatherer: Self (Print media, advertisement & visiting dealers) Influencer: Wife and friends Decision maker: Himself Purchaser: Himself User: Multiple users

Group Work Group, Family Group •

Group plays an influential role in purchase Watching movies on weekends Prefer Shopping through sales

Product: Refrigerator Influence of demographics on purchase of the product Executive PGDM Group 1 17

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Looks for, 1.) Brand 2.) Features 3.) Style 4.) After sales service Media Influence: Uses media to gather information about the product Refers Television and print media advertisement

Indian Culture Influence Prefer to buy on Navratri or Diwali. Subculture Influences 1. Gujarati • Looks for Quality and Value for money.

2. Working Professional • Aesthetic and product features plays an important role

3. Social Status • The purchase of the Refrigerator must depict the social status of the family.

Influence from family Wife gets involved in the purchase and acts like an influencer. • Decision maker is he, himself

Brand preference: Smasung Brand Ambassador : Aamir Khan

INTERVIEW 4:
Respondent : Vivek Saxena Executive PGDM Group 1 18

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Demographic Details: • •

Age: 34 Gender: Male Qualification: B.Tech, Software Professional Income : 5-7 Lac p.a. Religion: Hindu Native Residence: Lucknow U.P.

• •

Media Habits: • Newspaper: Regular •

Television: Frequently, News and Entertainment Internet: Regularly used for checking mails, social networking sites, for official purpose.

Attributes of the Culture: Indian • Believer of mythology • • • Respect for elders Committed to friendship and relations High involvement with family

Attributes of the Subculture Saxena • • • • Value for money Enjoy Cock Tail parties Celebrates festival like Holi, Navratri, Diwali. Follows Hindu rituals

Working Executive • • Strict schedule Aesthetics

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Watching Latest movies in theaters Dining out in food joints with family

North Indian • Different food preferences like Rajma, Chole-Bhature, Chiken - Kabab. • • Mostly prefer homemade food Celebrates main festivals as Holi and Diwali

Family Structure Spouse and himself
• • • • • •

Initiator: Spouse Information gatherer: Self and spouse Influencer: Spouse and friends Decision maker: Joint decision (self and wife) Purchaser: Self User: Both (Self and spouse)

Group Family Group, Masti Group • • • • Group plays an influential role in purchase Watching movies in the first week of release Dining out on weekends Prefer Shopping through sales

Product: Refrigerator 310 Liters (LG) Influence of demographics on purchase of the product Looks for, 1.) Brand and Quality Group 1 20

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators 2.) More Space (Deep Freezer) 3.) Price 4.) Good After Sales Service

Media Influence: Uses media to gather information about the product Prefers Internet to gather information Indian Culture Influence Prefer to do major purchases on auspicious occasions Subculture Influences 1. Hindu/Saxena • • Also look for Aesthetics , but without sacrificing in the utility. Deep freezer was preferred for non-vegetarian eatable

2. Professional • • Value for money Style plays an important role as it fits in décor of the house

3. Northern India influence on his purchase • More shelf space in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinks Its too hot in summers and there is power cutout is major problem . Influence from family Spouse gets involved in the purchase and acts like an influencer. • Decision maker is he and his wife.

Brand preference: LG Brand Ambassador : Abhishek Bacchan Executive PGDM Group 1 21

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

INTERVIEW 5:
Respondent : Randheer Singh Ahluwalia Demographic Details: • Age: 38 •
• • • •

Gender: Male Qualification: B.A, Income : 3-5 Lac p.a. Religion: Sikh Native Residence: Jullander,Punjab.(Presently residing in Delhi)

Media Habits: • Newspaper: Regular (Nav Bharat Times)
• •

Television: Sometimes, ETV(Punjabi) and Entertainment Internet: Never used.

Attributes of the Culture: Indian • Devout Sikh • • • Respect for elders Committed to friendship and relations High involvement with family

Attributes of the Subculture Sikh/Khatri • Wants the best product available in the market •
• •

Always wants something flashy Celebrates festival like Baisakhi, Lohiri, Guruperb. Follows Sikh norms

Working Professional • Love Folk songs Group 1 22

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • • • Occasionally throw parties for friends at home. Went to native place in summers Have a like for latest electronic gadgets.

North Indian • Likes the north Indian food “PARATHA” and “MAKKE KI ROTI AUR SARSO KA SAAG” • • • He also likes the non veg food like chicken biryani and chicken tandoori. Mostly prefer homemade food Also enjoy another religions festival like HOLI ,DIWALI, and CHRISTMAS

Social Standing • Belongs to Upper Middle class • Family business of General Store (Munirka).

Family Structure Wife ,Mother, Two children
• • • • • •

Initiator: Spouse Information gatherer: Self Influencer : Mother, Spouse & friends Decision maker: Himself Purchaser: Himself User: Multiple users.

Group Family Group, Masti Group

Both Group plays an influential role in purchase Party with friends SALES doesn’t have much impact to plan for shopping

• •

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Product: Refrigerator 310 Liters (Whirlpool) Influence of demographics on purchase of the product Looks for, 1.) Deep freezer and spacious 2.) Price (Ranging b/w 12~15K) 3.) Brand and Quality 4.) After Sales Service

Media Influence: Advertisements on TV.(influenced by Ajay Devgan & Kajol) Subculture Influences 1. Sikh/Khatri • • Prefer for bright colors. Deep freezer was required for non-vegetarian & dairy eatable

2. Professional • Value for money

3. Northern India influence on his purchase • More shelf space in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinks

Influence from family Spouse gets involved in the purchase and acts like an influencer. • Decision maker - himself.

Brand preference: Whirlpool Brand Ambassador: Ajay Devgan and Kajol

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

PHASE - II

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

INTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF REFRIGERATORS
The consumer segment chosen for this study is Males in the age group of 30 to 40 years, working professional and married. The internal factors that influence the purchase decision of these consumers for a Refrigerator: 1. Need for the Refrigerator (whether need is physiological or esteem) 2. Personality of the buyer: whether he is extrovert or introvert, open to experiment, etc. 3. Level of Involvement of the buyer with the Refrigerator. 4. Motivation towards the Refrigerator whether it is latent or manifest. 5. Emotions towards the Refrigerator: which dimension will it satisfy amongst the pleasure, dominance and arousal? 6. Brand personality as perceived by the buyer and how he relates it to his own personality. 7. Attitude of the buyer towards the Refrigerator or the brand. 8. Self-concept of the buyer: his thoughts and feelings towards the refrigerators/brands having reference to himself as an object. 9. Loyalty towards a particular brand of Refrigerator. 10. Positioning of a particular brand in the mind of the buyer. Executive PGDM Group 1 26

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

MARKETING IMPLICATIONS BASED ON INTERNAL INFLUENCES ON PRODUCT PURCHASE

1. Need for the refrigerator • The need for refrigerator is mostly just a physiological need and a refrigerator is a

utilitarian product for all the consumers. • In cases where a high end refrigerator is bought it is also to satisfy the esteem

need of the consumer. By buying a high end product at a premium price the consumer would like to impress his friends or relatives after being seen using a stylish and high technology product.

Marketing Implications: In the case of high quality product the marketer should try to promote its products in a way such that the consumer feels that owning the product will enhance his esteem. In case of a utilitarian product the marketer should promote its product as a product which fulfills physiological needs of the product.

2. Personality of the buyer

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Personality of the buyer influences his purchase behaviour. An extrovert person

will buy a stylish product and a person who is not afraid of taking risks is more likely to buy an innovative product. Marketing Implications: Marketer should try to have a product which appeals to all its customers irrespective of the personality of the customer i.e. it should have such attributes which appeals to the masses.

3. Level of involvement with the purchase • Refrigerator is a high involvement product for all the respondents and the buyer

generally consults with others and compares the features of different brands before deciding to buy. Marketing Implications: As refrigerator is a high involvement product for which the customer searches and evaluates it the marketer should make sure that his brand is in the evoked set of the customer and try to influence the evaluation criteria of the consumer so that his brand has a top of the mind recall while buying refrigerator.

4. Motive of buying refrigerator • Both the manifest & the latent motives play important part in the purchase

behavior of the refrigerators. Marketing Implications: Marketer should promote and position its products in such a way that the consumer believes that buying his brand will fulfill all his motives of owning the product.

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators 5. Emotions towards purchase of refrigerator
• Refrigerator is a utilitarian product which is used in homes so the consumer has a positive emotion towards it.

Marketing Implications:
Marketers should make sure that purchase of refrigerator is accompanied with positive emotion arousal for the refrigerator as well as for the brand.

6. Brand-personality of the refrigerator as perceived by the buyer • Every brand is perceived differently by a consumer while buying the product consumer buys a product which is in sink with his personality. So the perception of a consumer towards brand also influences his purchase behaviour. Marketing Implications: Marketer should make sure that his brand is seen as a successful and vibrant brand by the consumer . It should also be seen that all the promises made to the consumer is met so that it is seen as a trustworthy brand by the consumers only then will the consumers buy the brand. 7. Attitude of the buyer towards the Refrigerators • • • Double door Refrigerators are considered more useful than single door refrigerators. Frost Free refrigerators are considered hassle free. High priced goods have better quality • If a buyer has got positive emotional reaction towards a particular brand, he will

always prefer this brand and it is very difficult for the competitors to attract him towards their products. Marketing Implications: Marketer should build the positive image in the minds of the consumer and should work hard to maintain that image.This positive image will then result in a positive attitude towards the brand.

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Comparative advertising can be used here by the marketer to generate attention, message and brand awareness in the minds of the customer. 8. Self-concept of the buyer • The consumer buys a product which helps him to achieve his ideal private self

and ideal social self concept. Marketing Implications: The marketer should market its products in such a way that the consumer is able to identify with the product and thinks that buying the product will help in achieving ideal self.

9. Lifestyle of the buyer • A buyer with lavish lifestyle will prefer expensive refrigerators with new features

and will be ready as a innovator to try new models with latest trends and technology. • A buyer leading a simple lifestyle will opt for economic refrigerators and will be

much more price-sensitive. Marketing Implications: The marketer should try to create a product mix which caters to different segment of consumers based on different lifestyles of the consumer. There should be such a product mix that there is at least one product for each type of consumer. 10. Brand-loyalty • Consumers who are brand loyal will always prefer the products of their brand due to the trust & faith that their brand is best in the business. • Brand-loyal buyers are repeat purchasers and acts as opinion leaders for the

brand. Executive PGDM Group 1 30

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Marketing Implications: The marketer should try to inculcate the feeling of loyalty in the mind of the consumer because when a consumer is loyal towards a brand • • He will buy only the products of that brand. Act as an advocate for the brand

The company can do so by customer delight i.e. exceeding the expectations of the consumer. It is not so easy for a company to do so but a company who manages to do so will surely be highly successful in the market and emerge as market leader.

11. Positioning of a particular brand in the minds of the buyer •

Videocon is considered as economical brand.
Samsung is a market leader in electronics and electrical products and hence worth

buying. • LG is positioned having very wide network of service center all over the country so can

provide better after sales service then others.

Marketing Implications: The marketer should position the product according to the target Market for the brand and also according to the segment of society it wants to cater to. Eg. If the brand wants to be seen as a premium product it should position itself as a product with high quality and technologically advanced product.

MARKETING MIX STRATEGY 4 Ps approach
1) Product • Refrigerator’s fulfill the physiological need of the consumer and considered as utilitarian product. Company should insure that whatever product they market it should be durable enough which last quite many years and give trouble free service to Executive PGDM Group 1 31

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators their customers. Customer expects good after sales service and prompt response to his complaints in case of any problem with the product. Extended warranty can be used as an attribute attached with the product. 2) Price • For high quality refrigerators the company can charge a premium price as consumers. For this target segment, focus should be more on the features, technology & the style quotient of the refrigerators. • For middle class a consumer who is wants value for money product marketer should emphasize on attributes of the product by which consumer is aware of the value of his investment. 3) Place • Customer prefers to visit authorized dealers of the particular brand and has a attitude to visit big dealers or supermarket to buy the product. Customer also have tendency of comparing various attributes of different brands before buying the product. So Shoppe should be in such a location where competitor brands also exist. Hence clustering of showrooms is something which has to be kept in mind while deciding on the showroom location. • Consumers also prefer showrooms where they have experienced some pleasant experience, so it’s also important to appoint friendly staff in the showrooms with knowledge of the product so that customers visiting showroom can get sufficient information regarding features and other attributes of the product.

4) Promotion

Emotion in advertising: Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase the brand preference of refrigerators due to classical conditioning.

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Print ad should contain information of features and attributes that consumer wants, it can be useful when customer is thinking rationally before buying the product. It may also show strength of attributes with compared to other competitors in the market. Where as electronic ad should look to create positive emotion for the product through classical conditioning. •

Change the cognitive component-Change beliefs: Exposure: The companies need to do more of exhibitions as trade fair etc. in order to expose the consumers towards the new launches.

Emotional appeals: Companies like Videocon which have strong emotional connect with the Indian consumers should also concentrate on emotional appeals in order to exploit the manifest motives of the consumers.

Emotion arousal as a product benefit: Refrigerators can be positioned as emotionarousing products by the companies like “don’t let smells mix”, “one call does the all” or “Wow factor” of the refrigerators can be used by the marketers to promote their refrigerators

Comparative ads: Companies which have got superior models this will help in generating attention, changing brand attitudes & increased purchase intentions.

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

INTERVIEWS
INTERVIEW #1
Respondent name: Mohit Aggrawal Personality
• • • • • Likes to mingle with others Down to earth & humble Friendly Polite & sympathetic towards others Less open to experience

PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF REFRIGERATOR:
Model/Capacity: 275 Liters (Videocon- Refrigerator) Need: • Wanted a new refrigerator for family use • Wanted to replace old refrigerator as old refrigerator didn’t provide sufficient cooling (more than 10yrs old -Kelvinator)

Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Respondent’s need for refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for daily use of his family.

Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • • A Videocon refrigerator was more economical and value for money It’s a decent simple and will fulfill the necessity of my house hold

ii) Latent motives • Didn’t want to spend too much on buying of refrigerator • • Now I can boast of being a proud-owner of latest technology refrigerator i.e. Frost Free.

Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigerator Respondent is a family oriented guy who believes that refrigerator would help him in fulfilling his family’s need to keep perishable eatables safe and fresh. Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • Double door refrigerators perform better as they have separate compartments, ice formation is faster as freezer compartment is not opened frequently. • Moon silver color has less effect of dust on it.

ii) Affective component • • Respondent feels that 275 liter refrigerator will be more convenient for his family. Feel good factor that respondent has purchased latest technology refrigerator.

iii) Behavioral component • Respondent was getting good deal of discount after bargain on Videocon refrigerator from the dealer

Self-concept

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Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators i) Actual private • Respondent feels that sometimes he goes overboard while shopping.

ii) Ideal private • Respondent would like to be more rational while purchasing.

iii) Actual Social • Respondent is seen in the society as a person who indulges in showoff of wealth a lot.

iv) Ideal Social • He likes to be seen as someone who knows the value of money.

Brand personality of Videocon as perceived by the respondent • •

Videocon is a well established Indian brand. It is economical than other brands. It has got competence. It is reliable & durable. It is a typical middle class brand and is not a sophisticated one.

Respondent’s attitude towards Videocon • • • Videocon is a well established Indian brand so has a soft corner towards it. Videocon provides value for money products. Videocon understands the Indian conditions as it is an Indian brand.

Positioning of Videocon in the mind of the respondent • •

Videocon is an economical brand for middle segment people. Its products are reliable and require less maintenance Videocon refrigerator provides anti bacterial liner by completely preventing the entry of
germs so it keeps protection and freshness of the food stored in it. (Respondent had read about it from some article some where).

Executive PGDM

Group 1 36

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

INTERVIEW #2
Respondent name: Srinidhi Personality
• • • • Extrovert Moody Polite & sympathetic towards others Less open to experience

PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF Refrigerator:
Model: Videocon Double Door Frost-Free 250 Ltr Refrigerator Need: • • Wanted the Refrigerator for family use (to be used by himself & his wife) Consumption of fresh green vegetables everyday

Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • Respondent’s need for Refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for storing the required consumables for daily use • This also manifested as an esteem need in terms of the size and design of the refrigerator as most of his friends and colleagues at his level had a double door refrigerator and he had to buy a product which was atleast as good as theirs.

Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • A 250 ltr double door refrigerator is a product made for families Group 1 37

Executive PGDM

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

A number of my friends and colleagues have preference for the same design.

ii) Latent motives • He believes that the Videocon Refrigerator is a product that will demonstrate his logical decision making ability and rationality • It will also put him in the same group as his friends and colleagues are.

Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigerator • Respondent is a traditional person who believes that a Refrigerator is one of the basic necessities in family to keep the some of the daily use consumables fresh. Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • • Frost-free Refrigerators are easy to use and hassle free Double door design is the best design for medium to large size refrigerators

ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that Videocon refrigerators are best in business and thus has a positive emotions towards them iii) Behavioral component • If Videocon comes up with an exchange offer for the old refrigerators, respondent would be happy to exchange his old refrigerator with a new Videocon one.

Self-concept i) Actual Private
• Respondent feels that he is abreast with the latest technology.

ii) Ideal Private

Respondent would like to be in touch with technological advances.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 38

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators iii) Actual Social • Respondent thinks that he does not use high tech products.

iv) Ideal Social • Respondent would like to be seen as someone who is aware of latest high technology available products.

LOYALTY TOWARDS A BRAND: Videocon
Respondent is loyal towards the Videocon and would anytime prefer the products of this company only. In the future also, if he wants to buy another refrigerator he will go for Videocon brand only.

Brand personality of Videocon as perceived by the respondent • • • It has got competence. It is reliable & successful It is highly utilitarian and value for money brand Provides high technology products at a reasonable price.

Respondent’s attitude towards Videocon • • • Videocon has a strong market share in Refrigerator category hence worth buying Videocon always provides good quality products and excellent after sales service Videocon Refrigerators always perform on par with the Refrigerators from some of the other top companies • Since Videocon is recognized as a very good brand and everyone appreciates its products, it is definitely better

Executive PGDM

Group 1 39

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Positioning of Videocon in the mind of the respondent • • • Videocon is an economical brand and provides highly utilitarian refrigerators Its products require less maintenance Videocon Refrigerators last long

INTERVIEW # 3
Respondent name: Jignesh Patel Personality
• • • Down to earth & humble. Polite & sympathetic towards others. Less open to experimentation.

PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF REFRIGERATOR:
Model: Refrigerator Need: • • Wanted a refrigerator as old refrigerator was not working properly. His old refrigerator was not cooling properly.

Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • Respondent’s need for refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for daily usage to keep daily food fresh.

Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives

Executive PGDM

Group 1 40

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • He wanted a large size refrigerator as he recently got married and also his parents are now living with him. ii) Latent motives • He is also looking for stylish and large refrigerator as his relatives and friend are having the 250 liters refrigerator.

Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigerator • Respondent is a pleasure-seeking guy who believes that Samsung refrigerator helps him in needs of his family without much hassle of after sales service along with the style statement

Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • • Samsung provides quality and stylish products. They are having a very good after sales service.

ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that Samsung products are good looking and thus has a positive emotions towards it. iii) Behavioral component • Respondent enquires about after sales service while buying the product.

Self-concept i) Actual Private • Respondent feels that he is humble & down-to-earth guy

ii) Ideal Private Executive PGDM Group 1 41

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Respondent would like to be more sincere.

iii) Actual Social • Seen using value for money products.

iv) Ideal Social • Wants to go for stylish products.

LOYALTY TOWARDS A BRAND:
Respondent is loyal towards the Samsung and would anytime prefer the refrigerator of this company only. In the future also, if the company comes out with any exchange offer, he would like to exchange his old refrigerator with a new refrigerator of same brand only. Brand personality of Samsung as perceived by the respondent • • • Samsung is stylish, innovative and quality oriented brand. It is reliable & successful It is a rugged and tough brand

Respondent’s attitude towards Samsung • Samsung is a market leader in electronics and electrical products and hence worth buying. • Samsung always provides good quality products with latest features.

Positioning of Samsung in the mind of the respondent • • Samsung is a stylish brand and it provides quality products at reasonable Price. Its products are reliable and require less maintenance

INTERVIEW # 4
Executive PGDM Group 1 42

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Respondent name: Vivek Saxena Personality 1 2 3 4 Extrovert and flashy Stable with less mood swings Polite & sympathetic towards others Likes to experience new things

PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF REFRIGERATOR:
Model: LG Need: • He bought the refrigerator just before marriage because of the need of refrigerator in the house after marriage • He Bought LG because of the brand image and its image in the market as a high quality product.

Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • Respondent’s need for the refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for daily household needs. • His need was that of a esteem need too as he bought LG brand because of the brand image and being perceived by his relatives and friends as a high quality product and he wanted others to perceive him as a user of high quality goods. Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • • He does not own a refrigerator so he wants to buy one. Need of a two door model as use of ice in summers is quite high.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 43

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators ii) Latent motives • Wanted to impress his relatives and friends by purchasing a product which is a market leader in its class. • Went for a large size as he wanted him and others to see him as someone who looks forward for the future needs too. Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigerator Respondent is a pleasure-seeking guy who believes that usage of high price goods is good because he perceives high priced goods as a mark of high quality. Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • • High priced goods have better quality As LG is a market leader it must be a high quality product.

ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that LG refrigerators are best in quality and thus has a positive emotional reaction towards them • Wants to impress others by purchasing a large size refrigerator of a market leader brand.

iii) Behavioral component • • While purchasing the product he enquired about package deal on the product He also bargained for the price and got discount on the product.

Self-concept i) Actual Private Respondent feels that he is a sincere and humble guy

Executive PGDM

Group 1 44

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators ii) Ideal Private Respondent would like to be more participative in daily household chores and would like to help his wife in household chores which he is not able to do due to lack of time. iii) Actual Social Respondent thinks that he is a level headed guy with control on his emotions. iv)Ideal Social He would like to be seen in the society as a successful guy who has achieved his success due to his own hard work.

LOYALTY TOWARDS A BRAND: LG
Respondent is loyal towards the brand LG and has bought Television and refrigerator of this brand only. Brand of LG as perceived by the respondent • • • It is a foreign brand but understands the Indian market. Offers good after sales service. Technologically advanced product being offered by LG

Respondent’s attitude towards LG • • • It is costly but value for money in the long run. LG offers high quality products. Since word of mouth of LG is very good and everyone appreciates its products, it is definitely better Positioning of LG in the mind of the respondent • Its products are reliable and require less maintenance

Executive PGDM

Group 1 45

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • LG has a very wide network of service center all over the country so can provide better after sales service then others. • • High quality products being offered Market leader in refrigerators.

INTERVIEW # 5
Respondent name: Randheer Singh Ahluwalia Personality
• • • • Extrovert, friendly in nature Moody & spendthrift Polite & sympathetic towards others Innovative and open to experiment

PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF Refrigerator:
Model: 310 Liters (Whirlpool) Need: • • Wanted the refrigerator for family use. Also wants to use it for his business purpose.

Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • • Respondent’s need for refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for daily use. His need was esteem because he often had party with his friends or peer group so he wants to make impression on his friends.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 46

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • • • 310 Ltrs refrigerator will be most suitable for his business purpose. Deep freezer is needed to store non veg and dairy products as paneer etc. All his friends of business community have such refrigerator for their business.

ii) Latent motives • • It’s a large storing capacity refrigerator suitable for both business and home use. Now I can boast of being a proud-owner of large branded refrigerator.

Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigerator • Respondent is a social guy with responsibility of family on his shoulders who wants such a refrigerator that will also beneficial for his family use.

Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • Larger refrigerators are more useful than smaller refrigerator.

ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that his choice of refrigerator will be beneficial for his family and thus has a positive emotion towards it. iii) Behavioral component • • He enquired about extended warranty on the product. Also bargains about the price of product.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 47

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Self-concept i) Actual Private • Due to lack of time he can’t spend more time with his family.

ii) Ideal Private • Respondent would like to spend more quality time with his family.

iii) Actual Social • He is seen in his society as someone who give more importance to money than his family. iv)Ideal Social • Respondent would like to be seen as who is very close to his family.

Brand personality of Whirlpool as perceived by the respondent • • • Whirlpool is a reliable brand. Brand is trustworthy. It is well accepted and well known brand.

Respondent’s attitude towards Whirlpool • • •

Whirlpool always provides good quality products at reasonable price. Whirlpool is a durable brand with Sleek designs and contemporary styling Believed to be low energy consuming refrigerators. Since the brand reorganization and brand acceptability is good and belief is that it is trustworthy brand so respondent has feeling that it has worth to buy.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 48

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Positioning of Whirlpool in the mind of the respondent • Whirlpool always provides good quality products at reasonable price. • • • • Its products are reliable and require less maintenance Whirlpool refrigerators are having latest technology and new designs. Its products maintenance free and less energy consuming. Whirlpool refrigerators are better looking and more spacious from inside.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 49

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

PHASE # 3

RESPONDENT1# Mohit Agrawal CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
It was a high involvement purchase for the respondent but his decision making was limited. He underwent through following steps of decision making:

Problem recognition Generic Information Search Internal search External: Personal contacts, marketer information Executive PGDM Group 1 50

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Alternative evaluation Attribute based choice Lexicographic decision rule Purchase

Post purchase No dissonance

Problem Recognition
Respondent found that his old refrigerator was not working properly and not giving sufficient cooling. Secondly after marriage he needs a new refrigerator for the house.

Information search for Refrigerator
Internal Search: The respondent is aware of some of the refrigerator brands and has some knowledge of the attributes each brand has to offer. External Search: The respondent does an external search about the product being offered by the brands which are in his evoked set. Sources of information i) Personal sources: Respondent’s cousin whom he believed too much. He advised the respondent to opt for Videocon 250 ltr frost free double door refrigerator as he was already using the same one. ii) Experiential sources: Respondent along with his wife visited a local showroom and had a look at the options in their evoked set viz Videocon and whirlpool before finalizing Videocon. Thus the information source was limited external and was actively acquired.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 51

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Evaluating alternatives
Although the respondent was aware of many brands but he was looking for the refrigerator that was most economical to him. So economical refrigerator was most important parameter for him and evaluated refrigerators from different brands on that basis, Whirlpool and Videocon was in his evoked set but never interested to go of Haier as he didn’t knew much about that brand. Finally he decided to buy Videocon as it felt most appropriate one to fulfill his need at economical price. Awareness Set • Videocon • • • • • • • LG Godrej Kelvinator Voltas Whirlpool Samsung Haier Inept set
• • Voltas Kelvinetor

Evoked Set
• • Videocon Whirlpool

Inert Set
• • LG Samsung

Evaluation criteria
Attribute based Respondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for Videocon: • Price - Discount from dealer • • • • • Brand and Quality More shelves in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinks After Sales Service Moon Silver Color Maximum space for Vegetables and Dairy Products Group 1 52

Executive PGDM

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Decision rules Lexicographic decision rule: The attributes ranked according to importance by the respondent are: • Price was the most important attributes for the respondent. • • • Next most important attribute was brand name. Reliability of the brand Requires less maintenance. Understanding of the Indian conditions

Thus, the decision rule chosen by the respondent was lexicographic.

Purchase behavior

The respondent browsed in near by mall to check out the market price and also visited multi brand outlets located near his house to compare the prices and other value added services offered by both the outlets. Finally he purchased the refrigerator from the mall as it offered him better deal in term of price discount.

The respondent preferred cash purchase and paid the full amount of money at the time of purchase.

Post purchase evaluation
Post purchase dissonance

Respondent feels that his decision to buy Videocon best that he had made as he feels that he is deriving full value of money paid for the same.

He is fully satisfied with the performance of this Refrigerator.

Customer satisfaction Brand loyal customer: The respondent is a committed customer of Videocon. He is a brand-loyal to the company and is emotionally attached to the firm. Executive PGDM Group 1 53

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Repeat purchase: Respondent acknowledges that he is a fully satisfied customer and if he has to buy other home appliance in the future, it will definitely purchase Videocon products if he gets good deal and value for money.

RESPONDENT2# Srinidhi CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
It was a high involvement purchase for the respondent but his decision making was limited. He underwent through following steps of decision making:

Problem recognition

Executive PGDM

Group 1 54

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Respondent found that he would need a refrigerator among other home appliances while setting up his home post marriage Thus problem recognition was generic for the respondent and sensing the need for the refrigerator, he straightway decided to purchase it.

Information search for Refrigerator : External Search:
Sources of information i) Personal sources: Respondent’s cousin whom he believed too much. He advised the respondent to opt for Videocon 250 ltr frost free double door refrigerator as he was already using the same one. ii) Experiential sources: Respondent along with his wife visited a local showroom and had a look at the options in their evoked set viz Videocon and Godrej before finalizing Videocon. Thus the information source was limited external and was actively acquired. Evaluating alternatives Although the respondent evaluated refrigerators from different brands, he was more or less sure that he would buy a 250 ltr frost free double door refrigerator from the stable of Videocon. Awareness Set • Videocon • • • • • LG Samsung Godrej Whirlpool Haier Evoked Set
• • • Videocon Godrej Bajaj Boxer

Inert Set
• • • LG Samsung Whirlpool

Inept set
• Haier

Executive PGDM

Group 1 55

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Evaluation criteria
Attribute based Respondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for Videocon: • Videocon brand name • • •
• • •

Design Ruggedness Simple looks
Maximum space for Vegetables and Dairy Products Deep freezer capacity mainly for Ice Creams Frost-free, 250 Ltr capacity

Decision rules Lexicographic decision rule: The attributes ranked according to importance by the respondent are: • Brand name • • • reliability. ruggedness simple looks

Thus, the decision rule chosen by the respondent was lexicographic.

Purchase behavior
• The respondent visited two of the closest multi brand outlets located near his house to compare the prices and other value added services offered by both the outlets.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 56

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • The respondent preferred the cash purchase and paid the full amount of money at the time of purchase.

Post purchase evaluation
Post purchase dissonance • Respondent feels that his decision to buy Videocon was one of the best that he had made until now as he feels that he is deriving full value of money paid for the same • He is fully satisfied with the performance of this Refrigerator.

Customer satisfaction Committed customer: The respondent is a fully committed customer of Videocon. Repeat purchase: Respondent acknowledges that he is a fully satisfied customer and if he has to buy any other home appliance in the future, it will definitely be from the Videocon family.

RESPONDENT 3# Jignesh Patel CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
It was a high involvement purchase for the respondent but his decision making was limited. He underwent through following steps of decision making:

Problem recognition Generic

Information Search External: Personal contacts, marketer information

Executive PGDM

Group 1 57

Effect Alternative evaluation on the purchase of Refrigerators of consumer behaviour Attribute based choice Lexicographic decision rule Purchase

Post purchase No dissonance

Problem recognition
Respondent found that he was facing problems with his old refrigerator cooling system. Respondent desired for a Refrigerator which could do away this problem and also provide him with a sense of superiority. Thus problem recognition was generic for the respondent and sensing the need for the refrigerator, he straightway decided to purchase it.

Information search for refrigerator
Internal Search: Because he owned a refrigerator he had some basic idea about the brands and the attributes brands have to offer. External Search: Ongoing search was made as respondent was thinking to replace his old refrigerator for last 8~9 months. Sources of information i) Personal sources: Respondent had a friend whom he believed too much. He only advised them to opt for Samsung as he was already using the same refrigerator. ii) External sources: Respondent had visited Samsung and LG website which were in his evoked set i.e. Samsung& LG before finalizing Samsung. Thus the information source was external and was actively acquired.

Evaluating alternatives

Executive PGDM

Group 1 58

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Respondent kept on visiting store/outlets, comparing features and price so he was aware of many brand from which he considered to purchase refrigerator from Samsung or LG. Haier & Godrej was in his inept set as he didn’t consider Godrej was having latest features and he had also not seen anyone known to him using Haier. So he was not confirmed whether Haier would be able to provide good after sales service in India or not.

Awareness Set • Samsung • • • • • LG Godrej Whirlpool Videocon Haier

Evoked Set
• • Samsung LG

Inert Set
• • Videocon Whirlpool

Inept set
• • Godrej Haier

Evaluation criteria
Attribute based Respondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for Samsung • Samsung brand name Executive PGDM Group 1 59

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • •
• •

Quality and Looks Ruggedness
Product Features After sales service

Decision rules Lexicographic decision rule: The attributes ranked according to importance by the respondent are: • Brand name • • Quality Looks

Purchase behavior

Respondent went to the “NEXT” Electronics showroom from where he bought his television six month back. He looked at various offerings by different companies before zeroing on the Samsung and LG. He found no difference with the two products but because of his good experience with the Samsung products he went for the Samsung 250 liters refrigerator.

The respondent preferred the Credit Card purchase.

Post purchase evaluation
Post purchase dissonance • • Respondent feels that Samsung, the one he bought was the good deal. There is no other dissonance as such from the part of the respondent and he is fully satisfied with the performance of this Refrigerator.

RESPONDENT 4# Vikas Saxena CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
Executive PGDM Group 1 60

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

It was a high involvement purchase for the respondent but his decision making was limited. He underwent through following steps of decision making:
Extended Decision Making

Problem Recognition Generic

Information Search Internal / Extensive External

Alternative Evaluation Lexicographic decision rule Many alternative

Purchase

Post Purchase Dissonance Complex evaluation

Problem recognition
Respondent found that he is going to face problems after marriage of he doesn’t own a refrigerator. Respondent desired for a refrigerator which could do away this problem and also provide him with a sense of owning a high quality product. Thus problem recognition was generic for the respondent and sensing the need for the refrigerator, he straightway decided to purchase it.

Information search for Refrigerators
Internal search: respondent was aware of the four major brands available in the market

Executive PGDM

Group 1 61

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

External search: Sources of information i) Personal sources: One of his friends owned a LG refrigerator. He had a talk with him regarding his experience with the brand. ii) Market sources: Respondent took a tour of the market and evaluated all the options in his evoked and inert set i.e. LG and Samsung brand. Iii) Media Sources: Went through the advertisement in both print and electronic media to be aware of the deals being offered by the two brands. Evaluating alternatives Although the respondent was aware of the five major brands available in the market and evaluated both LG and Samsung refrigerators, he was more or less sure that he would buy LG brand.

Awareness Set • LG • • • • Kelvinator Voltas Whirlpool Samsung

Evoked Set
• • LG Samsung

Inert Set
• Whirlpool

Inept set
• • Voltas Kelvinetor

Executive PGDM

Group 1 62

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Evaluation criteria
Attribute based Respondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for LG Refrigerator :• Size of the refrigerator • • • • Price of the product Ruggedness of the product Exterior looks No of shelves inside the refrigerators and its interiors on the whole

Decision rules Lexicographic decision rule: The attributes of the refrigerator were ranked according to its importance. Below given are the attributes arranged in a descending order as perceived by the respondent: • • • • • Quality of the product Brand image Price Ruggedness Looks

Purchase behavior
• • The respondent preferred the cash purchase and paid the full amount of money at the time of purchase. Bargained for the price while paying for the product.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 63

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • • • • • Evaluated alternative brands available before choosing the brand he purchased. Brand image played a important role in choosing the brand Evaluated different attributes of the product once again even though he had made up his mind to go for a particular product Went for a silver color as according to him it gets less dirty Looks also played a important role while purchasing decision was made.

Post purchase evaluation
Post purchase dissonance There is no dissonance as such from the part of the respondent and he is fully satisfied with the performance of the refrigerator. Customer satisfaction The respondent is a fully satisfied customer of LG. Due to his good experience with the products of LG he is brand-loyal to the company and is emotionally attached to the firm. He is satisfied with the after sales service of LG.

RESPONDENT5# Randheer Singh Ahluwalia CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
It was a high involvement purchase because he is considering number of things for his decision making He underwent through following steps of decision making:

Executive PGDM

Group 1 64

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Problem recognition
Respondent found that he was facing problems of storing of daily consumables and storing of family usable products so he wanted a refrigerator which have enough storing capacity so that he can use it for storing of business and home use consumables..

Information search for Refrigerators
Internal Search: He had awareness about different brands of refrigerator available in the market and had somewhat made up his mind to go for the whirlpool brand External Search: Sources of information i) Personal sources: Respondent’s wife had a friend whom he believed too much. He only advised them to opt for whirlpool refrigerator.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 65

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators ii) External sources: Respondent went to a dealer of the electronic goods and had a look on the various brands of the various refrigerators and according to the features for his need and the advice of the dealer he selected whirlpool brand for his use. Thus the information source was limited external. Evaluating alternatives Although the respondent evaluated various size of the refrigerator he was more or less sure that he would buy a refrigerator form the stable of whirlpool. Awareness Set • Godrej • • • • Kelvinator Voltas Whirlpool Samsung Inert Set
• • Godrej Samsung

Evoked Set
• • Whirlpool 250 Ltrs Whirlpool 310 Ltrs

Inept set
• • Voltas Kelvinetor

Evaluation criteria
Attribute based Respondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for Whirlpool: • Brand name • • Storing capacity. Color of the refrigerator.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 66

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Looks of the refrigerator.

Decision rules Lexicographic decision rule: The attributes ranked according to importance by the respondent are: • Brand name • • • Quality Storage Capacity Looks

Purchase behavior

Although there were many showrooms in New Delhi, respondent preferred a particular shop because it is nearest from his home and believed that this particular shop has wide range of products.

The respondent preferred cash purchase and paid the full amount of money at the time of purchase.

Post purchase evaluation
Post purchase dissonance • There is no dissonance as such from the part of the respondent and he is fully satisfied with the performance of this Refrigerator.

Customer satisfaction Respondent agrees that he is a fully satisfied customer and if he has to buy or giving advice to any other person for the purchase of the refrigerator he will suggest for the purchase of the whirlpool brand.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 67

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

CONSUMER DECISION MAKING MODEL (Engel-Blackwell Model)
Information processing Decision process Need recognition Exposure Internal search Search Variable influencing decision process

∩ ∩
Beliefs

Environmental influences

Stimuli: Marketer Dominated Others

Attention

Culture Social class Personal influence Family Situation

Comprehension

Memory

Alternative Evaluation

Attitude Intention

Acceptance

Retention External search

Purchase Outcomes Dissatisfaction

∩∩ ∩∩
Satisfaction

Individual differences Consumer resources Motivation and involvement Knowledge Attitudes Personality Lifestyle Demographics

The Engel-Blackwell model is a conscious problem solving and learning model of buying behavior attempts to explain the complexity of the consumer decision making process: The decision making process according to Engel-Blackwell model consists of five components namely "the input stimuli, information processing, decision – making process, decision making process variables and outside influences. The decision making process goes through five stages. These are problem awareness, information search, alternative evaluation, choice and the purchase results.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 68

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Stage 1: Problem Awareness:
Consumer becomes aware of the difference between his present state and the ideal state. The awareness may be created by internal motives or external stimuli.

Stage 2: Information Search:
The consumer may make use of information stored in his memory or of his experiences which take the form of ideas and attitudes which influence his preferences. The consumer may also make use of stimuli, that is, market dominated sources of information. The external information search can be done in the following ways: i) Personal sources ii) External sources

Stage 3: Alternative evaluation:
The consumer stores the acquired information in his 'short term memory' for further processing in evaluation of alternatives. In the alternative evaluation stage, the consumer compares the acquired information with the product standards or evaluation criteria. The strengthening or weakening of existing evaluation criteria in the long-term memory by information gathered leads to acceptance or yielding of the product. Acceptance/yield information gets stored in the permanent memory; while lack of acceptance/yield results deletes related information from the memory awareness occurs

Stage 4:
A strong positive intention or acceptance of an alternative leads to the choice of the product in stage four. In the absence of any constraint, the purchase takes place.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 69

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Stage 5:
The result of the purchase is seen in stage five. The consumer may experience satisfaction of a need from the use of the product, in which case his evaluation criteria are consolidated. In case of dissatisfaction, a reconsideration of such criteria takes place. Another post-purchase result could be dissonance, which refers to post-purchase doubt as regards a product. Dissonance may lead to further information search with a view to justifying the choice of a product after its purchase. The Engel-Blackwell (1982) model includes various external factors which influence the decision-making process. Among these factors are the cultural norms and values which definitely influence the consumer's value judgement of a product. At the same time, social groups, reference groups and family members may influence the decision-making process and the purchase intention. The Engel-Blackwell (1982) model depicts a series of activities which a consumer undertakes in situations of high involvement. The decision-making processes vary with the consumer, the social environment, the environmental factors and the products. The model identifies the various factors and inter-relationships between them which influence the decision-making process

MARKETING STRATEGY
The segment under consideration has demonstrated the emphasis on two of the needs – Physiological and Esteem. Hence the Refrigerator design should concentrate on the above two aspects. In terms of fulfilling the utilitarian/physiological needs, the internal design of the refrigerator should be highly efficient in terms of maximum availability of space and ease of retrieval of food stuffs. The refrigerator should be a frost free and double door design. Company should insure that whatever product they market it should be durable enough which last quite many years and give trouble free service to their customers. Customer expects good after sales service and prompt response to

Executive PGDM

Group 1 70

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators his complaints in case of any problem with the product. Extended warranty can be used as an attribute attached with the product. External appearance of the refrigerator connotes one’s status hence the refrigerator should look aesthetically good with glossy finish and wide range of colors for the customer to choose from.

Brand chosen: We have assumed that Eva (Hypothetical Brand) will launch a new 280 liter
refrigerator. We have based our marketing strategy on this assumption.

Element of marketing mix chosen: Promotion NEED:
The segment under consideration has demonstrated the emphasis on two of the needs – Physiological and Esteem. Utilitarian need i.e. physiological Consumer wants this refrigerator to use for his daily household purpose. Need for expression i.e. Esteem. This product is targeted to those consumers who can use this refrigerator to express their identity to others i.e. they want others to notice of their self-esteem through this refrigerator.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 71

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

PERCEPTION Exposure – Exhibition etc.
Stimulus: High Individual: More passion high attention Situation: More sales in festive seasons Interpretation – High Involvement

Perception

Attention - Medium to High

Exposure:
Exposure of the consumer towards this model can be through pamphlet distribution through news paper, television advertisement etc.

Learning Theory
Iconic Rote Learning Iconic learning will be used because as the advertisement of the refrigerator will be encountered by the consumer a number of times while he scans his external environment. This will result in the essence of message being learned. Vicarious Learning/ Modeling Consumers usually consult their family, friends (some times opinion leader) before making the final decision. They influence his decision on the product. Thus this situation will correspond to vicarious learning because it is a high involvement learning situation because the consumer is motivated to process or learn the use of this refrigerator.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 72

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators

Attitude Components
Cognitive Component – It will be multi attribute model. The consumer considers various attitudes like • • • • • Double door Frost free Cabinet rolling feature (easy to clean) Style Brand personality

Consumer assigns different weights to different attributes; hence it will be a weighted average attitude model. We are not using ideal point weighted average model because the consumer is clearly not able to differentiate the extra benefits he will derive between attributes.

Message Appeal
We will use the message appeal “enjoy the natural freshness” while promoting this model.

Brand personality
• • It will be portrayed as a stylish brand. It will be positioned as a brand with innovative technology.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES WHICH WILL PLAY A STRONG ROLE
1. Demographic details • Colors Available & looks of the refrigerator demanded by the customer will depend on the demographic factors.

2. Media habits • • Since our target segment -25-50 age group of above middle class, TV & newspaper ads will also be the major factors due to their wide reach & penetration and internet will be also be an important medium to gather information.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 73

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators 3. Occupational subculture A large number of working professional and upto middle class businessman will be attracted towards this model due to the as it is fulfilling all utilitarian need and external look, having glossy finish and wide range of colors, handles etc. It will also attract individuals through word of mouth publicity & peer pressure to own something special. 4. Reference group • Reference groups will play an important part as online communities, friends, peer groups may influence the consumer in his decision to purchase the refrigerator.

5. Family • Any influencer in the family (like father, brother or relatives) or purchaser (anyone other than himself) will play an important role. 6. Social class

This refrigerator will satisfy the asprational need of the middle class people along with their core need i.e. for his daily household purpose.

Upper middle class will purchase this refrigerator as the refrigerator will depict their social status.

7. Opinion leader • Salesmen in the showroom may prove an important opinion leader in motivating the consumer to purchase this refrigerator through giving educating the customer about its latest features comparing its strength with respect to competitive models in the market. In this Internet era also there is rising popularity of the brochure designs in propelling the business and market. A brochure is a pamphlet that is uses for marketing your service or products or provides information about it. It is paper material distributed for the purposes of advertising. Brochures may advertise events, hotels, products etc. or In this way we assume that the brochure will be representing you, that's why it needs to be an eye-catching in design and to

Executive PGDM

Group 1 74

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators the point in language because it will speak to readers you have never met and will try and convince them to come to you.

ADVERTISEMENT
We have made the following advertisement for our refrigerator “Eva Brand”. It will be a print ad. Tagline: “enjoy the natural freshness”. Theme of the ad: The ad emphasis on two of the needs of the customer – Physiological and Esteem. Eva intends to create its marketing position around the tagline, ‘Enjoy the natural freshness’.
This tag line corresponds to the basic need of the consumer to consume fresh food at all time. Due to lifestyle pressures today there is not much time in households to cook fresh food every time someone feels hungry. In all these situations any consumable being stored in refrigerator is picked and eaten by the consumer. This food is not fresh and due to its storage has lost some of the taste also. If consumers are made to believe that the food stored in our refrigerator is as good as fresh it can act as a major boost to the brand and the brand can connect with the consumer. This will have a positive effect on the brand and in turn will boost the sales of the product.

PROMOTION
Apart from regular advertising on TV and Internet we will also take further step to promote our brand and create brand awareness.
Our target customer is 20-40 years. Target cities are metro tier II cities initially. • • • • We can give extended warranty Festive season pack – by doing bundling with other white goods. We will also distribute pamphlets through news paper to create more awareness. Road shows will also be conducted in various cities to create awareness.

Executive PGDM

Group 1 75

Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators
• Camps in Exhibitions like trade fair, Electronic Fair etc

We believe that this will help us in addressing the promotion issue of the marketing mix for our refrigerator.

THANKS

Executive PGDM

Group 1 76

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