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1

Shear Strength of Soil I (Das, Ch. 11)

Class Outlines

• Shear strength in soils

– Introduction – Definitions

**• Mohr-Coulomb criterion
**

– Introduction – Lab tests for getting the shear strength

**• Direct shear test
**

– Introduction – Procedure & calculation – Critical void ratio

Shear Strength

• The strength of a material is the greatest stress it can sustain; • So that the unit of strength is the same as stress (Pa in SI unit system);

**Significance of Shear Strength
**

• The safety of any geotechnical structure is dependent on the strength of the soil; • If the soil fails, the structure founded on it can collapse. • Understanding shear strength is the basis to analyze soil stability problems like:

– lateral pressure on earth retaining structures (Chs. 12, 13), – slope stability (Ch. 14), and – bearing capacity (Ch. 15).

Shear Failure in Soils .

Slope Failure in Soils Failure due to inadequate strength at shear interface .

Static: Transcosna Grain Elevator Canada (Oct. 18. 1913) West side of foundation sank 24-ft .

Bearing Capacity Failure .

Dynamic: Foundation failure by liquefaction after the 1964 Niigata Earthquake. (USGS) .

CA (USGS Professional Paper 993) .Dynamic: Lateral Spreading caused by the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake at Moss Landing.

Shear Strength in Soils • The shear strength of a soil is its resistance to shearing stresses. • It is a measure of the soil resistance to deformation by continuous displacement of its individual soil particles • Shear strength in soils depends primarily on interactions between particles • Shear failure occurs when the stresses between the particles are such that they slide or roll past each other .

Shear Strength in Soils (cont.) • Soil derives its shear strength from two sources: – Cohesion between particles (stress independent component) • Cementation between sand grains • Electrostatic attraction between clay particles – Frictional resistance between particles (stress dependent component) .

is a measure of the forces that cement particles of soils Dry sand with no cementation Dry sand with some cementation Soft clay Stiff clay .Shear Strength of Soils: Cohesion Cohesion (C).

Internal Friction Internal Friction angle (φ).Shear Strength of Soils. is the measure of the shear strength of soils due to friction .

.Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria • This theory states that a material fails because of a critical combination of normal stress and shear stress. and not from their either maximum normal or shear stress alone.

Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion Shear Strength. σn = σ′ = γ h .S φ = φ′ C′ Normal Stress.

. φ′ = effective angle of internal friction µ = coefficient of friction.3) where τ f = shear strength c = cohesion. c′ =effective cohesion φ = angle of internal friction.2) (11.τ f = c + σ n tan φ = c + µσ n τ f = c′ + σ tan φ ′ = c′ + µ 'σ ' n ' n (11. µ ' = effective coefficient of friction.

70 0.70 0.70-0.70-0.51-0.49-0.58-0.70 .84 0.78 0.67-1.00 0.84-1.58-0.58 0.µ=tanφ’ 0.11 0.

Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criterion σ1 σ3 σn τf τ σ3 Failed Zone (σ. τ) τf = c’ + µ’σn’ φ σ1 φ c’ σ3 σff 2θ σ1 σ .

.

From trigonometric equalities we have .

.

Way 1: Increase the normal stress in one direction σ1 σn τf major principle stress σ3 σ3 Minor principle stress Confining stress σ1 .

Way 2: directly apply the shear stress Consider the following situation: .A shear stress is then applied until failure Normal stress σn Shear stress τ Normal stress σn .A normal stress is applied vertically and held constant .

(1) Normal stress σn (2) Shear stress σ3 σ1 Soil σ3 .Determination of Shear Strength Parameters The shear strength parameters of a soil are determined in the lab primarily with two types of tests: 1) Direct Shear Test. and 2) Triaxial Shear Test.

Direct Shear Test • Direct shear test is Quick and Inexpensive • Shortcoming is that it fails the soil on a designated plane which may not be the weakest one • Used to determine the shear strength of both cohesive as well as non-cohesive soils • ASTM D 3080 .

) • The test equipment consists of a metal box in which the soil specimen is placed • The box is split horizontally into two halves Shear stress σ • Vertical force (normal stress) is applied through a metal platen • Shear force is applied by moving one half of the box relative to the other to cause failure in the soil specimen Normal stress σn 3 Soil .Direct Shear Test (cont.

Direct Shear Test .

Direct Shear Test .

.

Direct Shear Test .

Direct Shear Test Data Shear stress Peak Strength Residual Strength .

Direct Shear Test Data: Volume change ∆H .

if the load is applied directly. 4. or 10 kg.Apply normal force. 3. The weights to use for the three runs are 2 kg.Place the soil in three layers in the mold using the funnel. 4 kg. 20 kg. 7.Place shear box in machine.Weigh out 150 g of sand.Measure inner side or diameter of shear box and find the area 2.Direct Shear Test: Procedure 1. and 6 kg if the load is applied through a lever arm. Compact the soil with 20 blows per layer. 5. and 30 kg.Make sure top and bottom halves of shear box are in contact and fixed together.Place cover on top of sand 6. Note: Lever arm loading ratio 1:10 (2kg weight = 20 kg) .

10.1 in/min) so that the rate of shearing is at a selected constant rate 9. Continue taking readings until the horizontal shear load peaks and then falls.Direct Shear Test: Procedure 8. Take the horizontal displacement gauge. or the horizontal displacement reaches 15% of the diameter. vertical displacement gage and shear load gage readings. . Start the motor with selected speed (0. Record the readings on the data sheet.

τ = A . γd 2. Calculate the normal stress & shear stress e= Gs γ w γd −1 N σ = A V . Calculate the void ratio. e 3. Determine the dry unit weight.Calculations 1.

∆H .Figures Peak Stress s3 Shear stress. s s2 s1 N3 = 30 kg N2 = 20 kg N1 = 10 kg Horizontal displacement.

Figures (cont) Shear Stress. psf .s1) (σ3.s2) φ (σ1. s (psf) (σ2.s3) C′ Normal Stress σ.

Figures (cont) Vertical displacement Horizontal displacement .

1 . 11 HW: Problem 11.Reading Assignment: Das. Ch.

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