How to select CT’s for modern protection relays?

The Siemens Answer: CT Dimensioning
Innovation for Generations

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Siemens. Innovation for generations.

the CT should limit the secondary current to avoid thermal overload of the connected equipment • At rated burden (cosφ = 0.8) and rated accuracy limit factor.CT – Measuring vs Protection Measuring CT • Under over current. the composite error should be less than 5% or 10% Copyright © Siemens. Innovation for generations. the CT should maintain the secondary current within the rated limit to enable proper protection operation • At rated burden (cosφ = 0.8) and rated security factor. the composite error should be > 10% Protection CT • In case of over current. .

2 – 2003) • IEC/AS 60044-6: Instrument transformers . 1.Part 1 Current transformers (ed.Part 6 – Requirements for protective current transformers for transient performance • IEC/AS 60044-8: Instrument transformers -Part 8 Electronic current transformers • AS 1675: Current Transformers – Measurement & Protection (now superseded) • BS7626 (BS 3938): Specification for current transformers (now superseded) Copyright © Siemens. .CT – Standards • IEC/AS 60044-1: Instrument transformers . Innovation for generations.

with rated burden.CT – AS 60044 . when applied to at rated primary current. iron / copper losses. Innovation for generations. . gives the accuracy limit primary current) Siemens. will maintain the accuracy IEC/AS 60044-1 / BS3938 specify Rated Burden AS 60044: AS 1765: 5P20 5VA 5P 100 F20 Rated Secondary Reference Voltage Vref (the RMS secondary voltage upon which the performance is based) Conversion: Vref ⋅ I sec = VA ⋅ ALF Copyright © Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) (the factor which. saturation) IEC/AS 60044-1 / BS3938: multiple of rated current at which.1 – Class P Rated Composite Error at ALF (turn ratio error.

.1 – Class PX (similar to BS 3938 Class X AS 1675 Class PL) 0. where Ns = number of secondary turns Copyright © Siemens. Innovation for generations.25% AS 1675: or ±50/Ns whichever the greater. secondary winding o voltage (Ek or Vk) resistance (Rct) at 75 C Turn ratio error within ± 0.CT – AS 60044 .05PX 450 R3 10VA Kx Rb Max. exciting current (Iexc) at rated knee point voltage Dimensioning Rated resistive factor (Kx) burden (Rb) Rated knee point Max.

Innovation for generations.CT Dimensioning Operational Accuracy Limit Factor – ALF’ ALF' = ALF ⋅ Pi + PN Ri + RN = n⋅ Pi + PB Ri + RB P + PB Ri + RB ALF = ALF' ⋅ i = ALF'⋅ Pi + PN Ri + RN Rated CT burden: Internal CT burden: Actually connected burden : PN Pi=Ri ⋅ I2N2 PB= RB ⋅ I2N2 with: RB=RL+RR= total burden resistance RL= resistance of connecting cable RR= relay burden resistance Copyright © Siemens. .

CT Dimensioning Operational Accuracy Limit Factor – ALF’ I ALF ' ≥ K OD ⋅ SC IN Where KOD is the total over-dimensioning factor: Theory: No saturation during BMax XN K' TF = = 1 + ω T N = 1 + total fault duration: ˆ B~ RN K OD ≥ K TF ⋅ K Rem K Rem % remanence = 1+ 100 No saturation for the specified time tM: tM  tM  − − ⋅ ω T N ⋅ TS K ' 'TF = 1+ (e TN − e TS  TN − TS     Practice: K OD = KTF Remanence only considered in extra high voltage systems (EHV) KTF-values acc. . Innovation for generations. to relay manufacturers‘ guides Copyright © Siemens.

CT Dimensioning Choice of CT rated power • Rated burden > total connected burden • For GIS and MV switchboard with modern relays/measuring devices. 5VA. e.g. . 10VA Choice of Accuracy Limit Factor • Relay manufacturer’s recommendation should be followed + engineering secuirty factor • CT performance depends on operational ALF Copyright © Siemens. Innovation for generations. class P 1A CTs with small rated burden are sufficient.

CT Dimensioning Choice of CT Ratio • CT ratio should be based on the protected object. then RCT and the magnetising curve is required. however. it may need to be go higher: • limitation of difference in CT ratio for low impedance differential protection as recommended by the relay manufacturer • Avoid excessive over-dimensioning: • Imax. . Copyright © Siemens. switchgear / Ipri-rated > 100 ! • Such CT can damage the relay because there is no CT saturation If a more precise estimation of the CT performance is necessary. Innovation for generations.

the accuracy is based on a total connected burden between 25% to 100% of the rated burden • For classes 0. an extended range of burden can be specified (from 1VA to 100% of the rated burden) • For classes 3 and 5. the accuracy is based on a total connected burden between 50% to 100% of rated burden • Instrument security factor (FS) defines the maximum secondary current that will flow under short circuit of primary circuit • Instrument security factor (FS) is based on the rated burden • Under-burdened measuring CT can damage connected instrument during short circuit or overload of the primary circuit Copyright © Siemens.1. .CT Dimensioning Choice of Measuring CT • For classes 0.1 – 1.2S with rated burden < 15VA. Innovation for generations.2 and 0. 0.

funfamental > I >> Pn + PCT I >> ALF' = ALF ⋅ > P'+ PCT In Copyright © Siemens. fundamental > I > Isec. .CT Dimensioning Overcurrent Protection CT saturation is allowable provided the remaining fundamental current is higher than I>> setting Isec. Innovation for generations.

75 Copyright © 4 0.50 0.20 0. saturation free time (ms) min.75 0.00 0.75 1 3 1.20 1.20 1. Innovation for generations.20 CT symmetry Generator Transformer O/H Line.20 1. over dimensioning KTF 1.50 0. . Cable with pilot wires Busbar 7SD600 7SS52 7SS600 5 3 4 1. over dimensioning KTF 0.75 Siemens.CT Dimensioning Differential Protection Differential protection should be stable on external faults High sensitivity for internal fault Protected Object Relay Type Requirement for Internal Faults Requirements for External Faults min.50 min.50 0.75 0. saturation free time (ms) min. Cable with digital communication 7UM6 7UT6 7SD52 7SD61 4 4 3 3 5 5 5 5 O/H Line.