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SPONSOR: MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
GUIDELINES FOR SELECTION OF SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENT FOR SHP
(Including Power Transformer and Circuit Breaker)
LEAD ORGANISATION: ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY CENTRE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE
ITEMS PAGE NO. 1 1 1 1 4 5 7 and Coupling Voltage 10 12 13 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 25 26 27 i
SELECTION OF SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENT 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 Substation Equipment Seismic Consideration Bus bars Circuit Breakers Isolators Current Transformers Potential Transformer Transformer Transformers Lightning Arrestors Lightning Protection Insulators Structures Equipment for Communication, Relaying and Tele Metering and Off-site Control Auxiliaries Crane Facilities Pale Fencing Switchyard Layout
SECTION-2 SELECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMER 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 General Generator Transformers Transformer Rating Standard Rating Cooling Temperature Rise, Overload Capacity and Continuous Rating Electrical Characteristics Basic Insulation Levels (BIL) Impedance Transformer Efficiency
PAGE NO. 28 28 30 31 31 31 31 31 38 38 38 39 42 42 52 53 53
2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18
Terminal Bushings Fittings and Accessories Dielectric Tests Accessories Oil Containment and Fire Protection System Factory and Field Testing Erection, Maintenance Testing and Commissioning Typical Transformer rating and characteristics
SECTION-3 SELECTION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Introduction Classification Type of Circuit Breaker Rated Characteristics Standard Ratings of Circuit Breakers Co-ordination of Rated Values Tests Fault Calculation
This leads to a low level type of switchyard wherein equipment as well as the bus-bars are spread out. design. pipes are used for bus-bars and also for making connections among the various equipments wherever required. the corona loss is also substantially less. However as the bus-bars and connections are not very high from the ground. This type is however not suitable for earthquake prone area due to rigidity. IS: 2705 Part 1 to 4 – Current transformer IS: 3156 Part 1 to 4 – voltage transformer IS: 3070 part 1 to 3 – Lightning arrestors IS: 2544 – Porcelain insulators for system above 1000 V IS: 5350 – Part III – post insulator units for systems greater than 1000 V IS: 5621 – Hollow Insulators for use in electrical equipment IS: 5556 – Serrated lock washers – specification IEC: 186 – Voltage transformer 1. construction. ancillary equipment and switchyard structures. In the rigid type. Due to large diameter of the pipes.SECTION –1 GUIDE FOR SELECTION OF SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENT 1. It is also claimed that this system is more reliable than the strain bus. 1.2 Seismic Consideration Forces caused by earthquake which may occur for the seismic intensity of the zone concerned should be taken into account. tests etc. Since the bus-bars are rigid. 1. The bus-bars and the connections are supported on pedestal insulators. Selection of power transformers and circuit breakers is discussed in section 2 and 3.3 Bus bars The out door bus-bars are either of the rigid type or the strain type.1. Stresses resulting after including these loads should not exceed permissible stresses. the maintenance is easy. However special requirement for selection of facility required for handling of transformers and supporting structures for circuit breakers are discussed. 1 . The clearances remain constant.1 Substation Equipment Outdoor step up substation at hydroelectric stations comprises of main equipment.1 References and Codes IS: 9921Part 1 to 5 – Alternating currents disconnectors (isolators) and earthing switches rating.
The following sizes are commonly used. Mounting and supporting structure The circuit breakers should be self supporting type.4 Circuit Breakers For selection of circuit breakers refer section 3. However.27 ACSR 54 x 3.79 + 7 x 2.5 kV. 72. These type of busbras are suitable for earthquake prone areas. 1. The stringing tension may be limited to 500-900 kg. The sizes of pipes commonly used for various voltages are given below: 40 mm 65 mm 80 mm 80 mm 100 mm Since aluminum oxides rapidly great care is necessary in making connections. aluminum pipes of Grade 63401 WP confirming to IS: 5082 are commonly used.3.79 ACSR 30 x 4. if necessary for the purpose of minimum ground clearance the circuit breakers should be mounted on raised steel structures which should be included in the scope of supply of circuit breaker. depending upon the size of the conductor used.27 + 7 x 4.30 In the case of rigid bus arrangement.53 ACSR 2 . In the case of long spans expansion joints should be provided to avoid strain on the supporting insulators due to thermal expansion or contraction of pipe. 145 kV. 245 kV.13 + 7 x 2. The bus bar sizes should meet the electrical and mechanical requirements of the specific application for which they are chosen. Following information and data for design of foundations from the supplier of the circuit breaker be obtained. 30 x 2. 1.1 Bus bar Material – The materials in common use for bus bars and connections of the strain type are ACSR and all aluminum conductor.The strain type bus bars are an overhead system of wires strung between two supporting structures and supported by strain type insulators.53 + 7 x 3. or 42 x 4.
Although a variety of disconnect switches are available. Horizontal break type normally occupies more space than the vertical 1. Inadvertent operation of the isolating switch on load will damage the switch. 8. 1. for Mukerian (Punjab Plains). bolts. 3.5 Isolators Isolating switches are used to isolate equipment for maintenance.1 Temperature Rise Maximum temperature attained by any part of the isolating switch/ isolating cum-earth switches when in service at site under continuous full load conditions and exposed continuously to the direct rays of the sun and the air maximum temperature has to be evaluated carefully and depends upon site conditions e. Isolating switches on line side are provided earthing blade for connection to earth in off position for safety. and fixing bolts for mounting the equipment on the supporting structures wherever required should be obtained from the circuit breaker supplier. impact loading in terms of equivalent static load both compression and upward due to opening/closing of the breakers. Dead weight per pole for complete circuit breaker Static bending moments above the feet of each pole and for complete circuit breaker. washers etc.5 kV system are given). It shall be clearly stated whether these forces shall act simultaneously or at different timing.1.g. Necessary connecting materials such as clamps. nuts. 4. They are also used for transfer of load from one bus to another. 3 . of steel supporting columns provided for mounting the equipment. This is not recommended because the isolating switches are designed for no load operation.5. 2.2 Rating Each isolating switch should have the following particulars under the site conditions for the system under design (typical values for 72. Static shear force at the foot of each pole and for complete circuit breaker Maximum height of the steel supporting structure Maximum diameter of the pole Maximum horizontal force acting at upper terminal of each pole due to impact of closing/opening of the circuit breaker Max. 7. 6. the factor which has the maximum influence on the station layout is whether the disconnect switch is of the vertical break type or horizontal break type. The above data should represent static reactions for the worst windage or operation conditions.5. it was specified is as follows: i) ii) Reference ambient temperature in shade = 500C Reference temperature under direct rays = 600C of the sun for limiting temperature rise as per IS: 9921 1. No. 5. Circuit breakers whether of self supporting type or on raised steel structure should ensure minimum sectional clearance (say 3500 mm for 66 kV).
5 kV 50 cycles/second 325 kV (Peak) 140 kV (rms) 1600 Amps. 8.5.C. Highest system voltage Rated frequency Rated insulation level without arcing horns (based on system insulation coordination) (a) Impulse withstand test voltage with 1. + ve and – ve wave to earth and between poles (b) One minute power frequency (wet) withstand voltage against ground and between poles. Not less than 20 kA(rms) Actual value to be stated. 3. 7. operating devices. The post insulators which should be of the multiple stack should consist of no. at 50 c/s The location of disconnect switches in substations affects substation layouts. The guaranteed data and particulars of the insulators adopted for the equipment should be obtained from the supplier. it should be to the ground. 1.C.2/50 micro-second. 5. 110 volts ±10% D. 3 phase. The porcelain should be homogeneous and free from all cavities and flaws. Insulation between open contacts of a pole should be at least be 15% more than the insulation between the live parts of a pole to ground so that if any flashover occurs when switch is open. Although such substations occupy smaller areas. 4. 4 . 72. of stacks units per stack conforming to IS: 2544.1 2. The insulators selected should be suitable for use in the type of normally polluted atmosphere and should be specifically suited to meet the particular requirements of ultimate torsional strength and cantilever loads which they will be called upon to resist during service at the rated voltages. insulation between open contacts and the insulation between phases of the completely assembled isolating switch should be capable of withstanding the dielectric test voltages specified as per IS: 2026. the maintenance of disconnect switch contacts in such substations is more difficult as the contacts are not easily accessible. In some substations. Continuous rated current (based on system studies) Short time current ratings (based on system studies) a) For one second b) For three seconds Rated DC voltage for auxiliary circuits (station DC voltage) Rated supply frequency and voltage of A.3 Isolator Insulation Insulation to ground. 415 volts and Single phase 220 volts. Maintenance of the disconnect contacts is also a consideration in the layout. the disconnects are mounted at high positions either vertically or horizontally.
Design of the insulators should ensure ample insulation, mechanical strength and rigidity for satisfactory operation under site conditions. The design should also ensure that the losses caused by capacitive currents or conduction through dielectric are minimum and that the leakage due to moist and dirty insulator surface is least. 1.5.4 Main Contacts All isolators/isolator with earth switches should have heavy duty, self aligning and high pressure line type fixed contacts of modern design and made of hard drawn electrolytic copper. The various parts should be accordingly finished to ensure interchangeability of similar components. The switch blades forming the moving contacts should be made from tubular section of hard drawn electrolytic copper having suitable dia and shell thickness. These contacts should be liberally dimensioned so as to withstand safely the highest short-circuit currents and over voltages that may be encountered during service. The surfaces of the contacts should be rendered smooth and silver plated. In nutshell the male and female contact assemblies should be of substantial construction, and design of their assemblies shall ensure: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Electrodynamic withstand ability during short-circuits without any risk of repulsion of contacts. Thermal withstand ability during short circuits. Constant contact pressure even when the live parts of the insulator stacks are subject to tensile stresses due to linear expansion of connected bus bar or flexible conductors either because of temperature variations or strong winds. Wiping action during closing and opening. Self alignment assuring closing of the switch without minute adjustments. The earthing switches should be provided with three sets of suitable type of fixed contacts below the fixed contacts assemblies of the main switch on the incoming supply side and three sets of moving contacts having ganged operation. These contacts too should be fabricated out of electrolytic copper and dimensioned to withstand the rated currents. Arcing Horn & Arcing Contacts A set of adjustable arcing horns should be mounted on each insulator stack of the isolating switch. Besides above mentioned adjustable arcing horns which are required for the purposes of insulation co-ordination, the isolators may be provided with make before and break after arcing contacts if considered necessary by the manufactures. A graph showing impulse and power frequency spark over voltages for various gap settings of the arcing horns should be obtained for supplier.
Insulation Co-ordination Insulation of the equipment and transmission lines should be properly co-ordinated both in respect of power frequency and impulse voltages. The gap setting of arcing horns on the isolator for achieving such coordination should be provided. (It may be stated that Lightning Arrestors are installed directly to protect transformers).
Terminal Connectors Each isolator connected with outgoing lines should be provided with appropriate number of bimetallic, solderless clamp type of connectors suitable for the transmission line conductor. Each terminal clamp should be suitable for both vertical & horizontal connection of station bus bars and jumpers. Each isolator should also be provided with appropriate number of grounding terminals and clamps for receiving grounding connections. The maximum length of the jumper that may be safely connected or any special instructions considered necessary to avoid undue loads on the post insulators should be avoided.
Interlocks “For the purpose of making the operation of the isolator dependent upon the position of the associated circuit breaker or other equipment as may be required at site, a suitable electrical interlock should be provided on each isolator. The interlocks should be of robust design of some reputed make and contained in a weather proof and dust tight housing. Besides the electrical interlocks, the earthing switches should be provided with mechanically operated interlock so as to ensure that: -
(a) (b) (c)
It should be possible to close the earthing switch only when the isolating switch is in the fully open position. It should be possible to close the isolating switch only when the earthing switch is in the fully open position. The earth switch should not open automatically while attempting to close the isolator. The operation of the earth switches should also be interlocked with the CVTs/CTs supplies from the transmission line i.e. it should be possible to close the earth switch only when the line is dead from the feeding end, and there is no supply from the secondaries of the line CVTs/CTs.
The operation of earth/isolating switch should not take place when the corresponding isolator/earth switch is in operating stroke. In addition to the above, the line and the bus isolators should fulfil the following requirements:-
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
The circuit breaker of corresponding bay is open. The bus isolator of the bus coupler bay should close only when the bus coupler circuit breaker is open. The line isolator should close only when the corresponding circuit breaker and the earthing switch of the corresponding line are open. Electro magnetic type interlocking should also be provided to avoid wrong local operation of the isolator (manual or motor) when the corresponding circuit breaker is in closed position. Isolators and earth switches should be so designed that the above noted requirements can be conveniently met.
Supporting Structures All isolators and earthing switches should be mounted rigidly in an upright position on their own galvanised steel supporting structure and not on the line or bus-bar structures.
1.5.10 Tests Each isolator and earth switch should strictly comply with the requirements of all the type tests and should be subjected to all routine tests stipulated in the latest edition of relevant Indian standard. Copies of the type tests already performed on similar type of isolators must be obtained and scrutinized for adequacy. 1.6 Current Transformers Current transformers may be either of the bushing type or wound type. The bushing types are normally accommodated within the transformer bushings and the wound types are invariably separately mounted. The location of the current transformer with respect to associated circuit breaker has an important bearing upon the protection scheme as well as layout of, substation. Current transformer class and ratio is determined by electrical protection, metering consideration. Technical specifications – Current ratings, design, Temperature rise and testing etc. should be in accordance with IS: 2705 (part I to IV). 1.6.1 Type and Rating The current transformer should be of outdoor type, single phase, oil immersed, self cooled and suitable for operation in 3 phase solidly grounded system. Each current transformers should have the following particulars under the site conditions for the system under design (typical values for 72.5 kV system are given).
number. 8 . ratio. tested quality and reliable in operation. filled with appropriate quality of insulating oil under high vacuum and hermetically sealed with or without inert gas to eliminate undesirable effect of moisture and oxygen on the internal insulation.6. no. 1. No breathers and/or drying chemicals should be used in the design and construction of CTs. Short time current rating (based on system studies) Rated dynamic current peak (based on system studies) Total minimum creepage of CTs bushings (based on environment) 66 kV 72. All external surfaces should be resistant to atmospheric corrosion either by the selection of suitable materials or by proper treatment such as hot dip galvanisation.6.75 Ka 1875 mm 1.e. current.3 Temperature Rise The maximum temperature attained by any part of the equipment in service at site under continuous overload capacity conditions and exposed continuously to the direct rays of sun should not exceed the permissible limit fixed by the applicable standard. wound evenly under controlled conditions and impregnated with mineral oil under high vacuum should be used for the main insulation.i) ii) iii) iv) Nominal system voltage Highest system voltage Frequency Insulation level (based on system insulation coordination) (a) Impulse withstand test voltage with 1. when corrected for the difference between the ambient temperature at site and the ambient temperature specified by the standard. The assembly of each CT should be dried.6.2/50 micro-second.5 kV 50 Hz 325 kV (Peak) 140 kV (rms) v) vi) vii) 31. of cores and protection/metering class based on metering and relaying scheme be specified. The shape of the external metal parts should ensure that rain water runs off and it does not accumulate. 1. Only pure high grade paper.2 Detailed of Current Transformer Details of current transformer i. +ve and –ve wave to earth and between poles (b) One minute power frequency (wet) withstand voltage against ground and between poles.5 kA 78.4 General Requirements Current transformers should be of robust design.
5 Terminal Connectors All current transformers should be provided with appropriate number of solderless clamp type primary connectors suitable for ACSR conductor and should be suitable for horizontal as well as vertical take off with single conductor as per actual requirement. The equipment should be provided with oil level gauge and pressure relieving device capable of releasing abnormal internal pressures.6. non-ageing silicon laminated steel of low hysteresis loss and high permeability to ensure high accuracy at both normal and fault currents. The equipment should also be provided with drain valve. the internal metal surfaces coming in contact with oil should be given proper treatment unless the material used itself is oil resistant. 9 . Although no oil samples may be required to be taken for analysis nor any filter connections made for reconditioning of oil at site but a filling plug at the top and a drain at the bottom of the lower tank should be provided on each CT for use during initial assembly or any subsequent repair. The necessary flanged. The galvanising should conform to IS: 2629-1966. Rubber or PVC/synthetic bellows for the purpose should not be accepted. Means adopted for sealing the CTs hermetically and to absorb the variation in volume of oil due to temperature variation by way of provision of stainless steel volume adjustable bellows or other means should be clearly brought out in the tender. Equipment should be provided with power factor terminals for testing loss angle (Tan delta). All CTs should have an oil level gauge marked with the maximum and minimum levels. The CTs should be hermetically sealed with or without inert gas to eliminate breathing and prevent air and moisture from entering into the tank.6. nuts and washers to be used as fastners should be heavily hot dip galvanised throughout.zinc coating and suitable enamel painted over rust inhibitive coat of zinc chrome primer etc. The current transformers should be of single phase oil immersed. The secondary terminal of CTs should be provided with short circuiting arrangement. Likewise. The current transformers should be with dead/live tank design. bolts etc. 1. To take care of volumetric variation of oil due to temperature changes-stainless steel bellows/Nitrogen should be provided. sampling plug to check deterioration of oil characteristics and replacement of oil at site. The cores should be of high grade. self cooled and suitable for services indicated. The secondary terminals should be brought out in a compartment on one side of the equipment for easy access. for the base of CTs should be galvanized. Bolts. complete in all respects conforming to the latest edition of relevant standard specification. 1. The secondary taps should be adequately reinforced to withstand normal handling without damage.6 Type of Mounting The current transformers should be suitable for mounting on steel structures. In case Nitrogen is used the supplier should ensure that gas is filled at suitable pressure to take care of the expansion & compression of nitrogen gas.
The poreclain should have hard glazing and should comply with the requirements of IS 5621 in all respects.9 Fittings and Accessories 1.7 Tests Each current transformer should comply with type and routine test including short time current test as stipulated in relevant Indian Standard specification. 11.6. 4. 1.1. 5. The skirt forms should be carefully selected to achieve the necessary flashover distance and total / protected creepage distances as required.6.6. another set of voltage transformer is normally required on the bus-bars for purpose of synchronization. 8. Lifting lugs Fixing lugs with bolts. Potential transformer class and ratio is determined by electrical protection. 2. However. 6. The electro-magnetic type VTs are costlier than the capacitor type and are commonly used where higher accuracy is required as in the case of revenue metering.7 Potential Transformer and Coupling Voltage Transformer The voltage transformer may be either of the electro-magnetic type or the capacitor type. For other applications capacitor type is preferred particularly at high voltages due to lower cost and it serves the purpose of a coupling capacitor also for the carrier equipment. 1. 13. metering consideration. Insulators should be of high grade and homogeneous procelain made by the wet process.8 External Insulation The external insulation should comprise of a hollow porcelain. For ground fault relaying an additional core or a winding is required in the Voltage transformers which can be connected in open delta. The voltage transformers are connected on the feeder side of the circuit breaker. Rating and diagram plates First filling of oil Oil filling plug and drain valve Earthing terminals 1. which will also serve as a housing for the main insulation or other internal parts of the CTs. 7. 10 . 3. 10. 12. Weather proof secondary terminal box fitted with door and complete with terminals and shorting links. 9. Primary terminals High frequency current surge divertors Terminal connectors for connections from line to the CT primary Oil level gauge Pressure relief device Expansion chamber or other suitable type of device for absorbing variations in the volume of oil due to change of temperature. nuts and washers for holding down the CTs on the supporting steel structures.
The PTs should be hermetically scaled to eliminate breathing and prevent air and moisture entering the tank. design.s.5 kV system are given).m. : : As per IS: 3156 Continuous – 1. i) ii) 10. should be provided.1.1 Type and Rating of Potential Transformer Potential transformer. 8.5 kV 50 c/s 7. The core should be of high grade non ageing electrical silicon laminated steel of high permeability. 9. 1 2 3 Rated voltage Rated frequency Accuracy class of Winding 4. Each potential transformers should have the following particulars under the site conditions for the system under design (typical values for 72. 5.2 30 seconds-1.8 p.7. Voltage ratio Grade of oil Maximum phase angle error with 25% and 110% of rated burden at 0. Temperature rise and testing etc.2/50 micro seconds impulse wave withstand test voltage One minute power frequency withstand : : : 140 kV r. lagging at any voltage between 80% and 120% Temperature rise at 1-1 times rated voltage with rated burden (OC) Rated voltage factor & time (based on system studies) Insulation Level (based on system insulation coordination) 1 minute power frequency (wet/dry) withstand test voltage 1. 6. : : 72. should be in accordance with IEC: 186 The PTs should be single phase oil immersed self cooled type suitable for outdoor installation of kV class required.f. (As per IS: 3156) 325 kV (Peak) 2 kV : : : as required 66 kV/√3/110V/√3 As per IS: 335 40 min. Oil level and pressure releasing device etc.5 11 .
1.8 Transformers Selection of power transformer is discussed in section 2. Arrangement for removal of transformer in case of repair/maintenance without disturbing other equipment is required and also affects layout. important from the point of view of handling and station layout. All nuts. The 66 kV wave traps should be procured and hanged underneath feeder bay structure. Other details should be in accordance with the specifications for potential transformers. The single phase CVTs should be of suitable ratio (say 66 kV/√3/110V/√3 for 66 kV line) suitable for outdoor installation on steel structures. For this purpose bi-directional rollers are provided on the transformers. Minimum creepage distance of bushings (based on environment) : 1815 mm 1. should not exceed 45°C over ambient. The carrier frequencies and wave trap capacity should be decided and intimated in accordance with the other ends of the transmission lines terminating at sub station. therefore.7. The junction boxes should be suitable for terminating all the connections of the PTs secondaries with other equipments of the power station 400V grade terminal connectors of 15 Amp (continuous) current rating should be provided. flanges and base should be hot dip galvanized. The equipment should be supplied with terminal connectors suitable for vertical take off from line conductor and hot dip galvanized base fasteners. Layout of transformer is discussed as it is the largest piece of equipment in a substation and it is. The terminal connectors should be such as to give intimate contact between conductor & terminal and offer protection against and effects of electrolytic and atmospheric corrosion and should also have sufficient mechanical strength.2 Temperature Rise The maximum temperature of the windings.test voltage on secondaries 11. The secondary terminals should be provided duly marked for above requirements. In order to reduce the chances of spread of fire. transformers are provided with a soaking pit of adequate capacity to contain the total quantity of oil. In small hydro stations transformer are installed in the switchyard and the bay width is determined by transformer dimensions. Handling of transformer is normally done by the powerhouse crane and for large transformer rails are laid from powerhouse to the site of installation in switchyard. The connectors should conform IS 5556: 1970.3 Coupling Voltage Transformer These transformers should be suitable for use on transmission line to pass through the carrier frequencies for communication and low voltage for protection and metering.7. temperature of oil at top should not exceed 35°C over ambient. The PTs should be suitable for mounting on steel structures. bolts. Sometimes where feasible drainage arrangements are 12 . while max. 1. cores etc.
1 2 3 Particulars Nominal system voltage (kV rms) Highest system voltage (kV rms) 1.5 4 5 6 7 8.5/1. 1. SI No.5 c/s Effectively earthed Three 13 . 1.5 325 325 31.2/50 micro second wave) and are capable of withstanding dissipation of energy associated with lightning impulse only. IEC: 99-4 IS: 3070 Speficaiotns part – 4 for surge arrestor without gap for AC system Specification for lightning arrestors Typical parameters for a 66 kV system are given below.2 1/10 50 ±2. Modern metal oxide (gapless) lightning arrestor confirming to following standards are now being specified.9 Lightning Arrestors Lightning arrestors are the basis of insulation co-ordination in the system and are installed at outdoor transformer terminals for direct protection against lightning impulse overvoltage spark over (1.u.2/50 microsecond impulse voltage withstand level a Transformers (kVp) b Other equipment and lines(kVp) Minimum prospective symmetrical fault current for 1 second at Arrestor location (kA rms) (based on system studies) Anticipated levels of temporary overvoltage and its duration (based on system studies) a> Voltage(p. This implies that temporary overvoltages (at or near power frequency) which are of the order of mili-second must be withstood to avoid damage. separation wall are provided in between the transformers and also between the transformer and roads within the substation.) b> Duration (seconds) System frequency(Hz) Neutral Grounding Number of Phases System Voltage(kV rms) 66 72.provided to drain the oil away from the transformers in case of fire. Besides.
4. 9. 5. 10 11. 6. continuous operating voltage Installation Class Type of construction for 10 kA Phase rated arrestor Nominal discharge current corresponding to 8/20 micro sec wave shape(kA rms) Min.Switching Surge kV(P) Protective level voltage at 1000 amp. 13. Particulars Requirement of parameters 66kV 60 49 Outdoor Station Class Single Column.discharge characteristics) Pedestal Phase To Earth 3 140 Rated Arrestor Voltage kV rms . The grading ring on each complete Arrestor for proper stress distribution should be provided if required for attaining all the relevant technical parameters.General Technical Requirements 1 2 3 4 The Surge Arrestors should conform to the technical requirements as required. The Lightning Arrestor should be fitted with pressure relief devices and arc diverting ports and should be tested as per the requirements of IEC specification for minimum prospective symmetrical fault current. residual voltage kV(P) for nominal 170 discharge current 10 kA with 8/20 micro second wave Max. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR METAL OXIDE(GAPLESS) LIGHTNING ARRESTORS (TYPICAL REQUIREMENT FOR 66 KV CLASS) SI No. 17. The energy handling capability of the Arrestor offered. 16. residual voltage kV(P) steep frontedcurrent 186 impulse of 10kA Minimum prospective symmetrical fault current 31. discharge capability Type of mounting Connection Long duration discharge class Max. 3.5 for pressure relief test(kA rms) a. Take off Voltage (kv rms ) ( corona extinction) Maximum radio interference voltage (Microvolt) when energized Single Zebra Vertical/Horizontal Rated voltage of the arrestor 500 Microvolt 14 . 7.(kV rms) Max. 2. 12. Terminal Connector suitable for ACSR conductor size b. 14 15. supported by calculations should be obtained with offer. Max. 8. Single 10 5 kj/kV (Referred to rated arrester voltage to Min. 1.
As a first step to combat this problem. 19. 1. This.10 A substation has to be shielded against direct lightning strokes by provision of overhead earth wires or spikes. the spikes method involves taller structures than the alternative of using earth wires.11 Insulators Provision of adequate insulation in a substation is of primary importance from the point of view of reliability of supply and safety of personnel. in the case of strain bus-bar arrangement. washing the insulators by using live line equipment has to be resorted to and this aspect has to be kept in mind while deciding the layout of the substation.have to be suitably placed so as to provide coverage to the entire substation equipment. particularly if it is located near sea or a thermal power generating station or an industrial plant is the level of pollution. the frequency depending upon the degree and the type of pollution. Generally an angle of shield of about 45° for the area between ground wires and. Whether insulating base and discharge counter with milliammeter are required Minimum creepage distance of Arrestor housing(mm) Lightning Protection yes 1813 mm 1. Similarly the form of structures also plays an important 15 . however. special insulators with higher leakage distance should be used. Generally. 30° for other areas is considered adequate for the design of lightning protection system.12 Structures The cost of structures is a major consideration while deciding the layout of a substation. also requires cleaning of insulation.Besides providing lightning protection. these masts serve as supports for luminaires required for switchyard illumination. cost of structures is much higher than in the case of rigid bus type. In case this does not suffice. 1. Another method which has proved to be successful in other countries involves the application of suitable type of greases or compounds on the surface of the insulators. An important consideration in determining the insulation in a substation. Spikes and the earth-wire . Another method' comprises the use of separate lightning masts which are provided at location determined on the basis of sub station area and height of bus-bars. Both the methods have been used sometimes even in the same station. .18. This equipment is essential irrespective of the isoceraunic level of the area due to . the station design should be so evolved that the quantity of insulators required is the minimum commensurate with the security of supply. For instance.serious consequences and damage to costly equipment in case substation is hit by a direct stroke. However. The choice between these two methods depends upon several factors economy being the most important consideration.
Normally the steel structures are hot-tip galvanized so as to protect them against corrosion. 1. In step-up substations most of the facilities are provided in the powerhouse. Economic study for Microwave transmission for the purpose is required. particularly in substations located in costal or industrial areas and in such cases painting becomes essential. The coupling capacitors are installed on the line side of the wave trap and are normally base mounted. Steel is the most commonly used material in India for substation structures. Fibre optic cable is recommended when offsite control is provided. However. 1. relaying and Tele metering is connected to line through coupling capacitor and wave trap.part and the choice is usually between using few number of heavy structures or a larger number of smaller structures. The wave trap installed at the line entrance. i) ii) iii) iv) Carrier Equipment Microwave VHF wireless Dedicated fibre optic cable VHF equipment is normally recommended for 33 kV systems. galvanizing sometimes has not proved effective. Relaying and Tele Metering and Off-site Control Following types of equipments may be used for the purpose. The carrier equipment required for communication. Reinforced concrete structures have sometimes been used in place of steel and it has been found that maintenance of these structures is almost negligible.14 Auxiliaries Besides the main equipment a number of auxiliary facilities and system as enumerated below have to be provided. a) b) c) d) Earthing and Grounding – Steel grounding system is provided for earthmat and interconnection Oil Handling System – portable oil purification system is provided Illumination and lightning system – illumination system is discussed with auxiliaries system Compressed air system – is required for cleaning etc. In other countries special paints have been developed which are applied within the shop and these paints have proved quite effective. and provided in the powerhouse 16 .13 Equipment for Communication. these are discussed alongwith auxiliaries in the powerhouse. The structures are cast in site.
15 Fire protection system – portable fire protection is provided AC Auxiliary power system – is provided in the power house DC system is provided in the powerhouse Cables – discussed in powerhouse electrical auxiliaries Crane Facilities Large substations sometimes require the facilities of repair bay alongwith a crane of adequate capacity for handling the heaviest equipment. winching should be provided at the transformer foundations and 900 turn on the rail track for changing the direction of the wheels. 1. Points for jacking. 17 .17 Switchyard Layout Low level layout of the 6switchyard step up station should be prepared. 4 .17 (a) & (b). 1. 1.A typical layout of 66 kV switchyard sub station for Mukerain Stage II with single sectionalized bus is attached as Fig. Layout of switchyard may be designed in accordance with CBI & P Manual No. In hydropower station powerhouse crane is generally used for this purpose. Two meter gates of approximately 4000 mm width ( 2000 mm wide each leaf) is normally required for entry fixed of transformers and personnels.16 Pale Fencing Pale fencing around switchyard consists of 75 mm wide and 2500 mm high pales fixed on two members 45 x 45 x 6 mm angle horizontal runners vertical supports may 50 x 50 x 6 mm angle. Provision of a rail track should be made for movement of transformer from switchyard to the repair bay. which is usually the transformer.e) f) g) h) 1. Repair/service bay of powerhouse is used for repair of transformer.
L.17 (a) Layout of 66 kV Switchyard (Plan) 18 .46400 6800 7600 3000 LA 2000 3000 2000 X CVT WT 8500 3000 LI 1000 3500 2000 L 2500 CT CB 2500 PT BI 2000 1800 2000 2000 2550 750 2500 2000 2500 750 2550 2000 2000 1800 66 k V BI 1200 9500 Z 1500 Y CT 1800 L 2000 R CB Y 39750 2250 2000 B 1800 LA 2250 12 M VA 11/66 KV TRANSFORM ER Z 2000 7000 2000 2000 1800 SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM X 3500 1500 1500 LEGEND 1 SF 6 CIRCUIT BREAKER 2 ISOLATOR 3 CURRENT TRANSFORM ER 4 WAVE TRAP 5 COUPLING VOLTAGE TRANSFORM ER 6 LIGHTNING ARRESTOR 7 POST INSULATOR 8 POTENTIAL TRANSFORM ER 9 PALE FENCING 10 LIGHTING M AST 11 LIGHTING AND SHIELDING M AST 4250 2250 B Y R B Y R 5000 WATER TANK 2000 8800 8800 8800 8800 COM PRESSOR ROOM 5000 Y C. 1. OF TRACK PLAN Fig.
11 2500 1800 2000 2000 1800 7 6 6000 6000 7500 10000 1500 1800 SECTION Z-Z 1500 1800 3800 2250 2500 2000 20550 3000 2250 4250 3000 5000 SECTION Y . 1.L LEGEND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 CIRCUIT BREAKER ISOLATOR CURRENT TRANSFORMER WAVE TRAP COUPLING VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER LIGHTING ARRESTOR POST INSULATOR POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER PALE FENCING LIGHTING MAST LGHTING AND SHIELDING MAST 2500 8 1800 6 5 4 2 1 3 2000 2000 1800 10000 7500 1500 1800 3000 2500 2500 20550 2000 2750 2250 2000 1800 SECTION Z-Z 1500 1800 SECTION X -X Fig.Y 2500 8 7500 2000 10 500 7500 9 6000 4000 500 1800 2000 7600 2000 1800 2300 1500 9100 1500 3050 750 2500 2000 7000 40400 2500 750 2550 2000 9100 2000 1800 1800 2000 2000 7600 2000 SECTION L .17 (b) Layout of 66 kV Switchyard (sections) 19 6000 2000 .
Lower installed cost. These guidelines are for generators/power transformers used in SHP for outdoor switching i. These power transformers are generator transformers. These are 2 winding oil immersed transformers. Lower probability of failure when properly protected by surge arrestors. Power transformers are located outside preferably in the switchyard /or transformer deck in powerhouse.1.e. Most of these transformers are unit connected i. Three Phase Versus Single Phase Transformer Three phase generator transformers should be used unless transport limitations or other special reasons require use of single-phase transformer because of the following reasons. 295-2007) 2.e.SECTION –2 SELECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMER 2. 2.2 Generator Transformers Power transformer which step up the power produced by hydroelectric generating units (generally 3. In hydroelectric plants. 33 kV. Smaller space requirements and reduction in weight and dimensions.1 General Power transformers function is to convert electric power from one voltage level to another. thermal devices and oil cooling and preservation system.3 to 11 kV) to a level which matches the sub transmission/transmission system (typically 36 kV to 245 kV class) for transformers range of power houses under considerations. a) b) c) d) e) Higher efficiency than three single-phase units of equivalent capacity. step up transformer perform the task of delivering power produced by the generators to the transmission system.1 Relevant national and international standards in this connection are as follows: IS: 2026 (Part 1 to 4) IS: 2099 IS: 3639 IEC: 60076 (Part 1 to 5) CBI & P (Publication No. Power transformers are liquid immersed. Lower total weight Specifications for Power Transformer Bushings for alternating voltage above 1000V Fittings and accessories for power transformer Specifications for Power Transformer Manual on transformer (oil immersed) 20 . directly connected to step up transformers with or without a generator breaker.
15 4.5 Voltage ratio kV 132/11 132/11 132/11 Cooling ONAN/ONAF ONAN/ONAF ONAN/ONAF 21 .2. Table 2.4 (C ) Two Winding Transformers ONAN ONAN ONAN ONAN/ONAF ONAN/ONAF Threes phase power rating MVA 16 25 31.3 8. 2.4 (B ) 66 kV Class Transformers ONAN ONAN ONAN ONAN ONAN ONAN ONAN ONAN Three phase power rating MVA 6.0 Voltage ratio kV Cooling 66/11 66/11 66/11 66/11 66/11 Table 2. & C) may be used if possible.6 3.3 Transformer Rating The full load kVA rating of the generator transformer should be at least equal to the maximum kVA rating of the generator or generators with which they are associated. Where transformers with auxiliary cooling facilities have dual kVA ratings.0 5.4 (A.B.0 10.4 Standard Rating Standard rating for power transformer of voltage class commonly used given in table 2.5 20.0 6. The maximum transformer rating should match the maximum generator rating.3 8.0 12.0 1.0 Voltage ratio kV Cooling 33/11 33/11 33/11 33/11 33/11 33/11 33/11 33/11 Table 2.0 10.4 (A) 33 kV Class Transformers Three phase power rating MVA 1.
4 (A. Cooling Medium Mineral oil or equivalent flammable synthetic insulating liquid Air Kind of Circulation Natural Forced (oil not directed) Symbol O A N F Transformer is identified by four symbols for each cooling method for which a rating is assigned by the manufacturer. b. The maximum transformer rating should match maximum generator rating with forced cooling in dual rating transformers. The rating of these dual rated transformers is usually as follows: ONAN/OFAF ONAN 60% 22 .2. (i) a. Letter symbols used in the table are as follows:. which are commonly employed. b. 2nd Letter 1st Letter Kind of cooling Kind of circulation medium indicating the cooling that is in contact with the windings 3rd Letter 4th Letter Kind of cooling Kind of circulation medium indicating the cooling medium that is in contact with the external cooling systems Following cooling systems are used in hydroelectric stations upto 25 MVA capacity Symbol ONAN ONAF OFAF Oil Immersed Natural Air Cooled Oil Immersed Forced Air Cooled Oil Immersed with forced oil circulation Forced Air Cooled Transformers when located in powerhouse should be sited so that unrestricted ambient air circulation is allowed.5 Cooling Transformer cooling system for generator transformers specified table 2. (ii) a.B & C) in accordance with IS: 2026 (part II) are identified according to the cooling method employed.
1. Standby cooling capacity should be provided for different type of forced cooling as follows as per Central Board of Irrigation and Power Manual on Transformer.7. transformers. Overload Capacity And Continuous Rating Conservative value of temperature rise. Cooling medium Maximum ambient temperature Maximum daily average ambient temperature Maximum yearly weighted average temperature : Air : 500C : 400C : 320C With the above ambient temperature condition the temperature rises for power transformers as per CBI & P are as given below: Oil 0C 50 Winding 0C 55 However more conservative temperature rise are specified for generator.6 Temperature Rise. Normally oil immersed transformer should be provided with conservator vessels.1 Electrical Characteristics Type of Transformer and Operating Conditions All transformers.OFAF - 100% The rating under ONAF condition although not guaranteed should be about 80%. 2 – Standby fans one in each 50% group Or 3 – 50% group with independent pump and fans out of which one group to act as standby. Reference ambient temperatures and climatic conditions and temperature rise specified for generators transformer at Mukerian stage II in Punjab given in Annexure 2. the following ambient temperatures are recommended by CBI & P. there will be no conservator but adequate space will be provided for expansion of oil without developing undue pressure. 2. overload capacity and continuous rating of transformer located in the switchyard should be specified. 2. Where sealed transformers are specified. 23 . For the purpose of standardization of maximum temperature rise of oil and windings. should be oil immersed and may be either core or shell type and should be suitable for outdoor installation. ONAN/OFAF -2 – 50% group 2 – 100% pump of which one will be standby.7 2.
The low voltage rating should be suitable for the generator voltage (if unit connected) or generator bus.5 % steps.25%.3 Voltage Ratio The high voltage rating should be suitable for the voltage of the transmission system to which it will be connected.7.5 % in steps of 2. Combined voltage and frequency variation should not exceed the rated V/f ratio by 10%.2 Continuous Maximum Rating and Overloads Transformers provided with mixed cooling should comply. The transformer may be operated without danger an any particular tapping at the rated kVA provided that the voltage does not vary by more than + 10% of the voltage corresponding to the tapping. Generator transformers are generally provided. If nothing has been stated by the purchaser. in accordance with IS: loading guide at their CMR and at any ratio.Transformers designed for mixed cooling should be capable of operating under the natural cooled condition upto the specified load. The transformer should be suitable for continuous operation with a frequency variation of +3 % from normal 50 Hz. that should be specifically stated by the purchaser. the test should be carried out at the tapping with the highest load losses.7. 2. The forced cooling equipment shouldl come into operation by pre-set contacts in WTI and the transformer will operate as forced cooled unit. In case bi-directional flow of power is required. Off-circuit taps on HV for HV variation from +2. with the appropriate requirements of IS: 2026 when operating with natural cooling and with mixed cooling. 2. For interconnecting 2 transmission voltage system say 66 kV and 132 kV size. For interconnecting 24 . All transformers. Transformer fitted with two coolers each capable of dissipating 50% of the losses at continuous maximum rating (CMR) should be capable of remaining in operation for 20 minutes in the event of failure of the blower associated with one cooler without the estimated winding hot-spot temperature exceeding 1500C. except where stated should be capable of operation continuously.5 to – 7. Transformer should be capable of remaining in operation at full load for 10 minutes after failure of blowers without the calculated winding hot-spot temperature exceeding 1500 C. On load taps if provided should have tapping range of +5% to – 10 % in steps of 1. autotransformers with standard ratings as per IS should be provided. as regards its rating temperature rise and overloads. Temperature rise test should be performed at the tapping as desired by the purchaser.
7.4 Duty Under fault Condition Generator transformer should be designed for exceptional circumstances arising due to sudden disconnection of the load and should be capable of operating at approximately 25 % above normal rated voltage for a period not exceeding one minute and 40 % above normal rated voltage for a period of 5 seconds. use of either regulating transformer or on-load tap changer may be made. All transformers above 5 MVA should be provided with overfluxing protection device.7.8 (a) and currently used level as per CBI & P are given in table 2. 2. 145.auto-transformers. 170 and 245 kV depends on the severity of overvoltage conditions to be expected in the system and on the importance of particular installation. of each transformer at normal voltage and frequency should be such that the flux density in over voltage conditions (1. 2. It is recommended that a committee may be appointed to carry out detailed studies for insulation levels to be adopted. Guidance may be obtained from IS: 2165-1977.8 Basic Insulation Levels (BIL) Transformers are the starting point for insulation co-ordination and are as such directly protected by lightning arrestor. It may be noted that higher insulation level are being specified.9 tesla/19000 lines per cm2. Studies involve coordinating and determining adequate protective margins for the following transformer insulation characteristics: Insulation coordination studies are recommended to be carried out for fixing BIL. The choice between list 1 and 2 for Um < 52 kV and the choice between alternative rated withstand voltages for Um = 123. which is extracted form a paper in the forty sixth session CBI & P . 25 . significant economic savings can be made in the procurement of power transformers by specifying reduced BIL levels in conjunction with the application of the appropriate metal oxide arrestor for transformer surge protection. 2.7. To determine appropriate values.7.3 & 1. an insulation coordination study should be made.5 Flux density The maximum flux density in any part of the core and yokes. Rated withstand voltage for transformer windings for commonly used higher system voltages for generator transformers directory connected to transmission system as per IS 2026 is shown in table 2.2. The values chosen should be clearly stated in the enquiry. A typical study carried out shows the extent of reduction in the rated insulation level is attached as annexure 2. With the advent of metal oxide surge arrestors.4) does not exceeds 1.8 (b). Significant cost reduction is possible if lower levels are adopted.
and transmission line regulation. Detailed study should be made if reduced short circuit level or line regulation consideration are materials and specific feasible impedance values are required.8 (a) . short circuit currents.8 (b) Nominal System Voltages kV rms 11 33 66 132 220 Highest Rated Short Duration Rated Lighting Voltage for Power Frequency withstand voltage Equipment withstand Voltage kV rms kV rms kV Peak 12 28 75 36 70 170 72.5 123 145 kV 145 325 450 550 450 550 650 650 750 850 950 1050 List 2 kV 170 245 Table 2.5 140 325 145 230 550 245 395 950 2.9 Impedance Impedance of the transformers has a material effect on system stability.Standards insulation levels for 1 kV < U m < 52 kV Highest voltage for equipment Um (RMS) Rated Lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak) Rated power frequency short duration withstand voltage (RMS) kV 70 140 185 230 185 230 275 275 325 360 395 460 List 1 kV 36 72. and it is usually desirable to keep the impedance at the lower limit of normal impedance design values.Table 2. 26 .
0 10.0 1.35 10.60 6.15 10.00 8.Typical values of impedance voltage for transformers with two separate windings (at rated current.5 10 10 12.00 5 6. given as a % of the rated voltage of the winding to which the voltage is applied) as per IS 2026 part I – 1977 and for generator transformers as per CBI & P Manuals on Transformers are given in table 2.15 12.10 for 33 kV & 66 kV class transformer.00 7.35 66 kV Trans.25 1.00 8.9 Table . 6.00 7.15 8.35 8.30 7. 5.15 6.5 8.9 Rated Power (kVA) Impedance Impedance Voltage (%) as per CBI & Voltage (%) as P manual per IS 2026 Three phase power Impedance rating MVA voltage (%) 4. Impedances shown are subject to a tolerance of plus or minus 10% as per IS: 2.25 8. The value of transformer impedance should be determined giving consideration to impacts on selection of interrupting capacities of station breakers and on the ability of the generators to aid in regulating transmission line voltage.0 5.0 33 kV Trans.0 8.3 alongwith a typical study 27 .35 20.00 16 25 31. Based on these losses Capitalization for transformer losses should be carried out in accordance with CBI & P manual on transformer Section L enclosed at Annexure 2.2.25 7.35 4.0 8.5 Up to 630 631 to 1250 1251 to 3150 3151 to 6300 63.5 6.10 Transformer Efficiency Transformer losses represent a considerable economic loss over the life of the power plant.3 8. Standard losses as per CBI & P manual on the basis of optimized design of manufacturer is given in table 2.15 3.35 10.01 to 12500 12501 to 25000 Above 25001 Transformers with lower or higher values of impedance are normally furnished with increase in cost.35 12. Transformer impedances should be selected based on system and plant fault study.
3.5 kV to 220 kV bushings are oil impregnated paper (OIP) type condenser bushings in accordance with IS 2099 and IEC 137. 2. Jacking pads. Air release devices. 2. 1. BSP/M 20). The rated current. Dimensions interchange capability current. Conservator with oil filling hole. Oil-filling hole and cap.11 Terminal Bushings Generator transformer connections for the generator transformers are mostly by power cables for small hydro stations upto 10 MVA rating from generator terminals to power transformer in switchyard. Plain oil level gauge for all transformers upto and including 1.for capatilisation of additional transformer loss with 10% impedance instead of 12.12 Fittings and Accessories (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Rating and diagram plate 2 Nos. 2.6 MVA. HV Side: Solid Porcelain/Oil Communicating and other type bushings upto 36 kV voltage class in accordance with IS: 3347.6 MVA. Skids and pulling eyes on both directions. Accordingly terminal for the generator transformers should be as follows: LV Side: LV bushings should be mounted on turrets suitable for connection to bus bar in bus ducts. Basic Insulation Levels should be in accordance with IS: 2099 (also refer chapter 5 – Insulation Coordination). Magnetic type oil gauge for transformers above 1. 66 kV – 72. The dimensional parameters of the bushings upto and including 36 kV voltage class should be in accordance with IS: 3347. For SHP cable boxes may be provided. 28 . Pocket on tank cover for thermometer. with low oil level alarm contact. voltage. cap and drain plug-size 19 mm nominal pipe (3/4 in. if cables are used. earthing terminals Cover lifting lugs.5% is also shown in the annexure 2. insulation level and creepage distance for various classes of the bushings should be in accordance with CBI & P Manual on transformers Section P. Bus ducts which could be isolated phase for large units or segregated phase bus ducts for smaller units may be used.
2. Pressure relief device. Valves: 1. Wiring up to marshalling box with PVC SWA PVC copper cables 660/1100 volts grade. 29 . The same can be used for filtering purpose. 1 No. Up to 5 MVA 2. 3. bi-directional and Flanged. A sampling device or sampling facility on drain valve. filter valve on upper side of transformer tank. not to exceed 1000 mm 1435 mm 1435 mm 1676 mm 1676 mm Sl. The winding temperature indicator shall be provided with anti-vibration mounting. 1. (m) Buchholz relay with alarm and trip contacts with one shut-off valve on conservator side. Size of Buchholz relay up to 10 MVA-50 mm 2. however.3 MVA 10 MVA above (r) (s) Inspection cover. (p) Tank mounted weather-proof marshalling box for housing control equipment and terminal connectors. Radiators with shut-off valves and air release plugs.(j) (k) (l) Silica gel breather with oil seal. Cooling accessories ONAN/ONAF cooling 1. bi-directional Gauge Shorter axis Longer axis As per manufacturer’s practice. (o) Winding temperature indicator with two electrical contacts for alarm and trip purposes. uni-directional Flanged. 10 MVA and above-80 mm (n) Oil temperature indicator with one electrical contact shall be provided with antivibration mounting. Switching of fans shall be done by winding temperature indicator for all transformers having ONAF rating. 6. Type Flat. Rating No. Drain valve with plug or blanking flanges. (q) Rollers-4 Nos. 3. 1.
Three-phase power No.8 2.1 7.0 8 14 22 24 27 33 44 53 40 48 57 70 102 2.4 9. 30 . Drain and sampling device.2 4.00 (b) 66 kV Transformers 6.30 8. Air release device.0 4.0 7. 3.00 10.1 3.6 5.1 8. MVA (a) 33 kV Transformers 1. no separate test is done.4 6.7 13.0 12.60 3. therefore. Filter valves. Fans.15 4. 4.2.00 6.2 6.5 20. STANDARD LOSSES AT 750C Sl.00 1.0 10. 5. (b) i) ii) 33 kV winding Separate source AC on the all line terminal (routine test) Lightning impulse on all the line terminals (routine test) Note: No separate induced overvoltage test need to be done.3 8.00 5. The winding gets tested as consequence of the induced over-voltage test with partial discharge indication on 400 kV winding.13 Dielectric Tests (a) i) ii) 220/132 kV winding Lighting impulse on all the line terminals (routine test) Induced over-voltage with partial discharge indication (routine test) This test gets simultaneously done when 400 kV winding is tested.0 rating No-load loss (kW) Load loss (kW) 1.
2. Positive nitrogen gas pressure is maintained in the space between the top of the oil and the tank cover from a cylinder through a pressure-reducing valve. Inspection. constant-pressure. type and special tests are detailed in IS 2026 part I. 2. provisions should be made to contain any oil leakage or spillage resulting from a ruptured tank or a broken drain valve.15 2. reservoir tank system. oil flow alarm.2. Various routine. 2.16 Factory and Field Testing Transformer specifications must contain complete and exhaustive section for quality control. Maintenance and Commissioning manual. (i) (ii) Inert gas pressure system. on-line dissolved gas monitoring system.18 Typical Transformer rating and characteristics Transformer rating and characteristics for a 11/66 kV transformer for Mukerain Stage-II HEP ( 2 x 10 MW) is enclosed as Annexure 2. 31 . each containing an air cell arranged to prevent direct contact between the oil and the air. Provision of Following Oil preservation system are preferred for generator step-up transformer. Specifications for fire protection of power transformers may be provided in accordance with CBI & P Manual on Transformer in Section ‘O’ or specification refer chapter on mechanical auxiliaries. Oil Containment and Fire Protection System If any oil filled transformers are used in the power plant. factory and field test. Lifting devices. Temperature detectors.14 Accessories Normal accessories are Surge arrestor. A system of one or more oil reservoirs. Air-cell.4. On-line monitoring system etc. details on the methods and procedure for corrections when ideal test conditions cannot be achieved reference may be made to test manual for transformers issued by CBI & P.17 Erection. For explanations. Provision for witness testing of factory test and method for type test should be specified in detail. Physical separation in the use of fire wall/barriers is also provided in power plants. Maintenance Testing and Commissioning Refer CBI & P manual on transformers section K entitle Erection. fans and pumps.
Annexure-2. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS : i) Maximum relative humidity ii) Yearly average number of thunder stroms _______ varies from 30 to 50 . annual weighted average temp. C in oil by thermometer 45 deg. ALTITUDE Altitude above M. i) ii) iii) 30 deg. C.S. of rainy days per annum iv) Fog : The atmosphere is subject to fog for two month in winter. v) Number of months during which tropical monsoon conditions prevail vi) Dust stroms occur at frequent intervals vii) Average annual rainfall viii) Maximum wind pressure 50 degree C 40 degree C 40 degree C Minus 5 degree C 100% 60 days 3 months 60 cms 150 kg/sq.(Cooling medium shall be Air) B.1 Ambient temperature & temperature rise for Mukerian Stage II Generator transformer 11/66 kV class rated 10/12. of 40 deg. C & 105 deg. a) TEMPERATURE RISE . C in winding by resistance The temp. C at worst ambient of 50 deg. iii) Average no. Reference Ambient Temperatures The reference ambient temperatures for which the transformers are to be designed are as under :i) ii) iii) iv) Maximum ambient temperature Maximum daily average ambient temp : Maximum yearly weighted average ambient temp : Minimum ambient air temperature : .m. C. B. OVER LOAD CAPACITY & CONTINUOUS RATING With the above service conditions. 32 . over maximum ambient temperature of 50 deg. given in clause-6.5 MVA A.4 each transformer shall be capable of operating continuously on any tap at normal rating without exceeding following temperature rises. C when calculated over max. of hot spot in the winding not to exceed 90 deg. C. level not exceeding 1000 mtrs.
losses at 75 deg.b) The limits of temperature rise mentioned above and over load capacity as per IEC-354 (1993) will have to be satisfied by the manufacturer by carrying out the heat run test at the lowest negative tap. C at highest current tap) x 1.1 The safe overload capacity of the transformer and the duration of overload for each type of cooling (ONAN/ONAF/ ) under maximum temperature conditions (Clause 6. This test shall be carried out by feeding the following losses: (Total max. c) d) 33 . which must be as per IEC-354 (1993) – Guide for loading of oil immersed transformers. under auxiliary failure condition. suitable for climatic conditions given in clause-6.5 above ) without any damage to the winding or harmful effects on the insulation shall be clearly stated in the tender. Transformer shall be able to withstand for 30 minutes after achieving steady state at full load rating without injurious heating to winding/insulation etc.4 above. The transformer may be operated without exceeding temperature rises. winding gradients and hot spot at any particular tapping at the rated MVA provided that the voltage does not vary by more than ±10% of the voltage corresponding to that tappings.
O.Annexure-2. D.2 Fixing of Insulation Levels Extracted form paper entitled “substation insulation reduction and insulation co-ordination for the voltage range 66kV – 220 kV for earthed System” by Prof. THAPAR and S. 1997 Lightning arrestor rated voltage based on temporary overvoltage withstand. 34 . Forty Sixth CBI & P Research Session Nov. Ukkali. D.
The annual loss factor takes into account the loading of the transformer during the year.3 Rationalization of capitalization Formula for Transformer Losses The rated capitalization of transformer losses depends upon the rate of interest. etc.3LF + 0. life of transformer and average annual loss f actor.4×8400×EC× n r (1 + r ) Substituting the values. 35 . In computing the rate of capitalization of iron losses.Annexure –2. Capitalization Formula Suggested Capitalised Cost of Transformer = Initial cost + Capitalised cost of annual iron losses + Capitalised cost of annual copper losses + Capitalised cost of annual auxiliary losses. Annual loss factor: The annual loss factor has been worked out on the basis of the formula given below. LS = 0. Life of the transformer (n): It is taken 35 years.7 (LF)2 Where: LS is the annual loss factor LF is the annual load factor Assuming annual load factor as 60%. n ( 1+ r) −1 Capitalised cost of iron losses per kW = 8400×EC× n r (1 + r ) n ( 1+ r) −1 ×LS Capitalised cost of copper losses per kW = 8400×EC× n r (1 + r ) n ( 1+ r) −1 Capitalised cost of iron losses per kW = 0. the capitalized cost of transformer. Life transformer is in service for a period of 350 days in a year (allowing 15 days for maintenance.432. annual loss f actor works out to 0. Rate of electrical energy (EC): It is the cost of energy per kWh at the bus to which the transformer to be connected. Following realistic assumptions have been made: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Rate of interest (r): This has been taken 10%. the transformer is in service. copper losses and auxiliary losses. rate of electrical energy per kWh. The cooling pumps remain in service for 40% of the time. breakdown.). This has been taken as 70 paise per kWh.
7x(0.1 Rate of electrical energy (EC) = 2.381 = 331766 Lacs 36 .381 kW Load factor = 80% = 0.700 Wp Where: IC = Initial cost Wi = Iron losses in kW Wc = Copper losses in kW Wp = Auxiliary losses in kW Note: The working group on transformers will review and reconsider the various variables adopted in this chapter after three years from the date of its publication.1(1 + 0.81 Capitali'sed cost of additional transformer losses = 139338.8 Rate of interest (r) = 10% = 0.5% impedance Generator Transformer Difference of loss = 2. Capitalisation of Additional Transformer Loss With 10% impedance instead 12.5 Rs Life of transformer (n) = 35 year LS = 0.1)35 − 1 × 0.1) = 8400×EC× = 139338.688 Capitalised Cost of Additional Copper loss per kW (1 + r )n − 1 × LS n r (1 + r ) (1 + 0.700 Ei + 24.8)2 = 0.81 x 2.500 Wc + 22.5× 35 0.= IC + 56.3x0.7(LF)2 LS = 0.3(LF)+0.688 = 8400×2.8+0.
V. of phases Three Rating voltage on H. Vector symbol YND11 Connections Star with neutral earthed a) H.V.V.4 TRANSFORMER RATING AND CHARACTERSTICS The rating and electrical characteristics of the transformers shall be as under: S.Annexure-2.5 MVA ONAN/ONAF Type Oil immersd Frequency 50 C/s Type of cooling Oil natural air/Oil natural Air forced No. H. Particulars 10/12.V. 4. The star connected windings of the transformers shall have graded insulation.V. Rated voltage on L.No. 3. H. One minute p.V. and L.4 IS: 2026 (Part-III) – 1981 should be kept in view while offering this parameter.V.5 325 140 38 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The provision of note under clause 5.V.5%) Variation) 11.2/50 µ Sec. winding Delta 10. positive impulse withstand voltage with stand voltage ------------------------------------of line end Line Neutral (kV peak) end(kV) end(KV) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 12 95 38 Rated System Voltage (kV) Highest system voltage (kV) 66 72. side (for H. 8. 2. 1. 6.s.V. All windings for system voltage lower than 66 KV shall have uniform insulation. side 72. 9.5 MVA (Outdoor type) Continuous kVA ratings 10/12. 5.5 to –7. Off load taps on H.m. side 11 kV r. 7. 3. suitable for cable box. 37 . bushings suitability L. Winding b) L.5 kV r.s. shall be of class”A” as specified in the latest edition of IS: 12371 The dielectric strength of winding insulation and of the bushings shall conform to values given in IS: 2026/1981 part-III amended upto date except for the changes made in this specification.V. INSULATION LEVELS Insulating material to be used.m. 2. 1.5 % (in steps of 2. The following impulse test and power frequency test voltage must be offered. + 2.f. condenser bushings with plain sheds 1.
IS: 13118 IEC: 56 IEEE: 37 IEEE 37013 .SECTION –3 SELECTION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER 3. performance requirements and tests for AC high voltage circuit breakers that are installed in SHP outdoor switchyard after the step up transformer on outgoing transmission line feeders. Special requirement for rating of AC high voltage generator circuit breakers between the generator and transformer terminals are also discussed. ii) iii) 38 . 3.1 Introduction Circuit breaker is a mechanical switching device capable of making. carrying and breaking current under normal circuit condition as well as under specified abnormal circuit condition such as short circuit etc. Minimum oil breakers (Live Tank Design) – In these circuit breakers oil is primarily used for arc extinction and not necessarily for insulating live parts from earth (ground).2 3. The circuit breakers are phase separated. Selection of outdoor circuit breakers for switchyards 36 kV and above upto 220 kV as regards types. 3.AC high voltage generator circuit breaker rated on symmetrical current basis 3. These circuits breakers are being phased out.High voltage alternating current circuit breakers .1 i) Classification Following types of circuit breakers formerly used in high voltage outdoor substations are no longer in use and are being phased out. 2. The tank of these circuit breakers are insulated from earth ground.2.IEEE AC high voltage circuit breakers . 4.1. rating. These circuit breakers were widely used upto 765 kV system. Circuit breakers are generally classified according to interrupting medium used to cool and elongate electrical arc permitting interruption. Air blast circuit breaker – circuit breaking in these circuit breakers occurs in a blast of air under pressure.1 References Relevant National and important international standard in this connection are as follows:1.Specification for high-voltage alternating current circuit breakers . These circuit breaker were widely used upto 72 kV level and are being phased out from existing installation. Bulk oil circuit breakers (Dead Tank Design) – In these circuit breakers oil contents is used for arc extinction and also for insulating live parts from the tank which is dead and generally earthed (ground).
3. The dielectric strength of SF6 gas reduce significantly at lower pressures. normally as a result of lower ambient temperatures. Gas circuit breaker generally employ SF-6 (sulphar hexafluoride) as an interrupting medium and sometimes as an insulating medium. In other designs. Sulphar hexafluoride remains in a gaseous state upto a temperature of 90C at 15 kg/cm2 pressure its density is about five times of air and the free heat convection is 1. Bushings are used for line and load connections which permit installation of bushing current transformers for 39 . Apart from being a gas. On the other hand the metallic fluorides at the temperatures of the arc are good insulators and the arc is therefore.4 times that of air and compares very well with that of oil. i) SF-6 – Sulphar Hexa Flouride Breakers 36 kV to 220 kV class ii) Vacuum circuit breakers upto 36 kV class iii) Air circuit breaker upto 12 kV (Generator circuit breaker) Sulphar Hexafluoride as an Arc Quenching Agent:. the interrupter is designed to compress the gas during the opening stroke and use the compressed gas as a transfer mechanism to cool the arc and to elongate the arc through a grid (arc chutes). Dead –tank designs put the interrupter in a grounded metal enclosure. the arc heats the SF6 gas and the resulting pressure is used for elongating and interrupting the arc. Interrupter maintenance is at ground level and seismic withstand is improved versus the live-tank designs. At a pressure of three atmospheres the dielectric strength of suplphar hexafluoride is about 2.6 times as much as that of air. some by-products are produced due to breakdown of the gas. These by-products are a hazard to the health of the maintenance personnel therefore should be properly taken care of. Even when gas is exposed to electric arcs for fairly long periods. voltage class used for 25 MW hydro station.3 Type of Circuit Breaker Following types of circuit breakers are in use now-a-days for max. Circuit breakers are available as live-tank or dead-tank designs. Gas circuit breakers typically operate at pressures between six and seven atmospheres. it is non-inflammable. it has been found that decomposition effects are small and the dielectric strength is not materially affected. non-poisonous and odourless. Some older low-pressure SF6 breakers employed a pump to provide the high pressure SF6 gas for arc interruption. allowing extinguisher of the arc when the current passes through zero. It possesses very good arc quenching as well as insulating properties which make it ideally suitable for use in a circuit breaker. When arcing takes place through the gas. In “single puffer” mechanisms.Pure sulphar hexafluoride gas is inert and thermally stable. not at all harmful to the breaker. Monitoring of the density of the SF6 gas is critical and some designs will block operation of the circuit breaker in the event of low gas density.
This equipment utilizes SF6 as an insulating and interrupting medium and permits very compact installations. This applies to all currents from 25 to 100% of the rated short circuit current. The dead-tank breaker does require additional insulating gas to provide the insulation between the interrupter and the grounded tank enclosure. Live-tank circuit breakers consist of an interrupter that is mounted on insulators and is at line potential.3. Operation of the contacts is usually through an insulated operating rod or rotation of a porcelain insulator assembly by an operator at ground level. The superior insulating properties of SF6 allow very compact installations. Environment and/or space limitations may require the consideration of GIS (gas insulated substation) equipment. and all equipment (disconnect/isolating switches. Interrupting times are usually quoted in cycles and are defined as the maximum possible delay between energizing the trip circuit at rated control voltage and the interruption of the main contacts in all poles.phase switching or back-toback switching of capacitor banks also require review and may require specific duty circuit breakers to insure proper operation of the circuit breaker during fault interruption. ice. salt etc. grounding switches.1 GIS Substations Advancement in the use of SF6 as an insulating and interrupting medium have resulted in the development of gas insulated substations. do not affect the hermetically sealed metal clad GIS Three-phase or single-phase bus configurations are normally available up to 145 kV class. and single phase bus to 500 kV and higher. Seismic capability requires special consideration due to the high center of gravity of the interrupting chamber assembly. circuit breakers. etc. metering current.relaying. snow. This design minimizes the quantity of gas used for interrupting the arc as no additional quantity is required for insulation of a dead-tank enclosure. and potential transformers. dust.) are enclosed within an atmosphere of SF6 insulating gas. The design also readily adapts to the addition of pre-insertion resistors or grading capacitors when they are required. This approach allows a modular design as interrupters can be connected in series to operate at higher voltage levels. GIS substation are preferable to air insulated system ((AIS) because of following reasons: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Compact design reduces space requirements Higher reliability Life cycle costs and safety are better because GIS is maintenance free Location advantage especially in areas (town) where space costs are high Environmental advantage as rain. 40 . Applications requiring reclosing operation should be reviewed to be sure that the duty cycle of the circuit breaker is not being exceeded. Some applications for out –of. Breaker ratings need to be checked for some specific application. 3.
The small size of the breaker allows significant savings in space and material compared to earlier designs employing air magnetic technology. Vacuum circuit breaker are widely employed for metal-clad switchgear up to 36 kV class. the vacuum cylinder is housed in a metal cabinet or oil filled tank for dead tank construction.3 Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: Advantages of SF6 breakers over the conventional breakers is given below: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) due to outstanding arc quenching property of SF6. no carbon dioxide is formed and hence no reduction of dielectric strength.2 Vacuum Circuit Breaker Vacuum circuit breakers use an interrupter that is a smaller cylinder enclosing the moving contacts under a high vacuum. SF6 breaker performance is not affected due to variation in atmospheric conditions. this gas.GIS installations are also used in contaminated environments and as a means of deterring animal intrusions. 3. being heavier than air settles in the surroundings and may lead to suffocation of the operating personnel. using SF6 gas at low pressure and low velocity.3. When the contacts part. 3. However. Without anything to sustain the arc. during arcing of SF6 breaker. the current chopping can be minimized.4 Rated Characteristics The main characteristics of a power circuit breaker including its operating devices and auxiliary equipment used to determine the rating are as follows:• Rated voltage 41 . is a formed from contact erosion.3. The arc products are immediately forced to and deposited on a metallic shield surrounding the contacts. the arcing time is very small. it is quickly extinguished. Disadvantages: The only disadvantage is that SF6 is to some extent suffocating. SF6 breaker is compact in size and electrical clearances are drastically reduced. This reduces contact erosion. a smaller substation footprint can offset the increased initial costs by reducing the land area necessary for the substation. Although initial costs are higher than conventional substations. it is non-poisonous. When used in out door circuit breaker designs. SF6 breaker is silent in operation and moisture ingression into the gas cycle is almost nil. 3. In case of leakage in the breaker tank.
42 .5. especially where cables are involved. In addition. Attention should also be given to increase in surge voltage because of reflections which occur at breakers when their contacts are open. The operating voltage and the power frequency recovery voltage should not exceed the rated maximum values because this maximum is upper limit for continuous operation. The surge protection of the system should be coordinated with the impulse strength of the breaker. It is however considered that operation at altitude above 1000 meters should be given special considerations and certification from manufacturer be obtained because of possible influence of altitude on interrupting capacity. for three pole circuit breakers designed for direct connection to overhead transmission lines and rated at 52 kV and above. 3. which is usually equal to 1.1 Rated Voltage Voltage rating of the power circuit breaker is in terms of three phase line to line voltage of the system.• • • • • • • • • • Rated insulation level Rated frequency Rated normal current Rated short-time withstand current Rated short-circuit breaking current Rated short-circuit making current Rated operating sequence (duty cycle) Rated transient recovery voltage (TRV) for terminal fault Total breaking time (maximum) Rated characteristics for short-time faults.2 Rated Insulation Level Insulation level of power circuit breakers should be selected from standard insulation level listed in IS: 13118 Part III for voltages upto 36 kV. In case of generator circuit breakers the rated maximum should be equal to the maximum operating voltage of the generator. the following characteristics are necessity for specific application.5 Standard Ratings of Circuit Breakers 3. The rated voltage of the circuit breaker should be of standard rating chosen so as to be at least equal to the highest voltage of the system at the point where the circuit breaker is to be installed.5. table 2 for voltages upto 300 kV.05 times rated voltage. both across the open contacts and to ground. • • • • Rated line charging breaking current Rated inductive breaking current Rated capacitor breaking current Rated out of phase breaking current 3.
the surge voltage at the breaker can exceed that at the arrestors. Service at other frequencies requires special consideration. 1250A. 5000A. 3500A. 37. When the ambient temperature is greater than 400C. These ratings are based on operation of the circuit breaker or switchgear assembly where the ambient temperature (measured outside the enclosure) does not exceed 400C and the altitude does not exceed 1000 m.00 Refer to manufacturer Refer to manufacturer The rated continuous current is based on the maximum permissible total temperature limitations of the various parts of the circuit breaker when it is carrying rated current at an ambient temperature of 400C. 630A. Standard equipment may be operated at higher altitude by reducing the continuous current rating in accordance with the following tables (based on American Practice). Standard value of normal currents as per IEC 56 are as 400A. Use of individual line entrance surge arrestors may be required if the lightning trip-out rate of the line exceeds 1 per year (refer IEEE std.5.) 1000 m 1500 m 3000 m Insulation level 1. may result in line-to-ground. or open gap insualtion failure of the circuit breaker. 43 .010-1999). 800A. 4000A. The amount of the excess depends upon the steepness of the wave front and the distance from the circuit breaker to the surge arrestors. When the circuit breaker is in the open position. 2000A. Selection of too low an insulation level for circuit breakers. 2500A.95 0. Rated Normal Current Rated Normal Current rated normal current of a circuit breaker is the rms value of the current which the circuit breaker shall be able to carry continuously at rated frequency.00 0. the current must be reduced to less than rated continuous current to keep temperatures within allowable limits. With the rise in temperature of its different parts not exceeding specified values. 1600A. an incoming surge voltage may be doubled by reflection at the open contacts. 6300A (if required higher values can be selected). if not individually protected by arrestors.5.3 Rated Frequency Rated Frequency standard power circuit breakers are rated at 50 cycles.4 Altitude in meters (approx.Surge arrestors are generally installed on the bus or on transformers and not on each circuit breaker.80 Rated continuous current 1. 3. 3. either intentionally left open or during operation.
oscillating at the natural frequency of the system on steady state at power frequency.7 Transient Recovery Voltage and Restriking Voltage and First Pole to clear Factor At the point of arc extinction at current zero. 3. the voltage across the breaker terminals which uptil now equals arc voltage becomes the voltage of the system. 3.2.5. Percentage DC component is dependant upon the time from initiation of short circuit current and standard values are given in IS 13118. Rated short circuit breaking current is characterized by two values (figure 3.7) equal to the rated value of the circuit breaker as specified in IS. In such cases another term. the system acts as an oscillatory circuit. i) ii) rms value of AC component and is terms rated short circuit current Percentage DC component rms value of AC component of the rated short-circuit breaking current should be selected from standard values given in IS 13118. This is installed in fig. recovery voltage component. 3. this does not occur instantaneously but occurs under transient conditions.5.5 Rated short-time withstand current Rated short-time withstand current is equal to the rated short circuit breaking current. is termed as the recovery voltage. 44 . with some damping effect. is used to express the voltage across the breaks of each pole.5.1). Rated duration of short circuit should be as per IS 13118. there is superposition of transient state. For 3 pole circuit breakers it is expressed as the voltage between the phases of the circuit.5. For three pole circuit breakers the AC component relates to three phase short circuit including short line fault. The rated peak withstand current is equal to rated short circuit making current.6 Rated Short Circuit Breaking Current The rated short circuit breaking current is the highest short circuit current which the circuit breaker will be capable of breaking in a circuit having power frequency recovery voltage corresponding to rated voltage and transient recovery voltage (refer Para 3. The normal frequency rms voltage that appears across the breaker poles after final arc extinction has occurred.3.
m.1 short-circuit making and breaking currents. measured from CC´ = = instant of contact separation (initiation of the arc) peak value of ac component of current at instant EE´ r. c. and of percentage d. 3.Current wave AA BB´ BX CC´ DD´ EE´ IAC = = = envelop of current wave normal zero line displacement of current wave zero line at any instant = r.s.s. value of ac component of current at instant EE´ d. component IAC/√2 = IDc = I DC x100 I AC Fig. component (IS: 13118).m. component of current at instant EE´ = percentage value of the d. value of the ac component of current at any instant.c.c. 45 .
46 .G Vr Vrc LINE Vr is recovery voltage stated in terms of voltage between phases at service frequency Vrc is recovery voltage component existing across the breaks of each pole. Fig.2 Recovery voltage across poles The instantaneous value of the recovery voltage at the Instant of arc extinction is called the active recovery voltage figure 3. 3. In three-phase circuits the restriking voltage refers to the voltage across the first pole to clear because this voltage is generally higher than that appears across each of the other two.5. 3.8 First Pole to Clear Factors The ratio of transient voltage that appears across the contacts at the instant of arc extinction to service frequency recovery voltage is called the restriking voltage first pole to clear factor.3.
f.. i) ii) iii) the power factor the armature reaction the circuit conditions Effect of power factor on recovery voltage:. is zero and at the instant of arc extinction A the active recovery voltage is at peak value equaling to AB while in Fig (b) the p.e.5. 3. 3. (a) the p. for example when the ratio of reactance to resistance of the circuit is high.9 Recovery voltage The active recovery voltage depends upon the following factors. is 0. whereas with high p. the active recovery voltage will be high. 47 . the active recovery voltage would be correspondingly lower. This is illustrated in fig.5 and the active recovery voltage at the instant of arc extinction is CD which is less than AB.f. i.4.f.f.With low p.Fig.3 Arc extinction 3. In general the active recovery voltage equals the maximum value of the system voltage multiplied by sin θ where θ is the power factor angle. In fig. when the resistance is high as compared to the reactance.
4 a). The fault currents flowing in the generator winding are of lagging power factor. Effect of circuit conditions on recovery voltage: Another factor that influences the recovery voltage is the circuit conditions e. This is explained below.5 times that on an earth fault assuming an earthed neutral. either at neutral or at fault. Which constitutes the limit of the prospective transient recovery voltage of circuits.4 b). When the breaker opens. actual Standard value of rated TRV for 3 pole circuit breaker given in IS: 13118 for the circuit breakers used in the outdoor substations under consideration are given below table 3.e.g. 3. At the instant of this extinction the Y and B phases are still acting and have the same instantaneous phase voltage – 0. Hence they reduce the terminal voltage.5V (fig.(a) (b) Fig.5V.5V i. 3. Since the fault is common to all three phases the momentary value of the recovery voltage component in phase R must be V + 0. on recovery voltage Effect of armature reaction on recovery voltage: The recovery voltage is less than the normal system voltage because of demagnetizing effect of armature reaction. 48 .f. 3. 1. three phase faults that are insulated from earth.. Consider an unearthed three phase fault. which the circuit breaker will be capable of breaking in the event of a short circuit at its terminals. This means that the recovery voltage component in the first phase to clear on a 3-phase unearthed fault is 1.4 Effect of p. which means that the fault itself is momentarily at the potential – 0. Assume that the arc in R phase is the first to be cleared (fig.10 Rated Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) for terminal faults:. on a three-phase system with the neutral earthed. it draws out an arc in each phase. where v is the phase to neutral value of the system. produce recovery voltages in the first phase to clear which are normally more severe than those produced by single phase or three phase faults on systems with earthed neutrals.The rated transient recovery voltage (TRV) for terminal faults relating to the rated short-circuit breaking current is the reference voltage.2. They have a demagnetizing armature reaction. Wave form of transient recovery voltage varies according to the arrangement of circuit.5. 3.5v. Now the resistance of the arcs in the Y and B phases at this instant are negligible. being cleared by a circuit-breaker.
3 First pole to Time clear factor (µs) 108 124 77 89 130 TRV (kV) 89 166 215 249 364 Rate rise (kV/µs) 0.57 0. These characteristics relate to the breaking of a single phase earth fault in a system with earthed neutral.2 Rated voltage (kV) 36 72. The short line fault circuit is taken as composed of a supply circuit on the source side of the circuit breaker and a short line on its load side (fig.5) with the following rated characteristics.0 2.5 kA.0 of Remarks 3. component of its rated short circuit breaking current.5.0 2.3 1.5.11 Rated Short Circuit making Current As per IS: 13118 rated short circuit making current is 2. 3. 3.12 Rated Characteristics for Short-Line faults Rated characteristics for short line faults are required for three generator pole circuit breakers designed for direct connection to overhead transmission lines and having a rated voltage of 52 kV and above and a rated short-circuit breaking current exceeding 12.5 145 145 245 1.Table 3. phase-to-neutral value: V/√3 XL = short-line fault current Z = circuit breaker L Fig. L Xs IL XL CB Z G V G V IL CB = source of power Xs = voltage.75 2.5 times the rms value of the a c.5 1.5 1.5 Short-line fault circuit = reactance on source side = reactance on line side = surge impedance of the line = length of line to fault 49 .5 1. 3.
given by the standard values in IS: 13118.5. equal to the rated short circuit breaking current of the circuit breaker.2 times the rated voltage of the circuit breaker in kilovolts. in case of terminal fault.14 Rated line Characteristics Standard values of rated surge impedance rated peak factor and time should be taken from IS: 13118. vi) vii) viii) The power frequency recovery voltage shall be 2.5. In case line length is longer than it may be necessary to specify a higher voltage circuit breaker.3.0/√3 times the rated voltage for earthed neutral systems and 2. Standard value of line charging capacity of circuit breakers for the commonly used voltages are as follows: This implies for overhead line length equal to 1.3 Rated voltage (kV) 72. Transient recovery voltage as pre IS: 13118.13 Rated Supply Circuit characteristics Voltage equal to the phase-to-earth voltage V√3 corresponding to the rated voltage V of the circuit breaker. 3.5. 3. Table 3.5 145 245 Rated line-charging breaking current (A) 10 50 125 50 .15 Rated out –of-phase breaking current Rated out –of-phase breaking current is required to be specified for generator breaker and as per IS 13118.5/√3 times the rated voltage for other systems. 3. Prospective transient recovery voltage. The rated out-of-phase breaking current shall be 25% of the rated short-circuit breaking current. Short circuit current. This provision will provide with following. in case of terminal fault.16 Rated Line Charging Breaking Current Rated Line Charging Breaking Current is required to be specified for feeder circuit breakers.5.
Close-open time.6 Reclosing – Close Open Reclose Time 51 . Reclosing time.co Where o co t. • • • • • • Opening time.t´ opening operation closing operation followed immediately by an opening operation (without internal time delay) time interval between successive operation/ t& t˝ are in minutes or seconds Power circuit breakers are rated for interrupting ability on the basis of a standard operating duty. Fig. Break time. Rated operating sequence is defined as follows:o – t – co .5. Closing time. Open-close time.6) will depend upon rated supply voltage reclosing operations etc.t´ .17 Rated time quantities and operating sequence Rated values to be assigned to the following time quantities (fig. 3. 3.3.
Also. These interrupting times are in the range of several milliseconds have system stability implications.6 Co-ordination of rated values Co-ordination of rated voltages. for grounded asymmetrical faults.5 145 245 Rated shortcircuit breaking current (kA) 8 16 40 12.5 12.4) Table 3. the breaker may be slower at the lower limits of control voltage and/or mechanism stored energy. Additionally.5 20 31. It is used to classify breakers of different speed.4 Rated voltage (kV) 36 72. rated interrupting time may be exceeded during extreme cold weather or when the breaker has been closed for an extended period of time.3 cycle slower than the rated interrupting time. For low values of current.The rated interrupting time of a circuit breaker is the maximum permissible interval between the energization of the trip circuit at rated control voltage and rated mechanism pressure and the interruption of the current in the main circuit in all poles. the last phase to clear is estimated to be 0. The rated interrupting time may be exceeded for close-open operations.5 40 50 Rated normal current (A) 630 630 800 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1600 1600 1600 2000 2500 4000 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 3150 3150 3150 3150 52 .2 cycle. The increase in interrupting time on close-open operation may be important from the standpoint of possible system instability. 3. Hence. these considerations are less important. For asymmetrical faults.1 cycle. the interrupting time is estimated to exceed the rated interrupting time by 0. short circuit breaking current and rated normal current for guidance as per IS 13118 for rated voltage 33 kV and above as commonly used are as follows.5 800 20 25 40 50 20 31. (Table 3. For line-to-ground faults. it is estimated that the interrupting time may exceed rated time by an additional 0.
C37010-1999. Different published methods of determining short circuit currents are available.2 i) ii) iii) iv) v) Routine tests Power frequency voltage withstand dry tests on the main circuit Voltage withstand tests on control and auxiliary circuits Measurement of the resistance of the main circuit Mechanical operating tests Design and visual checks 3. Rigorous determination of short circuit current as a function of time involves complex calculations. IEEE application guide for AC high voltage circuit breakers rated on a symmetrical current basis IEEE std. Determination of maximum short circuit current is the most important requirement of circuit breaker application.3.7. Reference may be made to the following for details and selection.2/50 micro second lightning impulse withstand) and 1 minute power frequency voltage with stand (dry & wet) test Radio interface voltage (r.v.) tests Temperature rise tests Measurement of the resistance of the main circuit Short-time withstand current and peak withstand current tests Mechanical and environmental tests Miscellaneous provisions for making and breaking tests Short circuit making and breaking tests Basic short circuit test duties Critical current tests Single phase short making and breaking tests Capacitive current switching tests Magnetizing and small inductive current switching tests 3.7. Growth in interconnecting power system as systems expand will increase short circuit duty.7 3. 53 .1 Tests Type Test Following type tests as applicable in accordance with IS 13118 and IEC 56 are recommended to determine adequacy of the circuit breaker.i. Accordingly some approximation and degree of judgment should be used.8 Fault Calculation In order to determine interrupting duty of circuit breakers it is necessity to determine fault current at each circuit breaker location. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) Dielectric tests (1.
Now-a-day computer studies are carried out for such application. 3. 4. 3.8. the required symmetrical interrupting capability is 15% higher. Circuit breaker having the rms value of the ac component of the short circuit higher then short circuit duty as calculated from table X A of IS 13118 (table 2. Accordingly real time studies to determine DC component of fault current in addition to AC component to determine the critical current value existing at the time of primary arcing contact parting can not be calculated. Determine normal current duty of the circuit breaker and select higher available rated current from standard values as per IEC/IS 13118 clause 4. Phase to ground fault More severe of the short circuit faults be taken for selecting the short circuit rating. These are accurate. In the analyzer all the essential elements of the power system were represented in a miniature replica and fault currents determined from calculation readings. 3.1 Staged Short Circuit Tests Staged fault short circuit tests adequately controlled on actual systems have been carried out mostly on new equipments and systems to determine circuit breaker capability. Maximum symmetrical interrupting capacity of new circuit breaker is as follows: 5.2 Circuit Breaker Rating for Short Circuit Duty Steps involved in fixing circuit breaker short circuit rating are as follows: 1. C37010-1999. For present day large interconnected system this becomes time consuming laborious study. 2. A circuit breaker having adequate symmetrical interrupting capability will normally have adequate capability to meet normal asymmetrical requirement. Short Circuit studies be carried for following types of faults which are considered worst according to IEEE std. AC or DC network analyzer for calculation of fault current was previously frequently used for short circuit studies. costly and not always possible as selection of circuit breaker precedes power system installation. For line to ground faults. Determine short circuit currents for the required accuracy by a suitable method.8. 54 . Further network analyzers is a fixed place study. a.4 for commonly used voltages) be selected. Three phase ungrounded faults b.First step in carrying out short circuit studies is to determine system impedances with reference to the point of fault and current distribution for different kind of faults. In this method constant voltage behind sub transient/synchronous reactance were used as required.4.
Determine highest value of rms symmetrical current for any type of fault equal E/X1 phase fault or 3E/2X1+X0 for ground fault whichever is greater. 3. The method is based upon determination of an initial value of rms symmetrical current (ac component) to which following multiflying factor are applied for application purposes (table 3.2 1. For short circuit duty of circuit breakers unless complex more accurate studies are warranted. It was recommended that rigorous methods be used when specifically required. 2.3 Simplified Methods for calculation short circuit current Simplified methods calculating fault current to fix short circuit rating of circuit breakers have been recommended by standardizing agencies over years as given below. Multiply this current by appropriate factors from table 3. Mechanical stresses and momentary duty 1. 8 cycle breaker 5 cycle breaker 3 cycle breakers 2 cycle breakers B. 3.0 1.2 1. This simplified method is now recommended.5 1. 55 .8.010-1999 The AIEEE simplified method was further referred in IEEE std. Simplified conservative method of calculation were recommended by protective devices committee of AIEEE for general use of the industry. 37010-1999. The resulting interrupting and momentary current should be used to select the available normal rated circuit breaker.5).3 1.⎛ Rated max imum voltage ⎞ ⎟ Rated short current x ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ operating voltage ⎝ ⎠ For higher X/R ratio or other special conditions refer the detail methods given in IEEE std. C37010-1999. E/X Simplified method as per IEEE std. Table 3. C37 .000 kVA 1.5.5 General A.4 Generator current breakers/short circuit more than 500.1 1.1 1.6 Accordingly the steps involved for determining short circuit rating of circuit breakers are as follows as per the AIEE simplified method: 1.
Breakers to include effect of ac and dc components for the following types of faults.8. 56 . For small hydro say 5 MW unit size connected to regional grids. Calculate E/X1 for 3 phase faults where X1 = positive sequence Positive sequence X1 is assumed equal to negative sequence X2 and obtained from design date or test.8. Calculation based on simplified method of calculating short circuit current for the application of recommended by IEEE std. In this method multiplying factors to initial value of symmetrical short circuit current are given in the factor of curves for 2 cycle to 8 cycle. More exact procedure of calculation with adjustment for AC and DC decrements should be used if the criteria is not fulfilled.6 Three phase fault Line-to-ground fault Three phase to ground fault Characteristics specified for 66 kV Mukerian Stage II in Punjab and 33 kV Sikasar HE Project (Chattisgarh) are given below in table 3. the grid size can be assumed to be infinite size and calculation carried out accordingly. 3. 37-01-1999 are given as an example and compared with calculation made according AIEE committee report.In these studies generating station and transmission lines interconnected with the system are represented in detail and the system is represented by equipment system. Calculate ground fault current 3E/Z X1 + X0 X0 = zero sequence reactance obtained from design date or test E = phase to neutral voltage If phase fault current does not exceed 80% of 100% symmetrical circuit breaker interrupting capacity or 70% ground fault current then the circuit breaker selection is adequate.6. 2. Steps involved in applying method are as follows: 1.5 Simplified Method 3. i) ii) iii) 3.
100 A corresponding switching over voltage values on line side & supply side to be intimated by the tenderer 12. vii.C. v.5 times the rms value of Ac component 57 . x. i. 1.B.6 S. one minute dry and wet power frequency withstand voltage i. No. xi.B. Rated short circuit breaking current a) rms value of AC component ( rated 31. 75 KA peak at 72.Table 3. closed) ii.2/ 50 micro sec. iii. xii.5 kA at 36 kV (750 MVA) as per IS: 13118 viii. across terminals of open circuit breaker Rated normal current at site conditions Rated line charging breaking current SF6 3 Outdoor 50 c/s 36 kV 325 kVp 325 kVp 140 kV rms 140 kV rms 170 kVp 1600 A 630 A Not less than 10A. 5 KA at 72. Type and circuit breaker Number of poles Class Rated frequency Rated voltage of breaker Rated insulation level : a).5 kV Stage –II Sikasar HEP i. to earth (with C. Lightning impulse withstand voltage for complete C. to earth (breaker closed) ii. 5 KV short circuit current ) As per IEC-56 (Latest b) percentage D. across terminals of open circuit breaker a. vi. Description Mukerain HEP SF6 3 Outdoor 50 c/s 72. 5KV 2. iv. ii. component edition) First pole to clear factor 1. ix.5 Rated transient recovery voltage for As per IEC –56 (latest edition) terminal faults a) corresponding to rated short circuit breaking current (Symmetrical & -doAsymmetrical) b) Corresponding to currents below the rated & short circuit current Breaking capacity under short line fault -doconditions with rated supply side and line side characteristics Rated short circuit making current 78.
duration Minimum total creepage distance phase 1700mm to earth Difference in the instant of closing/opening of contacts of all the 3 Not more than 3. Whether breaker suitable for single pole Gang operation of three operation or gang operation of three poles through poles mechanical linkages Number of trip coils Two Nos.5 kA for 3 sec.33 ms. Total break time for any current upto Not more than 60 ms rated breaking current Min. short time current rating and its 31. a) Opening b) Closing Small inductive current interrupting Any value upto 10A capacity with out switching over voltage exceeding 2.u. xiv. xviii xix.xiii. pole Not more than 5 ms. xv. Unit of adjustment of dead time shall be 15 to 35 cycles. Break dead Time-MakeBreak (Minimum dead time should not be more than 15 cycles at 50 c/s inclusive of the time for auto reading relay.0 p. xx. per breaker Rated operating sequence 58 . xvi xvii.
03 Fig.11kV WATER WHEEL GENERATOR WITH DAMPER WINDING AND HIGH RESISTANCE GROUNDING G G GEN. 3. 100MVA.5 is proposed to be determined. CIRCUIT BREAKER 100MVA.5 59 .Example :.11/132kVTRANSFORMER X = 12% 132kV BUS A M 60km 132kV DOUBLE CIRCUIT LINES X1 = 8% X1 = 8% OPEN 132kV BUS B EQUIVALENT SYSTEM X1 = 0.Circuit Breaker Rating for hydro electric power system shown in fig. 3.
8% Consider the fault at M which is fed by the grid system and the hydrogenerators which is considered worst.24 X1=0.04 .08 + 0.18 + 0. Three phase fault calculations:. ⎛ 0.24 0.08 + 0.03) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 X1=0.12 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ + (0.24 X1=0.11 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ X1 = = = 0.5 per unit reactances are indicated. Sub transient reactance of generator on own base 100 MVA transformer impedance 132 KVA transmission lines impedance Power house is interconnected with grid at bus B. 2.03 of X0 = 0. Equivalent system X1 = 0.068 0.098 x 437 = 7056A 0.Data i) ii) iii) iv) v) 1.In the system shown in figure 4.12% .24 0.12 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ x(0.18 x0.03 X1=0.12 X1=0. = 1.098/unit Isc 3.11 ⎛ 0.068 Single line to ground fault current 60 .08 X1=0.03) 0.12 Base voltage 132 kV Base current 437 The value of operating voltage corresponding to the highest operating voltage at faults is 145 kV or 1.08 OPEN X1=0.24% . Apparent power is 100 MVA base and nominal voltage 132 kV is used as base at all levels.
12 = 0.12 (0.6 = 12419A and for 3 cycle breakers = 134547.000A at 145 kV Three phase short circuit current is 7056A is less than 80% of symmetrical interrupting capability ( 16.24 0.000 kA.28 x0. 61 . X0 = (0. single line to ground fault need not be considered.084 0.12 X0 = 0.Zero sequence impedance would be that of transformers above as 12 % on 100 MVA.5 According 20.04 + 0.12 = 0. the 132 kV breakers at step up sub station are rated 1250A.1 x 1. Impedance X of diagram is shown in figure.1 1.04 + 0. Rating as per earlier AIEEE Committee method Maximum initial symmetrical current = Rating for 5 cycle breakers & factor and mandatory duty factor short circuit rating = = 7050A 1. 1250 A breakers as O.24) + 0.24 Since X0 is greater than X1. with rated short circuit breaking current of 20.000A) and large growth margin exists. Selection of Breaker rating as per IEEE std. 4.24)x0.28 + 0. Load current = 467 x 2 = 874A 1250A Rated normal continuous current = As per table Xc of IS 13118 Rated short breaking current = 20. 37010-1999.12 0. K.000A.04 0.6 = 7050 x 1.
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