# Tutorial 1* (Solution

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1. The variables controlling the motion of a floating vessel through water are the drag force gcF, the speed v, the length L, the density ρ and the viscosity μ of the water and the gravitational acceleration g. Derive an expression for gcF by Dimensional Analysis. 1. (solution): First we set up the dimensional matrix. gcF M L t 1 1 -2 v 0 1 -1 L 0 1 0 ρ 1 -3 0 μ 1 -1 -1 g 0 1 -2

There are six parameters and the rank is three, so from Buckingham's π theorem, we will have three dimensionless groups. We will isolate gc F, μ and g. (The reason for making this selection is because that μ is a very important parameter in Fluid Mechanics and we wish to specifically study how this parameter is affected by other parameters. gc F is a force and Fluid Mechanics is part of mechanics and thus worthwhile to be studied. g being a factor that will contribute its effect when we are involved in 3D. If we isolate this term and later work only in 2D, then we may be able to discard the dimensionless group which is formed by g.)

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2 . so we have to isolate one of them. density is twice as much. what will h be in a similar case if diameter and surface tension are half as much. (Solution): First we set up the dimensional matrix. fluid density ρ. we will have three dimensionless groups. Assuming both cases are conducted under same gravitational field. and the contact angle is the same? 2. ρp = 0. then gp = gm. As h and d are having the same dimension.5 ρm . h M L t 0 1 0 d 0 1 0 g 0 1 -2 ρ 1 -3 0 σ 1 0 -2 θ 0 0 0 There are six parameters and the rank is three.Tutorial 1* (Solution) 2. If h = 3cm in a given experiment. We will isolate h. dp = 2 dm . and the contact angle θ. θp = θm . surface tension σ. The capillary rise h of a liquid in a tube varies with tube diameter d. gravity g. We have that is If σp = 2 σm . so from Buckingham's π theorem. a) b) Find a dimensionless statement of this relation. σ and θ.

so the dimensionless group π1 should remain the same. 3 .Tutorial 1* (Solution) So the parameters in the function have not been changed at all.