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Janely Cintron Professor Angie Jacobs ENC 1102 4/14/14 The Yellow Wallpaper: Literary Elements and Criticism Overview

"Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)." Short Story Criticism. Ed. David Siegel. Vol. 13. Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. 116-176. Literature Criticism Online. Gale. . 2 April 2014 This source is composed of descriptions relating to the plot, characters, themes, criticisms and styles from The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. The author of this source states that the short story is interpreted as “a feminist indictment of society’s subjugation of women”. Furthermore, the narrator is merely a reflection of the life of the story’s author. Since Gilman has had similar experiences dealing with depression. The name of the protagonist remains untold throughout the whole story, her life is being controlled by her husband, and she is unable to have contact with her baby until full recovery from postpartum depression. The story’s strong symbolism, unusual setting, and profound meaning makes this story Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s most popular work of short fiction. Compared to the other sources in reference to this work, this outline deeply exposes the historical context and controversy involving feminist oppression from the time the story was published. The goal of this source is to provide a basic foundation on the elements incorporated within the short story. The source also contains criticisms from three writers and editors who have examined the work, classifying it as being related to feminism and suffrage. This source

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will help me gain more knowledge on Gilman’s life, as well as grasping others criticisms regarding the short story.

Hudock, Amy E. "The Yellow Wallpaper." Masterplots II: Women’s Literature Series (1995): 13. Literary Reference Center Plus. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. The author of this article covers gender roles, mental disorders, feminist oppression, and social issues. The Yellow Wallpaper is made up of three main characters, including the narrator; in addition, the story is written in first person narrative and “journal-style”. The author of the short story, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, wrote her work as a reflection of her own experiences with postpartum depression. She also wrote the story to portray her view of subjugation in women in the nineteenth century. Women back then were viewed as inferior, which is why the husband, John, treats his wife like a child and controls her life by exiling her from society. This article, compared to other sources, thoroughly explains why the author chose to write the story along with challenging past theories from psychologists degrading women’s abilities and strengths. The article also examines two similar literatures which prove how “misogynistic attitudes destroy women”. The source is biased, since it is only relevant to feministic views. The goal of this source is to interpret the reason as to why the narrator became obsessed with the wallpaper; thus, believing there was a women trapped, creeping inside the paper. The fixation on the wallpaper was so strong, it ended up driving the narrator crazy. Moreover, oppression is proved to cause harmful effects on women.

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Perkins Gilman, Charlotte. “The Yellow Wallpaper” The Norton Introduction to Literature. 11th ed. Ed. Kelly J Mays. New York: Norton, 2012. 478-489. Print. The story, The Yellow Wallpaper, was first published in 1892 by the New England Magazine. There is an introduction of the story’s characters and narrator. Additionally, for reasons unknown the narrator’s name is never revealed, all that is known is that it is a woman. There is also an introduction of foreshadowing and main conflict illustrated in the short story. The main conflict of the story surrounds itself with the narrator and her husband who is her physician as well; furthermore, the control the husband has over her drives her to madness rather than improving in mental health. The difference of this short story compared to the rest of my sources is the overall information in the story itself. Several literary elements may be found throughout the story as well as a fair amount of literary criticisms. This story would be classified as biased, since it began with the narrator’s unhappiness and ending with insanity. The goal of this source is to deliver any quotes that might be useful when citing literary elements and criticisms in the research paper. The short story is supportive, for the reason that it is the main work and reason for writing the research paper.

"The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Short Story Criticism. Ed. Janet Witalec. Vol. 62. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 122-229. Literature Criticism Online. Gale. 2 April 2014 This article on short story criticism concentrates on the story’s major characters, the story’s plot, and themes. The difficulty of publication that Charlotte Gilman’s short story had a worthy outcome. The main point of why The Yellow Wallpaper is a part of “feminist literature” is also thoroughly discussed. Since, Gilman was previously diagnosed with a disorder, her

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physician prohibited her from having an active lifestyle as well as a creative one. As a writer she arranged her story in a way so the narrator felt the same way she has felt during her anguishing periods of bed rest. Compared to my other sources, this article provides further material concerning Gilman’s thoughts and reasons for publishing her short story. The article is bias, because it debates more on the women’s side of social concern rather than both sexes. Moreover, this article has a goal of defining the meaning behind the yellow wallpaper in the story, which is, the oppression being put against females in society by males. This source will aid in the process of finalizing the research paper since it contains valuable facts when it comes to the feminist criticism in the story. As well as questioning whether Gilman had the answer to the ending of male superiority over women.

"The Yellow Wallpaper." Short Stories for Students. Ed. Kathleen Wilson. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 277-293. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. This entry focuses on Charlotte Gilman’s birth to her death, as well as a recount of the meaning behind her short stories. The author addresses how Gilman’s father was absent through most of her childhood and her mother and great-aunts were her main influence. As Gilman grew up, she started to gain interest for social reform and “feminist convictions”. Gilman has debated that the secondary status of women in society is not because of biological dependency, but due to forced behavior in culture. She has founded the Women’s Peace Party, has lectured about women’s rights, and has expressed her feminist beliefs in her writing. Compared to other sources, this entry has provided me with insights on Gilman’s childhood and career path. Moreover, she chose to be a writer in order to share her ideas and

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beliefs with the world. In regards, this research has proved to be bias because, it mentions both Gilman’s goals which were to lecture about women’s role in society in addition to argue women’s behavior as a result of male domination. The primary goal of this source is the emphasis on Gilman’s contributions on women social reforms. This source is beneficial due to the fact that it describes the reason Gilman had for wanting to publish The Yellow Wallpaper.