Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

Task 2- Assessment and Data Collection to Measure and
Inform Student Learning
Contextual Information =>
a) I teach a Second grade class of now eighteen students the subjects of Reading/Grammar, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. Among the children, there are twelve males and six females, and their ethnicities are displayed as fourteen White and four African American. Concerning relevant special needs, one child is a repeater, and two children are currently being referred for learning delays (have already been evaluated by the Student Support Team). Another student is being claimed as developmentally delayed, in order for her to receive the appropriate additional assistance and accommodations she needs to acquire a successful education. We have two students who scored extremely above average on their MAP and DIBELS tests, and one of those children has qualified to be in the Gifted and Talented Program at our school next year when he is in Third grade. b) Throughout my Student Teaching experience, I have been confronted with several factors and considerations that have greatly impacted the instruction and learning in my classroom. Regarding the behavioral factor, two students have difficulty staying on task. This class is very intelligent, but the children seldom strive to apply themselves when learning! Pertaining to linguistic considerations, one student has a Speech IEP and another is going to interventions for Speech. Concerning health issues, one child has sleep apnea and asthma (504 Plan) and one child only has asthma. According to the student with sleep apnea's 504 Accommodation Plan, we are required to allow him to move frequently, provide him with cues to stay awake throughout the day, give him frequent breaks during tests to get him up and walking to keep him from falling asleep, and not to reprimand or punish him for falling asleep. There is a variety of learning styles that exist among my students: the majority of the class are kinesthetic learners; however, there are 5 children whom I would consider to be visual and auditory learners as well. c) Similar to our classroom demographics, the school and surrounding community factors have surprisingly affected the teaching and learning that occurs in my classroom as well. There are 428 students enrolled in our school and a teacher-student ratio of 1:20 exists in the classrooms. The somewhat small classroom sizes greatly benefit the effectiveness of the children's learning. The school has been recognized for the Palmetto Gold Award and has an Excellent rating from the State Department. Therefore, the students are all held at uniquely high educational standards, which they are clearly made aware of on a daily basis. Overall, we are part of a very small district and the community is rural, with middle- to low- class socioeconomic statuses and diverse ethnicities. As a result, the children come from unique backgrounds and possess a wide range of prior knowledge that must be adequately addressed through activities in the classroom.

Step 1: Planning the Assessment- 2.1.1: Selecting a Single Assessment =>
a) My lesson is in alignment with the following Common Core Math Standards: 2.NBT.7: Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies... and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones. 2.NBT.9: Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations. The specific learning goal is as follows: While participating in a Four Corners activity with a partner, children will practice subtracting three-digit numbers using a standard algorithm. b) Lesson Objective: While participating in a Four Corners activity with a partner, children will practice subtracting three-digit numbers using a standard algorithm

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

Assessment of the Objective: Pre- In order to acquire my students' prior knowledge, I will pre-assess them by placing a three-digit subtraction problem on the board and having children work out the problem on their individual white boards. Students will hold up their boards when asked to do so in order for me to observe their answers. During- Working in partner groups, children will participate in a Four Corners activity while solving problems that involves subtracting three-digit numbers. The first player to cover four corners of differences, wins! While students are playing, I will walk around and observe various partner groups in order to determine children's understanding of subtraction. Post- Students will complete an assessment I have designed by engaging in independent practice of the subtraction of three-digit numbers. Use of Formative Assessment: Pre- Anecdotal checklist of students' white board answers => will indicate children's background knowledge of three-digit number subtraction. During- Teacher observation of partner work => will determine children's ability to solve problems involving subtraction of three-digit numbers. => will identify students' capability to work together with a partner. Post- Children's assessments on subtraction of three-digit numbers => will indicate whether or not students were successfully able to solve three-digit number subtraction problems. c) In the scoring guide/rubric I have created, student will be evaluated in three different areas: 1) subtraction of three-digit numbers, 2) amount of work shown, and 3) relation of subtraction and addition. Within each section, the children will be able to receive 1-4 points based on how well of a rating they receive (poor, fair, good, excellent). In order to communicate its use to the students, I will thoroughly explain the requirements that it depicts and attach it to the assessments for them to refer to when completing the problems, d) As evidence of student learning, students will complete an assessment I have designed by engaging in independent practice of the subtraction of three-digit numbers. As they finish, each child will bring their paper up to me to check for accurateness. The children's completed assessments will indicate whether or not each student was able to successfully solve three-digit number subtraction problems.

2.1.2: Preparing Learners for the Assessment =>
a) As part of my planned assessment, I will use a variety of different instructional strategies including active participation, cooperative learning, and differentiation. For their pre-assessment, in order to engage in active participation, I will place a three-digit number subtraction problem on the board. The children will solve the problem on their individual boards using any strategy they prefer. Once I tell them to do so, the students will hold up their boards and display their answers to me, which will give me an idea of their prior knowledge regarding three-digit number subtraction. Regarding cooperative learning during the lesson, the children will work in designated partner groups to complete a Four Corners activity, which involves solving three-digit number subtraction problems. While students are playing, I will walk around and observe various partner groups in order to determine children's understanding of subtraction and their ability to work together as partners. Pertaining to differentiation, as far as my three lowest students are concerned, I will clearly state the objective and activities of the lesson at the beginning of my instruction to inform them of the topic we will be discussing and activities we will be doing. I will also focus in on them during my observations of partner work and personally work one on one with them, in order to make sure they are solving three-digit number subtraction problems accurately. Concerning my student who has sleep apnea, the partner activity will be beneficial to him as he remains actively engaged in the learning. In order to address higher-order thinking, I will encourage children to complete number nine on page 370 in their work pages if they were accurate on their assessments. b) To prepare my class for the assessment, the children will work in designated partner groups to complete a Four Corners activity, which involves solving three-digit number subtraction problems. While students

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

are playing, I will walk around and observe various partner groups in order to determine children's understanding of subtraction and their ability to work together as partners. c) In order to administer the assessment, numerous materials and resources will be utilized. For their preassessment, the children will be given a white board and marker to record their response to the posed problem on the board. By using these two resources, I will be able to quickly assess students' independent performance levels. I will use this information to design future instruction and/or to form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching or enrichment. I will take note of their responses and understanding on an anecdotal checklist I have created, which will give me an idea of their prior knowledge regarding three-digit number subtraction. For their during-assessment, students will be given a Four Corners Activity sheet (courtesy of enVisionMATH Common Core by Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley [Topic 11]), number tiles 1-8, bowls, red squares, pencil, and paper. By using these materials, children will become more engaged as they are given the opportunity to learn through a hands-on activity. For their post-assessment, children will be given the assessment sheet I have created. Their completed assessments will indicate whether or not my students were successfully able to solve three-digit number subtraction problems. Regarding technology, I plan to display the Instructional Video (specifically for Topic 11 Lesson 8) on the Smart Board if the children seem to be having difficulty understanding the content.

2.1.3: The Two Focus Students =>
a) I selected Student 1 because she was recently indicated as developmentally delayed by the Student Support Team, as a result of the tremendous difficulty she has with establishing reading skills. However, Student 1 occasionally displays strengths in Math when she is able to understand a topic fairly well. I would like to document her performance on this particular assessment. I selected Student 2 because he was recently tested and accepted into the Gifted and Talented Program at our school, and he usually displays great strengths in all areas of learning. I am interested to document his performance on this particular assessment, and further design specific accommodations to enrich his learning. b) Regarding Student 1, I will clearly state the objective and activities of the lesson at the beginning of my instruction to inform her of the topic we will be discussing and activities we will be doing. I will also focus in on her during my observations of partner work and personally work one on one with her, in order to make sure she is solving three-digit number subtraction problems accurately. Concerning Student 2, I will seek to encourage him to achieve higher order thinking and performance by asking him to complete number nine on page 370 in his work pages if his work is accurate on the created assessment. The higher-order thinking question states: Write a story about 543-206 and solve the problem.

Step 2: Administering the Assessment and Analyzing the Data- 2.2.1: Analysis of the Assessment Data and Student Learning for the Whole Class =>
a) I designed my rubric/scoring guide to evaluate the students' performance in three different areas: 1) subtraction of three-digit numbers, 2) work shown, and 3) relating subtraction and addition. Therefore, it aligned with my learning objective for the lesson, which stated- While participating in a Four Corners activity with a partner, children will practice subtracting three-digit numbers (requirement #1 of rubric) using a standard algorithm (requirements #2 and #3 of rubric). b) The graphic representation of both my pre- and post- assessment collected data is in the form of a table chart with 3 columns and 19 rows. Along the top row, the following is listed in the corresponding columns: 1- Name of Student, 2- Yes, and 3- No. Also, in the first column, from top to bottom, is a list of the names of my 18 students. On each child's row, I placed an X under either YES or NO to indicate whether or not that student was successfully able to solve problems involving the subtraction of three-digit numbers. Underneath the table, I placed an area labeled "Notes" where I could take account of any additional information that I needed to remember or found interesting. Based on my graphic representation of the post- assessments, approximately 70% of my class were successfully able to solve three-digit number

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

subtraction problems using a standard algorithm and further showing their work. On the other hand, about 16% of the students seemed to be a little confused on the content and did not do as well on the assessment. I did not receive three of the children's assessments. There is evident improvement in the students' performance on the post- assessment and pre-assessment though. According to the graphic representation of the pre-assessments, approximately 60% of my class appeared to possess prior knowledge regarding the topic, while the other 40% simply did not. c) The data-collection process that I selected proved to be fairly efficient in helping me determine my students' performance on each of the assessments. For example, for my pre-assessment, I had the children write their answer on their white boards, hold it up for my review, and I recorded their responses on an anecdotal checklist I had created. This process allowed me to quickly access students' independent performance levels, plan future instruction, and form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching or enrichment. Also, for my postassessment, I had each child complete a sheet I created and I recorded their performance on an additional checklist I designed. The assessment practice provided information on the students' conceptual and skill development. d) The instructional strategies, learning activities, student groupings, materials, resources, and technology were effective as there was clear evidence of student learning from the pre-assessment and post-assessment data. Through active participation, cooperative learning, differentiation, and numerous provided manipulatives, children were given a variety of opportunities to engage in hands-on learning in order to further their understanding. e) In order to engage students in analyzing their own assessment results, I instructed each child to bring their paper to me to check as they finished. If the student answered a problem incorrectly, I explained what they did wrong and worked with them on how to fix the mistake, as a way to help the children understand their progress toward the learning goal.

2.2.2: Analysis of the Assessment Data and Student Learning for Each of the Two Focus Students =>
a) Overall, Student #1 displayed improvement somewhat in her performance. During the pre-assessment, she was not able to subtract three-digit numbers using a standard algorithm and it appeared the same on the postassessment she completed. However, even though she did not do well on the activity sheet and it did not seem so on my checklist records, she was displaying excellent work during the Four Corners partner group activity. I believe that the idea of a "worksheet" complicated the concept in her mind. Regarding Student #2, overall his performance level remained the same while his confidence appeared to improve when solving this type of subtraction problem. During both the pre- and post- assessments, he was able to correctly solve the problems, but he hesitated a little when working the problem out on his white board. However, once he practiced the concept through the partner activity, he assuredly answered all of the problems on the activity sheet correctly and further provided his other classmates with help on using the algorithm. b) According to my assessment data and observations, the modifications I provided for my two particular focus students appeared to have a positive effect on each of their learnings. By stating the objective and activities of the lesson at the beginning of my instruction, I was able to inform Student #1 of the topic we would be discussing and activities we would be doing. Also, by focusing in on her during my observations of partner work and working one on one with her, she was able to show me her knowledge of the skill and gain confidence in that area, even though she did not do well on the activity sheet. Because Student #2 displayed accurate knowledge of the content from the very beginning, the higher-order thinking question proved to have an impact on his learning as he was provided with enrichment and encouraged to apply his understanding to a more complex situation. c) The instructional strategies, learning activities, student groupings, materials, resources, and technology were effective as there was clear evidence of learning from my two focus students from either the pre- and postassessment data or my observations. Through active participation, cooperative learning, differentiation, and numerous provided manipulatives, both children were able to remain actively engaged in their learning.

Kassie Vaughn

PPAT

Student Teaching

d) In order to engage my two focus students in analyzing their own assessment results, I encouraged each child to bring their paper to me to check as they finished. If the student answered a problem incorrectly, I explained what they did wrong and worked with them on how to fix the mistake, as a way to help the children understand their progress toward the learning goal.

Step 3: Reflecting- 2.3.1: Reflecting on the Assessment for the Whole Class =>
a) My specific data analysis allowed me to quickly assess each student's independent performance levels throughout my pre-, during-, and post- instruction. The information also helped me to plan future instruction and form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching and enrichment based on my children's needs. b) Because several of the students in my class have difficulty completing a worksheet, I would modify the post-assessment designed for this lesson from a sheet to an independent hands-on activity that better diagnoses students' strengths and weaknesses. By evaluating an independent hands-on activity as the post-assessment, each child would be given the opportunity to display their knowledge of the content while still remaining actively engaged in their learning. c) Overall, I was pleased with the effectiveness of the learning activities, student groupings, materials, resources, and technology I chose to utilize for this lesson. However, if I were to do this lesson again, I would modify my instructional strategies to include a Think-Pair-Share activity at the beginning of my instruction after my pre-assessment. Through a Think-Pair-Share activity, students would be encouraged to increase their math talk in the classroom by responding to the introduced topic and further sharing their thoughts with a partner. An activity such as this would be especially effective for students who are reluctant participants as they get to rehearse their response in front of one classmate. d) Assessment can take many different forms in today's math classrooms. Teachers must maximize active student participation in lessons in order to maximize assessment opportunities. An effective assessment both diagnoses students' strengths and weaknesses, as well as informs instructional decision-making. It is crucial for children to be exposed to good assessment practices, as teachers are then provided with information not only on student conceptual/skill development, but also on the effectiveness of instructional activities and grouping practices.

2.3.2: Reflecting on the Assessment for Each of the Two Focus Students =>
a) My specific data analysis allowed me to quickly assess each student's independent performance levels throughout my pre-, during-, and post- instruction. The information also helped me to plan future instruction and form flexible small-group instruction for reteaching and enrichment based on my two focus students' needs. b) Because several of the students in my class, including Student #1, have difficulty completing a worksheet, I would modify the post-assessment designed for this lesson from a sheet to an independent hands-on activity that better diagnoses students' strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, by evaluating an independent hands-on activity as the post-assessment, each child would be given the opportunity to display their knowledge of the content while still remaining actively engaged in their learning. c) Overall, I was pleased with the effectiveness of the learning activities, student groupings, materials, resources, and technology I chose to utilize for this lesson for my two focus students' learning. However, if I were to do this lesson again, I would modify my instructional strategies to include a Think-Pair-Share activity at the beginning of my instruction after my pre-assessment. Through a Think-Pair-Share activity, students would be encouraged to increase their math talk in the classroom by responding to the introduced topic and further sharing their thoughts with a partner. An activity such as this would be especially effective for students who are reluctant participants as they get to rehearse their response in front of one classmate.