A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE REGIONAL

CHALCOLITHIC CULTURES OF GUJARAT
Volume I

A Thesis Submitted to
The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
for the Award of the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in Archaeology

By
RAJESH S.V.

Guiding Teacher

PROFESSOR K. KRISHNAN

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANCIENT HISTORY
FACULTY OF ARTS
THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY OF BARODA
VADODARA - 390002, GUJARAT
JULY 2011

Department of Archaeology and Ancient History
Faculty of Arts
The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Vadodara – 390 002. Ph.: 0265-2792436

Date: 08-07-2011

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled A Comprehensive Study of the Regional
Chalcolithic Cultures of Gujarat incorporates the results of the original research
work carried out by Rajesh S. V. under my supervision. The indebtedness to other
works has been duly acknowledged at relevant places.

K Krishnan

K. Krishnan

Guiding Teacher

Head, Department of Archaeology
and Ancient History

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that all the information in the thesis entitled A Comprehensive
Study of the Regional Chalcolithic Cultures of Gujarat has been obtained and
presented in accordance with the academic rules and ethical conduct. To the best
of my knowledge no part of this thesis has been submitted for any Degree or
Diploma to this University or any other University or Institute. Any errors in fact
or interpretation in the thesis are purely the fault of the researcher.

08-07-2011

Rajesh S. V.

All probabilities are fifty percentages.
Either a thing will happen or it won't.
(Anonymous)

DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to my father-A. Sasidharan, an
exceptional self-made man who, single-handedly and
single-mindedly, dedicated himself to the objective of
providing his children with an opportunity, which he
himself never had, to enter a world of learning and
far horizons and also to my mother- M. Vasantha

Also dedicated with profound respect to the genius of
Late Professor Bendapudi Subbarao

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Wilson Mizner, American playwright, who coined so many brilliant aphorisms,
once said, “When you steal from one author, it’s plagiarism; if you steal from
many, it’s research”. By Mizner’s definition this work must be considered research.
As researchers we shield ourselves from charges of plagiarism by careful
documentation of data and concepts but even the most extensive and replete notes
cannot adequately convey the immense intellectual and personal debts that one
often incurs in bringing a piece of research to a successful conclusion. I am happy
that I can acknowledge some of those debts here. The accounting, I fear, will not
be total; there are undoubtedly several whose names should appear here but
whose contribution now lies so far back in time and unfortunately, in my mind
that it eludes memory. From them, I beg forgiveness.
First and foremost I offer my sincerest gratitude to my research supervisor, Head,
Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Professor (Dr.) K. Krishnan,
who has supported me throughout my research at The Maharaja Sayajirao
University of Baroda with his knowledge whilst allowing me the room to work in
my own way. He with his vibrant knowledge of Harappan Culture in Gujarat and
strong theoretical base; through numerous discussions significantly altered many
of the arguments put forth in the thesis. He taught me to read, think and helped a
lot in developing the reasoning skills. I attribute the thesis to his encouragement
and effort and without him this thesis would not have seen its final form.
People become really quite remarkable when they start thinking that they can do
things. When they believe in themselves they have the first secret of success. In
the various departmental excavations and exploration, I have been aided for many
years by Professor (Dr.) Kuldeep Kumar Bhan, former Head, Department of
Archaeology and Ancient History, who professed immense knowledge and helped
me throughout my research.

 

Professor (Dr.) P. Ajithprasad, the most dynamic tutor in the Department of
Archaeology and Ancient History, who I hold in the highest esteem. His vast
knowledge regarding the Harappan and Regional Chalcolithic cultures in Gujarat
and other parts of Greater Indus region, which he readily shared proved very
helpful and significant. His perseverance, energetic leadership and strict discipline
during explorations and excavations, many of which I was a part of, enabled me to
learn a lot. Under him I grew as an excavator, one of the traits that make an
archaeologist. As well as keeping me stocked with general supplies of data and also
inadvertently, without fail, provided something much greater in all the years I've
known him: a friendly smile and a hello every time we met.
Life can be wonderful for some of us and for others, extremely tough. It is actually
the tough part, our problems and challenges that will define who we eventually
become. The role models of this world can play a major part in our lives because
we can learn from them and be inspired by their qualities, traits and challenges.
Dr. Ambika Bipin Patel, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History proved
to be a true role model in real sense for providing utmost help in my research
since the beginning to the end. I am indebted to her for allowing me to use her
office room and computer; providing me with the opportunity to understand the
museum displays and techniques; locating various materials in the cellar of
department and also by providing financial help and helping me in all problems.
Her company will be cherished forever.
I am thankful to Dr. Preeti A. Panjwani, Department of Archaeology and Ancient
History for her continuous encouragement during my research work. She offered
all possible help to finish the thesis.
I am also thankful to Mr. Pratapchandran, Department of Archaeology and
Ancient History for his help during the various stages of this research, particularly
during the identification of ceramics.

ii 
 

I am indebted to Dr. Sushmita Sen, Department of Archaeology and Ancient
History for her timely assistance in difficult times of my research work.
If I have been able to see further than others, it was because of Retired Professor
V. H. Sonawane. He provided me with a lot of articles and books relevant with my
research and constantly updated me with the latest findings in Indian
Archaeology; introduced me to leading scholars, taught me the secret of exposing
the dilapidated stone fortification at Jaidak and gave me the opportunity to
participate in the excavation at Bagasra under his direction.
A strong positive attitude will create more miracles than any wonder drug. Retired
Professor V. S. Parekh also needs special thanks. Though he was not a Harappan
specialist he gave me many articles and showed keen interest in my research. At
the time of his retirement he provided a number of books; gratitude is the only
way I can thank him.
The librarian in the Department Mr. Bhupesh Pathak also deserves special thanks
to issuing any books at any time and showing interest in my research. Similarly I
am thankful to Dr. Indira Bhagya, the former librarian for providing me with
resources pertaining to my research work.
Having a positive mental attitude is asking how something can be done rather
than saying it can't be done. I have been blessed with a friendly and cheerful
faculty staff Salimbhai, Somabhai, Lalabhai, Hansaben, Vinay Bhatt, Anil Rathod,
Sukhram Rathwa, Piyush Khatri, Arun Pawar, Bhagubhai, Kantilal Parmar, Rajesh
Brahmbhatt and Rajasekhar Shirke with whom I share many treasured moments.
I convey special acknowledgement to Nitin Vaidya, Faculty of Arts and
Chiragbhai at GCU Section, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda for their
indispensable help while dealing with administration and bureaucratic matters.

iii 
 

Attitude is more important than ones aptitude. I am indebted to Mr. Ramesh
Khatri and Mr. Radhakrishnan for helping me by preparing drawings whenever
needed.
The Department of Archaeology and Ancient History has provided support and
assistance that I have needed to complete the thesis and also thank the University
Grant Commission for providing JRF and SRF for my research during these years.
I would also acknowledge “Team Anna” whose crew members included Vrushab
Mahesh, Dr. Salim Shaik, Prabhin Sukumaran, Dr. J. Dinakaran, Hemant Mande,
Harish Talele, Mayur Patel, Jaymin Ray, Tatagata Ghosh, Parimal Patel, Somraj S.
Nair, Dr. Bhanu Prakash Sharma, Dr. N. Koiremba Singh, Vishal Zambare, Palash
Pal, Nimesh Muraleedharan, Anoop Markande, Dr. Sunil Shah, S. Sujata Devi and
Charusmita Gadekar for spending many sleepless nights in helping me to complete
my thesis particularly during the last few days prior to submission.
I gratefully acknowledge Dr. Brad Chase for his advice, supervision, and crucial
contribution, which made him a backbone of this research and so to this thesis.
His involvement with his originality has triggered and nourished my intellectual
maturity that I will benefit from, for a long time to come. Brad, I am grateful in
every possible way and hope to keep up our collaboration in the future.
I would like to record my gratitude to Dr. M. Madella, Professor J. M. Kenoyer,
Professor G. L. Possehl, Professor M. Tosi, Professor M. Cattani, Late Professor S.
Cleuziou, Dr. T. Osada, Dr. J. Truncer, Dr. J. Kantner, Professor S. Kowalewski,
Dr. S. Atalay, Dr. J. S. Kharakwal, Dr. Anoop Mishra, Dr. A. L. Balbo, Dr. B.
Rondelli and Dr. C. Lancelotti for their advice from the very early stage of this
research as well as giving me extraordinary experiences throughout the work.
I will be failing in my duty if I do not express my sense of gratitude to seniors and
fellow researchers Dr. Kajal Shah, Dr. Kishore Raghubans, Dr. Kiran Dimri, Dr.
iv 
 

Abhijit Majumdar and Dr. Bratati Sen at the Department of Archaeology for their
support and constructive criticism.
Special thanks to colleagues Vinod V., Sunita Lakhani, Vidhatri Patel, Arunima
Pati, Abha Tripati, Arun Mallik, Dileep Kushvaha, Smitha S Kumar and Oishi Roy.
Life without a friend is like death without a witness. I am thankful to Dr. Bhanu
Prakash Sharma, Thomson K. Alex and Unnikrishnan for being good friends and
never failing to accompany me during explorations and ungrudgingly providing
the necessary critics.
Many thanks go in particular to Dr. Randall Law, Katie Lindstrom, Gregg Jamison,
Neha Gupta, Susan Harris, Dr. Mark Manual, August Costa, Dennis, Dr. A. Uesugi
and Dr. H. Teramura. I am much indebted for their valuable advice during
archaeological discussions and being good colleagues.
Collective and individual acknowledgments are also owed to my friends whose
presence somehow perpetually refreshed and helped. The memories of working
with them will be ever cherished. Thanks to Dr. Vivek Dangi, K. P. Singh, Rajesh
Meena, Hansmukh Seth and Suresh Kumar for various discussions.
I was extraordinarily fortunate in having Dr. B. Sobhanan for initiating into
Archaeological studies, without whom I would never have embarked upon this
wonderful journey.
Change has a considerable psychological impact on the human mind. To the
fearful it is threatening because it means that things may get worse. To the hopeful
it is encouraging because things may get better. To the confident it is inspiring
because the challenge exists to make things better. I am very grateful to Dr.
Ajitkumar and Dr. Preeta Nayar, my teachers at the master level in Kerala for their


 

stimulating discussions and above all inciting a young brain to think differently
and choose a path different from the usual.
Many thanks go in particular to Professor and Joint Director DCPRI, V. Shinde,
Professor R. Mohanty and Dr. P. P. Joglekar. Gratitude is due to them for their
academic input, never ending comments and ever ready discussions.
In everyone's life, at some time, our inner fire goes out. It then bursts into flame
by an encounter with another human being. We should all be thankful for those
who rekindle the inner spirit. I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude
towards my friends at Deccan College, Dr. P. Shirvalkar, Pankaj Goyal, Dr. Amol
Kulkarni, Shantanu Vaidya and Nilesh Jadhav for their diligent efforts and
guidance during my research work. It’s been a pleasure attending conferences
with you all.
I have also benefited by advice and guidance from Director of State Archaeology
Department of Gujarat, Mr. Y. S. Rawat and his knowledge on Gujarat archaeology
is ever rewarding.
I convey special acknowledgement to Dr. Sivanandan former Superintending
Archaeologist (Vadodara) and Dr. Rajeev Panda Assistant Archaeologist (Lothal)
for their indispensable help with regards to travel, administration and bureaucratic
matters.
Friendship makes prosperity more shining and lessens adversity by dividing and
sharing it. I am indebted to my friends Subrahmanyam, Vinod Bhoi, Ikbal, Chetan,
Roshan, Santhosh Thakur, Niken, Nitesh, Vishal, Sidharth, Asish Mishra, Vishal
Patel, Nileshbhai, Riyaz Tamboli, Mohan Marugaraja, Prem Lal, Anand Mantri,
Yogesh Honnawala, Abhishek Pathak, Rakesh Sonawane, Nidhish, Sakesh, Sam,
Gopal, Dipak Adhikari, Murali and Tushar at Dr. V. S. Hall, Halls of Residence,
The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda for their constant moral support.
vi 
 

The shifts of Fortune test the reliability of friends. Friends were like clothes: fine
while they lasted but eventually they wore thin or you grew out of them. I
acknowledge my love and affection to my friends Dr. Fenil Shah, Dr. Padmasree,
Rajbir Singh and Ratna Sharma for their moral support during my research period.
Nobody sees a flower - really - it is so small it takes time - we haven’t the time and to see takes time, like to have a friend takes time. I would take this
opportunity to acknowledge my friends for me they were everything- Shri.
Bhanwarlal Gurjar, Shri. Rajesh Porwal and Shri. Sandeep Paliwal.
Life is too short. Live every moment as if there is no tomorrow. Life ends and one
leaves the world physically but leaves lasting memories in the heart of loved ones
as well as leaves a little smile and sweet memories on clean few friends` face and
in their hearts. I take this opportunity to acknowledge Dr, Subhash Bhandari, Dr.
William Numes, Dr. Rikesh Joshi, Dr. R. B. Yadav, Dr. Hitendra Maurya, Dr.
Ramajayam, Dr. Mukesh Chandrakar, Dr. Hrudanand Mishra, Dr. Khangenbam
Romesh, Dr. Shajil Madhavan, Dr. Vikas Sharma, Dr. Sushil Chaudary, Dr.
Anshuman Pal, Dr. Indrajit Shaun, Dr. Sudeep Banerjee, Dr. Krishna Moorti, Dr.
Anand Mehta, Dr. Gautam Bishnu, Dr. Khem Raj, Dr. Koirala, Mr. Rajendran, Mr.
Gigi George and Mr. Khangenbam Mangal for being with me through thick and
thin.
I am thankful to Dr. Janardhana, Manu and Kumaran for their unselfish and noble
actions which were the most radiant pages in the biography of souls.
I convey special acknowledgement to Chetanbhai for his indispensable help by
arranging travel and other facilities during my exploration at Talaja and also
Lakhabhai the rikhshaw driver for rendering his services. Without Lakhabhai
accessing the sites located in far flung corners of the districts would have been
near to impossible. Local and timely help was always at hand due to the helpful
nature of these people.
vii 
 

I would take this moment to write a note to thank Narayan, Samudrakam, Madan
and Ambalal (V. S. Hostel Staff) for the wonderful service provided to me during
my stay in Baroda. I am so grateful for their love and truly appreciate the time
they spent. We always have a great time whenever we met. They really mean a lot
to me!
It is a pleasure to express my gratitude whole heartedly to Bipin Patel, Drishti
Patel, Bindu Krishnan, Kim Kyoungae, Shridevi and Prabhin’s family for their
kind hospitality during my stay in Baroda.
Quality in a service or product is not what you put into it. It is what the client or
customer gets out of it. I would take this privilege and opportunity to thank Aum
Copy Point, Ravechi Collection and their entire unit. Special thanks to Aswin,
Sailesh, Yogesh, Prakash, Sanau, Sagar, Kuldeep, Natvarlal, Praveen, Dinesh,
Mahida, Mahendra, Nanjibhai, Veljibhai, Mansukh, Sanjay, Jonty and Babu for
providing the best service during the last hours of submission of this thesis.
My heartfelt thanks to Prof. P. Ajithprasad and Dr Marco Madella for allowing me
to use the recent data from the excavations of NoGAP team at Loteshwar and
Datrana and for their time and patience shown for my seemingly never ending list
of questions.
A ring is round and has no ends. It keeps us together in a circle of friends. Our
circle of friends will never break. It will only grow with future friends we make.
True friendship binds this ring together and it will keep us close forever.
Therefore, with this I pass to you to show you that our friendship is true. I feel
proud and take this opportunity to acknowledge my friends J. Balachandran,
Gireesh, Suresh, Rajesh, Satheesh, Ratheesh, Binu and Aneesh.
Having someone wonder where you are when you do not come home at night is a
very old human concern. Trouble is part of everybody’s life and if you don't share
viii 
 

it you don't give the person who loves you enough chance to love you enough. I
am grateful to Aji (Cousin), Baiju (Cousin), A. Vasundharan (Uncle), Prasad, M. V.
(Brother in Law), who made me happy who were the charming gardeners to
blossom my soul in times of crisis.
Where would I be without my family? My parents deserve special mention for
their inseparable support. My Father, A Sasidharan, in the first place is the person
who built the framework of my character, showing me the joy of intellectual
pursuit ever since I was a child. My Mother, M. Vasantha, is the one who
sincerely raised me with care and love. I express my gratitude to my sister
Rajeswari and my brother Chetak for being supportive. I thank the almighty for
giving me the strength to plod on despite piling troubles and continuing tensions.
Finally, I am indebted to time and many people who showed me various colours of
life and made me stronger and tougher day by day.

Rajesh S.V.

ix 
 

CONTENTS
VOLUME I
Acknowledgement
Contents

i-ix
x-xxvi

List of Maps

xxvii-xxix

List of Figures

xxx-xxxiv

List of Tables

xxxv-xxxvi

List of Charts

xxxvii-xlvii

Synopsis
Chapter - I

Page No.

INTRODUCTION

xlviii-lxvii
1-46

Anarta Tradition

3

Padri Ware/Padri Culture

4

Pre-Prabhas Assemblage

5

Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery

5

Black and Red Ware

6

Micaceous Red Ware

7

Classical Harappan

8

Sorath Harappan

9

Prabhas Assemblage

10

Lustrous Red Ware

10

Malwa Ware

11

Jorwe Ware

12

Problem of Study

13

Key Definitions and Concepts

15

Chalcolithic

15

Region

16

Culture

19


 

Chapter - II

Tradition

20

Pre Urban Harappan (c. 3700-2600 BC)

22

Urban Harappan (c. 2600-1900 BC)

23

Post Urban Harappan (c. 1900-900 BC)

24

Environmental Background of Gujarat

26

Geomorphology

27

Mainland Gujarat

29

Saurashtra

30

Kachchh

31

Drainage

32

Mainland Gujarat

32

Saurashtra

34

Kachchh

34

Geology

34

Minerals

35

Soils

35

Climate

38

Rainfall

38

Ground Water

39

Flora

40

Fauna

42

Agriculture

43

Livestock

44

Palaeo-environment

45

PRE URBAN HARAPPAN TO POST URBAN

47-130

HARAPPAN: AN APPRAISAL
Introduction

47

Excavations

47

xi 
 

Vallabhipur

48

Bet Dwarka

48

Rangpur

48

Langhnaj

49

Machiala-Mota

50

Kanasutaria

50

Lothal

50

Lakhabaval

51

Amra

52

Prabhas Patan/Somnath

52

Bhagatrav

53

Megham

53

Telod

53

Rojdi

53

Adkot

54

Pithadia/Pitharia

55

Motidharai

55

Kanjetar

55

Randaliyo

55

Nagal

56

Warthan

56

Andhi

57

Desalpur

57

Jokha

57

Dhatva

58

Malvan

58

Surkotada

59

Khanpur

60

Zekhada

60
xii 

 

Kanewal

61

Pabumath

61

Taraghda

62

Valabhi

62

Dwarka

62

Oriyo Timbo

63

Vagad

63

Nageshwar

64

Ratanpura

65

Nagwada

65

Shikarpur

66

Kuntasi

67

Dholavira

68

Babar Kot

69

Padri

70

Loteshwar

70

Jaidak

71

Moti Pipli

72

Santhli

73

Datrana

73

Mathutra

74

Bagasra

74

Juni Kuran

75

Bokhira

76

Kanmer

76

Khirsara

77

Kotada Bhadli

78

Explorations

78

Period of Chance Findings

78
xiii 

 

Decade of Nationalism and Beginning of Village

79

to Village and River Valley Surveys
Decade of the Entry of Foreign Schools

79

Decade of the Beginning of District Surveys

80

Decade of the Introduction of Grid Surveys

80

Decade of surveys for Regional Chalcolithic

81

Sites and Introduction of GPS Surveys
Decade

of

the

Beginning

of

Digital

81

Documentation and Transect Survey of Sites
Architectural Studies

82

Artifact Analysis

86

Ceramics

86

Terracotta Objects

90

Stone Objects

91

Faience Objects

94

Shell Objects

97

Bone Objects

100

Metal Artefacts

101

Burials

105

Faunal Analysis

109

Floral Studies

113

Pastoralism

115

Language and Script

117

Ethno Archeology/Ethnography

118

Religion and Ritual

122

Dating in Gujarat

123

Radiocarbon Dating

123

Thermo-luminescence Dating

124

Contextual Dating

124
xiv 

 

Chapter - III

Typological Dating/Seriation

125

Geo-archeology

127

Archaeological Heritage and Tourism

128

Field Documentation

129

METHODS OF STUDY

131-153

Stages of Research

131

Literature Survey

132

Selection of Representative Sites and Type Site

133

Identification
Loteshwar

133

Datrana

135

Vagad

136

Padri

137

Cleaning and Documentation of Artifacts

138

Participation in Excavations

142

Field Survey/Exploration

142

Methods of Exploration

143

Classification of Ceramics

149

Periodization of Sites

149

Preparation of Site Data Base and Maps

150

Preparation of Chronological sequence and

152

Regional Stratigraphy
Preparation of Database of Antiquities and

152

Graphs
Compilation of Data and Thesis Writing

Chapter - IV

RESULTS

Section I

Distribution of Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat

152

154-604
154

xv 
 

Introduction

154

Sites and Location Details

155

Pre Urban Harappan Sites

166

Anarta Tradition

168

Padri Ware

170

Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery

170

Pre-Prabhas Assemblage

172

Black and Red Ware

174

Reserved Slip Ware

177

Urban Harappan (Classical/Sorath Harappan)

177

Sites
Micaceous Red Ware

179

Prabhas Ware

181

Post Urban Harappan Sites

184

Lustrous Red Ware

184

Malwa Ware

188

Jorwe Ware

188

Chalcolithic Sites Having Microliths

188

Observations

191

Chronological Synopsis of Chalcolithic Gujarat

256

Introduction

256

Relative Dates

256

Rangpur Phase Sequence

257

Rojdi Phase Sequence

258

Sites Having Relative Dates

258

Chronometric Dates

258

Babarkot

259

Bagasra

259

Bet Dwarka

260
xvi 

 

Dholavira

260

Jaidak/Pithad

261

Kanmer

261

Kuntasi

261

Langhnaj

262

Loteshwar

262

Lothal

263

Malvan

263

Nageshwar

263

Nagwada

263

Oriyo Timbo

264

Rojdi

264

Padri

264

Ratanpura

265

Somnath

265

Surkotada

265

Vagad

266

Bokhira

266

Chronological Sequences

266

North Gujarat

267

South Gujarat

269

Kachchh

270

Saurashtra

271

Chronological Synopsis of Gujarat (Mesolithic

272

Onwards)
Section II

Anarta Tradition: Evidence from Loteshwar

307

Archaeological Context

307

Size of Potsherds

308

Vessel Parts

308
xvii 

 

Vessel Shapes

309

Diameter of Vessel Parts

309

Manufacturing Technique

311

Indicators

Manufacturing/Finishing

312

Carinations and Wide Shallow Groove Like

312

of

Technique

Depressions
Slip

313

Burnish/Polish

313

Surface Feel

313

Decoration

314

Texture

314

Condition of Core

315

Colour of Ceramics

315

Graffiti

316

Surface Condition

316

Marks on Ceramics

316

Fracture

317

Inclusions and Impurities

317

Other Features

317

Structural Remains

318

Other Finds

318

Ornaments

318

Household Objects

319

Tools

319

Figurines and other Terracotta Objects

319

Burials

320

Organic Remains

320

Chronology

320
xviii 

 

Observations

320

Padri Culture

377

Introduction

377

Archaeological Context and Wares

378

Size of Potsherds

378

Vessel Parts

379

Vessel Types

379

Diameter of Vessels

379

Manufacturing Technique and Indicators

380

Perforations

381

Corrugation and Carination

381

Slip

381

Burnish/Polish

382

Surface Feel

382

Type of Decoration

383

Decorative Pattern

384

Position of Decoration

384

Texture

385

Condition of Core

385

Colour of Ceramics

385

Graffiti

386

Surface Condition

387

Marks on Ceramics

387

Fracture

388

Inclusions and Impurities

388

Other Features

389

Structural Remains

389

Other Artefacts

390

Organic Remains

390
xix 

 

Observations

391

Pre-Prabhas Assemblage from Datrana - IV

433

Introduction

433

Archaeological Context

433

Size of Potsherds

434

Vessel Parts

435

Vessel Shapes

437

Diameter of Vessel Parts

438

Manufacturing Technique

440

Indicators

440

of

Manufacturing/Finishing

Technique
Perforation

444

Corrugation and Carination

445

Slip

445

Burnish/Polish

448

Surface Feel

448

Decoration

452

Texture

453

Condition of Core

455

Colour of Ceramics

455

Graffiti

461

Surface Condition

461

Marks on Ceramics

466

Fracture

466

Inclusions and Impurities

469

Other Features

469

Other Artefacts

469

Ornaments

469

Household Objects

470
xx 

 

Tools

470

Organic Remains

471

Observations

471

Micaceous Red Ware from Vagad

481

Archaeological Context and Wares

481

Size of Potsherds

491

Diameter of Vessels

491

Manufacturing

Technique

and

Indicators,

492

Texture, Surface Treatment, Surface Feel and
Surface Condition
Type of Decoration, Decorative Pattern and

493

Position of Decoration

Section III

Colour of Ceramics

495

Condition of Core

499

Fracture

500

Marks on Ceramics

500

Inclusions and Impurities

501

Faunal Remains

501

Other Artefacts

502

Copper Objects

502

Faience

502

Stone Objects

504

Terracotta Objects

504

Structural Remains

505

Chronology

508

Observations

508

Archaeological

Exploration

Around

Padri,

511

Bhavnagar District
Introduction

511
xxi 

 

Padri

518

Lilivav

522

Sakhavadar

524

Vejodhari

526

Khandera/Sakhavadar

528

Sultanpur/Sartanpur I

530

Sultanpur/Sartanpur II

531

Hamirpara

533

Borla

535

Bhalar

537

Datravad/Dantred

539

Talli

541

Observations

544

Archaeological Exploration Around Lothal,

551

Ahmedabad District 
Introduction

551

Lothal

561

Vadgam I

565

Vadgam II

568

Jalampar

570

Koth

572

Rojka

575

Panasina

577

Padana

580

Balgamada

582

Kharad I

585

Kharad II

588

Kotadiya

590

Rangpur

593
xxii 

 

Chapter -V

Observations

596

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

605

Introduction

605

Regional Cultures/Traditions in Gujarat

605

Origin of Regional Cultures/Traditions

606

Beginning of Cultural Contact

610

Need for Contact

611

Impact of Contact

612

Towards Integration

612

Emergence of New Cultures/Traditions/Wares

613

Transformation of Cultures

614

Towards Extinction

615

Features of Regional Chalcolithic Cultures

615

Anarta Tradition: History of Discovery

616

Anarta Tradition from Loteshwar

616

Similarities and Differences

617

Faunal Remains

618

Structural Remains

619

Anarta Burial

619

Spatial Distribution

620

Cultural Contacts

620

Proposition of Seasonal Encampments

621

Chronology

621

Anarta Tradition/Anarta Culture/Ceramic Type

622

Padri Culture

622

Padri Ware vs. Sorath Harappan Ceramics

623

Similarities

624

Differences

625

xxiii 
 

Other Artefacts

626

Organic Remains

626

Structural Remains

626

Proposition of Salt Manufacturing Centre

627

Chronology of Padri Culture

627

Chronometric Dates vs. Relative Dates from

628

Padri
Chronologically Placing the Sorath Harappan

629

Data from Explored Sites

629

Resolving the Problem

630

Padri Ware vs. Padri Culture vs. Padri/Anarta

630

Cultural Complex
Pre-Prabhas Assemblage from Somnath

631

Pre-Prabhas Assemblage from Datrana IV

632

Faunal Remains

633

Similarities

634

Distribution of Pre-Prabhas Assemblage

634

Occurrence of Pre-Prabhas Assemblage in

635

North Gujarat and Saurashtra: An Explanation
Cultural Contacts

637

Economy

637

Chronology

638

Micaceous Red Ware: History of Discovery

638

Features of Micaceous Red Ware

639

Scientific Studies

641

Occurrence in Burials

641

Similarities and Differences

642

Spatial Distribution: Within Gujarat

643

Spatial Distribution: Outside Gujarat

644
xxiv 

 

Indigenous vs. Foreign Origin
Relative

Abundance

in

645
Excavated

and

645

Explored/Revisited Sites
Micaceous Red Ware: Observations

646

Temporal Distribution

647

Micaceous

Red

Ware:

Ceramic

648

of

Chalcolithic

649

of

Chalcolithic

649

Type/Culture/Tradition
Regional

Distribution

Cultures/Traditions
Chronological

Synopsis

Cultures/Traditions
Results of Exploration In and Around Padri

650

Results of Exploration In and Around Lothal

651

Sorath Harappan

652

Conclusion

653

Future Scope of Research

658

REFERENCES

659-714

VOLUME II
Appendix – 1

Pottery: Macroscopic Description Chart

Appendix – 2

Site Survey Record

Appendix – 3

Loteshwar Ceramics: Macroscopic Description

1-4
5
6-387

Form and Digitised Data
Appendix – 4

Ceramics from Padri: Macroscopic Description

388-489

Form and Digitised Data
Appendix – 5

Ceramics

from

Datrana

IV:

Macroscopic

490-555

Description Form and Digitised Data (Detailed
Analysis)

xxv 
 

Appendix – 6

Ceramics

from

Datrana

IV:

Macroscopic

556-710

Description Form and Digitised Data (A
Sketchy Analysis)
Appendix – 7

Ceramics from Vagad: Macroscopic Description

711-717

Form and Digitised Data : Micaceous Red Ware
Appendix – 8

Ceramics from Vagad: Macroscopic Description

718-745

Form and Digitised Data (A Sketchy Analysis)
Appendix – 9

Ceramics Recovered from the Exploration In

746-830

and Around Padri: Macroscopic Description
Form and Digitised Data
Appendix – 10

Ceramics Recovered from the Exploration In

831-923

and Around Lothal: Macroscopic Description
Form and Digitised Data

xxvi 
 

LIST OF MAPS
Map No.

Page No.

1.1

Geomorphic Map of Gujarat

28

1.2

Drainage Map of Gujarat

33

1.3

Geological and Mineral Map of Gujarat

36

1.4

Soil Map of Gujarat

37

1.5

Major Climatic Zones of Gujarat

39

1.6

Rainfall Map of Gujarat

40

4.1

District wise Distribution of All Reported Chalcolithic

159

Sites in Gujarat
4.2

District wise Distribution of Excavated Chalcolithic

161

Sites in Gujarat
4.3

District wise Distribution of Fortified Chalcolithic

163

Settlements in Gujarat
4.4

District wise Distribution of Burial Sites in Gujarat

164

4.5

District wise Distribution of Chalcolithic sites Having

165

Absolute Dates in Gujarat
4.6

District wise Distribution of Pre Urban Harappan

167

Sites in Gujarat
4.7

District wise Distribution of Anarta Sites in Gujarat

169

4.8

District wise Distribution of Padri Ware Sites in

171

Gujarat
4.9

District wise Distribution of Pre Urban Harappan

173

Sindh Type Pottery in Gujarat
4.10

District wise Distribution of Pre Prabhas Sites in

175

Gujarat
4.11

District wise Distribution of Black and Red Ware Sites

176

in Gujarat

xxvii 
 

4.12

District wise Distribution of Resreved Slip Ware Sites

178

in Gujarat
4.13

District wise Distribution of Classical/Sorath

180

Harappan (Urban Harappan) Sites in Gujarat
4.14

District wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware

182

Sites in Gujarat
4.15

District wise Distribution of PrabhasWare Sites in

183

Gujarat
4.16

District wise Distribution of Post Urban Harappan

186

Sites in Gujarat
4.17

District wise Distribution of Lustrous Red Ware Sites

187

in Gujarat
4.18

District wise Distribution of Malwa Ware Sites in

189

Gujarat
4.19

District wise Distribution of Jorwe Ware Sites in

190

Gujarat
4.20

District wise Distribution of Chalcolithic Sites

192

Yielding Microliths in Gujarat
4.21

All the Newly Explored/Revisited Sites In and Around

514

Padri, General Map
4.22

All the Newly Explored/Revisited Sites In and Around

515

Padri, Detailed Map
4.23

Newly Explored/Revisited Sorath Harappan Sites In

516

and Around Padri
4.24

Newly Explored/Revisited Late Sorath Harappan Sites

517

In and Around Padri
4.25

All the Newly Explored/Revisited Sites In and Around

556

Lothal, General Map

xxviii 
 

4.26

All the Newly Explored/Revisited Sites around Lothal,

557

Detailed Map
4.27

Newly Explored/Revisited Classical/Sorath Harappan

558

Sites around Lothal
4.28

Newly Explored/Revisited Late Sorath Harappan Sites

559

around Lothal
4.29

Newly Explored/Revisited Micaceous Red Ware Sites

560

around Lothal
4.30

Newly Explored/Revisited Lustrous Red Ware Sites

561

around Lothal

xxix 
 

 

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No.

Page No.

3.1

Jawan Flint/Sand Paper Chart

141

4.1

Chronological Synopsis of North Gujarat

275

4.2

Chronological Synopsis of South Gujarat

276

4.3

Chronological Synopsis of Kachchh

277

4.4.1

Chronological Synopsis of Saurashtra

278

4.4.2

Chronological Synopsis of Saurashtra

279

4.4.3.

Chronological Synopsis of Saurashtra

280

4.5

General View of Mound at Loteshwar

364

4.6

Contour Map of Archaeological Mound at Loteshwar

364

4.7

Digital Elevation Model of Archaeological Mound at

365

Loteshwar
4.8

Plan of Chalcolithic Pits in Trench I, Loteshwar

365

4.9

Plan of Chalcolithic Pits in Trench II, Loteshwar

366

4.10

Gritty Red Ware Bowls from Loteshwar

366

4.11

Gritty Red Ware Bowls from Loteshwar

367

4.12

Gritty Red Ware Pots from Loteshwar

367

4.13

Gritty Red Ware Pots from Loteshwar

367

4.14

Gritty Red Ware Basins from Loteshwar

368

4.15

Gritty Red Ware Basins from Loteshwar

368

4.16

Coarse Red Ware Pots with Matt Surface from

369

Loteshwar
4.17

Coarse Red Ware Pots with Matt Surface from

369

Loteshwar
4.18

Fine Red Ware Vessels from Loteshwar

370

4.19

Burnished Red/Gray Ware, Black and Red Ware,

370

Reserved Slip Ware, Harappan Red Ware and Coarse
Red/Gray Ware Vessels with Matt Surface from
Loteshwar

xxx 
 

26 Shell and Copper Object from Loteshwar 374 4.22 Burnish Red and Gray Ware Sherds from Loteshwar 372 4.45 Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Datrana IV 475 4.29 Pottery Discs.28 Animal Figurine from Loteshwar 375 4.43 Features of Artefact Concentration at Datrana IV 474 4.42 General View of Archaeological Mound at Datrana IV 474 4.25 Microliths from Loteshwar 373 4.46 Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Datrana IV 476 xxxi    .33 Padri Ware Pots from Padri 428 4.41 Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Prabhas Patan/Somnath 473 4.24 Bichrome Painted Pots from Loteshwar 373 4.39 General View of Archaeological Mound at Prabhas 472 Patan/Somnath 4.35 Sorath Harappan Vessels from Padri 431 4.36 Late Sorath Harappan Vessels from Padri 432 4.31 Human Burial from Loteshwar 376 4.32 Padri Ware Bowls from Padri 427 4.  4.37 Painted Sherds of Padri Ware 429 4.40 Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Prabhas Patan/Somnath 473 4.21 Painted.34 Sorath Harappan Bowls from Padri 430 4. Incised and Reserved Slip Ware Sherds from 371 Loteshwar 4.30 Pinched Terracotta Cakes from Loteshwar 376 4.27 Beads from Loteshwar 374 4.44 Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Datrana IV 475 4. Terracotta Pellets. Beads and Rings 375 from Loteshwar 4.20 Black and Red Ware Vessels from Loteshwar 371 4.23 Reserved Slip Ware and Incised Sherds from 372 Loteshwar 4.38 Sorath Harappan Sherds Having Graffiti from Padri 432 4.

64 Chalcolithic Site at Lilivav.66 Ceramics of Different Periods from Lilivav 547 4.50 Incised Ceramics from Bagor 478 4.65 Concentration of Ceramic Scatter in the Chalcolithic 524 Site at Lilivav 4.68 Ceramics of Different Periods from Sakhavadar 548 4. General View 523 4.69 Chalcolithic Site at Vejodhari.  4.59 Micaceous Red Ware from Vagad 510 4.53 Chalcedony Blades from Datrana IV 479 4. General View 527 4.70 Ceramics from Different Periods of Sultanpur I.71 Chalcolithic Site at Khandera/Sakhavadar.61 Exposed Section Showing Bones. Stones and Ceramics 521 at Padri Gohilini 4.57 General View of the Archaeological Mound at Vagad 510 4.55 Carnelian Bead.58 General View 510 of the Disturbed Archaeological Mound at Vagad 4.47 Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Datrana IV 476 4. General 529 View xxxii    .52 Stone Artefacts (Cores) from Datrana IV 479 4.54 Carnelian Beads and Bead Roughouts from Datrana IV 480 4.62 Surface Showing Broken in situ Pot at Padri Gohilini 521 4. General View 525 4. roughouts and Drills from Datrana IV 480 4.49 Incised Ceramics from Bagor 477 4. 548 Sultanpur II and Vejodhari 4.56 Copper Punch Point from Datrana IV 480 4.48 Incised and Corrugated Ceramics from Datrana IV 477 4.63 Ceramics of Different Periods from Padri Gohilini 547 4.60 General View of the Disturbed Archaeological Mound 520 at Padri Gohilini 4.51 Stone Artefacts from Datrana IV 478 4.67 Chalcolithic Site at Sakhavadar.

96 Ceramics of Various Periods from Rojka 601 xxxiii    .75 Chalcolithic Site at Hamirpara.81 Chalcolithic Site at Datravad/Dantred.85 Ceramics of Different Periods from Talli 550 4. General View 538 4.89 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site.83 Chalcolithic Mound at Talli.84 The Piled Up Structural Remains. General 530 View 4.80 Ceramics of Different Periods from Bhalar 549 4.92 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at 571 Jalampar 4. 565 Vadgam I 4.93 Ceramics of Various Periods from Jalampar Talavadi 600 and Koth 4.79 Chalcolithic Site at Bhalar.91 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site. General View 536 4.77 Chalcolithic Site at Borla.76 Ceramics of Different Periods from Hamirpara 549 4.86 Chalcolithic Settlement at Lothal 562 4. Talli 542 4.82 Ceramics of Different Periods from Datravad 550 4.78 Ceramics of Different Periods from Borla 549 4. General View 563 4. General 532 View 4.95 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at 575 Rojka 4.73 Chalcolithic Site at Sultanpur/Sartanpur I.74 Chalcolithic Site at Sultanpur/Sartanpur II.87 The So Called Dockyard at Lothal. General View 534 4. General View 542 4.88 Ceramics of Various Periods from Lothal 600 4. 568 Vadgam II 4.94 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at 573 Koth 4.90 Ceramics of Various Periods from Vadgam II 600 4.  4. General View 540 4.72 Ceramics of Different Periods from Khandera 548 4.

104 Ceramics of Various periods from Kharad I 603 4.108 Ceramics of Various periods from Kotadiya 603 4.  4.100 Ceramics of Various Periods from Padana 602 4.110 General View of Present Village Located over 594 Rangpur Mound 4.99 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at 580 Padana 4.98 Ceramics of Various Periods from Panasina 601 4.103 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site - 585 Kharad I 4.105 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site - 588 Kharad II 4.97 General View of the Disturbed Archaeological Site at 578 Panasina 4.107 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at 591 Kotadiya 4.109 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at 594 Rangpur 4.101 General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at 583 Balgamada 4.106 Ceramics of Various periods from Kharad II 603 4.102 Ceramics of Various Periods from Balgamada 602 4.111 Ceramics of Various periods from Rangpur 604 xxxiv    .

16 Radio Carbon Dates from Oriyo Timbo 299 4.3 Radio Carbon Dates from Babar Kot 285 4. 1.1 All the Reported Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 195 4. Various Cultures/Traditions of Indus Civilization in 25 Gujarat 4.15 Radio Carbon Dates from Nagwada 299 4.4 Radio Carbon Dates from Bagasra 286 4.8 Radio Carbon Dates from Kanmer 289 4.LIST OF TABLES Table No.5 Radio Carbon and Thermo-luminescence Dates from 286 Bet Dwarka 4.13 Radio Carbon Dates from Malvan 298 4.7 Radio Carbon Dates from Pithad/Jaidak 289 4.21 Radio Carbon Dates from Surkotada 305 xxxv    .20 Radio Carbon Dates from Somnath/Prabhas Patan 304 4.2 Excavated Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat Dated through 281 Relative Techniques 4.12 Radio Carbon Dates from Lothal 297 4.6 Radio Carbon Dates from Dholavira 288 4.19 Radio Carbon Dates from Rojdi 301 4.10 Radio Carbon and Thermo-luminescence Dates from 296 Langhnaj 4.18 Radio Carbon Dates from Ratanpura 301 4.9 Radio Carbon Dates from Kuntasi 295 4.14 Radio Carbon Dates from Nageshwar 298 4.17 Radio Carbon Dates from Padri 300 4.11 Radio Carbon Dates from Loteshwar 296 4.1 Page No.

24 Excavated Ceramics from Vagad 482 4.23 Radio Carbon Dates from Bokhira 306 4.4.22 Radio Carbon Dates from Vagad 306 4.25 Newly Explored and Revisited Sites in and around 512 Padri 4.26 Newly Explored and Revisited Sites in and around 554 Lothal xxxvi    .

2 District wise Distribution of Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 4.11 District and Sub-region wise Distribution of Reserved 177 Slip Ware in Gujarat 4.1 Page No.13 Gujarat xxxvii    .5 District wise Distribution of Burial Sites in Gujarat 162 4.3 Sub-region wise Distribution of Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 4.12 District wise Distribution of Classical/ Sorath 179 District wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware in 181 Harappan Sites in Gujarat 4.6 District Having 162 District and Sub-region wise Distribution of Pre 166 wise Distribution of Sites Chronometric Dates in Gujarat 4.9 District wise Distribution of Pre Urban Harappan 172 Sindh Type Pottery in Gujarat 4. Sub-region wise Distribution of All Reported 157 All Reported 158 Excavated 160 District wise Distribution of Fortified Settlements in 162 Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 4.8 District and Sub-region wise Distribution of Sites of 168 Anarta Tradition in Gujarat 4.  LIST OF CHARTS Chart No.4 Gujarat 4. 4.10 District wise Distribution of Black and Red Ware in 174 Gujarat 4.7 Urban Harappan Sites in Gujarat 4.

29 Diameter of Rims of Pot/Basin from Loteshwar 328 4.22 Maximum Size of Vessel Parts from Loteshwar in Cm 324 4.15 District wise Distribution of Post Urban Harappan 185 Sites in Gujarat 4.16 District wise Distribution of Lustrous Red Ware in 185 Gujarat 4.23 Diagnostic and Non-diagnostic Vessel Parts from 325 Loteshwar 4.27 Classification of Bowls from Loteshwar Based on 327 Diameter 4.26 Classification of Basins from Loteshwar Based on 327 Diameter 4.28 Classification of Dishes from Loteshwar Based on 328 Diameter 4.21 Trenches at Loteshwar 4.17 District wise Distribution of Microliths Yielding 188 Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 4.19 Trench-Wire Distribution of Ceramics at Loteshwar 321 4.14 District wise Distribution of Prabhas Ware Sites in 184 Gujarat 4.20 Sub Square-wise Distribution of Ceramics at 322 Layer wise Distribution of Ceramics in Various 323 Loteshwar 4.25 Classification of Pots from Loteshwar Based on 327 Diameter 4.24 Various Vessel Forms from Loteshwar 326 4.18 Number of Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 191 4.  4.30 Classification of Dish on Stand from Loteshwar Based 328 on Diameter xxxviii    .

41 Type of Internal Decoration on Ceramics from 337 Loteshwar 4.47 Texture of Ceramics from Loteshwar 343 4.35 Carinations and Wide Grooves on Ceramics from 332 Loteshwar 4.32 Manufacturing Techniques of Vessels from Loteshwar 329 4.37 Internal Surface Treatment of Vessels from Loteshwar 334 4.36 External Surface Treatment of Vessels from 333 4.33 Indicators of Manufacturing/Finishing Technique on 330 External Surface of Ceramics from Loteshwar 4.40 Type of External Decoration on Ceramics from 337 Loteshwar Loteshwar 4.42 Condition of Preservation of Painting on Ceramics 338 from Loteshwar 4.46 Position of Decoration on the Internal Surface of 342 Ceramics from Loteshwar 4.43 Decorative Pattern on the External Surface of 339 Ceramics from Loteshwar 4.34 Indicators of Manufacturing/Finishing Technique on 331 Internal Surface of Ceramics from Loteshwar 4.31 Diameter of Stems of Dish on Stand from Loteshwar 329 4.44 Decorative Pattern on the Internal Surface of 340 Ceramics from Loteshwar 4.45 Position of Decoration on the External Surface of 341 Ceramics from Loteshwar 4.39 Internal Surface Feel of Ceramics from Loteshwar 336 4.38 External Surface Feel of Ceramics from Loteshwar 335 4.48 Condition of the Core of Ceramics from Loteshwar 344 xxxix    .  4.

Core.52 Surface. Core.51 Surface.53 Surface. Slip and Paint colour of Lids/Dishes 349 from Loteshwar 4. Slip and Paint colour of Bowls from 355 Loteshwar 4.58 Surface.62 Internal Loteshwar 4. Slip and Paint colour of Pots from 345 Loteshwar 4.56 Surface. Slip and Paint colour of Dish on Stand 352 from Loteshwar 4.54 Surface. Slip and Paint colour of Basins from 346 Loteshwar 4. Slip and Paint colour of Dishes from 353 Loteshwar 4. Core.49 Surface. Core.  4.60 Graffiti on the Ceramics from Loteshwar 4.63 from Loteshwar xl    . Slip and Paint colour of Bowls/Basins 348 from Loteshwar 4.61 External 356 Surface Condition of Ceramics from 357 Surface Condition of Ceramics from 358 Various Marks on the External Surface of Ceramics 359 Loteshwar 4.50 Surface.55 Surface. Core. Core. Core.57 Surface. Slip and Paint colour of Lids and 354 Dishes/Bowls from Loteshwar 4. Slip and Paint colour of Pots/Basins 351 from Loteshwar 4. Core. Core. Core. Slip and Paint colour of Pots/Bowls 350 from Loteshwar 4.59 Surface. Slip and Paint colour of Dishes/Basins 347 from Loteshwar 4. Core.

75 Diameter of Vessels Other than Red Ware from Padri 398 4.76 Indicators of Ceramic Manufacturing Technique from 399 Padri 4.80 Types of Decoration on Ceramics from Padri 403 4.67 Presence of Mica Particles in the Ceramics from 363 Loteshwar 4.83 Type of Decorations on External Surface of Potsherds 406 from Padri xli    .69 Distribution of Different Wares at Padri 392 4.74 Diameter of Red Ware Vessels from Padri in Cm 397 4.77 Presence of Corrugation.81 Presence of Decorations on Different Surfaces of 404 Ceramics from Padri 4.66 Presence of Inclusion and Impurities in the Ceramics 362 from Loteshwar 4.72 Ware-wise Division of Different Vessel Parts from 395 Padri 4.79 Surface Feel of Ceramics from Padri 402 4.65 Nature of the Fracture of Ceramics from Loteshwar 361 4.  4.70 Maximum Size of Potsherds from Padri 393 4.73 Different Vessel Shapes from Padri 396 4.82 Condition of Paintings on Ceramics from Padri 405 4.78 Evidence of Surface Treatment of Ceramics from 401 Padri 4. Carination and Projected 400 Shoulder in the Ceramics from Padri 4.71 Different Vessel Parts from Padri 394 4.64 Various Marks on the Internal Surface of Ceramics 360 from Loteshwar 4.68 Various Features of Ceramics from Loteshwar 363 4.

95 Colour of the Buff Ware Vessels from Padri Based on 418 Munsell Soil Chart 4.87 Texture of Ceramics from Padri 410 4.89 Colour of the Surface and Slip of Red Ware Pots from 412 Padri Based on Munsell Soil Chart 4.86 Position of Decorations on the Internal Surface of 409 Ceramics from Padri 4.93 Colour of the Red Ware Perforated Jar and Lid from 416 Padri Based on Munsell Soil Chart 4.97 Colour of the Black and Red Ware Vessels from Padri 420 Based on Munsell Soil Chart 4.98 Features of Graffiti on Ceramics from Padri 421 4.85 Position of Decorations on the External Surface of 408 Ceramics from Padri 4.88 Condition of the Core of Ceramics from Padri 411 4.100 Various Marks on Ceramics from Padri 423 xlii    .  4.94 Colour of the Red Ware Basin and Lamp from Padri 417 Based on Munsell Soil Chart 4.91 Colour of the Red Ware Bowls from Padri Based on 414 Munsell Soil Chart 4.99 Surface Condition of Ceramics from Padri 422 4.84 Type of Decorations on Internal Surface of Potsherds 407 from Padri 4.90 Colour of the Decoration on Red Ware Pots from 413 Padri Based on Munsell Soil Chart 4.92 Colour of the Red Ware Dish and Dish on Stand from 415 Padri Based on Munsell Soil Chart 4.96 Colour of the Gray Ware Vessels from Padri Based on 419 Munsell Soil Chart 4.

108 Diameter of Bases of Basins from Datrana IV 438 4.  4.112 Diameter of the Pot Rims from Datrana IV 441 4.115 Presence of Corrugation and Carination in Vessels 445 from Datrana IV 4.117 Internal Finishing Technique of Ceramics from 447 Datrana IV 4.113 External Finishing Technique of Ceramics from 442 Datrana IV 4.104 Trench-wise Distribution of Various Wares at 434 Datrana IV 4.119 Internal Feel of Various Wares from Datrana IV 450 4.120 Decorations on Various Wares from Datrana IV 451 4.106 Distribution of Vessel parts of Various Pre-Prabhas 436 Wares at Datrana IV 4.105 Variation in the Size of Potsherds from Datrana IV 435 4.103 Other Features of Ceramics from Padri 426 4.109 Diameter of the Rims of Bowls from Datrana IV 438 4.110 Diameter of the Rims of Dishes from Datrana IV 439 4.116 External Finishing Technique of Ceramics from 446 Datrana IV 4.107 Distribution of Various Vessel Types at Datrana IV 437 4.102 Inclusions in the Ceramics from Padri 425 4.114 Internal Finishing Technique of Ceramics from 443 Datrana IV 4.101 Condition of Fracture of Ceramics from Padri 424 4.111 Diameter of the Bases of Pots from Datrana IV 440 4.121 Type of Decorations on Vessels from Datrana IV 451 xliii    .118 External Feel of Various Wares from Datrana IV 449 4.

  4.138 Various Ceramic Wares from Vagad 483 4.123 Texture Variation in Various Wares from Datrana IV 453 4.131 External Surface Condition of the Potsherds from 462 Datrana IV 4.132 Internal Surface Condition of the Potsherds from 463 Datrana IV 4.127 Condition of the Core of Ceramics from Datrana IV 456 4.125 Texture Variation in Black and Red Ware Vessel 454 Types from Datrana IV 4.126 Texture Variation in Gray Ware Vessel Types from 455 Datrana IV 4.130 Colour of Red Ware Potsherds from Datrana IV Based 460 on Munsell Chart 4.122 Position of Decorations on Various Wares from 452 Datrana IV 4.139 Layer wise Distribution of Various Ceramic Wares 483 from Vagad xliv    .134 Features of the Fracture of Potsherds from Datrana IV 465 4.129 Colour of Black and Red Ware Potsherds from 459 Datrana IV Based on Munsell Chart 4.133 Different Marks on the Ceramics from Datrana IV 464 4.136 Other features of the Potsherds from Datrana IV 468 4.128 Colour of Gray Ware Potsherds from Datrana IV 458 Based on Munsell Chart 4.137 Layerwise Distribution of Ceramics from Vagad 482 4.124 Texture Variation in Red Ware Vessel Types from 454 Datrana IV 4.135 Presence of Inclusions and Impurities in Potsherds 467 from Datrana IV 4.

151 Surface Condition of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels 493 from Vagad 4.153 Type of Design on Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from 494 Vagad 4.157 Core Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from 497 Vagad xlv    .144 Gray Ware Sherds from Vagad 488 4.154 Position of Design on Micaceous Red Ware Vessels 495 from Vagad 4.156 Internal Surface Colour of Micaceous Red Ware 496 Vessels from Vagad 4.140 Vessel Parts of Various Wares from Vagad 484 4.147 Vessel Parts at Vagad 4.152 Presence of Decoration on Micaceous Red Ware 494 Vessels from Vagad 4.145 Micaceous Red Ware Sherds from Vagad 489 4.146 Trench and Sub-square wise Distribution of 489 Layer wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware 490 Micaceous Red Ware at Vagad 4.  4.141 Red Ware Sherds and Vessels from Vagad 485 4.143 Black and Red Ware Sherds from Vagad 487 4.142 Buff Ware Sherds from Vagad 486 4.149 Size Ratio of the Micaceous Red Ware Sherds from 491 Vagad 4.148 Layer wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware 490 Vessel Shapes at Vagad 4.155 External Surface Colour of Micaceous Red Ware 496 Vessels from Vagad 4.150 Diameter of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad 492 4.

173 Distribution of Various Wares at Vadgam I 566 4.172 Distribution of Various Wares at Lothal 563 4.169 Variation in the Size of Sites in the Study Area 546 Around Padri 4.160 External Paint Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels 498 from Vagad 4.  4.158 External Slip Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels 497 from Vagad 4.162 Condition of the Core of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels 499 from Vagad 4.168 Terracotta Objects from Vagad 507 4.170 Variation in the Probable Maximum Deposit of Sites 546 in the Study Area Around Padri 4.167 Stone Objects from Vagad 506 4.164 Various Marks on Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from 501 Vagad 4.163 Fracture/Breakage of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels 500 from Vagad 4.161 Internal Paint Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels 499 from Vagad 4.166 Trench and Phase wise Distribution of Faience 504 Objects at Vagad 4.171 Cultural Affiliation of Newly Explored/Revisitied 557 Sites Around Lothal 4.165 Trench and Phase wise Distribution of Shell and Shell 503 Objects at Vagad 4.159 Internal Slip Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels 498 from Vagad 4.174 Distribution of Various Wares at Vadgam II 569 xlvi    .

2 Animal Remains from Somnath 633 5.183 Distribution of Various Wares at Kotadiya 592 4.178 Distribution of Various Wares at Panasina 578 4.179 Distribution of Various Wares at Padana 581 4.180 Distribution of Various Wares at Balgamada 583 4.184 Distribution of Various Wares at Rangpur 595 4.182 Distribution of Various Wares at Kharad II 589 4.175 Distribution of Various Red Ware Vessel Parts at 571 Jalampar 4.176 Distribution of Various Wares at Koth 573 4.1 Animal Remains from Nagwada 619 5.185 Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware in Different Sites 597 in the Study Area Around Lothal 4.  4.187 Variation in the Probable Maximum Deposit of Sites 598 in the Study Area Around Lothal 5.181 Distribution of Various Wares at Kharad I 586 4.186 Variation in the Size of Sites in the Study Area 598 Around Lothal 4.177 Distribution of Various Red Ware Potsherds at Rojka 576 4.3 Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware in Various Sites 646 in the Study Area Around Lothal xlvii    .

Rao 1963) and Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965). Besides.      SYNOPSIS Introduction The main aim of this thesis is to bring out the origin. Ghurye 1939. Present State of Research The beginning of Chalcolithic studies in Gujarat was an upshot of the archaeological discoveries made at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in modern Pakistan during 1920s. It further deals with identifying the similarities and differences between Regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions and Sindhi/Sorath Harappans in Gujarat to understand the role played by these communities from the Pre Urban Harappan Phase to the Post Urban Harappan Phase through the Urban Harappan Phase. existence. Bhan 1994. the urban centers of Indus Valley Civilization along with several other sites became the part of Pakistan leaving two small excavated Harappan sites (Rangpur and Kotla Nihang Khan) in India (Possehl 2002). extent and dispersal of regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions in Gujarat in a comprehensive way. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992. Yadav 2005). characteristic features. Excavation at Vallabhipur in 1930 by Father Henry Heras marked the beginning of Chalcolithic studies in Gujarat (Anderson and Afonso 1990. Shinde and Bhagat-Kar 1992. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994. Dikshit 1950. Shinde 1998. Dimri 1994. Rangpur (Vats 1936. Herman and Krishnan 1994. This motivated various archaeological departments and xlviii    . This study is based on the data acquired through explorations carried out by the researcher in different sub-regions of Gujarat followed by its analysis and reanalysis of the existing data generated by various researchers (Sonawane and Mehta 1985. Ajithprasad 2002. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. it also incorporates a comparison of the finds of the investigator with those from various excavated sites in Gujarat. Other Chalcolithic and Chalcolithic affiliated sites excavated prior to 1947 in Gujarat include Bet Dwarka (Gaur and Sundaresh 2003). Possehl 2008). After the partition of India.

Paul and Shinde1998-99. Bhan et al. As per the current understanding. Bhan 1994). coexistence of various regional cultures in Gujarat with that of different stages of Indus Civilization is not well explained yet. Interestingly.      institutions to initiate frequent explorations along the northwestern parts of the newly formed India to verify if there are more sites/settlements of the contemporary period. This resulted in the discovery of several Chalcolithic sites (more than 750 in Gujarat) having Harappan affiliation. cultural relations between Gujarat. Shinde and Bhagat-Kar 1992) Datrana (Ajithprasad 2002) and Bagasra (Sonawane et al. Majumdar 1999. without any doubt or second thought they were labeled under the same and until the first half of 1980s all Chalcolithic settlements of Gujarat were synonymous with the Harappan culture. Urban Harappans and Post Urban Harappans. Padri (Shinde 1992 a. Padri Ware (3600-2000 BC) and Micaceous Red Ware (2500-1600 BC) in Gujarat. Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985). Loteshwar (Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994. Regional Chalcolithic Cultures/Traditions Excavations at Lothal (Rao 1985). Sindh and Baluchistan (Majumdar 1999) xlix    . Dimri 1999. Anarta Tradition (3700-1700 BC). As most of these sites in Gujarat had elements of Harappan culture. archaeological data from various excavated sites in Gujarat reveal their coexistence with Pre Urban Harappans. 1997. 1992 b. Problem of Study Though. the indigenous Chalcolithic communities existed independently in early stages of Pre Urban Harappan Phase (3700-3000 BC). Krishnan and Dimri 2005) and re-analysis of ceramics from excavated sites of Saurashtra and North Gujarat (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992. Herman and Krishnan 1994) clearly indicated the possibility of existence of regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions represented by Pre-Prabhas Assemblage (3000-2500 BC). 1988). Prabhas Ware (22991769 BC). Nagwada (Hegde et al. Paul et al. 2004. 1998. 2004). explorations in North Gujarat and Saurashtra (Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994.

In all studies till date. 3000 BC). the key artifact of regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions are different from those of Pre Urban Harappan Burial pottery (Majumdar 1999. The major objectives of study are: 1. its geographical and chronological extent and characteristic features in Gujarat. Sindhi and Sorath Harappan (Possehl 1992) and Post Urban Harappan Phase pottery (Bhan 1992) in Gujarat. To identify the distribution pattern of indigenous Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat within specific geographical sub-regions. 2.      started during later stage of Pre Urban Harappan Phase (circa. 3. At the same time there is lack of evidence to support the origin of indigenous Chalcolithic cultures or traditions within Gujarat. 4. it is imperative to have a detailed study in these lines. The evidences of these relations are reflected in the burial pottery. Ajithprasad 2002). it is difficult to find the roots of regional cultures within its contemporary cultural communities in Sindh and Baluchistan. However. Ceramics. it is necessary to assess their preceding and contemporary cultures. Therefore. 5. regional cultures/traditions of Gujarat were defined in terms of pottery whereas several other cultural aspects remain undefined. To define the nature of regional Chalcolithic settlements and investigate into various aspects of its people and then compare them with various excavated Harappan sites in Gujarat. To understand the chronological position of regional cultures/traditions in Gujarat and to reconstruct cultural sequence and regional stratigraphy. To investigate whether pottery types and associated finds from Chalcolithic l    . To systematically locate and record sites belonging to regional Chalcolithic cultures through explorations in selected sub-regions. To understand the regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions properly.

explorations and a variety of studies conducted in Gujarat during the last 80 years. geomorphology. It incorporates details of exploration techniques. re-analysis of ceramics and other artifacts from selected excavated sites and its li    . Organization of Thesis The organization of the thesis is as follows: Chapter 1: Introduction This chapter briefly introduces the Chalcolithic cultures/traditions of Gujarat. soils. This will finally define the objectives of thesis. Chapter 3: Methods of Study This chapter discusses various methods adopted during the study. Chapter 4: Results This chapter comprises of three sections and presents the results of explorations. its merits and demerits. The aspects to be discussed here would include a review of various excavations. The methods used for the classification and periodization of sites will also form a part of this chapter. key concepts. mineral resources. climate. This includes the definition of title. flora and fauna will also be presented in this chapter. rainfall. macroscopic studies and techniques of data analysis. A discussion of the present environmental condition of Gujarat incorporating a detailed account of the geology. other data collection methods. Chapter 2: Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal This chapter incorporates a review of Chalcolithic studies in Gujarat since 1930s. drainage pattern. scope and meaning of present work. This chapter will also look into various dating methods employed in Chalcolithic Archaeology of Gujarat.      sites in Gujarat represent any regional cultures/traditions and define each Chalcolithic ceramic types from typological point of view.

Pre-Prabhas Assemblage.). Indian Archaeology in Retrospect. New Delhi: Promilla and Co. Anderson. identifying regional elements and defining Chalcolithic cultures/traditions. and J. B. lii    . Korisetter (eds. 1990. The Pre Harappan Cultures of Gujarat. P. Afonso. C. Volume II: Protohistory -Archaeology of the Harappan Civilization: 129-58. A general outline of the important observations made from the discussion and significant results of the present work along with future scope for further work are also enumerated under conclusion. Appendices Volume Two contains various tables or data that will support the arguments and propositions made in different chapters. Setter and R. References Ajithprasad. S. Padri and Vagad are studied in detail to understand regional Chalcolithic people and recognize the changes underwent by them from the Pre Urban Harappan Phase to the Urban Harappan Phase through the Urban Harappan Phase. Padri Ware and Micaceous Red Ware are discussed. Different characteristic features of Anarta Tradition. Heras Indological Studies. Chapter 5: Discussion and Conclusion This chapter discusses the data given in the previous chapters with an aim to resolve the objectives of research mentioned in the introductory chapter. In other words. Datrana.      comparison with those of other excavated sites. 2002. Somnath. Pottery and other artifacts from Loteshwar. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers and Distributors. this chapter deals with fixing of chronology. Prabhas Assemblage. H. This chapter also deals with the distribution pattern of the Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat along with its relative chronology as derived from the data of previous researchers.

Dhavalikar.. Late Harappan Gujarat. India. Dissertation.      Bhan. A. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Bhan. Ajithprasad and S. Unpublished M. Ceramic Variability at Vagad with Special Emphasis to Micaceous Red Ware: A Petrographic Approach. K. S. Gujarat. liii    . K. South Asian Studies 10: 71-90. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Unpublished Ph. A. and G. K. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Sonawane. Excavations of an Important Harappan Trading and Craft Production Center at Gola Dhoro (Bagasra) on the Gulf of Kutch. Bhan. K. 1992. The Pre-Harappan Period at PrabhasPatan and the Pre-Harappan Phase in Gujarat. G. Thesis. and Sundaresh. V. Man and Environment XXVIII (1): 57-66. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in History and Archaeology 1 (2): 153-58. M. K. 1999. Gaur. 1994. Dikshit. 1994. Pratapachandran. Onshore Excavation at Bet Dwarka Island.D. Chalcolithic Settlements in the Bhogava and Sukha Bhadar Valley. K. Gujarat. M. The Eastern Anthropologist 45 (12):173-92. Excavations at Rangpur: 1947. K. Possehl. 1992. 2004. Dimri. Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute 11 (1): 3-35. K. Cultural Development of the Prehistoric period in North Gujarat with Reference to Western India. L. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. K. in the Gulf of Kachchh. Dimri. H. 1950. Man and Environment XVII (1): 72-78. 2003. P.

). Hegde. Man and Environment XII: 55-65. Pratapchandran. Krishnan. 1997. Journal of the University of Bombay 8 (1): 3-12.L. Parpola and P. And K. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Thesis. G. Paul.T. Ajithprasad.).H. 1939. B. Herman. D. B. A. Art and History. South Asian Archaeology 1993: 225-43. K. Tripathy and V. A. K. Krishnan. 2005.R. and V. Delhi: Book India Publishing Co. Shinde. Krishnan and S. Bhopal and New Delhi: Indira Gandhi Rshtriya Manav Sangrahalaya and Aryan Books International. Chakravarty and G. Archaeological Investigations in the Lower Shetrunji River Basin. K. K. District Bhavnagar. Gujarat. Gujarat: A Preliminary Report. A. Bulletin of the Deccan College 58-59: 141-48. Helsinki. Bhavnagar District. K.D. New Archaeological Discoveries in the Lower Shetrunji River Basin. Unpublished Ph. K. B. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedaekatemia.. A.K. Bhan. K. V. Two Sites in Kathiawar. F. S. P.1998-1999. M. Shah. 1999.M. Koskikallio (eds. Micaceous Red Ware: A Gujarat ProtoHistoric Cultural Complex or Just Ceramic?. Exploration in the Lilka River-basin in Saurashtra. Nautiyal (eds. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Khanduri and V. and K. Him-Kanti: Archaeology. Excavation at Nagwada 1986 and 87: A preliminary Report. C. liv    . Majumdar. V. P.      Ghurye.A Ceramic Study of the Harappan Burials from North Gujarat. Paul. 1988.. Gujarat. Prof. Sonawane.). Nautiyal Felicitation Volume: 53-63. Shinde. River Valley Cultures of India: 199-204. Dimri. Badam (eds. 1994.

Excavation at Rangpur and other Explorations in Gujarat.) Indian Archaeology in Retrospect.). Excavations at Padri. 1992. Shinde. Korisetter (eds. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers and Distributors. 1965. 1992 b. 297-328. Rao. lv    . Ancient India 18 and 19: 5-207. G. Possehl. D. Sankalia. Archaeology (Part I). The Harappan Civilization in Gujarat: The Sorath and Sindhi Harappans. E. South Asian Studies 8: 55-66. Stone (ed. 2008. 1963. L. V. Los Angeles and Chicago: Costen Institute of Archaeology. Excavations at Langhnaj 1944-63. Volume II: Protohistory - Archaeology of the Harappan Civilization: 1-46. S. Man and Envitronment XVII (1): 79-86. The Eastern Anthropologist Volume 45: Indus Civilization Special Number 1 and 2: 117-153. V. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India 78 Volume II. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. Shinde. Setter and R.Poona: Deccan College Post-Graduate Research Institute. Possehl.1990-91: A preliminary Report. 2002. R. The Harappan Settlement of Gujarat. L.      Possehl. S. Settlement and Society -Essays Dedicated to Robert Mccormick Adams. Padri and the Indus Civilization. 1992 a. Lothal A Harappan Port Town (1955-62). R. H. University of California and The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. S. Rao. G. G. Fifty Years of Harappan Archaeology: The Study of the Indus Civilization Since Indian Independence. C. L. 1985.

Man and Environment XXVIII (2): 21-50. Patel and J. Bhagat-Kar. 1992. V. Krishnan. and S. Mehta. K. Pratapchandran. H. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Dissertation. Yadav. Sonawane. S. V. V. Trial Excavations at Rangpur. K. North Gujarat. 1994. Limbdi State. H. K. V. V. Majumdar. Sonawane. 1998. Pre-HarappanPadri Culture in Saurashtra. Padri Ware: a New Painted Ceramic Found in the Harappan Levels at Padri in Gujarat. Vats. P. A. and P. Menon. Vagad – A Rural Harappan Settlement in Gujarat. A. Ajithprasad. M. H. Kathiawar.      Shinde. 1936. S. Sonawane. Man and Environment IX: 38-44. Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India1934-35: 34-38. N. 2004. Unpublished M. Bhan. lvi    . K. South Asian Studies 14: 173-82. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Man and Environment XVII (2): 105-10. and R.. Shinde. 2005. Ajithprasad. M. 1985. Harappa Culture and Gujarat. Excavations at Bagasra 1996-2003: A Preliminary Report. Man and Environment XX (1-2): 37-49. A Typological Study of Chalcolithic Ceramic Assemblage from Loteshwar. A.

1. 4. As of today the earliest agricultural or food processing communities of Gujarat are the Mesolithic communities or the microliths using communities. on which the work is based. However. re-analysis of artifacts and compilation of all available data. a complete picture of these cultures could not be reconstructed as the discussions of the previous researchers were based only on one artifact type. the discovery of new facts and of new relationships between facts observed by others and how the work tends to help the general advancement of knowledge. This led to fresh explorations in various parts of Gujarat. With the changing perception and the recent trends in Chalcolithic research in Gujarat.) Regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions of Gujarat were mainly understood through the ceramic data generated from explorations and excavations carried out at different parts of Gujarat. The chronometric dates from the Pre Urban Harappan levels at Padri lvii    . This is well proved through the excavations at the north Gujarat sites. 2. 3. The aforesaid Mesolithic communities or microlith using communities formed the base for the development of indigenous Chalcolithic traditions in Gujarat towards the beginning of the fourth millennium BC. The earliest dated regional Chalcolithic culture/tradition in Gujarat is the Anarta Tradition and chronometric date for the initial stages of this tradition is 3700 BC.      STATEMENT – I (Statement showing the particulars. This has brought to light various results regarding regional Chalcolithic cultures and they are as follows. it was necessary to carry out a systematic study to verify the identity of regional Cultures in Gujarat.

The ceramics from lviii    . there is no evidence for its antecedent culture within the site or its neighbourhood indicating an evolutionary pattern. One burial found during the excavations at Loteshwar without burial goods appears to be the earliest Chalcolithic burial in Gujarat. it is seen that South Gujarat is completely devoid of this tradition and the reasons for the same needs to be explored further. Some of the Anarta vessels in form and the scheme and style of painted decorations share common features with the Pre Urban Harappan ceramics from Sindh region and Ghaggar basin. 3700 BC. 5. Another regional Chalcolithic tradition which appears to have originated from the Mesolithic communities during the Pre Urban Harappan period is Pre Prabhas ceramics using communities of Datrana IV. Based on archaeological data and due to the discrepancies in c14 dates. 6. however. This isolation needs to be addressed in detail to explain the factors that led to the same. From the limited evidence available it appears that the regional Chalcolithic people disposed their dead within the habitation area. It appears that at its beginning the ‘Anarta tradition’ did not have any contact with other Chalcolithic cultures for a long time (approximately 500 years as evident from its assemblage). 8. the proposition of stratigraphical break between Mesolithic and Chalcolithic communities at Loteshwar needs revision. 10. This also calls for further detailed investigation.      (Padri Ware) also go back to c. 7. While observing the distribution pattern of the Anarta sites in Gujarat. 9.

Due to the absence of structures and the nature of deposit. It must be mentioned here that the Pre Urban Harappan site at Datrana IV is the biggest stone tool production centre so far known during Pre Urban Harappan time. Therefore. it is possible to say that the status of a full time settlement can be attributed to Datrana which specialized in stone tool production.      the site appears to be texturally inferior in its quality. 12. 14. The vessels of regional Chalcolithic traditions/cultures like Anarta lix    . The possible explanation for this is that the inhabitants from the site may have moved to Saurashtra after coming in touch with the Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region. 13. The presence of Pre-Prabhas assemblage at the site. indicating an incipient stage of pottery production. which is flimsy. 3200-2800 BC) and Somnath. which is older than the same in Somnath/PrabhasPatan is intriguing. The Pre Prabhas ceramics using communities appears to have started cultural contacts with the Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region and Anarta ceramics using community around 3200 BC or little later. If the Chalcolithic community at Datrana IV appears to have evolved from the Mesolithic community. 11. But the evidences suggest stone tool production at the site and an economy not entirely dependant on pastoral activities. The earliest evidence for the crested ridge blades in the Chalcolithic context of Gujarat occurs in Datrana IV (c. The Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type ceramics collected from various parts of Gujarat were made using fast wheel. The crested ridge blades and fast wheel made pottery in Gujarat may have been introduced by the Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region. many researchers consider Datrana as the seasonal habitation/camp site of the pastoral nomads.

Therefore the use of ‘Padri/Anarta Cultural Complex’ is irrelevant and meaningless. terracotta objects. Padri Ware and Micaceous Red Ware were made using hand or slow wheel/turn table. querns and hammer stones. pellets. 16.. PrePrabhas assemblage probably vanished by the Urban Harappan Period. 18. spindle whorls. These artefacts include steatite beads. their influence at a minor level are often seen in areas far away from their core region of occurrence. while the Pre-Prabhas assemblage (3200-2600 BC). Anarta tradition (3700-1900 BC) and Padri ware (3700-1700 BC) show an extensive time span. The artefacts those can be clearly labelled as belonging to regional communities and differentiable from Harappans are ceramics. Pre Prabhas Assemblage. 15. while differences are pronounced. Though. A comparative study of ceramics of Anarta tradition and Padri indicate that similarities are very few in shapes and decorations.e. In a simplistic way this may be explained as due to migrations/moving communities that led to inter site/inter regional relationships. The relative dates suggested for different periods of Padri require a reappraisal. the regional ceramic types show a geographical boundary for their distribution. Among the Chalcolithic cultures/traditions. and shell beads and bangles. 17. lx    .      tradition. Prabhas Ware (2300-1700 BC) and Micaceous Red Ware (2600-1600 BC) have shorter time span. grinding stones. i. stone blades. It is almost impossible to classify other artefacts as there are no clear-cut differences from those of Harappans. perforated discs. beads and pinched cakes. 19. rubber stones.

3700-1400 BC.      20. lxi    . In sites like Bagasra and Lothal. at Kachchh between 3200-1400 BC and at South Gujarat between 2600-900 BC. Based on the chronometric and relative dates of artefacts from various excavated and explored Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat. the Chalcolithic phase in the region can be dated between c. At North Gujarat and Saurashtra the Chalcolithic period is datable from c. 22. The availability of Micaceous Red Ware in limited quantities at LohumjoDaro and Shimal cannot be considered as the result of major inter-regional trade relations as the evidences from both the sites are very scanty. the Harappan ceramics outnumber the regional types in quantity along with other materials. 3700-900 BC. 21. however at Bagasra and Lothal during later stages and at Shikarpur from the beginning. These may be viewed as an indication of integration of indigenous Chalcolithic communities into Harappan culture. quantity of regional ceramics are much more than Harappan pottery in the initial stages.

Madison: Wisconsin Archaeological Reports. Ajithprasad. Joshi.). Kanewal. climate and landforms. Jokha. For comparison and correlation of artifact data. flora. Published books. Somnath and Surkotada were referred. P. R. Korisetter (eds. Setter and R.). 1989. S. J. Volume II: Protohistory -Archaeology of the Harappan Civilization: 129-58. 2002. Nageswar. F.      STATEMENT – II (Statement indicating the sources of information and the extent to which the thesis is based on the work of others and the portion of the thesis claimed as original. This data includes information on fauna. P. Malvan. Late Harappan Settlements of Western India with Specific Reference to Gujarat. Dhatva. reports. Bhan. lxii    . Old Problems and New perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia: 219-242. Kenoyer (ed. Indian Archaeology in Retrospect. 1995. Allchin. M.New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers and Distributors. Kuntasi. reviews and articles on previous researches in Gujarat helped in understanding the environmental and archaeological aspects. artifact analysis and data analysis. Rangpur. Excavations at Malvan. Langhnaj. data collection. Following is the list of selected references consulted for this study. Lothal. formulating strategies of exploration. and J.) The study is based on artifacts (movable and immovable) and other related data collected from archaeological sites in Gujarat through systematic explorations and excavations.K. K. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India 92. The Pre Harappan Cultures of Gujarat. OriyoTimbo. excavation reports of Bet Dwarka. Rojdi.

A.. Poona: Deccan College Post-Graduate Research Institute. Excavations at Langhnaj 1944-63. The Pre-Harappan Period at Prabhas Patan and the Pre-Harappan Phase in Gujarat. K. L. K. Maharaja Sayajirao University Archaeology lxiii    . K.. New Delhi and Goa: Aryan Books International and National Institute of Oceanography. K. and G. K. Krishnan and D. South Asian Studies 10: 71-90. M. Man and Environment XVII (1): 72-78. Kuntasi a Harappan Emporium on West Coast. Shah. Excavation at Nageswar Gujarat A Harappan Shell Working Site on the Gulf of Kutch. A. S. Clutton-Brock. Gujarat. S. Excavations of an Important Harappan Trading and Craft Production Center at Gola Dhoro (Bagasra) on the Gulf of Kutch. R. Sundaresh and K. Excavations at Langhnaj 1944-63. R. H. M.. M. Pune: Deccan College Post-Graduate Research Institute. 1992. India. M. Ajithprasad and S. J. M. The Fauna (Part II). K. H. R. Dhavalikar. Pratapachandran. Bhan. The Human Remains (Part III). Sonawane. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in History and Archaeology 1 (2): 153-58. Chitalwala. P. H. 1990. 1965. Kennedy. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island An Excavation Report. T. K. Hegde. Poona: Deccan College Post-Graduate Research Institute. 1996. Bhan. 2004. K. Dhavalikar. and K. Ehrhardt. 1965. 1994. V. Raval and Y. Sonawane. Cultural Development of the Prehistoric period in North Gujarat with Reference to Western India. Gaur. V. K. K. 2005. Possehl.. Vora.      Bhan.

Mehta.).T. R. 18. 17. Excavation at Jokha. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India 87. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedaekatemia. Krishnan. N. 12. Excavation at Kanewal. Joshi. Micaceous Red Ware: A Gujarat ProtoHistoric Cultural Complex or Just Ceramic?.New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. K. lxiv    . South Asian Archaeology 1993: 225-43. N. P. R.R. Man and Environment XII: 55-65. N. N. F. Shah. D. Excavation at Dhatva. Indian Archaeology: A Review1953-54 to 2000-01. I. Mehta. and S. and S. Excavation at Nagwada 1986 and 87: A preliminary Report. Sonawane.Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.. N. Excavation at Surkotada 1971-72 and Exploration in Kutch. N. Parpola and P.Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.      Series No. Bhan. Pratapchandran. 1988.M. Chowdhary.K. 1990. R. 1993 (reprint) to 2006. R. Mehta. P. Shah. A.. 11. Maharaja Sayajirao University Archaeology Series No.H. Koskikallio (eds. 1975. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. C. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. V. K. Ajithprasad. K. Maharaja Sayajirao University Archaeology Series No. Maharaja Sayajirao University Archaeology Series No. and K. Helsinki. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. Momin and D. 1994. Hegde.Krishnan and S. Chowdhary. K. A. Herman. 1980. J. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. 1971. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. R.

Nanavati. Rao. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. G. Harappan Civilization and Oriyo Timbo. 1963. R. R. The Eastern Anthropologist 45 (1-2): 117-154. Possehl. S. Raval. M. S. and Y. R. N. Rissman. 1985. Lothal A Harappan Port Town (1955-62). Ahmedabad and Baroda: Department of Archaeology. S. 1992. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India 78 Volume I. Chitalwala. 1995. University of Baroda. Geology of Gujarat. J. Ltd. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India 78 Volume II. Rao.      Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.. G. L. Gujarat State and Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Ancient India 18 and 19: 5-207. Lothal A Harappan Port Town (1955-62). Ltd. S. P. H. Mehta and S. Somnath – 1956. 1971. L. S. 1989. and M. R. N. Merh. S. Harappan Civilization and Rojdi. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Possehl. The Harappan Civilization in Gujarat: The Sorath and Sindhi Harappans. Pvt. M. and American Institute of Indian Studies. C. Monograph I. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Bangalore: Geological Society of India. Excavation at Rangpur and other Explorations in Gujarat. 1990. Chowdhary. 1979. lxv    . New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. M. Rao. Pvt.

Vagad – A Rural Harappan Settlement in Gujarat. V. Baluchistan. and S. H. P. Excavations at Padri. Majumdar. Man and Environment XVII (1): 79-86. The Indus Valley. Harappa Culture and Gujarat. Man and Environment IX: 38-44. Ajithprasad. 1998. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Man and Environment XX (1-2): 37-49. A. W. Bhagat-Kar. Ajithprasad.1990-91: A preliminary Report. Bhan. Shinde. Shinde. D. 1992. V. Padri and the Indus Civilization. K. Pratapchandran. 1992 b. Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (I): 441-64. Excavations at Bagasra 1996-2003: A Preliminary Report. lxvi    . H. Sonawane. J.).Pre-HarappanPadri Culture in Saurashtra. Archaeology (Part I). Ehrich (ed. V. H. Man and Environment XXVIII (2): 21-50. K. Menon. and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age. Padri Ware: a New Painted Ceramic Found in the Harappan Levels at Padri in Gujarat. G. Mehta. South Asian Studies 14: 173-82. V. R. Shaffer. Excavations at Langhnaj 1944-63. Patel and J.      Sankalia. Sonawane. 2004. Poona: Deccan College Post-Graduate Research Institute. Sonawane. South Asian Studies 8: 55-66. Man and Environment XVII (2): 105-10. Krishnan. Shinde. S. 1965. 1992 a. 1992. K. V. V. A. H.. Shinde. 1985. and R. N. and P. K. 1994. V.

An attempt is also made to identify various regions occupied by the Chalcolithic communities from Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan period. University Archaeology Series No. 1958. its analyses. The portion of thesis claimed as original is surveys carried out by the investigator in different regions of Gujarat and re-analysis of indigenous Chalcolithic pottery and various artifacts from selected sites. Creation of regional stratigraphy and chronology based on chronometric and relative dates are also to be considered as original contributions of this work. lxvii    . Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.      Subbarao. Vadodara: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. S. B. interpretation and comparison with other sites in the best possible mode forms the novel part of the thesis. M. The artifacts collected from various sites by the investigator and institutions. The Personality of India (Pre and Proto-Historic Foundation of India and Pakistan). 3.

Nanavati (1962) and Wheeler (1959. Subbarao categorized the excavated Chalcolithic sites of Gujarat into three viz. R. A. As most of the reported Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat had elements of Harappan culture. Since the accidental discovery of Chalcolithic material remains at Vallabhipur in 1930. more than 750 Chalcolithic sites were reported from various parts of Gujarat and among them 56 sites were excavated so far. Thus began the belief that Chalcolithic sites in Saurashtra are Late Harappan (Possehl 2007: 303). grows with liberty and dies in chaos (c. Subbarao (1958: 132-133) also identified the typical 1   . Though he hasn’t given any explanation for this classification it can be viewed as a division based on the concept of geographical region and differences in artifacts. Krieger. Subbarao (1958). 2002: 204) Archaeological researches in Gujarat during the last eighty years have contributed considerably to the general understanding of Harappan and regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions. Somnath IA and IB and Lakhabawal I) and Post Kathiawad Harappan (Rangpur IIC and III. 1966). Kathiawad Harappan (Lothal and Rangpur IIA).f. The distinctive features of the material culture of the Chalcolithic site(s) in Gujarat in the early stages was observed by few scholars like Vats (1937).Chapter – I INTRODUCTION Civilization begins with order. In 1958 (fig. 37). all of them were labeled under the same and until the first half of 1980s Chalcolithic settlements of Gujarat were synonymous with the Harappan culture with very few exceptions. Dikshit (1950). without any doubt or second thought. Somnath II and Amra I). Vats (1937) suggested that the part he excavated at Rangpur in Saurashtra might correspond to the Late period of the Indus Civilization or probably falls between that time and Cemetery H at Harappa. Late Kathiawad Harappan (Rangpur IIB.

Allchin (1990: 30) suggested that the local settlements with a distinctive regional character were already established in Gujarat even before the arrival of the Harappans and later in time Post Urban Harappan features blended with the re-emerging local cultural style. techniques and decoration could not have indigenously evolved without some outside influence (Sankalia 1974: 381). Wheeler (1966: 87) also used the term Saurashtrian Indus to denote a late and the developing branch of the Indus civilization. ethnic and cultural forces which clearly differed from the Harappan way of life. Rao (1963) suggested the probable existence of an indigenous Micaceous Red pottery using Chalcolithic community at Lothal prior to the Harappan occupation. Sankalia (1972: 171-172) regarded the trends observed through the material remains at Rangpur and Somnath as regional. Pandya (1983: 5963) based on the evidence of Rangpur excavations by Dikshit (1950) and Rao (1963) argued that the local Chalcolithic communities may have preceded as well as co-existed with the Harappans. Possehl and Herman (1990) noticed significant variations from the Classical Harappan in the material culture of Rojdi and many sites in Saurashtra. Joshi (1972: 122-126) noticed the variation of certain ceramics found associated with the Classical Harappan pottery from Surkotada.Wheeler (1959: 38) identified the distinctive character of the Chalcolithic sites in Kathiawar and called them as sub-Indus or a provisional variant of the Indus Civilization. which may have dissociated from the parental one at an early stage and took its own course of development. The ceramics similar to those of Jorwe and Malwa culture were recovered from few excavated sites in south Gujarat along with the Post Urban Harappan pottery (IAR 1961-62. Possehl and Herman (1990: 314) termed this regional manifestation of the Harappan urban phase as Sorath Harappan. which is stylistically different from the Sindhi Harappan (urban phase 2    . Mehta et al. Nanavati (1962) suggested the possibility of Lothal being a regional variation of the Harappan culture in Gujarat. 1971). He also suggested that changes in pottery shapes. IAR 1966-67.Introduction regional ceramic type known as Prabhas Ware along with the Harapppan ceramics at Somnath.

1992 b) identified a new regional Chalcolithic assemblage at the lowest levels of Padri and termed it as Padri Ware/Padri Culture. It is also found associated with Pre Urban Harappan Burial pottery (Amri Nal type) at sites like Motipipli and Datrana and with Pre-Prabhas pottery at Datrana. fine red ware. Kot Diji. The vessels are hand/slow 3    . Sind and Punjab) and clearly a part of the Harappan larger cultural whole. Its regional trait was first recognized in 1985 during the excavations at Nagwada in Surendrnagar district where regional ceramics were found associated with Urban Harappan elements. Allchin and Allchin (1997: 160-161) suggested the term Local Harappan instead of Sorath Harappan to this regional manifestation.Introduction sites in Kachchh. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994). However. Majumdar and Sonawane 19961997). Re-analysis of ceramics from Prabhas Patan (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) in Saurashtra also revealed the evidence for the existence of a regional Chalcolithic population well represented by the ceramic assemblage named as Pre-Prabhas. Brief descriptions of various Chalcolithic cultures/traditions in Gujarat are given below. Excavations and explorations in various parts of north Gujarat carried out by the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda clearly established the evidence of another regional Chalcolithic population termed as Anarta (Ajithprasad and Sonawane 1993. burnished red ware and burnished grey/black wares. its independent nature as a Pre Urban Harappan ceramic tradition of north Gujarat was established only after the excavations at Loteshwar in Mehsana district in 1991-92 (Ajithprasad and Sonawane 1993. Balakot and Dam Sadat (Hegde et al. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994). Sites in North Gujarat and Saurashtra also revealed ceramics similar to those from Early Harappan levels at Amri. This pottery tradition is represented by gritty red ware. Nal. 1988. Anarta Tradition Anarta Assemblage is a Regional Chalcolithic tradition first reported as a distinctive ceramic group from North Gujarat. Shinde (1992 a.

Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994). Shinde and Bhagat-Kar 1992. basins with thick flaring rim. Bhan et al. Shirvalkar 2008). bichrome ware. black and white (Ajithprasad and Sonawane 1993. 1997. white painted ware. basins. plain handmade ware and red painted ware (Shinde 1992a. A resemblance of Padri ware with ceramics from North Gujarat (Anarta) (Shinde 1992b. Shirvalkar 2008). Shinde and Bhagat-Kar 1992. Ajithprasad 2002). Other ceramic types which occur in the Pre Urban Harappan level at Padri are coarse red/grey ware. constricted neck and bulbous body. Bhagat 2001. Apart from many sites in North Gujarat. 1998. They are treated with red slip with paintings in red. it is also found associated with Urban Harappan artifacts at Shikarpur in Kachchh (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2008: 1-9. The non-Harappan ceramic tradition from all the periods (IA. globular pots. This tradition can be dated between 3700 BC – 1900 BC. this hand/slow wheel made coarse ceramic having thick red slip with black paintings occurs during Pre Urban Harappan and Urban Harappan periods (3600-2000 BC). 1998. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994. 2004). 4    . It is also reported from twelve other explored sites in the lower Shetrunji river basin in Bhavnagar district along with Harappan ceramics (Paul et al. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994) and Pre Urban Harappan pottery from Dholavira (Bichrome ware) (Shinde 1998) has been mentioned. stud handle bowls. The important vessel shapes are bowls with straight/incurved/convex sides. 1992 b. Padri Ware/Padri Culture Another Chalcolithic ceramic showing non-Harappan features is the Padri Ware reported from Padri Gohil Ni in Talaja taluka of Bhavnagar district (Shinde 1992 a.Introduction wheel made and forms include straight or convex sided bowls with incurved rims. IB and IC) of Surkotada is analogous with Anarta pottery. Joglekar 1996-97. pots/jars with flaring rim. 2003. Paul and Shinde199899. Bhan and Ajithprasad 2009: 1-9) and Bagasra in Saurashtra (Sonawane et al. Paul et al. 1998). dish on stands and perforated jars (Shinde 1992. 1997. At Padri. Shinde and Bhagat-Kar 1992.

deep shallow basins. The only other site in Saurashtra which yielded crude corrugated wares similar to those from the Somnath was Rojdi. The excavations at Datrana in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat also revealed Pre-Prabhas pottery in association with Anarta pottery.Introduction Pre-Prabhas Assemblage Pre-Prabhas pottery is a non Harappan assemblage first unearthed in 1956-57 excavation at Prabhas Patan (Somnath) in Junagadh district. agate. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) and suggested similarities with RGP IIB (IAR 1956-57). Major shapes in this group are large bulbous pot with narrow flat base. black and red ware and grey ware. Though Pre-Prabhas level was identified during 1970s re-excavations. dish with no carination and shallow bowls (Ajithprasad 2002: 145). Pre Urban Harappan Burial pottery. the details of this ceramic type were published only in 1992 (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). incised red ware. jasper and chert and copper/bronze punch (Ajithprasad 2002). Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery This kind of pottery was first reported during the excavations at Nagwada in 1985 (Ajithprasad 2002: 144). where it occurred in the earliest levels (IAR 1957-58). Red Ware. crested ridge blades and cores of chalcedony. Period I at Prabhas Patan datable to 3000-2800 BC was characterised by the occurrence of corrugated or broadly incised ware along with a blade industry of agate and chalcedony with crested ridges (IAR 1956-57. Both inhumation and symbolic burials were noticed in Period IA of the site. The vessels were made of well elutriated clay and the ceramics were slipped and painted (Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-1997: 16). dish on stand with up turned rim. The 5    . a short and straight neck and flat rim. Subbarao 1958. It is characterised by handmade pottery comprising of red ware. beakers with slightly flaring rim. Pinkish Buff Ware and Grey Ware represented the symbolic burials. flasks or beaker shaped vases with sides converging into a narrow opening. flat bottomed basin with flaring sides and incised rims (IAR 1971-72). The forms represented are wide mouthed jars.

Dhavalikar (Dhavalikar 1984. Shapur and Lohij) in Saurashtra. these ceramics were reported from all the periods and the major shapes include bowl.Introduction bulbous pot is painted at the rim with a thick dark band and at the shoulder with horizontal and wavy lines. Ajithprasad (2008: 41. Black and Red Ware In India. Rao 1963). Sharma 1960. 1988: 58. Black and Red Ware ceramics are reported from most of the Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat. 2010) also reported these ceramics from three sites (Warodra. Dam Bhuti. Nal and Balakot (Hegde et al. Ajithprasad 2002: 145). Moti Pipli. Pipal leaf motif on one of the large pots is an important feature. Shapur and Lohij. Subsequent excavations at Santhli. At Datrana. and it was first reported from Rangpur (Dikshit 1950: 18-19). According to many scholars dual colour in the ceramic is the result of inverted firing technique (Wheeler 1947. Based on the finds from Warodra. The relative time period assigned to the burial ceramic is beginning of the third millennium BC (Majumdar and Sonawane 19961997: 20. Megalithic and Early Historic contexts (Dey 2003: 131-136). These burial ceramics resemble the vessels recovered from the Pre Urban Harappan levels at Kot Diji. it was also found associated with Pre-Prabhas assemblage. At Rangpur. Majumdar (1999: 194) based on the evidence from Nagwada. IAR 1971-72) reported the presence of Harappan like ceramics in the Pre-Prabhas level at Prabhas patan. Ajithprasad 2002: 147). jar and dish and some of 6    . in the upper levels. Subbarao 1961. Ajithprasad (2008: 41) suggests that the Harappan like ceramics reported from Pre-Prabhas level at Prabhan Patan may be the Early Harappan Sind type pottery. Black and Red Ware ceramics are reported from Chalcolithic. Amri. Possehl: 1997: 81-87). Datrana and Surkotada suggest a time bracket of 2800 BC to 2550 BC for the spread of Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type Pottery and its authors to Kachchh and north Gujarat. Such ceramics are also present in the cemetery at Surkotada in Kachchh (Joshi 1990. Datrana and Moti Pipli in north Gujarat also revealed these ceramics along with Anarta pottery.

bottle and perforated jar. forms and modeling this pottery shows non-Harappan features (Rao 1963. Later explorations (Dimri 1998-99. The vessel forms represented are convex sided bowl with or with out stud handle. Micaceous Red Ware S. In spite of several efforts. Classical Harappan (Rao 1985). Prabhas Ware (Rao 1985). surface treatment. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992. globular jar. Sorath Harappan (Sen 2009). In fabric. Malwa Ware (Mehta et al. Herman and Krishnan 1994. Similar pottery was also reported from Rangpur (Rao 1963). 7    . This hand/mould made pottery has a thick pink to light brown/grey glossy slip with smooth surface and appears as dusted with tiny mica particles. Dimri 1999. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994). 1971) and Jorwe Ware (IAR 1961-62). Rao in 1963 described the possible existence of an indigenous Micaceous Red pottery using Chalcolithic population at Lothal prior to the Harappan occupation (Rao 1963. shallow dishbasin. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). chronologically it can be roughly placed between 3700 BC .Introduction the bowls were painted using white colour (Rao 1963). Rissman and Chitalwala 1990). 1980) and Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985) in the Bhal region strengthened the theory of the existence of Micaceous Red ware using community in the area around Gulf of Khambhat. Early Harappan Burial/Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Related Pottery (Majumdar 1999). In Chalcolithic Gujarat. Ajithprasad 2002). This pottery type was found to increase in quantity in the lower levels of Lothal A but it was always associated with Harappan ceramics (IAR 1961-62). Ajithprasad 2002). he hasn’t found a stratum exclusively of Micaceous Red Ware (1985). Black and Red Ware ceramics are found associated with Micaceous Red Ware (Rao 1985). lamp.R.900 BC. Anarta tradition (Ajithprasad and Sonawane 1994. Lustrous Red Ware (Rao 1963. The excavations at Kanewal (Mehta et al. There were certain similarities and dissimilarities in the shape and fabric of Black and Red Ware in different periods and cultures/traditions.

It is also reported in small quantities from excavated Chalcolithic sites like Rojdi. although originally meant to refer characteristic cultural traits generally found associated with the urban sites of the Harappa culture in the entire Indus valley. faience. Dimri 1999). Possehl (1992) called the Classical Harappan settlements as Sindhi Harappan. steatite. According to Sen (2009: 1) “the term ‘Sindhi Harappan’ used by Possehl. Rangpur. beakers. cubical stone weights. A number of Classical Harappan settlements are fortified and bipartite division is also present in some of them. shell and copper (Sonawane 2000: 141). Nageswar and Bagasra in Saurashtra. architecture with standardized sun dried/kiln baked bricks and dressed stone. S profile jar. Sukha Bhadar and Lilka river basin also provided supporting evidence in the form of similar pottery. 8    . Surkotada. Kanmer. Juni Kuran. Chronologically it can be placed between 2500-2400 BC (Lothal A Phase I and Rojdi A) to 1800-1600 BC (Vagad IB). Desalpur. Pabumath. Desalpur in Kutch and Ratanpura in North Gujarat (Herman and Krishnan 1994. Lothal. Classical Harappan Classical Harappan sites are mainly concentrated in the Kachchh region and represented by the excavated settlements of Dholavira.5 hectare. seals with script and figures. copper tools. Size of the sites varied from 60 hectares to less than 0. The urban Harappan features are found not only in the Indus valley proper but also in the adjoining regions in the east. Nageshwar and Bagasra in Saurashtra. Dimri 2005) in the Bhogava. Many of the Classical Harappan sites were associated with the manufacture of specialized items of semiprecious stone.Introduction Krishnan and Dimri 2005. Shikarpur and Khirsara. Nagwada and Zekhda in North Gujarat and these sites have Classical Harappan features apart from the artefacts of regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions (Bhan 1994: 79). by default refers only to that of the Sindh region because the word Sindh/Sindhi has regional/ethnic connotations. south and west”. Classical Harappan remains from the sites of Gujarat include goblets.

f. In Sorath Harappan. IIC as Late Sorath Harappan and III as Lustrous Red Ware sites (c. a few of the Sorath Harappan settlements are fortified and bipartite division is also present in some of them (Ajithprasad 2008: 83). Sorath Harappan artefacts are recovered from sites in Kachchh and North Gujarat. Possehl divided the Rangpur IIB sites as Sorath Harappan. Apart from Saurashtra. Based on absolute and relative chronology Classical Harappan sites can be dated between 2600-1900 BC. According to Ajithprasad (2008) thickness of Sorath Harappan fortification walls are much lesser in comparison to the Classical Harappans and curvilinear and polygonal structures seem to be not the norm in Classical Urban Harappan sites. Varma and Menon 1999: 9. The average size of these settlements is estimated to 5. Till the beginning of 1990s Sorath Harappan sites were considered as Late Harappan or Post Urban Harappan. Radio carbon dates from Rojdi A and B showed that all the sites in Saurashtra having pottery similar to these two phases should be dated to the Urban Harappan Phase and not the Post-Urban Phase (Possehl 1992: 129).3 hectares (Possehl 1980) and these settlements are devoid of elaborate architecture showing proper plan and layout (Ajithprasad 2002: 85).Introduction long parallel chert blades of Rohri chert and terracotta triangular cakes (Sonawane 2000: 141). Though there are no seals and only a little writing. there are weights and measures. Sorath Harappan Regional manifestation of the Urban Harappan phase in Saurashtra is popularly known as Sorath Harappan period (Possehl and Herman 1990). and they were classified to Period IIB-C or III of Rangpur Sequence. Like the Classical Harappan settlements. the vessel shapes were much alike the Harappans in the Sindh region. The classic black on red painting style is absent on them. etched carnelian beads and copper implements of Harappan type (Possehl 1992: 129). Based on 9    . Ceramics and other tools associated with site of Rojdi A and B type are quite different in detail from those of the Urban Phase Harappans in Kachchh and Sindh. Possehl 1999).

1971). Amra and Lakhabaval. copper implements including a celt. Lustrous Red Ware Lustrous Red Ware Ceramics are first reported during the excavations at Rangpur (Dikshit 1950: 3-55. wide shoulder and globular body (Ajithprasad 2002: 134). and a carved stone seal bearing images of several stylized deer indicate Harappan influence (Ajithprasad 2002: 134). Prabhas Assemblage Period II at Prabhas Patan was marked by a different set of ceramics known as the Prabhas Ware and this was unearthed during the excavations in 1956 (Subbarao 1958.Introduction the absolute dates from Rojdi Sorath Harappan can be placed between 2600-1700 BC. and it was reported from the sites like Lothal. Rojdi. 1971. Sorath Harappan and Classical Harappan pottery. It is made of fine clay and treated with a thin greenish grey slip. Shirvalkar 2008). incipient neck. were executed in horizontal panels or registers at the rim or at the shoulder (Nanavati et al. generally geometric forms like horizontal and vertical lines. At the site. the fabric of Lustrous Red Ware is coarse with the rare occurrence of a 10    . However. It is decorated with faint violet or purple pigment and the decorative patterns. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). steatite and faience beads. Nanavati et al. Rao 1963). These ceramics were later reported from many explored and excavated sites in Saurashtra. the radio carbon dates from Padri suggest an earlier date of 3600 BC to Sorath Harappan (Shinde 1998.The characteristic Features of the Prabhas Ware were hemispherical bowls with slightly incurved and bevelled rim and medium size jars/pots with an everted short rim. Prabhas pottery has wide distribution in Saurashtra. North Gujarat and South Gujarat. this ceramic type made its first appearance in Period IIC in limited quantity and Period III is noted for its exuberance (Rao 1963). dots and other forms. Remains of stone structures. Kachchh. Generally. This assemblage is dated between 2200 BC to 1700 BC (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992: 72). This assemblage was associated with Black and Red Ware.

Narmada and Betwa and its tributaries (Misra 2001: 515). Sonawane 2002: 168). orange. The excavations at Nagda. This culture is characterized by wheel made black painted red pottery having orange-red slip. The people of this culture had a specialized blade industry of chalcedony and agate. Major shapes in the same are bowl. Misra 2001: 515). pot/jar and dish on Stand. They used semi-precious stone beads and copper rings and bangles as ornaments. Male and female terracotta figurines were also reported from many sites. More than hundred sites belonging to this culture were located in the valleys of Chambal.Introduction fine variety (Rao 1963). 1971). dish. basin. in particular (Ansari and Dhavalikar 1971: 345). Colour of these ceramics ranged from tan. In many sites. The economy of the Chalcolithic community of Malwa Culture was based on farming. Malwa Ware Malwa culture was spread over a large part of central India in general and in Malwa. points. Kayatha. and they used copper tools (flat cells. Maheshwar. hunting and fishing (Dhavalikar 1979b: 250). A defence wall of mud from Eran and drain of mud bricks from Nagda were also reported. the western part of Madhya Pradesh. parallel sided blades. The stone tools like penknife blades. Lustrous Red ceramics are treated with a bright slip and are highly burnished. lunates and triangles were used by them. Burials of this period were unearthed from Daimabad and Inamgaon. sun dried bricks and kiln baked bricks (Dhavalikar 1979a: 237238. it is associated with Painted Black and Red Ware and Coarse Red Ware (Bhan 1994: 82). which results in a very shiny surface. spear head and swords with mid rib). Based on absolute and relative chronology this ceramic group can be placed between 1900-1400 BC (Bhan 1994: 82. bright red to purple (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990). The people of this culture built large rectangular houses and circular pit houses in wattle and daub. Simple and 11    . A square pit unearthed from Navdatoli is interpreted as yajnya kunda (Sankalia et al. 1979b: 248. Eran and Mandasor revealed the evidence for the existence of Malwa culture (Dahvalikar 1979a: 236). Navdatoli.

Buff Ware. usually represented by bowls and dishes. 1971: 14). cream colour and black painting were recovered from the site. Another important ceramic is the white painted Black and Red Ware. Radiocarbon dates from Navdatoli suggest a period between 1700 B. Black and Red Ware and Painted Red Ware with black bands on white back ground. At Dhatva Malwa Ware was associated with Post Urban Harappan artifacts and Black and Red Ware. Malwa Ware was associated with Jorwe Ware. subsistence 12    . 1975: 34). Painted Red Ware.C. At Jokha. medium fabric. Some of the sherds have corrugations on the exterior (Meht et al. crane and peacock. Few sherds of globular pots having flaring rim. 1975: 31). Jorwe Ware Jorwe culture is represented at more than 200 sites from Tapi valley in the north to Bhima valley in the south of western Maharashtra (Misra 2001: 517. In addition to the geometric pattern.). early Jorwe (1500–1200 B. 1984: 63-80). concentric circles and loops. there are some interesting animal motifs such as deer.C.C. jars with flaring mouths and a variety of bowls and dishes. for the duration of the Malwa culture. The common shapes in this Ware include lota.Introduction elaborate geometric designs in panels were painted using purple to brown-black pigment. . The designs were mainly bands and wavy lines (Mehta et al. Jorwe culture is divided into two phases.) and late Jorwe (1200–900 B. diamonds in rows. Some ceramics showing affinity to the Malwa culture were unearthed from Jokha and Dhatva in south Gujarat and these sites are relatively dated to the 15th-10th century BC. The people also used a coarse handmade red/grey ware identical with that of the southern Neolithic (Dhavalikar 1979b: 249).C.1450 B. Dhavalikar 1979b: 251. Based on structures. 1975: 29-31). Few ceramics from Jokha showed resemblance to the Malwa Ware reported from Navdatoli (Mehta et al. At Dhatwa Malwa Ware was associated with Black on Red Ware and Black and Red Ware (Mehta et al. The designs are usually confined to the upper half of vessels and it include both hatched or solid triangles.

namely those with head and others without head (Misra 2001: 518). microlithic tools associated with Black and Red Ware and small fragments of Ochrous Red Ware similar to the ceramics from Jorwe were also recovered (IAR 1961-62). The animal remains from the Jorwe sites include cattle. Jorwe settlements can be classified into large regional centres. 1988). chisels and fish hooks. archaeological data from various excavated sites in Gujarat reveal their coexistence with Pre Urban Harappan (later stage). Interestingly. A large number of human burials have been found at Inamgaon (Dhavalikar et al. it can be assumed that some of the regional Chalcolithic communities existed independently in early stages of Pre Urban Harappan period (3700-3000 BC). The goddesses are of two varieties. co-existence of various regional cultures in 13    . Jorwe people worshiped both gods and goddesses. The typical shapes are spouted jar and carinated bowl.1960) and other sites both in the early and late Jorwe phases. 1988) and Daimabad (Sali 1986). sheep/goat. villages. The early Jorwe houses were rectangular in plan but late Jorwe houses were small round huts. Copper objects found at different sites comprise of axes. farmsteads and camps. According to Dhavalikar (1997: 206-208) two clay male figurines from Inamgaon probably represent male deities. Problem of Study Though. Pottery kilns have been noticed at Inamgaon (Dhavalikar et al. At Jokha. From Nagal. which is 30 ha in size (Sali 1986). which are represented by baked as well as unbaked clay figurines. Nevasa (Sankalia et al. The pottery was wheel made and well fired. hamlets. Period I (circa 1500-900 BC) was marked by the occurrence of Jorwe Ware and Malwa Ware (IAR 1966-67). Largest settlement of Jorwe culture is Daimabad. Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan people. Jorwe people had contacts with the Late Harappans and the Lustrous Red Ware users of Gujarat. The pots were painted in black on the red background with simple geometric motifs.Introduction economy and materials used. buffalo and pig. As per Dhavalikar (1979b: 251).

To systematically locate and record sites belonging to regional Chalcolithic cultures through explorations in selected sub-regions. Ajithprasad 2002). 3. Therefore. To understand the regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions properly. To identify the distribution pattern of indigenous Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat within specific geographical sub-regions.Introduction Gujarat with that of different stages of Indus Civilization is not well explained yet. To define the nature of regional Chalcolithic settlements and investigate into various aspects of its people and then compare them with various excavated Harappan sites in Gujarat. the key artifact of regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions are different from those of Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type pottery (Majumdar 1999. Sindh and Baluchistan (Majumdar 1999) started during later stage of Pre Urban Harappan period (circa. 4. To understand the chronological position of regional cultures/traditions in Gujarat and to reconstruct cultural sequence and regional stratigraphy. it is necessary to assess their preceding and contemporary cultures. As per the current understanding. it is difficult to find the roots of regional cultures within its contemporary cultural communities in Sindh and Baluchistan. 2. Sindhi and Sorath Harappan (Possehl 1992) and Post Urban Harappan pottery (Bhan 1992) in Gujarat. The evidences of these relations are reflected in the Amri/Nal type of pottery recovered from the sites in north Gujarat and Saurashtra. 14    . regional cultures/traditions of Gujarat were defined in terms of pottery whereas several other cultural aspects remain undefined. it is imperative to have a detailed study in these lines. At the same time there is lack of evidence to support the origin of indigenous Chalcolithic cultures or traditions within Gujarat. The major objectives of study are: 1. its geographical and chronological extend and characteristic features in Gujarat. Ceramics. In all studies till date. 3000 BC). However. cultural relations between Gujarat.

the term generally refers to farming communities which used copper/bronze tools and objects. After nearly 80 years of research on the Chalcolithic cultures/traditions of Gujarat. This period is noted for the earliest use of copper/bronze objects. architectural structures including monumental buildings. defence system. earliest cities and towns. Archaeological terminology is formulated with reference to context and scale and retains validity of meaning within such bounds. Definitions of key terminologies used in the thesis are as follows. craft specialization. besides stone in tool making technology. Within Harappan realm it is used to describe Pre Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan sites as well as settlements contemporary to and in varying degrees affiliated with Classical Harappan (c. 15    .Introduction 5. bronze and other metals (excluding iron) and alloys. precise definition of characteristics and chronological boundaries of the period remains elusive. establishment of various social groups. the transition phase from the use of stone tools to the use of metals or the use of copper. To investigate whether pottery types and associated finds from Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat represent any regional cultures/traditions and define each Chalcolithic ceramic types from typological point of view. Key Definitions and Concepts The archaeological concepts and terms are theoretical tools used for organizing. other artefacts and radio carbon dates from different sites.e. The terminology used in the discipline need to be unambiguous and appropriate for archaeological goals (Bhagat 2001: 8). understanding and interpreting the data and few of them are self explanatory and others need definition. In the context of Gujarat. Rogersdotter 2006: vi).f. The Chalcolithic period in Gujarat roughly spans 3700-900 BC and is traditionally divided into three periods based on a combination of ceramic typology. Chalcolithic The term Chalcolithic (also known as eneolithic) is generally used to describe the period of Prehistoric human cultural change i.

Chalcolithic period of Gujarat is represented by cultures/traditions namely Anarta tradition. often relying upon current constraints on their research. many scholars used the term region in different ways. While. generally speaking. the term Chalcolithic is used in this thesis. Reserved Slip Ware. such as modern political boundaries or the budget available for fieldwork (Kantner 2008: 41). In terms of the cultural aspect. Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware. Micaeous Red Ware. Classical Harappan. Archaeologists are increasingly acknowledging that past boundaries between people. Lustrous Red Ware. Padri Ware. as well as the relationships between humans and the environment. were constantly changing”. Prabhas Ware. Region The last level in the nested hierarchy of spatial scales is the region (Gamble 2008: 141).Introduction burial monuments and irrigation system. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. In archaeology. this assumes that people in the past would have had similar criteria for defining their landscapes. Sorath Harappan. the use of a model of human settlement to identify a sociocultural or political region relies on the assumption that the model correctly represents the criteria that actually shaped that particular human landscape. Kantner (2008: 42) opines that “many archaeologists confine their regional studies to landscapes bounded by prominent geographic features. Kowalewski (2008: 226) defined region in its 16    . it is a geographical space in which. Similarly. Though. According to Willey and Phillips (1958: 19-20) region is “a considerably larger unit of geographical space usually determined by the vagaries of archaeological history. at a given time a high degree of cultural homogeneity may be expected but not counted on”. in order to avoid confusions and for more clarity in representing wide variety of artifacts of different groups of people excluding the Mesolithic community. Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery. existed in various parts of Gujarat between 3700-900 BC. Archaeologists normally defined regions of interest only indirectly. Black and Red Ware. all of these features fit well into the characteristics of Bronze Age/Copper Age.

To describe the Greater Indus Valley which covered an area of Northwestern South Asia ranging from 680. a coastal plain. plus their hinterlands. but they make sense as a whole internally and their boundaries make sense physiographically or behaviourally”. 8-49) identified four provinces of the 17    . Whether. Kantner (2008: 41) defined archaeological regions as “spaces for which meaningful relationships can be defined between past human behaviour. Many settlement of Indus Civilization are located in the areas well beyond the Indus river valley and to refer to the broader region that the civilization encompassed Mughal (1970) proposed the term Greater Indus Valley. A behavioural region is usually taken to encompass an interacting set of settlements or central places forming an integrated social whole.000 square kilometres (Jansen 2002: 105) Law II (2008: 62) used the terminology Greater Indus Region. Rao (1973: 3. According to Kantner (2008: 41-42) “regions are conceptualized at many different scales. in geography regions are fairly large places. According to him (2008: 226) “traditionally. Demarcation of regions is often determined by the specific questions and theoretical perspective guiding the research”. or it is more or less demographically autonomous. It contains multiple communities and one or more politically autonomous societies. physiographic or behavioural regions are open systems and their boundaries are more or less permeable or fuzzy. the material signatures people left behind. In Harappan/Chalcolithic studies. a mountain chain are examples of physiographic regions. that is physiographic region and behavioural region. and/or the varied and dynamic physical and social contexts in which human activity occurred”. only limited number of scholars attempted to define the term region in which geographical and archaeological divisions sometimes does not fit properly. from continental regions incorporating enormous area to localized regions centered on small drainage systems.Introduction geographical sense. A drainage basin. It is more or less economically self-sufficient in most things.000 (Kenoyer 1991: 352) to 1. In classical geography a region takes in multiple central places that form a system.000.

the Sindhu/Nara Delta. type site: Lothal). lying within their own but overlapping regional resource zones. Kirthar Mountains and Piedmont Plain and Sind Kohistan. eastern province consisted of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. the Eastern Coast and the Peripheral Regions. namely. a third region with in the Harappan sphere identified by Possehl (1980:18) is the area approximately coterminous with the modern state of Gujarat. the Gedrosia Region. type site: Harappa). eastern (Rajasthan and Haryana (type site: Kalibangan). Kenoyer (1983: 18-40) geographically divided the area of Indus Civilization into six regions. they are the Upper Sindhu/Nara Plain. Southern (Sind. south-western (Baluchistan type site: Kulli Harappan) and south-eastern (Gujarat. the Sorath Harappan (Saurashtra). Lower Indus Basin. central (Bahawalpur type site: Ganveriwala).Introduction Harappan Empire. the Central Region. the Kulli Harappan (in the mountains of Southern Baluchistan and Gedrosia). the Southern 18    . the East Punjab Harappan (Banawali II in Haryana) and the Late Kot Dijian (Northwest frontier of Pakistan). Possehl (1992: 237-244) divided the Harappan cultural mosaic into six regions based on ceramics and subsistence pattern namely the Sindhi Harappan (lower Indus Valley and Kachchh extending up to Lothal). The Bahawalpur Harappan (midst of the Cholistan desert). the western province extended over southern parts of Baluchistan and central province consisted of Sind and Punjab. Joshi (1984: 51-54) divided the area covered by Indus Civilization into six geographical regions/sectors namely northern (Punjab. type site: Mohenjo-Daro). the Western Coast. 77) identified Sind and Punjab as two primary regions of Indus civilization and he noticed Mohen-jo Daro and Harappa. Fentress (1976: 28. However. southern province included entire Gujarat. the Lower Sindhu/Nara Plain. later Possehl (1999: 269) identified seven regions of Indus Age. Apart from Sind and Punjab. Flam (1981: 17-18) designated South Asia as area and Sindh as sub area of the research and based on ecological and physiographic factors divided Sind into three regions namely.

Kaccha and Saurashtra respectively (Sankalia 1941: 4-6. . belief. 78) “by culture we mean an extrasomatic. accumulated experience.Introduction Region. refers to those socially transmitted patterns for behaviour characteristic of a particular social group”. these regions were known by names Anarta. the Northwestern Region. temporal continuum of things and events dependent upon symboling. . A mechanism whose function is to make life secure and continuous for groups and individuals of the human species”. is that complex whole which includes knowledge. or civilisation . he (1958: 12) divided the country into three basic divisions under the titles area of attraction. . art. refers . “believing that . Lata. Kachchh and Saurashtra. As per White (1959: 3. The Eastern Region and the Hakra Region. . For Leslie White culture is our extrasomatic means of adaptation. Subbarao (1958) identified the differential growth of regions in India that was marked by conflict between centrifugal and centripetal forces across a geographically and physiographically differentiated landscape. law. 19    . areas of relative isolation and area of isolation and placed Gujarat under the category of area of relative isolation. custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”. . Subbarao 1958: 128. . according to Tylor (1871: 1) “Culture. In Clifford Geertz’s (1975: 5) words. . and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning”. . . I take culture to be those webs. . morals. The Northern Region. Culture Culture has a very broad meaning in Anthropology. Accordingly. South Gujarat. As per Kessing (1981: 68) “Culture . . The southern region of Indus Age is coincident with the boundaries of the state of Gujarat (Possehl 1999: 327). to learned. Based on geographical criteria and ethnic composition Possehl (1999: 328) divided Gujarat into four sub-regions: the North Gujarat plain. . man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun. Majumdar 1960: xvii-xviii). In earlier period. A culture . .

creatively adding. . bounded archaeological provinces correspond unquestioningly to the territories of particular peoples and tribes”. It is not just backdrop. We assume that such a complex is the material expression of what today would be called a ‘people’.f. While. burial rites and house forms – constantly recurring together. sharply distinctive. . ornaments. implements. The world we are born into is very much a material one that shapes and creates us. . Tradition According to Renfrew and Bahn (2005: 46) tradition is “a set of practices linked 20    . arranging and subtracting elements within it. environments and worlds with which we interact and that surround us. in our turn. Such a complex of associated traits we shall term a ‘cultural group’ or just a ‘culture’. According to Bhagat (2001: 12) in Gujarat “since pottery is the largest data set in most excavations.The division of Chalcolithic cultures of Indus Civilization. it is instead the stage and props for human action”. Childe’s (1929: v-vi) definition of culture is more popular. particularly in Gujarat. into different time periods like Early Harappan/Pre-Harappan/Pre-Urban Harappan/Regionalization Era. We will also contribute to it by. According to Gamble (2008: 100) “material culture can be defined as the objects. Mature Harappan/Harappan/Urban Harappan/ Integration Era and Late Harappan/Post Harappan/Post Urban Harappan/ Localization Era is based on material culture. who interpreted culture as “we find certain types of remains – pots. but it also helps form that context. pottery sequences tend to be used provisionally as full-fledged cultural sequences and take on an interpretive role far beyond the information potential they possess being ceramics”. In the context of Gujarat. We are both created by and creators of material culture”. most information concerning the Chalcolithic period is limited to objects of material culture. According to McGuire (1992: 104) “material culture not only exists in a context. Veit 1989: 39) archaeological culture is “clearly defined.Introduction According to Gustav Kossinna (1926 c.

C. and its major feature is a diagnostic ceramic style located at one or more sites during a particular time” (Shaffer 1992: 442). traditions would have very steep slopes”. Eras are descriptive units in which cultural phases are grouped based on their general attributes (such as basic subsistence economy) and differing degrees of interaction/integration (Law 2008: 73). Plotted in a space-time block. As per Shaffer (1992: 442) “a tradition refers to persistent configurations of basic technologies and cultural systems within the context of temporal and geographical continuity”. Eddy 1984: 92) “a tradition is an archaeological unit concept that persists in time but limited in space”. and Post Urban/Late Harappan) that were commonly used in the literature are assimilated into three of Shaffer’s (1992) subsequent eras. they are all broadly related and collectively distinct from those of groups belonging to other traditions (Law 2008: 73). of pottery development through time within the confines of a certain technique or decorative constant”. Urban/Mature Harappan.Introduction historically through time by inheritance based on social learning”. The traditions are subdivided into eras and phases (Shaffer 1992: 442). 21    . As per Deetz (1967: 61) “tradition is marked by a long temporal duration with relatively little spatial extent. 7000-5500 B. Although an often highly diverse range of human adaptations existing over long spans of time may be encompassed within a tradition. The three periods (Pre Urban/Early Harappan. The eras are made up of phases and phase can be defined as“the smallest analytical unit. and more than one may coexist contemporaneously within a tradition”. The tradition is a configuration of traits which has a very long life.). But the definition aptly applicable to ceramics is contributed by Willey and Phillips (1958: 35). According to Haury (c. Shaffer (1992) considered Indus Civilization as a tradition and he suggested four-era system of the Indus tradition starts in the Early Food Producing Era (c.f. according to them a tradition “comprises a line. with the origins of plant and animal domestication. or a number of lines. According to Shaffer (1992: 442) eras “do not have fixed boundaries in time and space.

technological know-hows. The terms antecedent Harappan or Proto-Harappan used to represent the early occupation at Kalibangan lack proper definitions. Pre Urban Harappan (c. 1990: 181) the term Pre-Harappan is misleading because it creates the impression that chronological gap exists between the Pre-Harappan period of the first half of the third millennium BC and the Mature period of Harappan culture belonging to the later half of the third millennium BC (middle of the fourth millennium BC). 1900-1300 BC). 2600-1900 BC). 1994). Similarly. Antecedent Harappan. Till the second half of 1980s there was very little evidence for the Pre Urban Harappan sites in Gujarat. 5500-2600 BC) is denoted as the Regionalization Era (shaffer 1992). According to Mughal (1970: 5-6. the inhabitants of the Greater Indus Valley and adjacent areas developed their subsistence systems.Introduction Regionalization (c. based on radio carbon dates and commonalities and differences in artefacts Mughal used the term Early Harappan to represent materials found stratified below the Mature Harappan remains at Kot Diji. the formative early period of the Indus Civilization (c. Integration (c. Chanhu Daro and Kalibangan (Possehl 1992: 118). 5500-2600 BC). interregional interaction networks. Early Harappan and Regionalization Era. and Localization Eras (c. Amri. 3700-2600 BC) The term Pre-Urban Harappan represents the period which precede the Urban or Mature Harappan period at sites like Mohenjo Daro. Kalibangan and in the predefence levels of Harappan and related material discovered at other sites assignable to the first half of the third millennium BC. The term Pre-Harappan is commonly applied to represent those material remains which are found stratigraphically below the Mature Harappan cultural relics. and social hierarchies essential for the emergence of urban state-level society (Kenoyer 1991. Proto-Harappan. The term Pre Urban Harappan is roughly equivalent to the terminologies Pre-Harappan. Therefore. Harappa. In the Regionalization Era. But the excavations and explorations in different 22    .

Pre Prabhas Assemblage and Black and Red Ware (Table 1). Pronounced homogeneity in material culture of the urban society distributed over a vast area (Shaffer 1992). Material remains from various sites show that regional cultures/traditions in Gujarat during this period maintained interaction networks with one another as well as with cultures in the Indus Valley proper (Kenoyer 1997. technologically complex craft activities. In Gujarat.Introduction regions of Gujarat in the following period. use of un-deciphered script and maritime trade with Mesopotamia are the characteristic features of this period (kenoyer 1998. Possehl 2002). In the similar way the terms Harappan. 3700-2600 BC. According to Shaffer (1992) at the beginning of the Integration Era. including Gujarat integrated into a wide spread urban society. standardized weights and measures. a region that had largely been 23    . Padri Ware. Pre Urban Harappan phase can be dated between c. Early Harappan Burial/Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery. Possehl 2002). Except the Burial/Sindh Type Pottery. Harappa Phase. Bhan 1994. Ajithprasad 2002. Kenoyer and Meadow 2000. relative and absolute dates from various sites and reanalysis of ceramics from previously excavated sites provided evidences for the existence of various cultures/traditions mainly represented by the ceramics known as Anarta tradition. most of the regional cultures of the Greater Indus Valley and adjoining regions. Urban Harappan (c. 2600-1900 BC) The term Urban Harappan is used to represent the developed stage of the Harappan culture beginning about the middle of third millennium BC (Possehl 1992). Ajithprasad 2002). This period is remarkable for the appearance of Harappa Phase sites in Gujarat. Mature Harappan (Mughal 1970: 7) and Integration Era (Shaffer 1992) were used. none of the ceramic types of this period from Gujarat showed clear technological and stylistic similarities to the Pre Urban Harappan ceramics or later ceramics of the Indus Valley proper (Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994.

Harappa and the urban phase sites coincident with the period of literacy and the making of the classic Indus stamp seals (Possehl 1992: 118). Urban Harappan period in Gujarat was marked by huge urban centre like Dholavira to small sites of less than half hectare. such as the production of stone beads and shell bangles (Bhan and Gowda 2003) and traded these objects to different sites. During this period. stoneware bangles. regional Chalcolithic artefacts were also unearthed from many sites of the Urban Harappan period. the long distance/inter regional trade. Anarta Tradition. Padri Ware. The Urban Harappan period in Gujarat can be dated between c. 2600-1900 BC. sometimes they were interpreted as outposts or colonies (Bisht 1989. Black and Red Ware. Production of inscribed steatite seals. Based on the similarities in the material culture of these sites to those of Indus Valley proper. 1900-900 BC) The term Post Urban Harappan (Possehl 1992) is equivalent to the terminologies Late Harappan. Sorath Harappan. At least fifteen sites of this period were surrounded by huge fortifications.Introduction peripheral to the mainstream of Indus cultural developments during the Regionalization Era (Chase 2007). Post Urban Harappan (c. Joshi 1990. Apart from the Harappan artefacts. Residents at many of the sites involved in craft activities. standardized weights. Dhavalikar 1994). 24    . Micaceous Red Ware and Prabhas Ware (Table 1). one of the characteristics of Integration Era appears to have largely broken down and the major geographic regions that had been encompassed by the Urban Harappan period were differentiated from one another on the basis of ceramics and other aspects of material culture (Chase 2007). Post Harappan and Localization Era which encompasses the period following the principal urban occupations at Mohenjo Daro. Many of the ceramic traditions of Pre Urban Harappan period continued to this period and some new traditions/cultures also emerged. This period was represented by the cultures or traditions namely Classical Harappan/Sindhi Harappan.

Table 1. Post Urban Harappan period in Gujarat corresponds to Shaffer’s (1992) Rangpur Phase.Introduction and Harappan architectural practices disappeared during this period (Kenoyer 1998: 173-185). 1900-900 BC) Prabhas Lustrous Red Jorwe Malwa 25    . 3700-2600 BC) Amri-Nal Pre-Prabhas Black and Red Reserved Slip Anarta Padri Black and Red Urban Harappan (c. Black and Red Ware.1: Various Cultures/Traditions of Indus Civilization in Gujarat Indus Civilization Gujarat Anarta Padri Pre Urban Harappan (c. Prabhas Ware. This period was represented by the cultures/traditions namely Late Sorath Harappan. 2600-1900 BC) Reserved Slip Micaceous Red Classical Harappan Sorath Harappan Prabhas Black and Red Micaceous Red Late Sorath Harappan Post Urban Harappan (c. Around four hundred sites belonging to this period have been reported from different parts of Gujarat.1). Micaceous Red Ware. Lustrous Red Ware. Jorwe Ware and Malwa Ware (Table 1.

1900-900 BC.The Post Urban Harappan period in Gujarat can be dated between c. Knowledge of the present natural environment is necessary in order to reconstruct past environments (Marathe 26    . This phenomenon makes it essential to examine the characteristic features of different physiographic regions and archaeological material remains to understand the Chalcolithic subsistence pattern. In archaeology. soil.e. The environment plays an important role in the formation and change of various cultures. triangular terracotta cakes and steatite stamp seals decreased in frequency or disappeared altogether (Bhan 1989: 226. ranging from arid to humid conditions. However. Terracotta beads became very common (Sonawane 2002: 167). fauna and flora (Brothwell and Higgs 1969: 93). main concentrations of different cultures/traditions were in certain regions they also spread to other physiographic realms. Deterioration in urban settlement pattern is noticeable (Sonawane 2000: 142) and there was a decrease in the average size of the settlements in Saurashtra (Bhan 1994: 82). This shows the skill and adaptability of Chalcolithic communities in adjusting themselves within different environmental conditions. topography. Rohri chert blades became very rare and they were substituted by smaller blades of chert and chalcedony (Sonawane 2002: 167). Sonawane 2000: 142). potable water and accessibility to raw materials and finished products. Distinctive aspects of Harappan material culture such as chert weights. archaeological data shows that many of the regions preferred by the Chalcolithic folk are presently not suitable for habitation. combination of climate. Selection of different places for settlement might be based on availability of food.Introduction During this Era. environment means a number of factors interrelated i. Though. Environmental Background of Gujarat Archaeological researches in Gujarat during the last eighty years showed that Harappan and other regional Chalcolithic communities were distributed over various physiographic regions. many of the Classical Harappan vessel forms became extinct.

Kheda. Narmada. the state is a single unit and comprises of 26 districts. and secondly. Therefore. general aspect of the environment of various regions of Gujarat has been given for proper understanding. the Saurashtra Peninsula. They are Ahmedabad. As a result of the reorganization of States in 1956. Surat. Administratively. kilometers. Patan. Kachchh. Saurashtra and Kutch were merged in the Bombay State. the Kachchh Peninsula and the Rann of Kachchh. Vadodara and Valsad. Banaskantha. On May 1.Introduction 1981). constituting 6. Porbandar. to indicate the land which is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west. Junagadh. 1968). Bhavnagar. 1960. the southern Aravallis and the adjoining hilly tract. Gujarat extends on the west coast of India between 20° 10' and 24° 50' degrees north latitude and 68° 40' and 74° 40' degrees east longitude. Dahod. In this thesis. Madhya Pradesh in the southeast. the term Gujarat is used in two different ways: firstly. Gujarat was an integral part of Bombay State throughout the period of British rule. the State of Gujarat has a population of 50596992 crores approximately. Rajkot. The state 27    . The total area of the State is 197841 sq. Rajasthan in the north and the east. Navsari. Surendranagar. Geomorphology Geological Survey of India (2001: 3) divided Gujarat into six geomorphic units namely. the central plains of Gujarat. Central and North Gujarat). Tapi. Jamnagar. Gandhinagar. Present Gujarat includes Mainland Gujarat (South. and Maharashtra in the south. Anand. Amreli. Bombay State was divided into the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Saurashtra and Kachchh (Randhawa et al. Dang. the larger language field in which Gujarati and its variations are spoken (Majumdar 1960).4 per cent of the area of the Indian Union. Panchmahal. the Deccan Plateau and the adjoining tract of southeastern Gujarat. Bharuch. According to the provisional estimates of the 2001 census. Mehsana. Sabarkantha.

The south-western parts of the state forms the Saurashtra (Kathiawad) Peninsula. An alluvial tract covers the area spreading in north-south direction and lying between Aravalli range and Saurashtra – Kachchh Peninsula (Geological Survey of India 2001: 2). In the north-eastern parts of the state the hill chain represent the southward continuation of Aravalli range. 1). Kachchh Peninsula and Saurashtra Peninsula. North-western parts of the state are occupied by Kachchh Peninsula and the Rann of Kachchh. Saurashtra and Kachchh and these zones are marked by its respective coastlines (Map 1. while the south eastern part is occupied by the Deccan Plateau. 2003: 72) 28    . Map 1. According to Merh (1995: 1) Gujarat comprises three distinct geomorphic zones namely.1: Geomorphic Map of Gujarat (Adapted: Chamyal et al.Introduction has a long coast line of 1550 km from Sir Creek in the north-west to Umargao in the south-west and it borders the Central Plains of Gujarat. Mainland Gujarat.

the arid land forms become very common. the Satpura and the Aravalli. gneisses and granites. Merh and Chamyal 1997: 3-4). This form the western half of the Mainland including coastal plains and show an altitude range of 25 to 75 m with a gradual seaward slope (Merh 1995: 34. North of the Banas. Though the occurrence of stabilized sand dunes decreases southwards. The eastern upland zone comprises rocks belonging to the Precambrian Aravalli Super-group and Crataceous Deccan Trap and Bagh and Lameta Beds. The alluvial plain is a flat terrain and outside the Cambay basin the quaternary deposits directly overlie the basement rocks. (2000: 348-350) and Chamyal et al.the Sahyadri. schists. (2003: 71-72) Mainland Gujarat is divisible into four broad geomorphological zones namely the eastern upland zone. The basinal zone hosts the Quaternary basin-fill exceeding 800 m in maximum thickness. While the Deccan Trap comprises various types of basalts and the Bagh-Lameta Beds are made up of sandstones with limestones (Maurya et al. The eastern part of the plain is dominantly a shallow buried pediment as evident from the outcrops and hard rocks comprising the upland zone within the river channels. phyllites. Merh (1995: 3-4) divided it into two zones namely Eastern Rocky Highlands and the Western Alluvial Plains. the alluvial zone (basinal zone) and the coastal zone. 2003: 71-72). According to Maurya et al. The Aravalli includes complexly folded quarzites. Geomorphologically. The Western Alluvial Plains comprise a thick pile of unconsolidated sediments deposited by both fluvial and aeolian agencies primarly during the Quaternary period. they are found to occur upto the Narmada river and this Aeolian feature given rise 29    .The Eastern Rocky Highlands show an altitude range of 300 to 1100 m and it is the extensions of the major mountains of western India .Introduction Mainland Gujarat Mainland Gujarat is chiefly occupied by a flat alluvial plain bordered by the Aravalli and Trappean highlands to the east (Chamyal et al. The pediment zone is very wide and has a shallow cover of quarterly sediments rarely exceeding 15 m (Maurya et al 2000: 348-350). the shallow buried pediment zone. 2000: 348).

Saurashtra Peninsula can be divided into three geomorphic units namely the coastal low-lands. Gulf of Khambhat is characterised by many sandy stretches which are influenced by marine as well as river action. 1977). The modern surface configuration. the plateau of Saurashtra and the hilly region (Pappu and Marathe. 2000: 350). The Plateau of Saurashtra includes the area lying between an 30    .Introduction to an undulated topography. The area between the Little Rann and the Gulf of Khambhat is a low lying and at various places it is marshy and salt waste land due to the retreat of the sea accompanied by tectonic uplift. Mahi. On the northern coast tidal flats are quite common. km. The width of the Narmada estuary near the Gulf of Khambhat is around 18 km. the slope and ruggedness of relief. Dhadhar. the characters of drainage and the pattern of relief of Saurashtra have evolved from the geological base. in response to tectonic movements and the erosion history of the region (Dikshit 1970. the types of landforms. Similar features are noticeable in the east coast of Saurashtra while the west coast is smooth with few indentations. Based on the height above sea-level. All along the coast marshy depressions have developed due to the drainage blockage by coastal dunes and bars and the most extensive marshy lowland is between Porbandar and Navi-bandar spreading more than 200 sq. The Gulf of Cambay coast is very irregular in its outline and projects deeply inland. The Gulf is surrounded on all sides by marshy coast and dotted with bars and islands locally known as bets. It is enclosed on all sides by marshy coasts and dotted with tidal mudflats and several bars and islands locally known as Bets (Maurya et al. Saurashtra The Saurashtra peninsula forms a rocky tableland fringed by coastal plains and a major portion of the same is occupied by the Deccan lava flows (Merh 1995: 4). Sabarmati and number of creeks and extensive mud flats. Marathe 1981: 7). The coastal zone is marked by the broad esturine mouths of the rivers Narmada. The Coastal Low-lands includes the area lying below the altitude of 75m. but there are hardly any dunes (Marathe 1981).

The Gir ranges exceed 300 m and are represented by several hills namely. The Hilly Region is the part of Saurashtra which lies above 300 m and the highest point is represented by the Gorakhnath peak (1117 m) of the Girnar hills. km. The Rann is saltencrusted wasteland rising about 2-6 m amsl and covers approximately 45000 sq. Khadir. Chamyal et al. which is an extension of the Manda hills. The other hills which appear prominently in the landscape are the Barda hills (637 m) and the Alech hills (298 m) (Marathe 1981). the Manda hills in the north and the Gir ranges to the south are joined by a narrow zone of higher altitude including the isolated and rounded hills like Girnar and Barda. the Hilly Regions and the Southern Coastal Plains (Merh 1995: 5. faulting and lithology. the Kachchh Mainland and the Wagad highland (Merh 1995: 5). The Great Rann of Kachchh is a vast partially dry. The highest peak in Kachchh is Kaladungar (465 m) in the Pachcham Island.Introduction altitude range of 75 to 300 m and rises gently from all the sides towards the centre. Though termed as the Saurashtra plateau. It represents the relics of a much higher plateau subjected to erosion by the numerous rivers which flow from it in all directions (Marathe 1981). mud flat extending from the north of 31    . indicating that the topography has been controlled to a large extent by the geological factors of folding. Kachchh can be sub divided into four geomorphic units namely. 2003: 74). All hill ranges and the intervening low ground run almost parallel. It is divided by the rocky highland into the Great Rann to the north and the Little Rann to the east (Merh 1995).The hill ranges in these areas are separated by large tracts of low ground. Nandivela (529 m) and the Sarkala (643 m). 2009: 71). the Low-lying Banni Plains. Kachchh According to Merh (1995: 5). Sasa (480 m). The northern part of the highland occurs east of Rajkot near Chotila (340 m). area (Maurya et al. Kanara (326 m). the Rann. the Kachchh region is made up of east-west trending hill ranges in the island belt consisting of Pachchham. Bela and Chorar islands.

The eastern half forms the marshy plain between Khadir Wagad and the Mainland (Biswas 1993: 18). climate and tectonic framework (Merh 1995: 11). The southern coastal plains border the mainland against the Gulf of Kachchh in the south and the Arabian Sea in the west (Merh 1995). connecting the Mainland and Pachham Island. The hilly regions consist of three units.Introduction Mainland to the sand dunes of Thar Parkar in Pakistan and the Little Rann is the head of Gulf of Kachchh formed by the regression of sea (Biswas 1993: 18).2) in the various subregions of Gujarat behave differently and show striking diversity. The western half extends to the Arabian Sea and near the sea it becomes the marshy tidal flat of Kori and Sir Creeks. 1. the Island belt. The rivers like Rupen. The rivers (fig. Khadir. The rocky mainland lies to the south of Banni and extends up to the Gulf of Kachchh (Merh 1995). Drainage Drainage is the reflection of the terrain characteristics and controlled by geomorphology. The plains of central Gujarat 32    . The island belt includes four rocky projections of Pachcham. Mainland Gujarat North Gujarat has a number of rivers. Wagad region lies to the northeast of the mainland and forms an isolated rocky landmass. The Low-lying Banni Plains is situated at a higher level than the Rann and forms shrubby and grassland area. Merh 1995). It divides the southern extension of Great Rann into eastern and western halves. the Wagad and the Kachchh Mainland. For a considerable length of its course it is known as the Sabar but after its confluence with the Hathmati. it becomes the Sabarmati. the most important of which is the Sabarmati (400 Kms). Saraswati and Banas arise from south-western slopes of the Aravalli hills and flow into the Rann of Kachchh. Bela and Chorar rising above the Rann. Both the Ranns are flooded seasonally during the monsoon (Biswas 1993: 18.

33    . 25 km SW of Vadodara. Major rivers of South Gujarat are Tapi (flows into Arabian sea) and Narmada (flows into Gulf of Khambhat).2: Drainage Map of Gujarat (Adapted: Merh 1995: 14) lying between Sabarmati and Mahi are drained by a number of tributaries of Sabarmati. The rivers Damanganga. Kolak. Auranga.Introduction Map 1. Meshwa and Vatrak. Amravati and Bhukhi are the tributaries of Narmada. Karjan. Shedhi. 1968. Merh 1995). Par. The river Dhadhar rising from the Shivrajpur hills also flows into the Gulf of Khambhat. Mejan. viz. This river is met by a major tributary Vishwamitri. Mahi is the third largest river of Gujarat after Narmada and Tapi and it flows into the Gulf of Khambhat. Kaveri. Ambica and Mindhola of South Gujarat are smaller in size and rise within the boundaries of the state from the eastern trappean highlands (Randhawa et al. Khari.. The Orsang. Purna. Andheri. The Kim river rises in the Rajpipla hills and flows into the Gulf of Khambhat.

Karnal. Raval. Merh 1995). Kachchh Most of the rivers in Kachchh flow for short distances and carry little water. East flowing rivers like Sing and Sakra meet the Gulf of Kachchh near the mouth of Little Rann of Kachchh (Randhawa et al. Singavadu and Gagaria. the Bhadar (260 km) westward to the Arabian Sea and the Shatrunji eastward to the Gulf of Cambay. Moj. Fuljar. Sasoi. Phulka and Chandrabhaga. Merh 1995). Machundri. Kharod. Phophal. Sie. Amongst the east flowing rivers that meet the Gulf of Khambhat are Kalubhar. Kankavati. Bhukhi. The two largest rivers of the region.Introduction Saurashtra Though there are as many as 51 rivers in Saurashtra only seven rivers have a course of more than 80 kilometres. Und. Ruparel. 1968. The streams flowing into the Gulf of Kachchh are comparatively smaller and these include Ghi. Kaila. Kankawati. Mitti. Sinhan. Rukmavati. Tramdo. Vengdi. The tributaries of the river Shatrunji are Satali. Bhukhi. Geology The geological evolution of Gujarat started in the Triassic with the breakup of Gondwanaland and the subsequent geological history is related to the northward drift of the Indian subcontinent (Merh and Chamyal 1997: 10). The south flowing streams like Naira. Sukhbhadar and Bhogavo (Randhawa et al. Sakra and southwestward flowing streams like Rakhdi and Mitti meet the Arabian sea. Panjarwati. Aji. Gujarat comprises 34    . Nagwanti. Bambhan. Hiran and Saraswati. 1968. Chhari. Nagmati. Utavali. Vinu. Minsar and Ojat/Ozat are the tributaries of river Bhadar. Pardi. the Bhadar and the Shatrunji rising opposite each other on the west and east sides of the plateau. Singoda. flow through the plains. Pur and Kasawali. Ragmati. Demai. Godadhro. Khari. The streams originating from the northern slopes that meet the Rann of Kachchh (Banni) are Nara. Machhu. Choke. Rivers of the southern coast of Saurashtra are Dhanvantri.

tin. fuller’s earth. the rest being occupied by the hard rocks. vermiculite and wollastonite (Map. feldspar. chalk. aridiosols and alfisols (Map 1. copper. siderite. barite. bauxite. glass sand. eastern Ahmedabad. tungsten. North Gujarat and Central Gujarat where the annual rainfall is below 450 mm. vertisols. The Sediments of Quaternary period cover about 51% of the total area of Gujarat. calcite. Vadodara. Its colour varies from deep black. Vertisols are locally knows as Regur or black cotton soil and it occur in district of Bharuch. quartz. The hard rocks comprise Precambrian metamorphites and associated intrusive. 1968: 166-172. 1. talc (soapstone). dolomite. Many of these minerals are exploiting for commercial purposes and different kinds of rocks are being used for construction activities (Geological Survey of India 2001: 45). phosphorite. Aridisols have mainly developed over the aeolian silts and dune sands and distributed in the flood plains. Alfisols have developed mainly over sandstone deposits and at places over alluvial deposit.3). inceptisols. Bhal and Ghed tracts of Saurashta where the annual precipitation ranges from 500-2000 mm (Randhawa et al. Valsad. lignite. fluorite. Mehsana. This soil type is mainly found in the central Banaskantha and 35    . petroleum. nickel. coal. marble. manganese. sedimentary rocks of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras and the traps/flows constituting Deccan volcanic of Cretaceous Eocene Age (Geological Survey of India 2001: 4). limestone.3). gold. beryl. pediment surfaces. graphite. The colour of this soil ranges from light grey to brown. ochre. poly-metallic base metal. Soils Merh (1995: 16) divided the soil types of Gujarat into five namely entisols.4). Merh 1995: 16). diatomite. northern Kheda. Minerals Different minerals available in various parts of Gujarat are agate. bentonite. salt (brine). dark brown and dark greyish brown. gypsum. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras (Map 1.Introduction of the rocks belonging to the Precambrian. mud flats and small dunes of Kachchh. Surat. mica. clay.

3: Geological and Mineral Map of Gujarat (Adapted: Geological Survey of India 2001: Plate I) 36    .Introduction Map 1.

north Mehsana. Based on soil types.Introduction Map 1. greyish brown and reddish brown. 37    . Surendranagar. rainfall and temperature. granite. Inceptisols are mainly found in parts of Sabarkantha. granitic. southeastern Banaskantha. Gujarat is divided into five agricultural zones namely Kachchh. reddish brown.4: Soil Map of Gujarat (Adapted: Merh 1995: 18) north. parts of Central Gujarat and along the coastal plains where annual precipitation is between 5002000 mm. These are formed over basaltic. climate. The colour of the soil varies from light grey. Entisols are developed over traps. Jamnagar. yellowish red and dark reddish brown (Merh 1995: 16-20). southern part of Ahmedabad. Panchmahal. Rajkot. North Gujarat and parts of Kachchh and Mainland Gujarat where annual rainfall is between 55 – 950 mm. Bhavnagar. quartzite and alluviam and are seen in Saurashtra. The colour of this soil ranges from red to reddish brown. gneissic and alluvial parents and its colour varies from dark grey to light grey. gneiss.eastern parts of Surendranagar district where the annual rainfall is between 500-700 mm.

Southern part of the state receives annual rainfall above 2000 mm. rainfall between 800 mm and 1000 mm 38    . North Gujarat. Dangs. Marathe 1981: 24. Rainfall Gujarat receives most of its rainfall from the southwest monsoon during the period between June and September and its distribution is uneven (Map 1. 1968: 165). On the basis of climate Gujarat is divided into four major zones namely. Merh 1995: 10). 2003: 70). Merh (1995: 10-11) divided the state into four zones having rainfall above 1000 mm (districts of Valsad. The climatic condition of the state is greatly influenced by the topography and monsoon. Central Gujarat and South Gujarat (Randhawa et al. Based on annual rainfall. The winds experienced in the state are generally light to moderate and its intensity increases during the late summer and monsoon season. The rainfall gradually decreases northward and in the northwest it goes below 300 mm (Randhawa et al. 2003: 71). semi arid.Introduction Suarashtra.6) in different parts of the state (Merh 1995: 10. Surat and eastern parts of Bharuch). The winds blow from West or South West during the monsoon season and North East to North West from October to April (Merh 1995: 11). Most parts of the state falls in the semi arid climatic zone merging with the arid zone in the north and northwest (Map 1. arid and extremely arid (Chamyal et al. Climate Gujarat is located astride the Tropic of Cancer and forms an important part of the drylands of western India bordering the Thar Desert (Chamyal et al. summer (March to Middle of June) and monsoon (middle of June to October) (Randhawa et al. Temperature of the state during summer reaches as high as 45° C (occasionally 48° C in some parts) and during winter minimum temperature remaining around 6° C (occasionally drops to 2° C in some parts) (Merh 1995: 10. dry sub-humid. Merh 1995: 10). Different seasons of Gujarat are winter (November to February). Chamyal et al. Sant 1999: 343). 1968: 166-172. 2003: 70).5). 1968: 169.

Relative humidity in all parts of the state is low. Banaskantha and western part of Sabarkantha).5: Major Climatic Zones of Gujarat (Adapted: Chamyal et al.Introduction Map 1. Ground water occurs in three geomorphological settings namely hilly tracts of the 39    . 2003: 70) (districts of Vadodara. Ground Water The availability and quality of the Ground water in different parts of Gujarat is inconsistent and depends on rainfall. Kheda and southern part of Ahmedabad). while in the coastal area it is moderately high (Randhawa et al. Panchmahals. rainfall between 400 mm and 800 mm (whole Saurashtra and northern part of Ahmedabad district) and rainfall less than 400 mm (districts of Kachchh. topography and hydrogeological setting. Merh 1995: 11). 1968: 166-172.

namely the well wooded area south of the river Narmada consisting of moist and dry deciduous forests with teak as the main economic species. Water suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes in the hilly tracts of the mainland is available from 4 to 10 m below the ground level. the state of Gujarat can be divided into three zones. tablelands of Saurashtra and Kachchh and alluvial plains (Merh 1995: 20-21). the area between the river Narmada to the extreme north excluding Saurashtra and Kachchh 40    .Introduction Map 1.6: Rainfall Map of Gujarat (Adapted: Merh 1995: 12) Mainland. in alluvial plains it ranges from 5 to 35 m from the surface while in the tablelands of Saurashtra and Kachchh it ranges from 10 to 25 m below the ground level. Ground water in most of the coastal areas and Rann of Kachchh is highly saline and unsuitable for house hold purposes and agriculture ((Merh 1995: 21). Flora Based on the vegetation data.

Bharuch. Amreli. Amli. Panchmahal. dry scrub forests. Azadirachta indica (Limbdo). Vadodara. Soymida febrifuga (Rayan). Grasses are seen all over where the forests are open. Moist deciduous forests occur in the states of Valsad. Dangs and Surat districts and these forests form the main source of commercial timber in the state. Porbandar. Anogeissus pendula (Kala dhav). Cassia fistula (Garmalo). bamboos. Amreli and Kachchh districts. Jamnagar. Dry deciduous forests occur in the Bharuch. Rajkot. Junagadh. Dendrocalamus strictus (Manvelvans) and other thorny and bushy shrubs and small trees. (Bor). (Goarad and Harmo). km. Bor. Terminalia belerica 41    . Bhavnagar. of the total area of the state. grass. Mango. Sabarkantha. mangrove forests and desert areas (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 1989: 48). Some of the medicinal plants grown in the forests are Boerhavia chinensis (Punarnava). Dry scrub forests are seen in Banaskantha. Bhavnagar. Zizyphus spp. Important forest products from the state are timber. The coastal forests are the man made forests found in the coastal strips in Valsad. timru leaves. In the area bordering the deserts and in patches in deserts there are man made forests of Prosopis juliflora (Gando baval) (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 1989: 49-50). dry mixed deciduous forests. Butes monosperma (Khakhro). Junagadh and Jamnagar districts and the trees grews are low quality teak. The forests of the state can be divided into five main types as moist deciduous forests. Cassia fistula (Garmalo). gum. Forest covers 19535 sq. Junagadh and Kachchh districts and it contains sparse growth of Acacia spp. Prosopis juliflora (Gando baval). grasses like Rosha grass and honey and wax (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 1989: 50). firewood. Mangroove forests are seen in the coastal creeks of Gujarat and the main species is Avicennia officinalis (Cher). mangrove forests and coastal forests (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 1989: 49-50). Surat. Jambu. bamboo and firewood. mahuda flowers and fruits. timber. Charoli and oil seeds like Karanj and Neem.Introduction covering inferior dry deciduous forests with or without teak and the area of Saurashtra and Kachchh with poor teak forests in Junagadh and Gir and in other areas scrub lands.

Rat Snake (Ptyas mucosus). Jerdon’s 42    . Wild Cat (Felis chaus). Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena).) and fresh water turtles (Lissemys sp. domestic Dog (Canis familiaris). Besides these animals. Fox (Vulpus bengalensis). The birds normally found in Gujarat are Ruddy Sheldrake (Casarca ferruginea). Cymbopogom martini (Rosha) and Aloe vera (Kunvar) (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 1989: 51). Pale Hegde Hog (Paraechinus microps).) and tortoises (Testudo elegans). Fauna Gujarat is home to different species of wild animals like Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica). Jackal (Canis aureus).). Royal Snake (Zamenis oliaderma). Wild Ass (Equus hemionus). Terminalia chebula (Harda). Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus). Gazelle (Gazella gazella). and House Gecko (Hemidactyles sp. Four Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis). buffalo(Bubalus bubalis). Mouse (Vandeleuria oleracea) and Indian Gerbille (Meriones hurrianes). Reptiles found in Gujarat include Colourful Skink (Mabuis sp. Snake variety of the state consists of Python (Python molurus). Langur (Presbytis entellus). Bulbul (Pychonotus spp. camel (Camelus dromedaries). domestic pig (Sus domesticus). cattle (Bos indicus).Introduction (Baheda). Blue Bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Black Buck (Antilope cervicapra). Horse (Equus caballus) and Ass (Equus asinus) are common in Gujarat (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 1989: 53-61). Indian Tree Shrews (Anathana elliotii). Wild Boar (Sus scrofa). Porcupine (Hystrix indica).). Grey Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus). Blood sucker (Catotoes versicolor). sheep (Capra hircus). Indian Monitor Lizard (Monitor sp. Russell’s viper (Vipera russelli). Eastern Common Crane (Grus grus jerdoni). Indian Hare (Lepus nigricollis). and Wolf Snake (Lycodon aulicus) (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 989: 65-68).). Mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). Wolf (Canis lupus). Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsi). Pangolin (Manis crassicaudate). goat (Ovis aries). domestic Cat (Felis domesticus). Cobra (Naja naja).

Agriculture Majority of the population in the state are engaged in agriculture characterized by dry farming as their primary subsistence economy. Rock Pigeon (Columba livia). Cotton Teal (Nettapus coromandelinus). Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica nilotica). Sandgrouse (Pterocles exustus). Pomfret (Pampus argenteus) Mullet (Mugil cephalus). Peacock (Pavo cristatus).Introduction Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius jerdoni). Pamirs Lesser Sand-Plover (Charadrius mongolus artifrons). Cuttle Fish (Sepia spp. aesculentum). White-breasted Kingfisher. Fowl (Gallus gallus). annuum). Cuckoo (Cuculus micropterus). The aquafauna from the state include prawn (Penaeus indicus). chilli brinjal (Solanum (Capsicum melongena). Trichurus (Monacanthus trichurus). Bombay Duck (Harpadon nehereus). Green Bee (Merops orientalis). Killer Whale (Orcinus orca). beans tomato (Vigna 43    . fishes like Palva (Hilsa ilisha). Vulture (Gyps indicus) and Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 1989: 62-65). Crane (Grus leucogeranus). cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Vegetables such as cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Parrot (Psittacula krameri manillensis). Mandeli (Coilia dussumieri). capitata). Dolphins (Sotalia plumbea and Stenella longirostris) and Sea Cow (Dugong dugon) were reported from Gujarat waters (Gujarat State Gazetteer I 1989: 61-62. botrytis). Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps). PearlOysters (Pteria vulgaris) and Windowpane Oyster (Placenta placenta). Green Mussel (Penna viridis). Rabi crops need proper irrigation and it includes wheat (Triticum aestivum) and gram (Cicer arietinum). Black-necked Stork (Xenorhynchus asiaticus asiaticus). Chank (Xancus pyrum). Squid (Loligo duvaucelii). supplemented by varying degree of animal husbandry. Grey Plover (Squatarola squatarola squatarola).). Long Spine Sea-bream (Argyrops spinifer). Grey Heron (Ardea cinereas). 68-69). Crops grown in Gujarat falls in two categories Rabi (winter crop) and Kharif (monsoon crop). Egret (Bubulcus ibis coromandus). peas (Lycopersicon (Pisum sativum).

pomegranate (Punica granatum).date (Phoenix sylvestris). Vegetables like okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Certain sections of the community such as theRabaris. coconut (Cocos nucifera). 1968: 175-188). in north Gujarat . In the state. Mehsani and Jaffrabadi (Randhawa et al. lemon (Citrus limonia) and papaya (Carica papaya) are grown (Randhawa et al. black gram (Phaseolus mungo) and oil seeds like castor (Ricinus communis) also cultivated in the state. Paddy (Oryza sativa) is grown where adequate irrigation facilities are available. Popular cattle breeds of Gujarat are the Kankrej and Gir and buffaloes are Surati. Jowar (Sorghum bicolor). groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). sheep. The profound nature of seasonality with dry and wet periods in Gujarat results in the movement of the pastoral communities along with their animals (Bhan 2004: 243273). onion (Allium cepa). Livestock Animal rising is complementary and inseparable from agriculture in Gujarat. guava (Psidium guajava).Introduction unguiculata).water melon (Citrullus lanatus) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) and in Saurashtra . 44    . 1968: 197-200). sesamum (Sesamum indicum) and maize (Zea mays). theBharwads and Maldharis earn their income and subsistence from breeding or herding cattle. Large number of pulses like greengram (Vigna radiata). In South Gujarat Banana (Musa acuminata). Cotton (Gossypium spp). carrot (Daucus carota) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) are grown. The Kharif crops are Bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum). camel and buffalo. 1968: 194). garlic (Allium sativum).custard apple (Annona squamosa). cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) are grown in summer. Sapota (Manikara zapota) and different varieties Mango (Mangifera indica) are grown in large scale. kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and tobacco (Lobelia inflata) are cultivated in large scale in different parts of the state. the livestock economy is goverened by utilitarian considertations and religious sentiments (Randhawa et al. At Panchmahal . fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). in Kachchh .

Introduction Palaeoenvironment Till the beginning of 1990s. sediments from the Nal Sarovar bordering north Gujarat and Saurashtra regions of Gujarat. where southwest monsoon influences the climate was studied for the reconstruction of Palaeoclimate and it showed slight difference from that of the Rajasthan lakes (Sharma and Chauhan 1991: 65-71. The data from Nal Sarovar showed a wetter climate than the present in the period between 4.8 ka from the the Nal Sarovar showed a shallow lake level. 1997: 153-159). Didwana. (2007: 889-896) identifies considerable variation in the occurrence of monsoonal activity during 3660-2850 year BP. Based on the data from phytoliths. palynofacies. Palaeoclimatic records of Kothiyakhad. It is comparable to the Rajasthan precipitation data which indicated higher rainfall than the present (Prasad et al. 1997: 153-159). 1997: 153159). while data from the Nal Sarovar indicates the beginning of aridity about 3 ka and data from both the regions shows the commencement of present day conditions around 2 ka (Prasad et al.8 ka and 3 ka. with periodic drying and short wet spells while lakes in Rajasthan showed higher annual rainfall. The end of the wet phase in Rajasthan lakes has been dated to about 3. The Pre Urban Harappan and Urban Harappan periods in Gujarat coincided with this wet period (Ajithprasad 2004: 119). especially in North Gujarat is dated to this time bracket (Ajithprasad 2004: 119). However. Prasad et al. The palaeoclimatic records for the period 6. Sambar and Pushkar lakes in Rajasthan and the results showed few examples of significant variation in relative abundance of rainfall at different periods of Holocene (Ajithprasad 2004: 117-118). Prasad et al. The Mesolithic and the early stages of Pre Urban Harappan period in Gujarat.6-4. corresponds to the later phase of the weakening phase of SW monsoon that commented from 45    .5 ka to 4 ka. magnetic susceptibility and clay mineralogical studies from the Kothiyakhad sedimentary sequence of Mahi estuary in Mainland Gujarat. reconstruction of the Holocene environment of Pre and Protohistoric settlements in Western India including Gujarat were primarly based on the palaeoclimatic data recovered through geochemical and palynological studies of sediments from the Lunkaransar.

palaeoclimatic data from the lakes of Rajasthan. Due to active western disturbances. Palynology and vegetational change in Thar Desert and Indian Ocean monsoon and transoceanic correlations argued that “Harappan urbanism emerged on the face of a prolonged trend towards declining rainfall and no climatic event can be blamed for a precipitous end of this civilization. The SW monsoon regained its strength with a brief pulse of enhanced precipitation around 3320 BP along with minor subsequent fluctuations. 2007: 895). although strategic local shifts in agriculture that may have begun in response to prolonged droughts at ca 2200 BC may have contributed to the de-urbanisation process and the restructuring of human communities over the following 200-300 yrs. Madella and Fuller (2005: 1283) based on Holocene climatic sequences and archaeology in South Asia. the winter precipitation was much more pronounced and extended large parts of western India. though this too declined ~3400 yr BP. During this period monsoon activity declined gradually and almost ceased around 3400 yr BP. This was the time the Indus Civilization declined drastically in this region (Prasad et al. 46    . during 3660-3400 yr BP.Introduction 5500 year BP.

Cambridge University – Cambridge. Albion College. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan phases of Harappan culture. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda – Vadodara. National Institute of Oceanography . USA.Gujarat. Excavations in 56 Chalcolithic sites in different sub-regions of Gujarat provided evidence for the 47    . Research Institute for Humanity and Nature – Kyoto. Bradford University.Goa. University of Bologna .USA. Bombay University.Saurashtra. Department of Archaeology . UK.Chapter – II PRE URBAN HARAPPAN TO POST URBAN HARAPPAN: AN APPRAISAL Knowing the past is as astonishing a performance as knowing the stars. State Archaeology Department . The aspects discussed here include a review of different excavations. Excavations Various organizations like Archaeological Survey of India.Italy. University of Pennsylvania . This chapter also deals with various dating methods employed in Chalcolithic Archaeology of Gujarat and its merits and demerits. and lasting results regarding the cultures/traditions of Pre Urban Harappan. Chalcolithic researches of eighty years in Gujarat proved to be highly productive of unexpected insights. (Kubler 1962: 19) Introduction This chapter incorporates a review of Chalcolithic studies in Gujarat since 1930s. USA and Spanish Council for Scientific Research – Barcelona conducted excavations in Gujarat. Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute – Pune. new ideas. explorations and a variety of studies conducted in Gujarat during 1930s to 2011. Rajasthan Vidyapeeth –Udaipur.

69o 05' 00" E) Hiranand Shastri excavated Bet Dwarka Island in Okhamandal taluka of Jamnagar District also in 1930 and dated the earliest occupation of the site to 3rd century BC (Rao 1987). further explorations (IAR 1969-70: 59) and excavations (Rao 1990: 59-98. the archaeological mound measuring 1100 m north-south x 850 m eastwest in Surendranagar district was first excavated by M. 71o 55' 19" E) Rangpur. Micaceous Red. Rao and Gaur 1992: 42-47. Pre-Prabhas. The excavator’s interpretation to the reason which led to continuous habitation at the site was availability of marine shells while based on its location considered it as a safe harbor in the ancient past (Gaur et al. 2005). Gaur and Sundaresh 2003: 57-66) proved the existence of human habitation in the island from Chalcolithic/Post Urba Harappan times. Lustrous Red. Sorath Harappan. 71o 38' 31" E) The first excavated Chalcolithic site in Gujarat was Vallabhipur (Vala) located in eastern Saurashtra. Vats of ASI in 1934-35 48    . Bet Dwarka (22o 20' 00" N. Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan periods respectively. Prabhas.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal existence of Classical Harappan. Chalcolithic phase in Gujarat can be roughly dated between 3700 BC – 900 BC. Vallabhipur (22o 41' 15" N. Possehl 2007: 302). However. Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware in Gujarat assignable to Pre Urban Harappan. Pre Urban Harappan Burial Pottery tradition and Regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions like Anarta. The excavation was conducted in 1930 by Father Henry Heras of Bombay University and several objects of the Proto-Historic period were unearthed from the lower level of the foundation of a later Buddhist monastery. S. A brief description of the excavated Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat is mentioned below. Based on the c14 dates from various excavated sites. Other details regarding the site are unknown except the mention of an excavated Indus graffiti bearing potsherd (Heras 1938: 141-143. Padri. Rangpur (22o 23' 56" N.

G. Dikshit in 1947 and according to the excavator. Herman 1997: 77-112). Herman 1995: 187-198. Ghurye of the University of Bombay and agreed with the evidence acquired by the former (Ghurye 1939: 3-12). R.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal (Dikshit 1950: 3-55) and based on the artefacts the excavator suggested that the part of Rangpur where he excavated might correspond to the late period of the Indus civilization or probably fall between that time and the period of Cemetery H at Harappa (Vats 1937: 34-38). Misra 1965: 44-52. excavations were conducted at the site by G. conducted a series of excavations at Langhnaj in Mehsana district. Langhnaj (23o 27' 00" N. With a view to restudy its archaeological content. a Mesolithic site having Chalcolithic affinity and unearthed artefacts and burials. Langhnaj was excavated in 1963-64 by a joint team from the University of Poona. S. Rangpur mound was again excavated under the guidance of H. in 1953-54 a thorough and systematic excavation was undertaken by S. Possehl 1980. Rao of ASI and established convincingly that Rangpur had Harappan contacts. Therefore. D. It was further attested by the recovery of 49    . Sankalia and M. In spite of severe criticisms. 72o 32' 00" E) In 1942 and in the following years H. Sankalia 1974. Rao’s ceramic sequencing at Rangpur still stand as the base of relative dating of most Chalcolithic sites discovered in Gujarat (Rao 1963: 1-207. Poona. the ceramics of the Rangpur culture are basically dissimilar from the Indus Valley pottery and that it perhaps represents a late phase of the post-Harappan period (Dikshit 1950: 14-16). The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda also unearthed microliths and human burials from the site. In order to ascertain the nature of the site. In 1936. Some 21 burials were unearthed from the site through different excavations and comparative study of skeletons from Langhnaj and Lothal (Harappan site) indicated close similarities between the Harappans of Lothal and hunter gatherers of Langhnaj. In 1953-54. D. Bhattacharyya 1991: 53-57. Sankalia of Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and the Government of Gujarat.

5 hectares at Lothal in Ahmedabad district and clearly established that the Harappan culture did not confine itself to north-west 50    .Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal a copper knife of 98% purity from the middle phase of Langhnaj. Amreli district. IAR 1963-64: 12. Blades with short parallel sides of chalcedony were also recovered from the site (Rao 1963: 177). R. Karve and Kennedy 1964: 44-57. Ahmedabad district in 1954-55. R. Rao of Archaeological Survey of India excavated the Chalcolithic mound at Kanasutaria in Dholka taluka. 71o 14' 00" E) In 1953. Ehrhardt and Kennedy 1965. Coarse Red Ware. 72o 14' 59" E) During 1955 – 1962.8 to 2. Kanasutaria (22o 47' 00" N. Rao of Archaeological Survey of India excavated Machiala-Mota (Mota-Machiala) in Amreli taluka. Period I was the habitation deposit of Microliths using communities. Radio carbon date obtained from the mid phase of the site (2040±110 BC) is also comparable with the age of Lothal and many other Harappan sites in Gujarat (IAR 1953-54: 8. Rao of Archaeological Survey of India excavated the fortified and stratified site of 7. Black and Red Ware pottery of the Urban Harappan period and steatite disc beads were also unearthed from the site. 72o 16' 00" E) S. R. which is similar to the pottery of late levels of Rangpur (RGP III). Coarse Buff Ware and Black and Red Ware. Sankalia 1965. Lothal (22o 31' 25" N. S. Period II was Chalcolithic cultural deposit of about 1. Clutton-Brock 1965. Agrawal and Kusumgar 1969: 191. Possehl 2002: 62-76). Possehl and Kennedy 1979: 592-593. and it was followed by a stratigraphical break.4 m and the ceramics unearthed from this deposit include Lustrous Red Ware. Machiala-Mota (21o 41' 00" N. Two cultural periods were noticed at the site. The site revealed evidence for Lustrous Red Ware. The ceramics from the site showed affinity to Rangpur IIC and III ceramics (Rao 1963: 188-189). S.

The site was a carefully planned one with a citadel comprising two public buildings and lower town consisting of a domestic quarter. P. To the west of the citadel. excavation was carried out at Lakhabaval in Jamnagar district jointly by the Department of Archaeology Saurashtra and The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal India (Rao 1956: 82-89. In order to understand the significance of Lothal as a major centre of local and long distance trade. 1965: 30-37). Pandya and B. From the artefacts of Lothal. between the peripheral wall and river. under P. Bindra 2003). According to Rao (1979) the site was destroyed five times by the flood and Pandya (1987: 177-186) divided them into usual type floods and devastating type floods. lay the cemetery (Rao 1973. 1985). 1962: 14-30. Lakhabaval (22o 24' 00" N. On the eastern side of the habitation area is a large brick lined rectangular enclosure and Rao termed it as a dockyard intended to harbour ships (Rao 1979. The archaeological mound located about 100 meters to the north of Lakhabawal 51    . there was decline in all aspects of town planning and artefacts underwent changes. Leshnik (1968a: 911922) argued that it was a tank meant to impound water for irrigation and domestic use. it becomes clear that the settlement was a commercial and manufacturing centre. workshops and market place. Italy and preliminary magnetic survey (2008) and excavations (2009) were conducted at the site (Frenez and Tosi 2010). or it had an exchange relationship with a group of people who procured raw materials and traded them for the surplus finished products from the settlement (Possehl and Kennedy 1979: 592-593). 70o 00' 00" E) In 1955-56. the productive capacity of the settlement was far greater than the needs of the small number of inhabitants of the site. Regional Chalcolithic ceramics were the dominant artefacts of the early stage of the site. In the last stage. ‘Lothal Revisitation Project’ was initiated jointly by Archaeological Survey of India and University of Bologna. 1979. Subbarao respectively to find out the cultural sequence and the characteristics of Harappan culture in Saurashtra.

II and III. Subbarao respectively revealed six periods beginning from Post Urban Harappan to Medieval. excavations were conducted in 1971-72. The excavations at the site in 1955-56 and 1956-57. Saurashtra and M. period I. The importance of the site lays in the fact that for the first time itunveiled the existence of two regional Chalcolithic traditions in Gujarat namely Pre-Prabhas 52    . The site revealed a sequence of five cultural periods datable from 3000 BC . 1975-76 and 1976-77 at the site by the Department of Archaeology. Sankalia. Period II belongs to the Kshatrapa period while Period III is characterized by the material and structural remains of Medieval period (IAR 1955-56. Period I is Post Urban Harappan phase associated with Rangpur IIC and III termed as Post Kathiawad Harappan (Subbarao 1958). Prabhas Patan/Somnath (20o 53' 00" N. under P. Nanavati and H. measures approximately 150x100 meters. S. University of Baroda. Saurashtra and The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda.600 AD. Pandya and B. Subbarao respectively revealed three fold cultural sequences namely. jointly by the Department of Archaeology. Rao 1963). P. The excavation revealed a habitation deposit of three distinct cultural periods of which Period I represented Harappan/Chalcolithic phase associated with Rangpur IIB termed as Late Kathiawad Harappan (Subbarao 1958). Amra (22o 16' 00" N. Saurashtra and Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute. To understand the cultural aspects of the site. M. Period II yielded Early Historic cultural materials and Period III is later in date (IAR 1955-56). 69o 56' 00" E) The excavation at Amra in Jamnagar district in 1955-56. Pune under J. D. 70o 24' 00" E) Archaeological mound at Prabhas Patan/Somnath locally known as Naghera in Junagadh district was first reported in 1938 by Father Heras of Bombay University. P. by the Department of Archaeology. under P.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal village on the western bank of the rivulet called Nagamati. Pandya and B.

Rojdi (21o 51' 47" N. 72o 46' 00" E) Telod in Bharuch district was excavated in 1957-58 by the Archaeological Survey of India. The chief ceramic group from the site was sturdy Red Ware painted in black. Period I is divided into two sub-periods. near Bharuch on the Narmada estuary. Rao 1963). 72o 42' 00" E) Bhagatrav located in Bharuch district was excavated by S. Rao 1963). Rao 1963). IAR 1959-60. IA and IB representing respectively the Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan phases of the Harappan culture. 72o 45' 00" E) Mehgam.25 m high mound revealed two cultural periods namely Period I and II. V. The excavator relatively dated the site to late phase of Rangpur IIB (IAR 1957-58. Bhagatrav (21o 29' 00" N. Period IB revealed Post Urban Harappan pottery forms like dish with a short projected rim and small jar with slightly elongated neck and period II is Medieval (IAR 1957-58.R. The low lying mound situated on the south bank of river Narmada yielded storage jars and bowls with straight sides. This Chalcolithic site yielded Urban (Sorath) and Post Urban Harappan (Late Sorath) ceramics and no structures were reported. 1971. from this site K. Nanavati et al. Rao of Archaeological Survey of India in 1957-58. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). Mehgam (21o 42' 00" N. Telod (21o 42' 00" N. In 1959-60.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Assemblage (3000-2500 BC) and Prabhas Ware (2300-1750 BC) (IAR 1955-56. Soundara Rajan discovered microlithic tools typologically equitable with those found at the lowest levels at Rangpur and stone points formed a major type in the collection (IAR 1957-58. 1956-57. Excavations at the 2. 70o 55' 08" E) The Chalcolithic mound at Rojdi situated on the bank of river Bhadar in Rajkot 53    . was subjected to trial excavation by S. Rao of Archaeological Survey of India in 1957-58.R.

under Gregory L. In 198283. Bedigian 2004: 329-353. 1990: 333-348. the Department of Archaeology. during an exploration recovered five hundred and twenty microbeads of steatite and eight bicone barrel beads of gold. 1991. 1999: 813-26. Government of Gujarat. IAR 1993-94). As a relative dating technique. belonging to a necklace below a structure of Prabhas level. Government of Gujarat. by a joint team of the Department of Archaeology. pottery similar to Pre-Prabhas Ware and Prabhas Ware were stratigraphically reported along with the Harappan ceramics. Possehl and Chitalwala 1985: 80-100. Rojdi sequence is gaining popularity. Weber 1989. 1984. Adkot (22o 00' 00" N. IAR 1957-58. In the excavations. P. In 1962-63. P. Saurashtra. However. carried out excavations at Rojdi and recovered Harappan and non-Harappan artefacts. Based on differences from the Classical Harappans in movable and immovable antiquities. The excavations from 1983 to 1986 and 1992 to 1994. Nanavati of Department of Archaeology. Possehl termed its material culture as Sorath Harappan and based on c14 dates. M. Fairservis 1991: 108-113. Rojdi B and Rojdi C corresponding to Rangpur sequence. in the excavation report and articles he has not mentioned Micaceous Red Ware in its name or the pottery similar to the Pre-Prabhas type which was noticed in the site by the earlier excavator. he divided the occupational strata of the site into three periods namely. Possehl threw much light on the site and its chronology. 71o 05' 00" E) Trial excavation at Adkot in Rajkot district by P. Pandya of Department of Archaeology.district was excavated in 1957-58 and 1958-59 by P. Micaceous Red Ware and Prabhas Ware. 2004: 80-88. Rojdi A. and he noticed Harappan. Early Historic and Medieval levels in the site. Early Historic artefacts were also reported from the site. Pandya of Department of 54    . USA. 1986: 467-468. (Possehl et al. Government of Gujarat and the University of Pennsylvania. In 1964-65. IAR 1985-86. IAR 1992-93. the Department of Archaeology. Possehl and Rawal 1989. the site was again excavated by J. Government of Gujarat.

Urban Harappan (Bowls of Rangpur IIB) and Post Urban Harappan elements (lamps. while period II was distinguished by Early Historic artefacts (IAR 1957-58). Pandya of Department of Archaeology. The paintings executed on pottery include black over Red Ware and chocolate over Buff Ware. Pandya of Department of Archaeology Saurashtra in 1957-58.8 m. flat dish of Rangpur IIC and Lustrous Red Ware) respectively represented material inventory of both the periods (IAR 1957-58). The site can be relatively dated to Rangpur IIB and IIC (Rao 1963). R. P. 70o 40' 00" E) In 1958. Kanjetar (20o 45' 00" N. S.Archaeology Saurashtra in 1957-58. Rao of Archaeological Survey of India excavated the Chalcolithic site at Kanjetar in Kodinar taluka. with a considerable gap in between. dishes and jars. Randaliyo (21o 48' 00" N. black painted designs of a human figure feeding a pet on a potsherd is noteworthy (IAR 1957-58). Among the Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan artefacts unearthed from the site.. Saurashtra in 1957-58 revealed two periods of occupation. Site revealed almost all Harappan ceramic types and few evolved shapes in Sturdy Red Ware. 55    . revealed 5ft occupational deposit representing the Harappan culture. Buff Ware and Prabhas Ware. P. Junagadh district. Pithadia/Pitharia (21o 46' 00" N. revealed two periods of occupation viz. Randaliyo in Randal Dadwa in Rajkot district was excavated by P. 71o 03' 00" E) In 1958-59. P. The vessel shapes recovered from the site include bowls. The site measuring 150x150 m revealed a habitation deposit of 1. Period I was characterized by the Harappan elements. 70º 40' 00" E) Trial digging at Pithadia (Pitharia) in Rajkot/Jamnagar district by P. 71o 57' 00" E) Trial excavations at Motidharai in Bhavnagar district by P. Motidharai (21o 58' 00" N.

According to the excavator (IAR 1961-62).Pandya of Department of Archaeology Saurashtra. V. 72o 53 ' 00" E) The excavation at Nagal in Bharuch district in 1961-62 by K. The site contained a cemetery and one of the graves excavated exposed an extended skeleton. Soundara Rajan of Archaeological Survey of India revealed two fold cultural sequences. on the red slipped convex exterior. Soundara Rajan of Archaeological Survey of India revealed Chalcolithic cultural occupation. The painted pottery from the site was mainly characterised by concave sided carinated dishes decorated with series of oblique slashes. grids. V. honeycombs. A thicker pottery in sturdy fabric with painted designs both in black and chocolate pigments was excavated from the site. 72o 51' 00" E) The trial excavation at Warthan in 1961-62 by K. the excavator opines that Nagal would bridge the gap between the late and Post-Harappan Chalcolithic sites in South Gujarat (IAR 1961-62). however. continued in occupation until the beginning of Christian era. Based on location and nature of occupation. Fragments of Harappan ceramic were recovered from the vicinity of the skeleton (IAR 1958-59: 19). 56    . a north-south oriented extended human burial was noticed and its cultural affiliation is unclear. as evidenced by pottery and other finds.. Potsherds bearing graffiti and few stone flakes were also unearthed from the site (IAR 1961-62). the site. In the lowest level of the trench. Warthan (21o 22' 00" N. Nagal (21o 34' 00" N. The earliest of these was represented by the occurrence of a Black Painted Red Ware.Vestiges of microlithic industry associated with Black and Red Ware and small fragments of Ochrous Red Ware similar to the ceramics from Maheswar and Nasik-Jorwe were recovered from the mound. The upper one which followed after a desertion was marked by the occurrence of plain Black and Red Ware similar to that found at Nagal. etc.

60o 10' 00" E) K. Desalpur (23o 25' 00" N. Period II is Early Histroic assignable to RangMahal complex. chisels. the excavator relatively dated period I of Desalpur into 2000-1600 BC (IAR 1963-64. Period I comprised two sub phases . terracotta cart frames and animal figurines. Apart from the Harappan ceramics. Jokha (21o 17' 00" N. Soundara Rajan of the Archaeological Survey of India excavated the fortified Harappan site of Desalpur (Gunthli) measuring 130x100x3m. one on steatite and the other on copper. a tributary of river Dhrub in taluka Nakhtrana. Both stone and mud brick structures of Harappan period were exposed from the site and three structural phases were reported from Period IA. besides a number of fluted cores and flakes of microlithic order. V. 72o 47' 00" E) The trial excavation at the site of Andhi in 1961-62 by K. The site measuring about 150x100x2 m revealed three cultural periods. Based on the comparative study of artefacts. rods and rings. Micaceous Red Ware was also reported from the site. Most notable finds from the site are two script bearing seals. R. Mehta and S. Soundararajan 1984: 217-226). Among the two cultural periods assigned to the site. Chowdhary of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda undertook the excavation at Jokha in Surat District.Period IA (Urban Harappan) and Period IB (Post Urban Harappan). Period I (circa 57    .Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Andhi (21o 23' 00" N. Soundara Rajan of ASI yielded Chalcolithic black painted red and plain black and red wares. 73o 00' 00" E) In 1966-67. N. copper knives. N. The cultural sequence at the site revealed that in the upper levels of the Chalcolithic strata the Black Painted Red Ware was overlapped by the Plain Black and Red Ware (IAR 196162). lettered terracotta sealing. district Kachchh in 1963-64. V. located on the northern bank of the stream Bamu-Chela. jasper and terracotta weights.

The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Two other celts were also obtained from the surface of the mound. cores. Mehta et al. 72o 43' 00" E) In 1969-70. microlithic cores. Malvan (21o 06' 00" N. Dhatva (21o 09' 00" N. Apart from the Chalcolithic ceramics. triangles and trapezes and terracotta objects. objects of copper or bronze (small rod and bangle). blades of jasper. The site revealed two cultural periods. Based on limited quantity and variety of Chalcolithic pottery the excavators suggested that this site was just a small village settlement (IAR 1967-68. Based on ceramics. The most noteworthy finds from this period was a Neolithic celt. blades. the excavators identify Jokha as the junction of three cultures: Harappa from the north. fragment of copper celt. R. etched beads. Allchin of the Cambridge University and J. conducted the excavation at Dhatva in Surat district to determine the extent of the Chalcolithic cultures in South Gujarat. Mehta et al. lunates. Malwa Chalcolithic from the east and Deccan Chalcolithic from the west. circular or bun shaped 58    . Based on the ceramic evidence. P.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal 1500-1000 BC) was marked by the occurrence of Post Urban Harappan ceramics. terracotta humped bulls. Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware. flakes. 1975). Joshi of Archaeological Survey of India undertook an excavation at Malvan in Surat district. Period II is dated to circa 6th century BC-1st century AD and Period III to circa 1st to 6th century AD (IAR 1966-67. chalcedony and bloodstone. Period II (circa 500 BC-AD 200) was characterised by Early Historic antiquities such as punch marked coins and Red Polished Ware. 1971). 72o 46' 00" E) In 1967-68. F. agate and chert. period I is assignable to the Post Harappan culture and Period II to the early medieval times. flake blades. scrapers and blades of jasper. The 1.3 m thick habitation deposit yielded evidence of two cultural periods and of these. agate. Period I (circa 1500-1000BC) was characterised by the Chalcolithic pottery showing affinities with similar cultures of Saurashtra and Malwa and stone tools like lunates.

barasingha. The excavation brought to light remains of Harappan culture divided into three sub-periods namely IA. The sides of the structure were found to be inclined at an angle of 30o and gradually widen towards the eastern side. The inhabitants of Period I A was Urban Harappan with some traits of an antecedent culture and significant feature of the period was the occurrence of steatite seal.. white and black showing wavy lines. Polychrome Ware with designs painted in purple. Cream Slipped Ware and Polychrome Ware. pig. long blades of chert and four different ceramic industries along with the Harappan namely non-Harappan Sturdy Red Ware. sheep. The structural remains of Period I comprised of a ditch (18x1. A mud brick structure was present in northern side and size of the brick was 27x17x9 cm. bands with chequered patterns. the Harappan elements continued in a decreasing order along with non-Harappan painted Coarse Red Ware. Stud-handles and an inscribed seal. IB and IC. showing chain loop patterns. During period IB. The fortified settlement consisted of a 59    . birds and fishes were also unearthed. Surkotada (23o 37' 00" N. P. Period IC was characterised by white painted Black and Red Ware mainly represented by bowls with or without carination. vertically grouped latticed arches. goat.5x1. Other important antiquities recovered of the period were a flat copper celt and a chisel. fine Cream Slipped Ware bearing painted designs. J. Reserved Slip Ware. beads of carnelian and bones of animals like cattle. The occupation of Period II was temporary in nature and was distinguished by the occurrence of Black Ware ascribable to the end of the first millennium AD (IAR 1969-70.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal terracotta cakes. etc. dog. Joshi of Archaeological Survey of India undertook excavations at Surkotada in Kachchh.1m) cut into the natural soil. The occurrence of a thick layer of ash marked the end of Sub period IB. running in east west direction. beads. Harappan elements continued in a restricted manner. Allchin and Joshi 1995). deer. oblique slashes within borders and Reserved Slip Ware. 70o 50' 00" E) In 1970-71 and 1971-72.

Coarse Red Ware. Harpasari or Amasari no Tekro in Zekhada/Jekhda village.5 m thick Chalcolithic site known differently as Hamasari. gazella. Joshi 1966: 62-69. goat. Khanpur (22o 44' 00" N. wires of copper and triangular and rectangular terracotta cakes and balls. sheep. 1979: 59-64. Bokonyi 1997: 297307. Santalpur taluka. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Other antiquities from the site include stone beads. awl. Black and Red Ware and Lustrous Red Ware. 71o 28' 00" E) In 1977-78. turtle and mollusca shells were the major biological finds from the site (Chitalwala and Thomas 1978). The ceramics recovered from this site include Gritty Red Ware. Buff Ware. pig. conducted an excavation at the 1. copper bangles. The noteworthy point about Surkotada is the occurrence of few bones of horse (?) (IAR 1970-71. steps and guard rooms in front of the southern gate of the citadel and the addition of rectangular bastions at the corners of the structures. The artifacts were collected from the sections of a number of neatly cut shallow trenches dug for the construction of a pond. Joshi 1990.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal citadel. Another important feature of the site is the provision of a rectangular barbican with a ramp. occasionally provided with porch. 60    . Coarse Gray Ware. blades. 1972b: 98-144. Bones of cattle. to investigate its cultural content. Surkotada and Ahar. 70o 41' 30" E) In 1976-77. Meadow and Patel 1997: 308-315). Based on ceramic evidence the site was divided into two chronological horizons corresponding to Rangpur IIB and IIC respectively. 1972a: 21-35. The excavations revealed evidence for the existence of eleven wattle and daub circular huts. The floorings of the huts were made of rammed earth. cores. lower town and a cemetery to the south-west. Zekhada (23o 51' 00" N. These ceramics showed similarities with those from Harappan and Post Harappan sites like Rangpur. Chitalwala and Thomas conducted some section scrapings at the Chalcolithic mound at Khanpur in Morbi taluka of Rajkot district to collect animal bones. IAR 1971-72.

carried out excavations on two mounds known as Kesrisimha-no-Tekro and Sai-no-Tekro. Bhattacharya 1981. miniature pots. vases and bowl in plain and painted red ware were recovered from the huts and the pottery in its form and fabric is comparable to the ceramics from Rangpur IIB and IIC (IAR 1977-78. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. needle and antimony rods were also unearthed from the site (IAR 1977-78. 72o 30' 00" E) In 1977-78. At Sai-no-Tekro mound. Kanewal (22o 27' 00" N. 197879. dish. bangle. 70o 31' 40" E) The Department of Archaeology. 61    . stone beads. arrow head. Apart from a building complex. Chatterjee 1995). Two circular huts of wattle and daub. divisible into two phases. Anand district. ear ring and beads of the bones and copper awl.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Bones of cow. Two fragments of dish on stand. Rangpur IIA. inscribed steatite seal. Kesarisimha-no-Tekro comprised of a single culture occupation belonging to the Chalcolithic period. buffalo. Government of Gujarat. carried out excavations at Pabumath in Rapar taluka. shell bangles. situated on the bank of the lake at Kanewal village. IIC and III. having rammed earth floorings were encountered at different levels and from these huts. Momin 1983: 120-125. mongoose and fish represent the animal remains from the site (IAR 1977-78. 1980-81). camel. The excavation revealed 5 m thick cultural deposit belonging to Urban and Post Urban Harappan periods separated by a burning activity. Pabumath (23o 37' 00" N. 1980). quern. IIB. ceramics of both the periods. Mehta et al. were exposed. pig. nilgai. A and B. Kachchh district during 1977-78. household articles such as pots. the Chalcolithic occupation was preceded by Mesolithic people. goat/sheep. 1978-79 and 198081. The ceramic industry showed affinities with Lothal B. In the Chalcolithic levels two circular huts. similar to those found at Kesarisimha-no-Tekro. terracotta lamp and twenty two complete terracotta balls were recovered.

Mehta 1984).Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Taraghda (21o 44' 00" N. lamp and dish. 71o 55' 00" E) In 1979-80. The single cultural period site has not revealed structural remains.5 M thick deposit revealed evidence for the existence of circular huts. 70o 26' 00" E) In 1978-79. spindle whorls. Buff. beads. Valabhi/Nesdi (21o 53' 00" N. Vessel shapes from the site include dish on stand. Other artefacts recovered from the site include shell objects. carnelian beads and weights (IAR 1978-79). the ceramics showed similarity with the ceramics from Prabhas Patan. discs and scrapers. Earliest inhabitants of the site were Post Urban Harappan and Lustrous Red Ware using communities relatively datable to 15th-14thcentury BC. The Harappan mound was disturbed to a depth of 1 meter by the intensive digging of local people. Four trenches were excavated at the site and 10. toy cart wheels. the settlement is roughly dated to the time bracket of the second-third millennium BC (IAR 1979-80. lamps. Rao of ASI carried out excavation in the forecourt of the Dwarakadhish temple at Dwarka in Jamnagar district to ascertain the antiquity of the site. goblet. S. The ceramic types are represented by Red.10 m deposit revealed evidence for 8 successive stages of habitation. Based on artefact evidence. Lustrous Red and Black and Red Wares. the Department of Archaeology. R. Second stage of the site was marked by house floors 62    . The small site with 0. basin. copper ring. According to the excavators. A few other antiquities from the site include terracotta bull figurines. bowl (with or without stud handle). Government of Gujarat carried out a small scale excavation at Taraghda in Rajkot district to ascertain its cultural sequence. Dwarka (22o 13' 00" N. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda conducted an excavation of the Harappan (Urban Harappan and Pst Urban Harappan) site at Valabhi/Nesadi in Bhavnagar district. 69o 00' 00" E) In 1979-80.

Yajna vedikas/fire pits were also 63    . the Chalcolthic site is located on the right bank of Bhadar river in Dhandhuka taluka of Ahmedabad district. gather additional radiocarbon dating samples. bowls and basins. A true microlithic component was not found during the excavation. Gujarat State and University of Pennsylvania resumed the excavations at Oriyo Timbo with a view to confirm the sequence. IB and IC based on three successive structural levels. 71o 52' 00" E) Vagad. hearths. Bhavanagar district in 1981-82. Period IA. Oriyo Timbo (21o 54' 00" N. jars. storage pits. Department of Archaeology. sheep. Vagad (22o 19' 00" N. investigate the nature of the microlithic and Lustous Red Ware settlement and expand the sample of palaeobotanical remains for both periods. 71o 32' 00" E) Department of Archaeology. Artifacts from the Chalcolithic period include terracotta bead/pendant with incised geometric design and ceramic forms like pots. University of Baroda in 1981-1982 covers an area of 450 m north south and 300 m east west and rises to a height of 2 m from the surrounding plain. even though the new trenches were laid directly next to the trenches excavated in the earlier period (IAR 1989-90. The mound locally known as Kedio Timbo excavated by M. The site contained deep storage pits. The single cultural period site is divided into three sub periods viz. blue bull and rhinoceros were also recovered from the site.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal and thin black on red ware pottery datable to 900-500 BC and rest of the stages are later in date (IAR 1979-80). chuhlas and hearths. Six circular hut remains were unearthed from the site. Skeletal remains of got. Gujarat State and University of Pennsylvania conducted an excavation at Oriyo Timbo near Chiroda village of Gadhada taluka. tandoor and ceramics. S. antelope. Rissman and Chitalwala 1990). gazelle. Excavations at the Chalcolithic mound measuring 175x250m revealed two periods of occupation with microliths using inhabitants preceding a pastoral camp of Lustrous Red Ware using community.. In 1989-90. The findings from the Chalcolithic level include chulhas.

spotted deer. broken ladles. Calibrated Radio Carbon date of Vagad IA is 2190-2080 BC. Period IA yielded Harappan artefacts and Period IB was represented by structures made of stone slab paved floors and rubble walls. buffalo.30-1. shell bangles. blue bull. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda conducted an excavation at Shell object manufacturing Harappan settlement situated near a large sweet water lake in Nageshwar village. The ceramics excavated from the site include Sturdy Red Ware. Period IA (. raw materials for manufacturing various objects are in close proximity of the site. Krishnan 1986. Apart from Classical Harappan ceramics and one stud handled bowl. Micaceous Red Ware. inlays. buffalo. Crude Grey Ware and White Painted Black and Red Ware. toy cart wheels. bangles and toy cart frames were recovered from the site. pestles. Nageshwar (22o20' 00" N. Buff Ware. pig and rat. Other finds from the site include terracotta and stone weights. copper objects. sheep. sambar and 64    . Animal remains from the site include those of cow. The site destroyed in 1976 by local earthwork contractors’ revealed evidence of Harappan culture divisible into two phases. beads of various materials. stone weight.20 m deposit) and IB (1.70-1. discs. blue bull. pendants. Okhamandal taluka of Jamnagar district. fire altar (?)/ pottery kiln and other artefacts. 69o 03' 00" E) In 1983-84. antelope. Crude Red Ware. Dimri 1994). gazelle. IB is 1800-1600 BC and Vagad I C must be later in date (Sonawane and Mehta 1985.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal unearthed from the site.40 m deposit). sheep. crucibles. Faunal remains recovered from the site are of animals like the cow. goat. spindle whorls. goat. rubber stones and sling balls. beads. blades and polishers. folded copper sheet and terracotta triangular cakes. The Pindara and Poshitra Bay coasts which are rich in Turbinella pyrum and Chicoreus ramosus shells. saddle querns. spotted deer. Chocolate Slipped Ware. black buck. pulley shaped terracotta ear ornaments. beads and debitage. dog. shell bangles with chevron motif.

chalcedony and was devoid of pottery. Patan district. seven in II and three in IV. Surendranagar district. Coarse GreyWare and Coarse Red Ware. charred and uncharred bone pieces. Excavation in Mound I revealed Post Urban Harappan ceramics. The 1 m thick deposit 65    . The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda carried out excavation at the Post Urban Harappan settlement located in Ratanpura village (23o 28 N 71o 48 E) Sami taluka. Mound II revealed 85 to 95 cm thick cultural deposit broadly comparable with Rangpur IIC. 71o 48' 00" E) In 1984-85. Mound III revealed large quantities of bone fragments along with Mesolithic tools such as fluted cores. pottery. Hegde et al. The site comprising four mounds was divided into 10 sq m grids and soil samples were collected from alternate grids for phosphate analysis to determine the relative intensity of human intervention in different parts of the site and based on its results twelve trenches were dug. pestle stones and saddle querns and beads of carnelian. Dasada taluk. Hegde et al. Buff Ware. steatite. one each in mound I and III. flakes of chert. The mound was divided into 10x10 m grids and soil samples were obtained from each grid for phosphate analysis. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda carried out excavation at the Harappan settlement locally known as Godh in Nagwada Village. 1990). Bhan and Kenoyer 1984a: 115-120. 71o 42' 45" E) During 1985-86 to 1989-90. Nagwada (23o 18' 15" N. Ratanpura (23o 28' 00" N. white painted and plain Black and Red Ware. Antiquities from the mound include ceramic wares like Harappan plain and painted sturdy Red Ware. Based on its results trenches were selected for excavation. Bhan and Kenoyer 1984b: 67-80.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal marine fish (IAR 1983-84. The excavation at mound IV brought to light three circular pits containing ash. A number of rammed earth floors of circular huts with U shaped chullah of mud built on the floor were the structural remains. shell and terracotta. Lustrous Red Ware. fragments of terracotta sealings and terracotta lumps with or without thread mark (IAR 1984-85). 1985: 3-20. charcoal. paste.

the layers 1 to 9 at Shikarpur represent Urban Harappan and layers 10 to 19 belong to Pre Urban Harappan. According to the excavators. agate weights. Government of Gujarat during 1987-1990. the fortified settlement was re-excavated by Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda with a view to establish the cultural sequence as well as the settlement features in terms 66    . sheep. Nal and Kot-Diji. blue bull. 1988-89. represented period IA and the ceramics associated with the burials showed affinity to Pre-Harappan pottery from Amri. 1990: 191-195). hare and rhinoceros. toy carts. 1987-88. Harappan ceramics. pig. both inhumation and symbolic. 70o 35' 00" E) The Harappan site at Shikarpur locally known as Valamiyo Timbo located in Bhachau taluka. C14 date for the upper level of Period IB is 2180+/-80 BC (IAR 1985-86. semi precious stone objects like pendants and beads. bangles and chisels. 1988: 55-65. During 2007-08 to 2009-10. Hegde et al.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal revealed four structural levels of Harappan period divisible into two periods IA (layer 5) and IB (layer 1-4). Shikarpur (23o 07' 00" N. Few burials. 198990. buffalo. 1986-87. chert blades and bone objects were unearthed from the site. terracotta sealing. First phase of structural activity in the site was marked by post holes that went into natural soil in fifth layer. district Kachchh was first excavated by Department of Archaeology. Classical Harappan ceramics were less in quantity in comparison to Anarta pottery. female figurine. jackal. Hegde et al. Rectangular structures made of undressed stones were observed in second phase and moulded mud brick rectangular structures represented third phase. goat. dog. white painted Black and Red Ware also encountered. copper objects like rings. The site revealed evidence for craft activities like shell working and stone bead making. bangles and triangular cakes. Rectangular structures constructed out of rubble stones were observed in fourth phase. gold beads and copper celts were the noteworthy findings. terracotta animal figurines. The faunal remains from the site were of cattle. shell beads and bangles. An inscribed Steatite seal/ pendant. blackbuck.

40 m habitation deposit divisible into three phases of Harappan occupation. Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan respectively. 2009: 1-9). After preparing the contour map of the site using total station. Bhan and Ajithprasad 2008: 1-9. Period II. site was divided into 5x5 m grids or excavation units. there were a few houses outside the fortification. faience and steatite. Kuntasi (22o 50' 40" N. Though the lower town is absent in the site. Pune and Department of Archaeology. beads of carnelian. steatite pendant. The houses inside the fortification were arranged along four sides leaving an open area at the centre. Rohri chert core and blades. the major artefacts recovered from the site include terracotta tablet. Phase I was marked by artifacts of Claasical Harappan. 1988-89.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal of function of the site. some copper bangles and two rings of copper. Phase II by Sorath Harappan. The fortification encloses an area about 125 m square. weights. The excavation revealed a 6. Both stone and mud brick structures are present at the site. Apart from the ceramics. copper celt. female and male figurines. Excavations at 7 m habitation deposit revealed two main cultural periods at the site. Government of Gujarat carried out excavations at the fortified Harappan settlement locally known as Bibi-no-Timbo located in Kuntasi village. Some of the Harappan ceramic shapes continued and the stud of the bowls became longer. Period I yielded Harappan ceramics. animal figurines. showed signs of decadence in the area of the settlement. Another discovery was that of a small pot embedded in one of the rooms of a house. containing thousands of steatite micro-beads. Classical Harappan and Anarta and Phase III by Post Urban Sorath Harappan. Both mud brick and stone structures were unearthed with an open place at the middle of the site. 1989-90. 70o 37' 30" E) During 1987-88 to 1989-90. cart frames. Deccan College. cubical chert weights and a square faience seal. sealings. The 67    . beads and drill bits (IAR 1987-88. Rajkot district. terracotta toy cart frames. Anarta and Sorath Harappan (very few from mid level onwards).

The first settlement that was raised at the site in stage I was a fortress now lying buried in the citadel mound and in stage II. Bisht of ASI is one among the five largest Harappan cities in the subcontinent and is located in Bhachau taluka. fortification. efficient water harvesting system and funerary architecture. middle town was founded. was added to it from the west. was followed by a temporary desertion 68    . Reservoirs were created on the south. 1988-89. Based on local traditions.e. Two seasonal water channels Manhar and Mansar are flowing on the south and north of the walled settlement. During stage III. west and north of the built up divisions. Dhavalikar et al. the excavators believe that Kuntasi may have functioned as a high tide estuarine port. viz. 1989-90. aesthetic architecture. Ruins of the site are spread over an area of about 100 hectares in Khadir Island. bailey. Stage III was the most creative and important phase during which the fortress was made into a formidable castle and another walled sub division. Stage IV belonged to the Classical Harappan phase and almost all the salient features of the city planning were maintained along with the monumental structures such as the gateways.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal occurrence of the Ahar type of black and red ware was another noteworthy feature. In the north. residential area of stage II was cleared of its structures for carving out a ground. Dholavira (23o 53' 10" N. artifact remains and location of the site.S. a residential area was added to the north of the walled settlement. Dhavalikar 1992: 73-82. An outer fortification was also constructed during this stage. monumental structures. Kachchh district. 1996). Dhavalikar 1994. The excavator identified seven stages of cultural change at the site. Further north. The site is remarkable for its exquisite planning. the settlement was damaged by a natural catastrophe and repairs were undertaken and the lower town was added. an extensive walled town i. particularly in the maintenance of the city. and drainage system. Stage V is characterised by the general decline. 70o 13' 00" E) Dholavira excavated in 1989-90 to 2003-2004 by R. (IAR 1987-88.

Excavations also brought to light the existence of large tumulis which are circular in the plan and these hemispherical structures were made of mud bricks. 1997: 107-120.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal of the site. 1997-98. 2004: 35-48. Gujarat. They built their houses in the circular form and no planning as such was followed. steatite seals. 1999-00. chert blades. 1999: 14-37. 1992-93. Possehl of University of Pennsylvania and M. Three structural phases were noticed at Babar Kot and the first was represented by the remains of walls oriented north-south and east west. The new comers of stage VII did not use the Classical Harappan ceramics. copper objects. The site was never occupied once the people of stage VII left. Babar Kot (22o 16' 30" N. 1989b: 265-272. after a century the Post Urban Harappans of stage VI abandoned the settlement. Domestic buildings were laid out in a different planning and probably. H. Bhavnagar district was excavated in 1990-91 by Gregory L. terracotta sealings. human and animal figurines. 1996-97. Bisht 1989a: 397-408. 1990-91. Raval of the Department of Archaeology. Botad taluka.e. 2000-01. the seven cultural stages of Dholavira can be dated between 35001700 BC (IAR 1989-90. The mound measuring 190x140x2. The stage VI is a state of transformed Harappan Culture i. The site has yielded an inscription widely known as the signboard made up of ten large-sized signs of the Indus script and fragment of a large slab engraved with three large Indus signs. 1994. The noteworthy feature of this phase 69    . The top most strata represented artefacts of both Early Historic and Medieval periods. the Post Urban Harappan phase. Apart from the huge amount of Chalcolithic pottery. beads of semiprecious stones and drill bits were also unearthed from the site.5 m was divided into small grids and 25 trenches located in different parts of the site were excavated. stone weights. 1998-99. The funerary structures which are found in a cemetery that lay to the west of the city are also remarkable for the density of structures. 71o 34' 00" E) The fortified Harappan settlement at Babar Kot located in Paliyad village. 2006: 283-338). 1991-92. According to excavator. 1991: 71-82. 1993-94.

the Harappan settlements at Babar Kot can be dated equivalent to that of Rojdi B and C i. Loteshwar (23o 36' 00" N. Possehl 1994: 193-204). 2200-1700 BC (IAR 1990-91. The C14 dates for the Pre Urban Harappan phase at Padri go back to the fourth millennium BC (3636 BC). Pathak 1992: 87-89. The stone walls running either north-south. Period I was represented by the remains of a mud pressed structure. 1995-96. c. 1991-92. Apart from the ceramics microlithic blades. grinding stones and chipped stones were recovered from the site. Remains of a hearth were also found on the northwest corner of the floor. Phase II was associated with Rojdi C. Shirvalkar 2008). Shinde 1991: 87-89.e. Period III yielded ceramics akin to Rangpur IIC and Early Historic period was marked by Red Polished Ware (IAR 1990-91. 1998: 173-182. Bhavnagar district. 1992b: 5566. 71o 51' 00" E) In 1990-91. Both wild and domestic animal bones and plant remains were also recovered from the site. meeting with each other without any intersection. Shinde and Thomas 1993: 145-147. Padri (21o 20' 21" N. Based on ceramic evidence. Pune excavated the Chalcolithic mound at Padri locally known as Kerala no Dhoro located in Talaja taluka. Post Urban Harappan and Early Historic. The Urban Harappan period yielded a large amount of painted fine and coarse pottery. 1992a: 79-86. or east-west. Shinde and Kar 1992: 105-110. which is similar to Rangpur IIB and Rojdi B and C14 date for the uppermost levels of this Phase is 2300 BC. Urban Harappan (Phase I and II). Sorath Harappan sherds and Steatite beads. 1993-94.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal was the bowl-shaped pit. 2006: 151-158. Bhagat 2001. S. the Pre Urban Harappan (Padri Ware). University of Baroda and in 2009-10 under the direction of 70    . 72o 06' 32" E) During 1990-91 to 1995-96 Deccan College. The last building activity at the site was associated with the historical period.e. The site revealed 4 fold cultural sequence i. Padri Ware. resting on the occupational surface. M. were the main feature of this phase. Remnants of floor having a complete pot and grinding stone were noticed from this phase.

grinding/pallet stones. 2005-06 and 2006-07 The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. University of Baroda and Marco Madella of CSIC. The site has two mounds. S. hammer stones and animal bones. charcoal. carried out excavation at fortified bipartite Sorath Harappan settlement at Jaidak/Pithad locally known as Jaidak no Timbo in Jodiya taluka. probably an 71    . locally known as Khari-no-Timbo. 1995: 85-87. Jaidak (22o 41' 00" N. One human skeleton belongs to this period was unearthed from one of the trenches. Patan district. Patel 2008: 123-134. Size of these pits varied from about 2 m in diameter and 0. Chalcolithic period was represented by Anarta pottery.8 m divisible into two periods. Spain. Yadav 2005. is located on a high sand dune close to the left bank of Khari Nadi. carried out excavations at Loteshwar in Sami taluka. No structural remains were unearthed from the site and an important feature noticed at the site was the occurrence of a large number of pits. few Harappan sherds. bangle pieces of shell and copper. Ajithprasad 2002: 129-158. The site. beads. blades. The excavation revealed habitation deposit of 1. lithic debitage. district Jamnagar. Jaidak-1. Patel 1992. Brahmbhatt 2000. the larger one measuring 300x150 m with a height of about 5 m from the surrounding plain and Jaidak 2. The earliest C14 date for the Mesolithic occupation at the site is 7300 BC and Chalcolithic deposit can be dated between 3700 . Period I was represented by 1 m thick habitation deposit of microliths using community. grinding/pallet stones. which were dug during this period. Mahida 1992. The occupational debris of the microlithic period included both geometric and nongeometric tool types. Barcelona. Period I belong to the Mesolithic Culture and II to the Harappan affiliated Chalcolithic culture.Ajithprasad of M. 70o 35' 00" E) During 1991-92. terracotta pellets. terracotta female figurine (?) and spindle whorls. hammer stones. 2009: 173-188). pottery. This period also revealed one human burial. tributary of Rupen river. copper punch (?).5 m to 2 m in depth and they were filled with ash.1900 BC (IAR 1990-91. animal bones and microliths.

lapis lazuli. Rojdi (B). perforated and imperforated pottery discs and bull figurine. measures 140x90 m. Harappan affiliated Chalcolithic and Historic periods. fish hook. Ceramics recovered from this period bears close resemblance to those from Rangpur IIC. terracotta beads. 72    . locally known as Shaktari no Timbo is situated next to a large inter dunal depression known by the name Shaktari Talav. folded strip of copper.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal extension of the first mound. Of these. chert blades. Rojdi C and Bagasra IV (IAR 1991-92. copper ornaments. Moti Pipli (23o 49' 00" N. No structural remains were unearthed from the site. Sen 2009). Excavation at the 600x120 m site yielded 90 cm thick habitational deposit of Mesolithic. Kot Diji and Balakot. 2008: 83-99. excavation was carried out at Jaidak -1 mound and it revealed two phases of Period II (Sorath Harappan) and flimsy evidence for medieval occupation. During 2005-06 and 2006-07. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda conducted an excavation at Moti Pipli in Radhanpur taluka. steatite. Ajithprasad 2003. and it was concentrated in the southern part of the mound. The ceramics from the site include Gritty Red Ware and Fine Red Ware of Anarta tradition. Nal. beads of chalcedony.40 m habitation deposit belonging to two distinctive periods. Kuntasi (IA and IB) and Bagasra (III). Period II B represents the economic decline of the occupants of the site. 71o 32' 00" E) In 1992-93. Dwivedi 2009. The ceramics of this period bear close similarity with pottery from the sites of Rangpur (IIB). Period I belong to the Mesolithic/microlithic culture and Period II is Sorath Harappan. The site. Period IIA is noted for the construction of the fortification and many stone structures within it. Black and Red Ware and the Pre Urban Harappan pottery similar to those from Amri. The Chalcolithic period has a deposit of about 50 cm. Banaskantha district. Other antiquities from this period include stone beads. excavation was carried out on the Jaidak-2 mound and it revealed 1. In 1991-92. Other antiquities found in the excavation constitute copper/bronze nail.

Santhli (23o 54' 00" N. The noteworthy feature of the site is the lone presence of Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery (IAR 1993-94. The artefacts of late Early Historic (5th-6th century AD) and late Medieval period was also unearthed from the site in limited quantity (IAR 1992-93. The artefact spread consisting of stone blades. points. 73    . One of them was an adult double burial associated with five ceramic vessels of different shapes. also associated with few vessels. Period II was represented by few ceramic sherds. Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-97: 11-17. shell bangles and two extended inhumation burials. S. Second burial was of a child. A number of small pieces of flat sandstone slabs or palette stones were also unearthed from the site. Banaskantha district. M. Majumdar 1999). Mesolithic artefacts of geometric and non-geometric nature including lunates. Majumdar 2006: 159-166. Mound IV locally known as Hadka walu Khetar revealed total habitation deposit of 75-90 cm incorporating two cultural periods. The M. lithic debitage and few potsherds. Period I being Mesolithic and Period II being Chalcolithic. Ajithprasad 2002: 129-158). IV and V) in Santalpur taluka. covered an area of about 50 hectares. shell and faience. Majumdar 1999. University of Baroda carried out excavations at Datrana (Mounds II. terracotta lumps and triangular cakes. triangles. 71o 29' 10" E) In 1993-94. 71o 06' 00" E) During 1993-94 and 1994-95.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal terracotta. trapezes. University of Baroda carried out excavations at Santhli locally known as Gachi no Thumdo (Santhli II) in Radhanpur taluka. The site measuring 120x90 m revealed 40 cm habitation deposit belonging to two cultural periods. This level also yielded a large quantity of skeletal remains of the animals. Period I at the site is Mesolithic having 25-30cm deposit and Period II is Chalcolithic of 10-15cm cultural deposit. crescents. S. flake cores and lithic debitage were excavated from the site. backed blades along with blade cores. Banaskantha district. Datrana (23o 46' 00" N. stone and shell beads.

Datrana II locally known as Ravechi Mata no Timbo revealed a single period of Chalcolithic occupation. Anarta and Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda 74    .the largest one with a diameter of about 2 m and 1 m deep. Surface finds from the site include Anarta pottery and Post Urban Harappan ceramics (Majumdar 1999). prismatic blade cores. Mathutra (23o 44' 00" N. The occurrence of Anarta and Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery in upper level close to the surface indicates that Pre-Prabhas pottery using community were the earliest Chalcolithic inhabitants at the site. The 15-20 cm Chalcolithic deposit revealed Pre Urban Harappan Burial pottery and long chalcedony blades. The shreds showed affinity to the Pre Urban Harappan Burial pottery. Habitation deposit in this mound was confined to pits of different dimensions. University of Baroda conducted trial excavation at Mathutra I (Madhavya no Timbo) in Santalpur taluka. Most of the pottery recovered from another pit was of Anarta tradition. Banaskantha district. stone beads and rough-outs. Datrana V. copper punch point and ceramics. 71o 05' 00" E) In 1994-95. The pits yielded Sorath Harappan pottery analogous to Rojdi A and B types. locally known as Patel no Khetar revealed a cultural deposit of 70-90 cm belonging to Mesolithic and Chalcolithic periods.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal The Chalcolithic period was represented by long crested ridged blades. The excavation in the northern part of the mound revealed that the spread of pottery was mainly on the surface except disc bases of bowl and pot and a grinding stone those were found buried in the trench. Bagasra (23o 03' 30" N. S. Excavation at the centre of the mound revealed three vessel bases associated with human teeth. 70o 37' 10" E) During 1995-96 to 2004-2005. Another interesting find was that of a pottery kiln stacked with Sorath Harappan pottery (IAR 1993-94. Ajithprasad 2002). Abhijit Majumdar of The M. One of the pits yielded a number of lustrous red ware bowls and dishes. The ceramics from the mound include Pre-Prabhas. while the smaller ones measured about half meter.

faience making and copper working (IAR 1995-96. 2003: 21-50. balls. locally known as Gola Dhoro in Maliya taluka of Rajkot district. The site provided clear evidence for shell working. copper objects namely chisels. triangular cakes.conducted excavations at fortified Harappan settlement at Bagasra. Phase III is remarkable for the predominance of Sorath Harappan pottery over the Classical Harappan and a general disorganisation of construction activities at the site. bones and bone points. and by the absence of Classical/Sindhi Harappan artefacts in the deposit. faience bangles. inlay pieces. spindle whorls. pottery rings. knives. District Kachchh was excavated under 75    . this phase incorporates both Classical/Urban Harappan remains and Anarta pottery. Phase IV is the Post Urban Harappan habitation and is characterised by a group of Sorath Harappan pottery resembling Rangpur IIC and Rojdi C pottery. The excavations at the site uncovered 7. beads. toy-cart frames and wheels with projected hubs. beads. As in Phase I. bangles. clay objects namely sealings. pottery discs. shell objects such as ladle. The site measuring 160x120 m is roughly rectangular in layout. skin rubbers. The material remains unearthed from the site includes blades. Bhan et al. scrapers. Phase II demarcates the construction of a fortification. seals. In addition to these.75 m thick deposit of habitation belongs to four distinct phases. weights. ear studs and inlay pieces. 1997-98. clay lumps with reed impressions. Juni Kuran (23o 27' 00" N. 1996-97. beads. bangles. beads. pottery. balls. otoliths. steatite beads. polishers. 1999-00. 69o 47' 00" E) The Harappan settlement at Juni Kuran located on the north eastern corner of the Pascham Beyt island in Taluka Bhuj. Sonawane et al. 2004: 153-158). cores. isolated sherds of the Sorath Harappan pottery were also found in the upper layers of this phase. pendants. circlets. and varieties of terracotta objects like animal figurines. Phase I represents the early stage of the Urban Harappan along with Anarta pottery. Phase I to Phase IV. grinding stones. bangles. stone bead manufacturing. beads and drill bits of various stones. tops.

wire and fish hook were also recovered. 70o 52' 00" E) During 2005-06 to 2008-09. The pottery recovered from the excavation includes Reserved Slip Ware. wavy lines. basins and pots. Bokhira (21o 39' 20" N. Shell bangles and inlay pieces. Goa in 2005. terracotta objects like animal figurines. Grey Ware. blades of semi-precious stones. The main ceramics are Prabhas Ware and Sorath Harappan Red Ware. jars. dish. basin and goblet are the main vessel forms. sling balls and copper ring (Gaur et al. Udaipur. Paintings on the potsherds are roundels. balls. hopscotch. Burials were also unearthed from the site (Pramanik 2004: 45-67). Cream Slipped Ware. Excavations also unearthed a fortified city with gateways. The rough rectangular shaped settlement covers an area of 410 x 350 m with an average deposit of 7 m. Kyoto. cross lines and thick bands. dish on stand. clay balls. middle town and two stadiums. Four trenches laid in the agricultural land located on the western side of the Porbandar creek revealed a habitation deposit of 50 cm. lids. A large quantity of artefacts recovered from the site is akin to the material remains of Rojdi and Rangpur. Kanmer (23o 23' 00" N. 2006: 33-39). copper objects like the arrow heads. vase. 69o 36' 10" E) Excavations at Bokhira in Porbandar District by Marine Archaeology Centre National Institute of Oceanography. Buff Ware and Grey Ware. One of the trenches revealed a rubble structure. Structures made of mud brick and stone were observed continuously from the Urban Harappan to the Post Urban Harappan levels. cooking pot (handi). terracotta beads. JRN Rajasthan Vidyapeeth. Gujarat State Department of Archaeology and Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. Incised Red Ware and plain and painted Red Ware. Japan jointly excavated the fortified Harappan settlement at Kanmer locally 76    . Major shapes are bowls. revealed a Protohistoric settlement dating back to the mid-3rd millennium BC. Jar.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Shubra Pramanik of Archaeological Survey of India during 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other antiquities from the site include stone tools.

dices. Period I (Pre-fortification level) revealed 40 cm deposit and Period II (Urban Harappan) is divided into two phases based on the changes in ceramics and a 10 cm thick layer of whitish material.2470-2149 BC). Remains of wild and domestic animals and plants were also recovered from the site (Kharakwal et al. Agrawal et al. KMR III – Post Urban Harappan. Ceramics from the Harappan levels include Black and Red Ware. polishers.5 to 1. 69o 08' 00" E) During 2009-10 and 2010-11. 2010: 1-2). Thickness of the Phase IIB varies from 2 to 3. Maximum thickness of the sandstone and mud brick fortification wall exposed in the south-eastern side of the settlement is 4 m. steatite and terracotta seals. 2007: 21-46. Anarta pottery and other Harappan pottery types. KMR II. sealings. Period IV (Early Historic) has a deposit of 1. The fortified settlement measures 310x230 m. amulets. mud brick constructions are also present in the site.8 m. The site revealed evidence 77    . Phase IIa is ashy in nature and thickness of deposit varies from 2. semiprecious stones. fortified Harappan settlement at Khirsara (Gadhwalivadi) located near Desalpur was excavated by ASI. Bastions were also exposed in corners of the fort wall. Though. Architectural elements recovered from the site include fortification and residential structures. rough outs. The fortified site measuring 115x155x10 m revealed fivefold cultural sequence namely KMR I – Pre Urban Harappan (2888-2623 BC). gamesman. drill bits. bangles of shell. Antiquities from the site include beads of steatite.Urban Harappan (IIa2130-1785 BC and IIb . 2005: 115-123. copper and terracotta and weights.5m and a large number of pits measuring 2 m deep dug during this time disturbed the Harappan level.5 m. Average thickness of Period III (Post Urban Harappan) varies from 40 to 100 cm. 2008: 5-23. terracotta cakes. shell and gold. Period IV is marked by a flimsy medieval deposit of 20 cm.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal known as Bakar Kot situated 35 kms east of Rapar in Kachchh district. terracotta. KMR IV– Early Historic (673-888 AD) and KMR V – Medieval (1224-1239 AD). faience. 2009: 147-164. stone was widely used as the building material. Khirsara (23o 30' 00" N.

Late Sorath harappan and Classical Harappan. Father H. In 1938. Heras reported the presence of the ancient mound at Somnath. Various artifacts from the site include ceramics. Artifacts from the sites show classical Harappan features and noteworthy findings are of three steatite seals. Government of Gujarat discovered a seal bearing Harappan characters from the site (Jam 2010). The various stages of explorations are discussed below. Vats excavated the site in 1935 (Rao 1963). According to present understanding. beads and drill bits. Chalcolithic site at Rangpur came to the notice in 1934 while digging the mound for the construction of a road and M. Pune. pottery discs and terracotta beads (Shirvalkar Personal Communication). 69° 26' 00" E) Kotada Bhadli located in Nakhatrana Taluka of Kachchh District was excavated in 2010-11 by Shirvalkar of Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute. Kotada Bhadli (23° 22' 00" N. The Chalcolithic settlement measuring 130x115x5 m has a stone fortification wall. Period of Chance Findings Before 1950. Langhnaj. the Chalcolithic archaeology of Gujarat was linked by stray finds and most of the sites were discovered accidently.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal of residential structures along with a ware-house. In 1978-79. The artifacts unearthed from the site showed similarities to those of Sorath harappan. a Mesolithic site having Chalcolithic affinity was 78    . the Department of Archaeology. two bearing Harappan script and one having geometrical lines on it. S. Vallabhipur was the first noticed Chalcolithic (Protohistoric) site in Gujarat in 1930 (Heras 1938). Explorations The history of eighty years of explorations to identify and understand the nature of Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat can be divided into 7 stages and in each advancing period research became more and more scientific and problem oriented.

Pune during the First Gujarat Prehistoric Expedition (Sankalia 1946. 1958-59. V. This period is noted for the beginning of the systematic village to village surveys. Soundara Rajan (Narmada Valley) resulted in the discovery of around 100 Chalcolithic sites in various sub-regions except North Gujarat (IAR 1953-54. Pune. R. During this decade Chalcolithic sites were also discovered by J. J. Kalubhar and Kshetrunji river valleys in Amreli. Mahi and Tapi Valley) and K. R. V. Sankalia of Deccan College. P. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and Deccan College. K. Demi river valley Surendranagar. Mindola. Rao (Bhal Region. Joshi of ASI (Surendranagar. Kim. 1956-57. 1959-60. R. Kachchh). Nanavati of Department of Archaeology (Aji. 1954-55. explorations in Gujarat were carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India. Joshi of ASI (lower courses of Narmada and Tapi and estuaries of Ambika. 1957-58. Soon after the partition. Jamnagar. Saurashtra. 79    . P. due to the loss of the well-known remains of its rich cultural heritage to Pakistan and prompted by the feelings of nationalism Indian archaeologists conducted vigorous explorations in various parts of India including Gujarat. Khelo. Ahmedabad and Banaskantha). Decade of the Entry of Foreign Schools 1961-1970 is remarkable for the introduction of foreign scholars into the Harappan Studies of Gujarat. S. Mehta of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (Surat). Saurashtra. Bhavnagar. 1955-56. M. Decade of Nationalism and Beginning of Village to Village and River Valley Surveys After the partition of India in 1947. Allchin and B. Auranga. F. Subbarao 1958).Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal reported in 1941-42 by H. Soundararajan of ASI (Oldpad in Surat). Rajkot. Kachchh. P. D. Archaeological explorations in Gujarat during 1951-1960 by P. Department of Archaeology Government of Gujarat. Allchin of University of Cambridge and J. Pandya (Bhadar Valley and various parts of Saurashtra). N. Damanganga. 1965). Department of Archaeology.

Jamnagar. Bhavnagar and Mehsana districts). K. Government of Gujarat (Kachchh. Ahmedabad. Chitalwala (Rajkot) and Archaeological Survey of India. 1969-70. Nagwada and Ratanpura prior to the excavation. Rajkot. Rajkot and Amreli). 1975-76. 1961-62. 1971-72. Parikh 1977. 1976b: 51-54. Possehl 1980. 1972-73. Bharuch and Surat) and Ananda Sastry and H. Mehsana. Pandya 1973. 1977-78. Amreli and 80    .Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Par and Purna rivers in Baroda. Chitalwala 1979: 113-121. Rao 1979). 1975. Chaturvedi of ASI (Jamnagar) (IAR 1960-61. During 1971-80. Government of Gujarat (Kachchh. Rao 1963. 1967-68. Surendranagar and Ahmedabad) resulted in the discovery of hundreds of sites in various parts of Gujarat. Nanavati et al. 1968-69. 1976-77. 1971. 1962-63. During 1981-1990 explorations for Chalcolithic sites were conducted by the Department of Archaeology. 1976a: 54-56. Bhavnagar. Vadodara Circle (Banaskantha. Mehta et al. Mehta et al. 1964-65. Leshnik 1968b: 295-310). 1973-74. Mehsana. Suman Pandya (Bhavnagar Taluka). Decade of the Introduction of Grid Surveys In this period different seasons of grid surveys were conducted at the site like Dholavira. Second half of this decade is notable for the discovery of a considerable number of Chalcolithic sites in North Gujarat (IAR 1970-71. 1966-67. Momin 1974: 57-63. Mirchandani 1980. Bhavnagar. Kheda. Decade of the Beginning of District Surveys This decade is notable for the introduction of district surveys to discover Harappan sites by the Archaeological Survey of India and the research scholars from The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda.USA and Department of Archaeology. Mehta et al. 1965-66. 1974-75. 1971. Junagadh. 1980. 1979. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (Banaskantha. L. Ahmadabad. G. 1963-64. Government of Gujarat (Bhavnagar –Umrala and Gadhda taluka). explorations of Department of Archaeology. 1979-80. Possehl of University of Pennsylvania . 1978-79.

Lower reaches of Shetrunji river in Bhavnagar district were explored by Deccan College Pune (IAR 1990-91. 1992-93. The M. Kanmer (Rajasthan Vidyapeeth Udaipur. Junagadh and Vadodara districts. State Archaeology Department Gujarat and RIHN Kyoto) and Shikarpur (The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and RIHN Kyoto). Mehta 1984: 227-230. Sonawne and Mehta 1985: 38-44. Possehl 1994: 193-204. Total Station surveys and GIS data generation were carried out at sites like Lothal (Bologna University and ASI). 1988-89. State Archaeology Department Gujarat 81    . Decade of Surveys for Regional Chalcolithic Sites and Introduction of GPS Surveys During 1991-2000 most of the explorations were conducted to identify regional Chalcolithic sites and was mainly carried out by The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Majumdar 1999. Hegde et al. 198788. 1998-99. 1981-82. 1996-97. Allchin and Joshi 1995. Mehsana. Jamnagar. Baroda (Bhavnagar. 1993-94. Rissman and Chitalwala1990. Banaskantha. Bhadar and Lilka river basins). Surendranagar) Deccan College Pune (Rajkot) and Archaeological Survey of India (Kachchh. S. Possehl and Raval 1989. 1985-86. Sonawane 1990). Jairath 1986. U. 1982-83. The explorations of the University were concentrated in Mehsana. Decade of the Beginning of Digital Documentation and Transect Survey of Sites 2001-2010 is noted for the introduction of the use of electronic devices in the explorations. GPR surveys were carried out at sites like Lothal (Bologna University and ASI). Momin 1984: 231-234. 1989-90. 1983-84. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994: 129-139). 1991-92. Archaeological Survey of India explored parts of Kachchh. Joshi 1990. 1999-2000. Surendranagar and Ahmedabad (Bhogavo. 1990. Hegde and Sonawane 1986: 23-31. 1997-98. Bhan 1983. Bhan 1986: 1-21. Ajithprasad and Sonawane 1993. Dimri 1999. 1984-85. 1994-95. Kanmer (Rajasthan Vidyapeeth Udaipur. Bhan and Kenoyer 1984a: 115120. 1995-96.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Bhavnagar). Surat) (IAR 1980-81. 1986-87.

Shirvalkar 2008. A list of Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat is given in Chapter IV. 2005. Deccan College Pune (Bhavnagar and Amreli . the term site is not defined. Sen 2009. Even if available coordinates are incorrect. Jaidak. Small scale Transect survey was carried out at Saurashtra by Mark Manual of Durham University.Vallabhipur to Jafrabad creek). Sonawane et al. Other explorations were conducted by The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (Rajkot . In most publications. Surkotada. Vyas (1998) described various architectural feaures of Harappan sites in Lothal.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal and RIHN Kyoto). Bipartite division of the sites are noticed at Lothal (Rao 82    . All these explorations brought to light more than 755 sites in different regions of Gujarat. 2003: 21-50). Coordinates of many sites are not available. Krishnan and Dimri 2005: 199-204. Stadiums were also reported from both the sites (Bisht 1998-99: 14-37. National Institute of Oceanography (area around Mul Dwarka in Saurashtra) and Department of Archaeology.Halvad and Drangadra.1. Tripartite architectural division of the site into citadel. Junagadh. Archaeological Survey of India (Junagadh and Banaskantha). Pramanik 2004: 45-67). 2004: 153-158. 2009: 147-164. Ahmedabad – Dhandhuka and Dholka. Shikarpur (The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) and Loteshwar (The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and CSIC Spain). Jamnagar . Gaur et al. Hundreds of newly discovered sites await publication. and Rangpur. Architectural Studies Architectural studies related to the Harappan sites in Gujarat are limited to excavation reports and few articles. Ajithprasad 2008: 83-99. Bhagat 2001. lower town and middle town are reported from Dholavira (Bisht 1991: 71-82) and Juni Kuran (Pramanik2004: 4567).Table 4.Government of Gujarat (Vasal River valley. Coastal area of Surat and Bharuch. Bhavnagar – Talaja. Bhan et al. Surendranagar)(IAR 2000-01. Songadh.around Jaidak). Hence it is necessary to undertake an exploration programme and digitally document all details regarding the sites. Kharakwal et al. Dholavira.Maliya and Surendranagar.

curvilinear. circular. Shapes of the structures were square. The bricks used for construction were in the approximate ratio of 1:2:4. Sonawane 2005: 326-331. 1998-99: 14-37. 1994. 1990. Both fortified and unfortified settlements were reported from this period and size of the sites varied from less than half hectare to 60 ha. monumental structures like burials. drainages and residential structures. Sonawane and Mehta 1985: 38-44). 1989b: 265-272. 2004: 35-48). warehouses. 1991: 71-82. 1985). Surkotada (Joshi 1990) and Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2008: 19. sun dried mud bricks. 1980). rectangular. Roads and lines were observed in sites like Dholavira (Bisht 1989a: 397-408. public structures like dockyard. 2009: 1-9). Stones. water tanks. octagonal and polygonal. mud pressed rectangular structure at Padri (Shinde 1998: 173-182) and some clay lumps with reed impression from Somnath (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992: 72-78) and Loteshwar (IAR 1990-91). Domestic structures like circular huts with mud floor and probable wattle and daub super structure (sometimes postholes in alignment) were excavated from sites like Kanewal (Mehta et al. 2003: 21-50. Houses outside the fortification are reported from sites like Bagasra (Sonawane et al. Vagad (Sonawane and 83    . Kitchens. Bhan et al. A large number of huge pits were reported from many sites and some of them may have been used for storage purposes and living. toilets. Architectural elements of the Harappan sites are defence structures like fortifications. Urban Harappan Phase is notable for the presence of various structures of different utilities which showed architectural heightness of the Harappans. Mortar was used as binding medium and walls were plastered by lime. Workshops and kilns were also noticed in many sites. burned mud bricks and clay were the major mediums of construction. No structures were reported during Pre Urban Harappan phase except the fortified settlement at Dholavira (Bisht 2000: 11-23). reservoirs. living rooms and porches were noticed in residential structures. wells. Some of the kilns are interpreted as fire altars (Hegde et al. Nesdi (Mehta 1984: 227-230). Zekhda (IAR 1977-78). 2004: 153-158) and Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al 1996).Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal 1979.

Surkotada (stone and mud bricks). In the Pre Urban Harappan phase medium of construction remained the same and in this period there was a general decline in architectural style and plan compared to Urban Harappan Phase. Kanmer (stone and mud brick). Most of these fortifications revealed evidences for the existence of bastions at corners. mud bricks and burned bricks). Khirsara (Jam 2010). Dholavira (stone and mudbricks). Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2008: 1-9. Both Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappans used mud bricks and stones for the construction of fortifications.3 – 4 m at Kuntasi to 18 m at Dholavira). Babarkot (Possehl 1994: 193-204). Nagwada (Hegde et al. Jaidak (Ajithprasad 2008: 83-99). Dholavira (Bisht 1989a: 397-408. The floorings of these huts were made with rammed clay or kankar. The post holes indicate the wattle and daub super structure. Juni Kuran (Pramanik 2004: 45-67). Thicknesses of these fortifications having gateways (carved and simple) varied from site to site ranging from (1. Some of these huts had a diameter of 3. post holes were traced almost at equal distance on the circumference and central part. Kuntasi (stone and mud bricks). In these circular floorings. 2003: 21-50). Juni Kuran (stone). Multi room structures of brick and stone were also noticed at Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. Lothal (Rao 1979). Bagasra (stone and mud bricks). Desalpur (stone. Rojdi (stone). rectangular and square structures. Sen (2009) and Jam (2010) there is a clear distinction between the architecture of Sorath Harappans and Classical Harappans. 1996). octagonal.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Mehta 1985: 38-44) and Ratanpura (IAR 1984-85). curvilinear. According to Ajithprasad (2008: 83-99). 1988: 5565).5 . This period also had circular. Pithad (stone). Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989).4 m. Khirsara (stone and mud brick) and Kotada Bhadi (stone) and in the explored site at Songadh (stone). Fortifications were noticed at excavated sites like Lothal (mud bricks and burnt bricks). These fortifications were constructed/reconstructed in various phases of occupation at the site. 1991: 71-82). Babar Kot (stone). The 84    . Surkotada (Joshi1990). Bagasra (Sonawane et al. Rangpur (Rao 1963) and Kanmer (Kharakwal 2009: 147-164) during this period. Shikarpur (mud bricks). 2009: 1-9).

According to Jam (2010) craft activities carried out at particular site and its geographical location necessitated the construction of forts. She also suggests two major purposes of fortifications: as protection against enemies and natural calamities such as floods and it as a hall mark of social authority over the area they commanded. 85    .5 m. the Harappan fortifications were local security measures and it did not play any role in the Indus Valley polity and the Indus military system. Wells were noticed at Dholavira and Lothal and possehl (1976: 121) suggest that people of the Harappan settlement at Lothal might have used the water from the well rather than the open and stagnant water from the rectangular structure. Around 10 hectares of the walled area of Dholavira was covered by 16 huge reservoirs. Another important architectural feature is reservoirs unearthed at Dholavira (Bisht 2000: 11-23). a Sorath Harappan site is inferior in construction techniques compared to the Classical Harappan fortifications in Gujarat. The fortifications in Sorath Harappan sites like Jaidak/Pithad and Rojdi are only 2 to 3 m thick and these sites are many times bigger than Bagasra and Surkotada. This baked brick structure measures 219x37x4. Surkotada) have disproportionately huge protection walls. He further points out that lack of evidence of destruction by the human agency either of the fortifications or of the towns except in the last phase of the Harappan culture shows that they fulfilled most successfully the role of internal security.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Classical Harappan fortification walls are massive construction and even small sites (Bagasra. Leshnik (1968: 911-922) suggest it as a tank for the storage of irrigation water. It also controlled the human movement in and out of the town. A rectangular structure. There was also a well equipped drainage system. Another important architectural monument is the large hemispherical mud brick burial structure having deep and wide square rock cut chamber and spokes like radiating walls (Bisht 2004: 35-48). According to Mate (1985: 75-84). Fortification at Jaidak. identified as dockyard (Rao 1979) is the most controversial architectural feature at Lothal (Possehl 1976: 120).

63. Bhan et al. colour description. 86    . Hegde et al. Jokha (Mehta and Chowdhary 1971: 18-35). Shinde 1998: 73-182). Ceramics Most of the studies related to Harappan ceramics in Gujarat were conventional in nature. Rojdi (Possehl 1985: 190-193. stone. metal.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Artefact Analysis From the Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat. 2009: 56-57). Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. Nageswar (Hegde et al. artefacts of ceramics. Bagasra (Sonawane et al. 1971: 19-41. Juni Kuran (Pramanik 2004: 47-51. rim form. Nagwada (Hegde et al. Shinde and Kar 1992: 105-110. 1984-1985: 3-12. texture. 1988: 58-62. Various studies regarding the same are as follows. 2003: 21-50). Various works which primarily deal with conventional study of ceramics are final or preliminary excavation reports of Surkotada (Joshi 1972: 98144. Lothal (Rao 1985: 334-460) Kuntasi (Chitalwala 1996: 93-190). 62-63). Conventional archaeological studies of ceramics involve elementary level of documentation and classification of the same by sorting. 1990: 15-123). decorative pattern and availability of the same in various parts of particular site. describing. studying and explaining them in cultural sequence and it forms part of almost all excavation reports. Almost all works related to ceramics deal with the description of vessel shape. Shinde 1992b: 55-66. bone and shell were recovered in various quantities and many of the objects were subjected to conventional typological analysis and few of them were analysed using scientific methods. but they lack consistency in description. Malvan (Allchin and Joshi 1995: 39-68). faience. terracotta. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992: 71-78). Rangpur (Rao 1963: 59-133). Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985: 38-44). 1990: 191-195). Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. Somnath/Prabhas Patan (Nanavati et al. Oriyo Timbo (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990: 36-69). Kumar 1990: 67-251). Herman 1989: 53-156). Dhatva (Chaudhary 1975: 28-37). and Valabhi (Mehta 1984: 227-30). Shinde 1992a: 82-85. 2005: 44-52). Padri (Shinde 1991: 87-89. Kanewal (Momin 1980: 21-54).

Bahrain showed evidences for the export of Post Urban Sorath Harappan pottery from Saurashtra. Mirchandani (1980). 1990). Bhan (1989: 219-242. some scientific analyses were also done on ceramics from sites like Nageswar (Hegde et al. Majumdar 1998-1999: 15-25). Yadav (2005). Ajithprasad (2002: 129-158). Rupen Estuary and other parts of north Gujarat (Hegde and Sonawane 1986: 23-31. Joshi 1990: 393-429). Apart from conventional analysis. Ph. 1997: 53-63) and north and eastern Saurashtra (Dimri 1998-1999: 27-44). Dimri (1999). Shirvalkar (2008) and Sen (2009) and M. Jairath (1986). Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-1997: 11-17. 1994: 71-90). A. 1985).Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal exploration reports of Kachchh (Joshi 1966: 62-69. From this evidence from Arabia it can be assumed that there were trade relations between modern Bahrain and Saurashtra during Post Urban Harappan period (Carter 2001: 193-194). Chatterjee (1995). Bhan (1983). 87    . Sonawane and Ajithprasad (1994: 129-139). Paul et al. lower Shetrunji river basin (Paul and Shinde 1998-1999: 141-148. At Nageswar (Bhan et al. Majumdar (1994) and a book on Saurastra (Possehl: 1980). Gujarat (Carter 2001: 183-201). vessel description and terminology were given based on the standardised classification system developed at Mohenjodaro for ceramics (Dales and Kenoyer 1986). At Rojdi standardization of the colour of ceramics is achieved through Munsell soil colour chart (Herman 1989: 53-156). Mahida (1992). Kheda district (Momin 1984: 231-234) different regions of Gujarat (Rao 1963: 175-207). dissertations of Devi (2000). Patel (1992). Bhagat (2001). Panjwani (1981). theses of Momin (1979). 1990: 15123). Devi (2000) conducted metrical analysis of Sorath Harappan pottery from Datrana in comparison to those from Rojdi and Rangpur and found prominent constriction of necks of pots. Majumdar (1999). Study of ceramics from excavated Early Dilmun site of Saar. D. Khatri (1982). Post Urban Harappan pottery was the most common imported pottery recovered from the periods 2 and 3 of Saar and it is absent in period 4. Lothal (Rao 1979. Panjwani and Sen (2006 in press) are also examples of conventional methods of ceramic analysis. Parikh (1977).

characterise the materials present in it and provenance of the clay (Bhan et al 1990: 31-40). materials included in it and to know the production techniques (Krishnan 1986. Krishnan and Rao (1994: 113-117) analysed the grain size of ceramics from Ratanpura and modern ethnographic samples to understand various clay paste preparation techniques and found lot of variation in the grain size of inclusions in Harappan pottery from Ratanpura and based on the data they argued that different workshops practising different raw material processing techniques existed in the same site. Krishnan and Hegde (1998) and Dimri (1994) scientifically analysed the Micaceous Red Ware from Vagad and argues the use of local clay for manufacture of vessels. Vagad and Ratanpura. The study revealed the probable sources of clay. Krishnan (1982. Vagad and Ratanpura to understand the provenance of clay. Chemical and petrographical studies were conducted on the ceramics from Nageswar to understand the technology involved in its production. 1996) and Rangpur (Rao 1963). probable ceramic production technique and its inclusions. Bhagat 88    . Thin section and XRD studies were carried out on the ceramic samples collected from Nageswar. Forty seven sherds belonging to various periods of Rangpur were chemically analysed by Lal to understand the techniques or methods employed in their fabrication. Krishnan and Hegde 1988: 27-56). His study threw light on the probabilities of differential clay collection and identified three distinct groups of ceramics as in the case of Herman and Krishnan (1994).Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. Panjwani (1989: 83-86) conducted thin section studies of Chalcolithic ceramics and modern clay samples from Lothal and suggested the possibilities of the use of locally available clay for the manufacturing of the vessels. The study hasn’t provided significant results regarding the methods of fabrication or decoration (Lal 1963: 133-137). Kumar (1996) undertook chemical analysis of ceramics from Vagad to understand the complementary nature of chemical and petrographic characterization. 1992: 125-132) also carried out scientific studies to determine the composition of pigments used in the decoration of Chalcolithic pottery from Nageswar.

X-ray diffraction and thin section and based on the results suggested the name ‘sintered’ Reserved Slip Ware (Krishnan et al. At Nagwada it was associated with Gritty Red Ware. XRD analysis of Harappan ceramics and clay samples from the nearby sources of 89    . Krishnan and Hegde 1988: 40). Analysis of the ceramics from Vagad showed three forms of clay and one was from the bank of river Bhadar and second from beds of the depressions (forming lakes) around the site at Vagad (Krishnan 1986.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal (2001) analysed the thin section of samples from Padri to understand the paste preparation techniques. textural grades in various pastes and to identify and characterise the presence of ceramic petrographic fabrics. it was a skilled mode of production. Shah (2001) studied the Black and Red Ware of Western Indian chalcolithic cultures and from Gujarat analysed the thin section samples from Nagwada and Ratanpura. Vagad and Ratanpura used the ceramics made by local clay (Krishnan and Hegde 1988: 42). Krishnan and Hegde 1988: 41). The study collectively proved that the inhabitants of Harappan settlements at Nageswar. The study revealed change in raw material in different phases and continuity in paste preparation techniques (Bhagat 2001). Thin section and XRD studies of ceramic samples from Nageswar and clay samples from Bhimgaja Talav in the vicinity of the site showed that most important source of clay is the bed of the lake (Krishnan 1986. At Nagwada. Shah (1994) conducted ethnographic studies and thin section analyses to understand clay paste preparation techniques of different potters and changes in microstructure. while in Ratanpura it was found along with Coarse ceramics. Reserved Slip Ware from Shikarpur were analysed using scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray. At Ratanpura. Study of the samples from Ratanpura showed that the Harappans produced the ceramics using the clay from the lake bed near the settlement (Krishnan 1986. Krishnan and Hegde 1988: 41). the ceramic group represented a different technological tradition in raw material selection and processing. 2005).

Kuntasi showed that all the ceramics at the site were locally produced (Gogte
1996: 349-353). Comparison of XRD patterns of representative potsherds from
Lothal, Rangpur and Somnath with those of Ras al-Junayz in Oman by Gogte
(2000: 7-14) showed that pottery from Lothal had greatest affinity to the same.
Results showed that two different ceramic types which were different in colors,
surface treatment and mineral compositions at Ras al-Junays and Lothal were
mineralogically exactly identical. The variations in the relative proportions of
minerals, from one potsherd to the other, are also the same at both sites. On the
basis of this result and comparison of the published materials from the excavations
of Lothal and Ras al-Junayz, Gogte (2000: 11-13) argued that probably most of the
pottery was produced at Lothal and brought to Ras al-Junayz during maritime
contact. Comparative study of XRD patterns of ceramic samples from Padri and
modern clay samples from a pond near by Tarasara village (2 km south west of
Padri) showed that all wares of Padri were manufactured locally and did not come
from distant regions (Shirvalkar 2008: 140-145).

Terracotta Objects
Terracotta objects unearthed from excavated sites in Gujarat consists of human
figurines, animal figurines, toy carts, wheels, discs, rings, spindle whorls, fishnet
weights (net sinkers), stoppers, weights, sealings, balls, triangular cakes, clay
lumps with finger impressions (mushtikas), bangles, beads, pendants, ear studs,
inlay pieces, ladles, crucibles, pipes and pottery. No scientific studies were carried
out on the terracotta objects from Harappan Gujarat. Conventional studies of
terracotta objects from Gujarat include those of Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. 2005: 2628, 31-39), Dhatva (Mehta et al. 1975: 12-17, 20-23), Jokha (Mehta et al. 1971: 4950, 53-55), Kanewal (Mehta et al. 1980: 61-66, 68), Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. 1996:
191-212, 224, 240-258), Lothal (Rao 1985: 319-333, 475-519, 584), Malvan
(Allchin and Joshi 1995: 76-79, 81), Nageswar (Hedge et al. 1990: 140-143), Oriyo
Timbo (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990: 107-109), Rangpur (Rao 1963: 137-142),

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989: 158, 165-168), Ratanpura (Majumdar 2005: 390391), Somnath (Nanavati et al. 1971: 73-75, 83-85),Vagad (Sonawane 1991: 225232), Surkotada (Joshi 1990: 282-305,305-310, 310-339) and Bagasra (Patel 2006;
Patel and Rajesh2005 in press). Rogersdotter (2006a; 2006b: 81-102) studied the
cart frames from Bagasra and used the results of the analysis to interpret the
practice of child care and various purposes of carts.

Stone Objects
Different kinds of stone objects were unearthed from Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat.
They include beads, blades, cores, scrapers, lunates, triangles, seals, weights,
polishers, grinding stones, pestles, sling balls, hammer stones and manufacturing
wastes. Almost all studies related to the stones were conventional in nature and all
the excavation reports contain description of stone tools from various sites. Stone
beads, sling balls and stone weight were excavated from Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al.
2005: 30, 39). Microliths including cores, scrapers, lunates, triangles and blades
were excavated from Chalcolithic level at Dhatva (Mehta et al. 1975: 23-27).
Cores, flakes, lunates, triangles, trapeze, blades, balls, querns, door-supporters etc
made out of jasper, chert, carnelian, chalcedony, sandstone, lime stone, basalt and
garnet were discovered from Jokha (Mehta et al. 1971: 36-51). Apart from the
microliths like core, lunates, trapeze, points and scrapers; querns, mullers, rubber
stones and beads of carnelian, chert and agate were recovered from Kanewal
(Mehta et al. 1980: 55-61, 65, 67). Beads of carnelian, chalcedony, agate, feldspar,
gneiss, quartz, lapis lazuli, jasper and galuconite; pendants of granite and agate;
weights of chert, quartzite and basalt; gamesman of chert, ear stud of chert; querns
of basalt; rubber stones of basalt and quartzite; mullers of basalt; hammer stones of
chalcedony, quartz and quartzite, sharpener, anvil and mace heads of chalcedony
and basalt; sling balls of quartz and basalt; anchor stones of miliolite; chert blades
and cores comprised the stone tool kit of Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 191-212,
266-284). A lot of stone objects were unearthed from Lothal and they include

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
steatite seals, sand stone rotary mill, saddle querns, mullers, pounders, dishes,
bowls, polishers, burnishers, wet stones, touch stones, hammer stones, mace heads,
net sinkers, sling balls, blades, flakes, cores, lunates, weights, anchors, beads of
lapis lazuli, agate, carnelian, steatite, jasper, opal, chrysoprase, onyx, cairngorm,
bloodstone, plasma, chalcedony, amethyst, crystal and amazonite (Rao 1985).
Stone objects unearthed from Malvan include steatite and carnelian beads, rubber
stone, hammer stone, saddle quern and marbles (Allchin and Joshi 1995: 81-82).
From Nageswar, cores, scraper, burin, flakes, blades, querns, mullers, pounders,
weight, hammer stones, whet stones and carnelian beads were unearthed (Hegde
et al. 1990: 137-143). Apart from the microliths, stone ball, shaped stones and
jasper bead blank were recovered from Oriyo Timbo (Rissman and Chitalwala
1990: 107-109). Beads of steatite, carnelian, jasper and agate; querns, mullers and
weights of sandstone and schist were recovered from all the levels of Rangpur
(Rao 1963: 142-148). Stone weights, burnisher, carnelian beads, limestone beads,
cores, blades and flakes were recovered from Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989: 157159). Agate and lapis lazuli beads, fluted cores, lunates, burins, retouched blades,
scrapers, lime stone ball and sandstone muller were unearthed from Somnath
(Nanavati et al. 1971: 73-77). Chert and chalcedony blades, razor knife, cores of
chert, agate, quartz and jasper, flakes, balls, querns, mace heads, whet stones and
sharpeners, mullers and rubbers of sandstone, gameboard, polishers, beads of
sandstone, agate, jasper, serpentine, lapis lazuli, carnelian, chalcedony, chert,
weights of chert and jasper were unearthed from Surkotada (Joshi 1990: 252-266,
276-281, 311-339). Stone artefacts recovered from the Chalcolithic levels at
Jaidak/Pithad include blades, flakes and scrapers of chert, chalcedony and quartz
(Dwivedi 2009: 52), beads of chert and carnelian, grinding stones, pestles, and
hammers stones. Chert blades, semiprecious stone beads, sandstone monitor
lizard/mongoose, limestone seated human figurine, seals, weights, grinding stones,
mullers and hammer stones were recovered from Dholavira (IAR 1996-97: 17-18;
IAR 1997-98: 22; IAR 1999-2000: 27). Study of the stone tools from Bagasra

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
revealed large amount of stone tools made of chert, Rohri chert, moss agate and
chalcedony (Gadekar 2006: 82-83). Bagasra also revealed evidences of Rohri Chert
blades in post urban Harappan phase (Gadekar and Ajithprasad 2010). It is
contrary to the popular belief of complete absence of Rohri Chert blades in Post
Urban Harappan phase. Study of stone artefacts from Loteshwar revealed that
there is no significant variability between the Mesolithic and Chalcolithic
assemblages and the site is also noted for the complete absence of blades and blade
cores with crested guiding ridge technique (Brahmbhatt 2000: 75). Raghubans
(1996) analysed various stages of stone bead manufacturing at Nagwada and the
raw materials used to make beads were carnelian, jasper, amazonite and agate.
XRD analysis was carried out on the stone beads from Kuntasi and identified the
lapis lazuli beads from Kuntasi as sodalite found in the Aravalli hills (Dhavalikar et
al. 1996: 353-356).
Law (2008: 400, 777) tried to locate the probable source of the steatite used to
make the broken seal at Gola Dhoro and stone fragment from Nagwada using
INAA and the results showed that people of both the sites acquired raw materials
from very different sources from their contemporaries at Harappa and MohenjoDaro. The fragment from Nagwada is closely related to steatite from Shiv Bola
mine in Udaipur, Rajasthan and to Dev Mori-Kundol occurrence in Sabarkantha,
Gujarat and hence the Harappans may have acquired the steatite from any one of
these sources. The source of the steatite used to carve the seal from Gola Dhoro
needs to be located. Study of the ivory coloured chert blade fragment from
Nagwada showed its most probable origin was from Rohri hills (Law 2008: 276280, 284). Out of the three agate flakes analysed from Nagwada two were assigned
to Mardak Bet and one was from Ratanpura sources (Law 2008: 454). ICP-AES
analysis of banded limestone fragments from Harappa shows that majority of them
derived from Pachchham formation of northern Kachchh, probably from the
ancient quarry near Dholavira itself (Law and Burton 2006: 309-314).

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Faience Objects
Lot of faience objects were recovered from Harappan sites in Gujarat and the
objects include beads, bangles, ear studs, pendants and seal. 32 faience beads were
reported from Kanewal and their shape varied from long barrel to short barrel to
cylindrical to disc. Surface of all beads were damaged due to salinity of soil and
they were dull red in colour (Mehta et al. 1980: 67). From Kuntasi 101 faience
beads were reported (Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 191-192). According to Dhavalikar et
al. (1996: 200), at Kuntasi the Harappans probably used to make faience beads
which were coated with cobalt and when heated at a high temperature it might
have produced bluish green colour. Small clay furnaces may have used for making
such beads. A square faience seal having a boss at back and decorated with deep
incised horizontal and vertical lines resulting in small squares in relief was
recovered from Period I at Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 266, Fig. 7. 57-58) and
similar kind of seal was reported from the intermediate levels at Harappa (Vats
1940: II. Pl. XCV. No. 395). XRD analysis of faience beads from Kuntasi showed
that quartz was the major content with small varying amounts of cristobalite and
one variety of nepheline is found in small amount. The glassy surface of faience
beads is due to this mineral. The binding material used in the bead making might
have lost its crystalline structure during firing. The only naturally available
mineral confirming such requirement is kaolinite (snowy white in colour) which
breaks down when heated above 500oC and found in large deposits in Gujarat
(Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 353-354). Lab experiments at Deccan college Post
Graduate and Research Institute, Pune proved that 80% quartz and 20% kaolinite
is the best paste for preparing tubular beads. Though the beads became harder at
700oC and XRD patterns became similar to faience, the beads did not show glassy
surface characteristic of faience beads. Dhavalikar et al. (1996: 366) also suggested
that addition of sodium salt to the mixture of quartz and kaolinite in proper
proportion would probably give desired glassy surface by forming nepheline. From
Surkotada, a total of 33 faience beads were recovered and out of this 5 belong to
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IB, 25 to IC and 3 to Surface. Tubular, segmented tubular, biconvex, barrel and
disc shapes represented various beads from the site (Joshi 1990: 311-312, 322). At
Somnath, faience beads were reported along with Pre-Prabhas pottery (Dhavalikar
and Possehl 1992: 72; Possehl 2007: 321). From Rangpur (Rao 1963: 143) 85
faience beads were reported and 73 of them belong to IIA, 5 to IIB, 3 to IIC and 4
to III of Rangpur sequnce.
Only two tubular blue faience beads were reported from Nageshwar (Hegde et al.
1990: 142). Two small broken vases, ear studs, bangles, buttons, ring and beads in
blue, green and sea green colours were recovered from Lothal. One groove in an
ear ornament was painted in red colour and bangle was decorated with incised
chevron motif. Although the soil at Lothal is salty in nature, the faience beads
recovered from the site retained green color and glossy surface. Some beads and
bangles showed pitted surface. Faience almost disappeared from the site by Period
B. Rings, bangles and ear studs were more popular in Phases II, III and IV while
beads were most popular in IV. (Rao 1985: 583, 609-612). Out of 818 faience beads
recovered from Lothal, 711 belong to Period A and 107 belong to Period B (Rao
1985: 587). Chemical analysis was conducted on sixteen objects and it showed that
highly silicious faience has been used for fabrication of ornaments like beads and
bangles. Analysis has not revealed any indications for the technique of glazing or
coating beads with steatite powder consolidated with any adhesive (Rao 1985:
661-664). Beads of faience were also unearthed from Loteshwar (Yadav 2005),
Jaidak/Pithad (Sen 2009), Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2008: 1-9; 2009: 1-9),
Nagwada (Hegde et al. 1988: 55-65), Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. 2009: 147-164) and
Moti Pipli (Majumdar 1999).
Large number of tubular beads including segmented variety, a few bangles and a
knob of miniature vessel lid were reported from Bagasra/Gola Dhoro (Makwana
2002: 65-69; Sonawane et al. 2003: 42-43; Bhan et al. 2004: 156). Local
manufacture of the faience at the site was identified from the recovery of a large
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
number of chunks of white colour quartz that might have been used as a source of
silica powder for faience production (Bhan et al. 2004: 156). The areas associated
with silica powder are also associated with intense burning, whitish powder and
confined only in the fortified area. One area (a thin wall with single row of mud
bricks seperates this area from silos) measuring 3.5x2 m close to the eastern
periphery of fortification wall revealed a fine patch of fire and contained thick
layer of white powder and small quartz pieces. The X-ray Diffraction analysis of
the white powder proved it as quartz (Sonawane et al. 2003: 42; Bhan et al. 2004:
157). By the side of the fire place bottom half of two large pots buried firmly in the
ground was noticed (Makwana 2002: 66). Recovery of large number of heavy stone
querns and pestles from this area probably suggests their industrial use. Repeated
firing and subsequent crushing of quartz may have been practiced to produce fine
silica powder at the site (Sonawane et al. 2003: 42-43; Bhan et al. 2004: 157).
Fourteen samples were selected for thin section studies and the colour of these
samples varied from blue, light green, green and light pink. Thin section studies
revealed that quartz was the dominant mineral present and grain size varied from
silt to very fine sand to fine sand. From the minerology of non-plastic inclusion it
is proposed that Deccan trap source probably somewhere near the site was used to
collect the clay. Presence of elongated quartz grains showing high degree of
angularity indicate that crushed quartz grains may have been added during the
time of manufacture and less angularity might be present in the raw material
itself. One specimen showed vitrification in both external and internal and it is an
indication of high temperature of baking. But micro structure of the same hasnt
showed any evidence of complete vitrification and its microstructure was similar
to those potteries which were fired between 800-820oC. This also showed that
inorder to attain high temperature there is the need to add flux but in the absence
of chemical analysis it is impossible to identify the presence of flux. Bagasra
samples contained quartz, feldspar, augite, basalt, cryptocrystalline silica and iron
oxide (Makwana 2002: 72-74).

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Shell Objects
Many scholars worked on the shell objects from Gujarat and till the first half of
1980’s most studies were typological in nature. After that most works were based
on the models Kenoyer (1983) proposed in his thesis. His research included
identification and classification of various shell species, study of archaeological
shell objects from India and Pakistan and ethnoarchaeological studies of living
traditions of Bengal. Using a combination of all these techniques, he was able to
interpret the development of shell craft or shell industry and socio-economic
structure more effectively.
Sites like Oriyo Timbo (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990), Malvan (Allchin and Joshi
1995), Moti Pipli (Majumdar 1999), Santhli (Majumdar 1999), Datrana (Majumdar
1999), Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985: 38-44), Ratanpura (IAR 1984-85),
Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. 2009: 147-164), Desalpur (IAR 1963-64) and Pabumath
(IAR 1977-78; 1978-79; 1980-81) yielded very less amount of shell objects and
manufacturing wastes while many of these sites with flimsy evidences were
considered as manufacturing centres (Majumdar 1994: 164; Hegde and Sonawane
1986). Rao (1973: 136) described the evidences for the presence of shell
manufacturing at Lothal as the indicator of a shell industry meant for the export of
the finished products to peripheral sites and to Mesopotamia. Kenoyer (1983)
mentions that at Lothal, bangles have high frequency among shell artefacts and
there were evidences for C. ramosus (21 nos.) and Tivela damoides (1). Both these
types of bangles may have been brought to the site from somewhere else is
indicated by the absence of manufacturing waste. After comparing the frequency
of finished products and wastes, Kenoyer (1983) came to the conclusion that
Lothal was only producing the bangles for local people in less quantity. Ladles
were produced at the site and the frequency of manufacturing waste at the site
was more compared to Harappa and Mohenjodaro (Kenoyer 1983: 234). Shell
buttons, studs, ladles, bowls, burnishers, needle, handle, compass, bangles, rings,

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inlays, ear stud and games man were also unearthed from the site (Rao 1985: 614624). Some T. Pyrum bangles with chevron motif (Rao 1963: Pl. XXXVIIA), inlays,
beads, spoons, gamesmen, inlays and incised shell caps were recovered from
Rangpur. Kenoyer (1983: 239) argues that the spoons and possibly some bangles of
the site were made from C. ramosus somewhere else. One of the terracotta cake
from Rangpur bearing drill mark (Rao 1963: Fig. 140B) may have used for
sharpening the tubular drills and the inlay pieces from the site may have been
used to produce rings. From Surkotada various kinds of shells were recovered
(joshi 1990: 307-312, 319, 320, 330-332, 342, 383-388). In Phase I bangles were
thinner with chevron motif. Though thinner variety continued in subsequent
phases, wider variety with shallow or deep grooves also occurred. Grounded
columella and finished rings from the site may be an indication of reprocessing of
columella carried out at the site. At Kuntasi T. pyrum, P. bucephala and C.

Ramosus were probably used for bangle production (Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 331347; Gowda 2003: 42). Frequency of finished bangles to manufacturing waste
indicates that the site was probably producing the objects for local use only
(Gowda 2003: 42). Nageshwar is an important manufacturing centre of shell
bangles and ladles (Bhan and Kenoyer 1984: 67-80; Hegde et al. 1984: 3-20; Hegde
et al. 1990: 125-136). At the site, bangles from T. pyrum were made and C.

ramosus used rarely. The site yielded large amount of wastes compared to finished
products and the neatly kept piles of columellas suggests the reprocessing of the
same and the meagre evidences for the reprocessing of columellas at the site is an
indication of sending them to other sites for making rings and other items (Gowda
2003: 42). Another feature of the site is the production of ladles from C. ramosus.
The study of shell objects from Nagwada included analysis of various shells used as
raw materials, its habitat and distribution, shell industry at Nagwada and
ethnoarchaeological parallels from stone ring manufacturing at Khambhat and
comparative study with other Harappan sites (Gowda 2003; Bhan and Gowda
2003: 51-80). Based on the analyses, they proposed that shell cutters at Nagwada
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
had no direct access to the raw material and T. pyrum probably reached the site in
semi finished stage (manufacturing waste very less compared to finished bangles).
In addition to T. pyrum they occasionally used Pugilina bucephala and Chicoreus

ramosus for bangle manufacture. At Nagwada, columella of P. bucephala which
occurs in Gulf of Kachchh were probably used for bead production. While
comparing the rings and wastes (so called inlays), they argue that large amount of
rings might have been produced at the site for local and regional markets.
Deshpande-Mukherjee (1999: 110-113) conducted preliminary study of the shell
objects from Bagasra and she identified various shell species occurred at the site
during the initial years of excavation. A shell workshop was excavated within the
fortified settlement and it yielded more than 5000 complete shells and more than
3000 unpolished bangles piled (Sonawane et al. 2003: 21-50; Bhan et al. 2004: 153158). Large quantity of manufacturing waste and complete shells as compared to
the finished bangles from the workshop and site indicates that Bagasra was an
important shell bangle manufacturing centre. The workshop also contained copper
lumps, a broken seal, stone slabs (grinding stones) and some ceramic vessels. Most
of the complete shells had worm holes and were small in size (Bachani 2005). The
undersized or worm holed shell suggested that tidal mud flats in the vicinity of
Bagasra may have been the source of edible shells and smaller gastropods and
larger gastropods must have been procured from the coral reefs in Jamnagar
district, which is nearly 150 km away (Bachani 2005: 54). Site also yielded some
shell beads, compass and ladle. Availability of finished shell objects,
manufacturing waste and complete ones throughout the site is an indication of
spread of manufacturing activity in whole site (Bachani 2005: 56). Phase II of the
site had maximum shell working evidence (beginning also) and in Phase III, shell
working continued but in limited quantity and in Phase IV there is discontinuity
in tradition (Bachani 2005: 54-57). A Post Urban Harappan shell seal (?) was
reported from Bet Dwarka in 1986 (c.f. Gaur et al. 2005: ix, Pl. 1).

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Bone Objects
Not many studies were conducted on Bone tools from Harappan Gujarat except
their mere description in the excavation reports. Wide varieties of bone tools were
reported from Surkotada and they are divided in to hunting tools, domestic tools
and digging tools (Joshi et al. 1990: 343-356). All tools were made out of fresh
bones with rare occurrence of cooked ones. Natural long bones, fragments of
artificially broken bones, ribs of large animals, phalanges and antlers were used as
raw material for bone tools. The tools were produced using the techniques like
percussion, splitting, flaking, cutting, notching, scraping, griming and tempering.
In certain cases steaming was done to get a curvature. In the making of bone tools
first a rough shape was made and after this grinding was done to make the
working end smooth or sharp. Splitting, flaking and scraping were performed with
chert and chalcedony blades. To give strength, the whole or part of the tools were
treated with fire. Apart from kohl sticks, polishers and stylus (Joshi et al. 1990:
339-342), spear heads, points, burnishers, burin, borer, awl, scrapers, piercers,
engravers, spatula and digging tools were recovered from the site. Period IC
revealed maximum (25) followed by Period IA (14) and Period IB (5). At Jokha
there is mention of bone tool from Chalcolithic levels (Mehta et al. 1971: 51).
Point, knives, chisel and ornament were among the nine bone tools excavated
from Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 259). Twenty six awls and pins, scrapers,
arrow head and engraver were discovered from Lothal. In Rao’s opinion (Rao
1985) sharp pointed engravers from Lothal may have been used for engraving
steatite and other soft materials. According to Rao cutting and sharpening of bone
must have been done with the help of knives and razors made of chert, copper and
bronze and flat pieces of bone with sharp edges were used as razors (Rao 1985:
624-626).
From Bagasra/Gola Dhoro 186 bone tools were reported with a Maximum
concentration of bone tools occuring in Phase III (93) followed by Phase II (73),

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
Phase IV (17) and Phase I (3). Tool types reported from Bagasra are points with
rounded tip, flat and pointed tip, pointed tip, broken tip, hairpin, awl, scraper,
modified vertebrae, splinter, splinter cum point and handle (Devi 2006: 30-43, 47).
Broken tips of the points from Bagasra indicate the extensive use of the same by
the Harappans. Site also revealed points with various kinds of tips and it suggests
the various uses of the points. Three knives from Bagasra showed bone handles
and how the craftsman fixed copper and bone is still to be studied. Points with
pointed tip occur in all periods. Hair pins from the site is an indication of sense of
decoration of the inhabitants. Most of the points were found near the fortification
both outside and inside (Devi 2006: 47-52). Study of the bone tools using Leica
S6D binocular microscope under varying magnifications proved evidences for
wear and tear, grinding marks, techniques of production and decorations which
were not visible (Devi 2006: 44-46). Some bone tools were also noticed at sites
like Jaidak (Goyal and Joglekar 2009; Joglekar and Goyal 2009) and Shikarpur
(Bhan and Ajithprasad Personal Communication).

Metal Artefacts
Almost all the excavated sites in Gujarat showed evidences for the use of metals
and scholars concentrated on typological or functional study of metal objects.
Hence, problem oriented studies are very less in number. Major metals used
during the Harappan times are copper/bronze (most common metal), gold, silver
and lead. The metal artefacts from Gujarat include various ornaments, figurines,
tools, weapons, objects of domestic use and seals. Chemical and spectrometric
analyses were conducted on the sample collected from the axe from Jokha.
Though the axe was made out of unalloyed copper; the source of the metal
remained sceptical (Mehta et al. 1971: 55, 66-69). According to Dhavalikar et al.
(1996: 212) there is no evidence of bronze at Kuntasi where all objects were made
of copper devoid of arsenic and tin. There is evidence for two copper furnaces (one
each from both the periods) probably used for melting the copper (Dhavalikar

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
1992: 79-80; Dhavalikar 1994: 131; Dhavalikar 1996: 212-224; Dhavalikar 2005:
371). Dhavalikar (1997: 278) argues that Harappans exploited the copper available
in Gujarat to the maximum, smelted it in their industrial centres like Lothal and
Kuntasi and instead of keeping it for their own use they exported as much as
possible to Mesopotamia. The absence of ample proof makes this view obscure.
Chemical, spectrometric and metallographic examination of Bronze axe from
Somnath revealed that it is an alloy of copper and tin. The analysis also showed
evidences for casting, forging and probable cold working practices of Harappan
time (Nanavati et al. 1971: 91-93). Copper and gold objects were reported from
Rangpur (Rao 1963: 149-153) and scientific analyses were carried out in 13 copper
objects. Chemical analyses showed that both copper and bronze (both high tin and
low tin) were used to make objects. Some of them had traces of arsenic, lead and
nickel. Analysis of the copper bangle from Rangpur revealed 12% of silica
adherent to copper which was in the form of oxide and carbonate with traces of
iron (Dikshit 1950: 4). From Lothal more than 1500 copper objects (Rao 1985: 520554) in various stages of preservation were unearthed. According to Hoffman and
Miller (2009: 257) rod tool types dominate the assemblage at Lothal, specifically
the category of pointed tools. Two probable areas of copper working were
unearthed from Lothal, one belongs to the phase V located near the nullah had 5
sink like pavements bordered by brick on edge and near each sink, pot furnace
containing ash and pieces of muffles were noticed. In the Lower Town, in one of
the rooms of a small mud brick structure, a rectangular furnace, anvil, ash,
fragments of crucibles and stone mould were noticed. The stone mould for casting
is interpreted by Kenoyer and Miller (1999: 124, 126) as grinding stone of stone
beads or other materials. At the site, there are evidences for casting, hammering
and forging techniques. They used both low tin bronze and high tin bronze. They
might have imported refined crude copper or refined copper and melted or reused
in the site (Rao 1979: 149). Hot concentrated hydrochloric acid test and chemical
analysis of scrapings from crucibles proved the absence of copper in the same and

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
also proved that chunks of copper recovered from the site are not slag pieces.
Scientific studies also indicated the absence of arsenic in objects (Rao 1985: 651660). Based on this finding, Rao (1985: 524) argues that copper smiths of Lothal
did not use the Rajasthan ore as indicated by the absence of arsenic in Lothal
objects. Apart from copper, hundreds of gold and one silver object were recovered
from the site. According to Rao gold objects were beaten into foils and joining of
the pieces was done by sweating or soldering (Rao 1985: 632-635). Gold in its pure
form was not used. Gold objects are noted for the use of silver in good amount and
absence of copper (Rao 1985: 664-665). Some gold ornaments were also unearthed
from Nagwada (Sonawane 1990). The availability of crucibles from Surkotada is
connected to local smelting of copper which was probably imported from
Afghanistan or Rajasthan (Joshi 1990: 267). But in the absence of ore, slag and
other kiln wastes it is a matter of suspicion. Lahiri (1995: 118, 123) mentions about
the use of pure copper and bronze (tin/arsenic) at the site. Chemical and
metallographic examination of copper knife from Langhnaj showed that it was
made out of nearly pure copper (Hegde 1991: 31-35) with lead and copper
inclusion. The knife was formed by both hot and cold work (Hegde 1991: 35).
Bagasra (Sonawane et al. 2003: 21-50; Bhan et al. 2004: 153-158; Patel 2006: 222231; Patel 2010) showed evidences for copper working. The most important
discovery from the site was bone handle knives (two with handle and one with
impression) and a hoard containing copper pot, 8 bangles and a celt (Sonawane et
al. 2003: 21-50; Bhan et al. 2004: 153-158; Patel 2006: 222-231). Sen (2009) carried
out preliminary typological study of copper objects from Jaidak/Pithad. A copper
fish hook (with barbed point and loop on the other end) recovered from the
excavations at Padri is worth mentioning due to its size (14 cm), its the largest fish
hook recovered from any Harappan site (Shinde and Thomas 1993: 145-147). Cork
(2005: 411-423) tried to test the validity of peaceful Harappan model on the basis
of the claim that weapons are scarce at Indus sites and the number of weapons
were also lower compared to Mesopotamian sites. For this he compared the copper

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artefacts from Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Chanhudaro, Lothal and Surkotada to Ur,
Nippur, Tell Barak and Megiddo. Based on his analysis he argued that the original
reason behind the absence of warfare in Indus civilization is the inadequacy of
metal working (Cork 2005: 419). He further suggested that design, distribution and
function of Harappan metal weapons probably differ from the centres selected
(Cork 2005: 420). He also says that absence of complex technological forms
especially of weapons is an indication of Harappan elite’s reluctance to use them as
symbol of power and Harappan graves without tools are not an indication of
totally peaceful society and graves in Ur with weapons do not indicate a society
engaged in permanent warfare (Cork 2005: 420-421).
Seshadri worked on metal technologies of Harappan and copper hoard cultures
and interpreted the presence of iron in the composition of copper/bronze objects
from archaeological context as the result of inferior smelting techniques or
improper resorting of iron rich ore (Seshadri 1994). Seshadri conducted chemical
and metallographic analyses to locate the provenance of the raw material and to
reconstruct the smithy techniques used in copper objects recovered from
Nagwada. The studies conducted using energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis,
atomic absorption sepctrophotometry and reflected light microscopy revealed that
the axes recovered from Nagwada were made of unalloyed copper and the chisel
was of bronze. The chisel was fabricated by cold hammering and the axes were
cast in smooth well-ventilated mould (Seshadri 1990; Seshadri 1992: 7-12).
Seshadri (1992: 7-12) tried to trace the provenance of raw material used in copper
axe and bronze chisel from Nagwada by comparing the trace element of them with
that of samples from Khetri, kolihan, Singhana and Ambaji. The impurity pattern
of the samples showed great difference with the samples. The source of silver used
to make ring belonging to the earliest level of Nagwada is southern Balochistan
(Law 2008: 680-681).

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Burials
Burials were reported from twelve Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat. They are Nagwada
(Hegde et al. 1988: 55-65), Santhli II (Majumdar 1999), Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965)
and Loteshwar (Ajithprasad 2009: 24-28) in north Gujarat, Dholavira (Bisht 2010:
75-76), Surkotada (Joshi 1990) and Juni Kuran (Pramanik 2004: 45-67) in Kachchh,
Lothal (Rao 1979), Randaliyo (IAR 1958-59) and Rampara (Possehl 1980) in
Saurashtra and Nagal (IAR 1961-62) and Mehgam (Rao 1963) in South Gujarat.
Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965), the Mesolithic site having Chalcolithic affinity revealed
21 skeletons and those burials are dated to Mesolithic period.
At Randaliyo, the site contained a cemetery. Excavations at one burial revealed an
extended skeleton and Harappan pottery was also recovered from the vicinity of
the skeleton. More details about the burial are unknown (IAR 1958-59).
The cemetery at Dholavira is located northwest of the citadel. A number of
symbolic pot burials were reported from Dholavira. The excavations also brought
to light a large hemispherical structure made of mud bricks. It had a deep and
wide square rock cut chamber and spokes like radiating walls. The structure also
had a series of rectangular chambers marked by stone slabs arranged in radial
fashion at the periphery. It was surrounded over ground by a massive circular mud
brick structure made in two tiers. It contained no skeleton or pottery (Bisht 2010).
At Surkotada, cemetery is located 300 m northwest of citadel. Four graves were
excavated at the site and they were pot burials and associated with secondary
internments of Homo sapiens Linn. The ceramics of these graves comprised of
Harappan red ware, painted black on red ware and cream slipped ware with
paintings. The vessel shapes include dish on stand, basins, dishes, bowls on stand,
cylindrical vases with horizontal drawn grooves and a cream slipped vase with an
alternate hut and boat design and a squat dish on stand. According to the
excavator the pot burials belong to Period IA. Other features of the burials from
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
Surkotada are the presence of a horizontal slab or small heap of stones on top of
the pit (Joshi 1990). On the basis of pottery from cemetry and radio carbon dates,
Possehl (1997: 81-87) chronologicaly placed the cemetery of Surkotada to the later
portion of Pre Urban Harappan (Amri/Nal or Kot Dijian) or the transition between
the Pre Urban Harappan and the Urban Harappan.
At Juni Kuran eight cairn circles were located on the north eastern terrace outside
the outer fortification wall. Only one cairn was excavated in this area and it
measured 3.2 m in diameter and rose to a height of 60 cm. It was circular in plan
and oriented north south direction. The cairn was covered with small flat stones.
The cairn consisted an extended burial with few pieces of coarse grey and red
wares. The burial was in east west direction and its head faced towards north
(Pramanik 2004: 55-56, 66).
From Nagwada two inhumation burials and three symbolic pot burials were
reported. As all the burials were found to be sealed by the fifth layer they belong
to the earliest inhabitants at Nagwada. The symbolic pot burials were not
associated with any burial goods except vessels ranging from two to twelve. The
vessel shapes include storage jars with convergent rims, beakers, dish on stands
with upturned straight rims, shallow bowls and medium size pots with constricted
rim and squat profile. These ceramics showed similarity to those from Kot-Diji,
Balakot, Amri and Dam Sadaat. The habitation level at Nagwada doesn’t contain
the pottery found in these burials and it suggests the special purpose of this pottery
at the site. The extended burial contained a complete skeleton in an oblong pit dug
in the east-west direction. Two ceramic pots were placed near the foot of the
skeleton (Hegde et al. 1988: 55-65; Ajithprasad 2009: 24-28).
Chalcolithic deposit at Santhli incorporated two extended inhumation burials.
Both the burials were oriented east-west with head resting on the east. Among
these one burial was an extended joint/double burial of two adult individuals

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
interred in the same pit. The skeletons were found resting on their back with head
tilted in an awkward position and facing each other. This burial was associated
with five pottery vessels of varied shapes akin to those from the burials at
Nagwada. Second burial was of a child and associated with large beaker type
vessels and large, shallow bowl or dish with straight rim similar to the types found
in the first burial. The habitation level at the site also revealed same kind of
pottery. Similar kind of pottery is reported from around 10 sites in north Gujarat
and 3 sites in Saurashtra (Majumdar 1999; Ajithprasad 2009: 24-28).
A fluxed burial is reported from the Chalcolithic levels at Loteshwar and it should
be the earliest burial of this period from Gujarat. This Chalcolithic habitation can
be dated from 3600-2900 BC (Ajithprasad 2009: 24-28).
G. L. Possehl discovered eight fragments of human bones in association with
ceramics of Rangpur IIB-C at Rampara II where road cutting was done by the
villagers. This was discovered about 80 cm below the surface level and
examination of area revealed no outline of the burial pit. The analysis of the bones
suggests that the individual was a female (Possehl 1980).
At Lothal, the cemetery (40x36 m) was located at the western periphery of the
mound i.e. northwest of lower town. Twenty burials belonging to three burial
phases comparable to structural phases III, IV and V have been traced within a
maximum deposit of 5 ft. Among these, four graves are assigned to Phase III, seven
to Phase IV, five to Phase V and in four pits lines were not clear. These burials
altogether contained skeletons of twenty one individuals. Three graves contained
joint burials of two skeletons and three were urn burials. Extended burial was
common at the site and there is no evidence of fractional burials. Maximum
number of grave goods found in a single burial was five. In a joint burial, the
internal portion of the grave-pit has mud brick lining, forming almost a structural
coffin as in the case of Nal cemetery. In two graves bones of goat and teeth of

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
cattle were found (Rao 1979). Predominant burial pottery type at Lothal is
Micaceous Red Ware. Some of the burials show both Harappan and Micaceous
Red Ware together and it indicates the level of integration existed between the
two traditions (Ajithprasad 2009: 24-28). A close biological relationship between
the Harappan people of Lothal and hunter gatherers of Langhnaj has been
documented craniometrically. It suggests that genes may have been flowed
between these two populations (Lukas 1990: 183-186). According to Possehl and
Kennedy (1979: 592-593) the ancient people of Lothal are not so similar in
phenotypic pattern to their contemporaries in the Indus valley centres. Possehl
and Kennedy (1979) further argue that a number of physical variables present in
the skeletal series suggest their closest biological affinities are with some of the
hunting gathering communities whose descendants survive as tribal enclaves in
modern India.
The burials at Dholavira and Surkotada in Kachchh are almost 300m northwest of
the acropolis but the burial at Lothal was found closer to the settlement. But in
smaller sites like Nagwada, Loteshwar and Santhli the burials were found within
the habitation area (Ajithprasad 2009: 24-28). This reflects the architectural
planning that prevailed in big settlements. The availability of burial goods of
regional communities and the skeleton similarities between Lothal and Langhnaj
suggest the harmonious coexistence of Harappans and regional people.
At the lowest level of the trench at Nagal in Bharuch a north-south oriented
extended human burial was noticed. The mound revealed evidences for Jorwe
ceramics, Black and Red Ware, Ochrous Red Ware and microlithic industry. Due
to the limited nature of the excavation, the cultural affiliation of the burial is
unclear (IAR 1961-62).
Chase (2007: 412) mentions about a complete human metacarpal from a pit in the
first layer of trench Eo6 at Bagasra/Gola Dhoro. But the details regarding the

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
original context of the bone are unknown. Similarly, one human tooth is reported
from Mathutra along with three bases of vessels (Majumdar 1999).
Rao (1963: 188-89), during the excavations at Mehgam noticed a small pit
containing two high necked jars, a bowl, a dish on stand and a flat dish. According
to him the contents of the jars had decomposed and the skeletal remains must
have been washed away by tidal waters. The contents of the pits showed that the
dead may have been buried there. A carnelian bead and a terracotta biconical bead
were also recoverd from the site. The burial can be relatively dated to Rangpur
IIB.

Faunal Analysis
A variety of animal bones were recovered from excavated Calcolithic sites in
Gujarat and most of the faunal studies till date were concerned with the
identification of animal species. These studies provided evidences for the use of
various domestic and wild animals at different sites. Based on the chopping mark
present in certain animal bones from Rangpur, Rao (1963: 154, 58) suggests that
the inhabitants used the animals for food and on the basis of large quantity of
young animal bones unearthed from the site he proposes that domestication of
animals was in vogue. Based on the animal and plant remains, Mehta et al. (1975:
59-60) also argues that the subsistence economy of the people of Dhatva heavily
depended on farming and cattle breeding with subsidiary economy of hunting and
fishing. No fish bones were reported from Dhatva, a site very near to Tapi river
and Mehta et al. (1975: 58) proposes that it might be due to limited excavation,
decomposition of fish bones or that they may have escaped the excavators
attention.
Analysis of the animal remains from Jokha showed evidences of domestic and wild
animals (Mehta et al. 1971: 73). Some long bones from the site were split, cut,
chopped or charred and it might be an intentional attempt to extract born marrow
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
or for manufacturing tools (Mehta et al. 1971: 73). While analysing the bones
from Sai-no-Tekro (Trench II and IV at 40-45 cm depth) at Kanewal, Mehta et al.
(1980: 75) noticed a very little number of bones and hinted the possibilities of
non-vegetarian food habits becoming secondary to Chalcolithic people, probably
due to the scarcity of animals or plentiful vegetarian food supply. Dhavalikar et al.
(1996: 305), noticed maximum exploitation of wild fauna at Kuntasi during Post
Urban Harappan period at sites like Rangpur, Surkotada, Nageshwar and
Mohenjodaro and presumes that it might be due to over-population. On the basis
of the excavation data Dhavalikar et al. (1996: 305) suggested the possible
existence of husbandry practices and planned economic strategies at Kuntasi.
On the basis of limited availability of bones of Bubalus bubalus compared to Bos

indicus at Lothal, Rao (1985: 637) suggests that inhabitants of Lothal may not have
maintained large herds of them.
Chitalwala and Thomas (1977-78: 13) based on the results of analysis of animal
remains from Khanpur postulated that cattle farming was an important economy
of the Harappans next to agriculture and hunting of the wild animals indicates
that a part of population procured their livelihood in that way. Animal bones from
the re-excavation of Somnath by Deccan College were studied by Thomas (1979:
176-186) and he concluded that economy in the first period (Harappan culture)
was the combination of hunting, stock raising and domestication and agriculture
were practiced on a large scale in the later cultural periods (Thomas 1979: 185).
According to Patel (1989: 50) high abundance of wild animal remains in the fifth
layer (earliest period) of Nagwada indicates the dependence of the community on
hunting in their subsistence activity. On the basis of decrease in the animal
remains in the upper layers (4, 3 and 2), Patel (1989: 50) suggested the possibility
of more stabilized economy probably based on agriculture and stock raising. The

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
count of the wild animals was highest in the first layer (1989: 50-51) and this
phenomena was noticed in the later phases of almost all Harappan sites.
The study of animal bones from Padri suggested that bones of domestic animals
(cattle amounting half of the identified bones) were lot more than wild animals as
other sites in Gujarat and proportions of the use of domestic and wild animals
remained almost similar in the Pre Urban and Urban Harappan levels and it
changed remarkably in the Early Historic phase (Joglekar 1996-97: 61, 64). Cattle,
sheep/goat and buffalo were the domesticated animals of Pre Urban Harappan
phase; during Urban Harappan period there were addition of pig and dog (dog was
a non food species at the site) and in the Early Historic phase domestic pigs were
much more than the previous one (Joglekar 1996-97: 66).
In the recent years the faunal studies are becoming more problem oriented and
the researches on the animal bones from Bagasra/Gola Dhoro by Brad Chase
(2007) provided information regarding the organization of subsistence economy at
the site. During the Phase I, inhabitants of Bagasra/Gola Dhoro preferred the meat
of domestic animals and use of the meat of wild animals and fish and crab was
very rare (Chase 2007). In the subsequent Phases, food preferences and
preparation techniques of the residents within the fortification wall (more mutton,
pork and fish) were different from those who lived outside (similar to that of the
sites of first residents) (Chase 2007: vii). His study of meat provisioning indicated
potential independence and self sufficiency of the communities living in the two
distinct sectors of the site (Chase 2007; 2010: 534). The site also provided
evidences for the use of aquatic wealth for the production of bangles and ladles
and the major raw materials were Turbinella pyrum and Chicoreous ramosus
(Sonawane et al. 2003: 41-42; Bhan et al. 2004: 55). Comparative study of animal
bones from Shikarpur and Gola Dhoro by Chase (2009) showed significant
difference in pattern of meat consumption in both sites and at Bagasra, remains of
cattle and buffalo were less in comparison with Shikarpur. Domestic animals were
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
raised similarly at both sites and there were no evidences for intersite trade in
livestock (Chase 2009).
Analysis of the animal remains from Loteshwar showed that in the aceramic
microlithic layers wild animals were only exploited with black buck dominating
the assemblage (Patel 2009: 178). Though the bones of black buck dominated the
bone remains of Chalcolithic period, there was a significant addition of domestic
animals and domestication of cattle was vogue in the site from the beginning of
fourth millennium BC (Patel 2009: 178, 181). Another interesting find from
Loteshwar is the absence of the remains of sheep and goat in the Microlithic or in
the early Chalcolithic levels (Patel 2008: 132). Patel (2008: 132) further suggests
that sheep and goat pastoralism seems to have been introduced in North Gujarat
only in the 3rd millennium BC. A comparative study of the remains of the animals
like sheep and cattle from Dholavira, Harappa and Nausharo suggested the
presence of animals of different sizes and proportions in different environmental
zones during the Harappan phase (Meadow 1991: 89-106; Patel 1997: 101-113;
Meadow and Patel 2002: 391-408; Meadow and Patel 2003: 82).
Study of the animal bones from Pithad/Jaidak suggest that though the economy of
the site was largely dependent on domestic animals, exploitation of wild animals
was at its peak towards the end of the Harappan culture (Goyal and Joglekar 2009;
Joglekar and Pankaj 2009 in press). They (Goyal and Joglekar 2009; Joglekar and
Goyal 2009 in press) also noticed some evidences of bone working/modification at
the site and observed that the animal based subsistence of Sorath Harappan sites
like Pithad/Jaidak, Kuntasi and Rojdi were similar to the Classical Harappans. Fish
bone remains were recovered from Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. 2005: 30-31).
Based on the higher proportion of domestic animals like cattle, buffalo, sheep and
goat at Kanmer, Joglekar (2007: 57) and Goyal and Joglekar (2008: 39) suggested
that stock raising and pastoralism was an important component in the subsistence

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
activity of the Harappans of all periods. They (2008: 39) also noticed that
proportion of the use of wild animals was much higher at the site during Post
Urban Harappan phase.

Floral Studies
The study of plant remains can provide information for the interpretation of a
range of questions regarding changing patterns and continuing trends in the
environment, subsistence pattern and economies of the past (Reddy 1991: 73).
Only a small number of Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat were excavated with the
purpose of collecting botanical remains to determine the above mentioned aspects.
A comparison of plant remains from different Chalcolithic sites of Gujarat
belonging to various periods can supply data regarding the plant based subsistence
economy.
Dry and wet separation methods were used at various sites in Gujarat for the
collection of plant remains. The types of plant remains from various sites include
grain impressions, carbonised seeds and un-carbonised seeds. Finds from Kuntasi
contradicted the general belief of Harappan subsistence based on winter crops and
the evidences suggested that the usual subsistence of the people of the site were
relied on millets (Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 286). The abundance and intra-site
distribution of coix beads in the site was considered as the result of trade relations
(Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 286). Availability of the remains of various forest trees
including teak from Lothal is an indication of a richer and varied vegetation cover
of the region during Harappan period (Rao 1985: 679, 682), but there is also a
possibility of the arrival of the same to the site through trade relations.
Comparatively large amount of millets recovered from Oriyo Timbo suggested the
increasing dependence on the same (grain as food and rest of the plant as fodder)
during Post Urban Harappan period (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990: 137).
Palaeoethnobotanical reconstructions at Oriyo Timbo clearly indicated that the
Post Urban Harappan pastoral community at the site were not cultivating millets
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
(cultivation by the occupants elsewhere in the region is a probability) and they
were probably bringing grain during the onset of occupation in each season or
were trading and exchanging for grain from neighbouring agriculturists (Reddy
1994: 393). The diet of domestic animals at Oriyo Timbo probably consisted of
wild forage (Reddy 1994: 394). Floral remains of Rangpur also indicate that the
area was fairly well wooded with trees of various sizes, shrubs and grasses (Rao
1963: 173). The study also revealed that climate and rainfall has not changed much
as the tree types identified at Rangpur are still present in the surroundings of the
site (Rao 1963: 173-174). However, there are possibilities of little more arid
condition in present days due to biotic factors, denudation and erosion (Rao 1963:
174). Meticulous sampling strategies at Rojdi yielded nearly 10000 seeds from
around 70 taxa suggesting considerable variety in plant usage strategy (Weber
1989; Possehl and Raval 1989: 180). Food grains such as Setaria, Eleusine and
Panicum species were identified at the site and most of them may have cultivated
with occasional collection and use of wild plants (Possehl and Raval 1989: 180).
There are also evidences for the change in plant use pattern during earlier and
later periods (Possehl and Raval 1989: 180). Availability of some plant remains
noticed in Harappan levels at Rojdi indicates similar kind of environment in both
recent and Harappan times and non-availability of certain types in modern times
are probably due to change or fluctuation in local habitat (Possehl and Raval 1989:
180). Evidences from Surkotada indicate that the Harappans at Surkotada practiced
cultivation (millets) as well as collection of wild plants (Joshi 1990: 391). The
sceptical views regarding the collection of wild seeds are either to prepare gruel,
medicines or to feed cage birds (Joshi 1990: 392). Evidences from Babar Kot
suggest that they cultivated both summer and winter crops and evidences for crop
processing were also unearthed (Reddy 1994: 393). A patch of charred millets
(over 500 seeds) were also noticed at Babar Kot in association with domestic trash
(Possehl 1994: 199-200). Domesticated animals at the site were probably fed millet
by-products (based on availability) and wild forage supplemented their diet during

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
other seasons (Reddy 1994: 394). Remains of weeds and other wild taxa reported
from Kanmer are interpreted as indication of ecological conditions and ground
vegetation (Kharakwal et al. 2009: 159). Pollen studies were carried out at sites
like Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. 1996: 291-296) and Malvan (Allchin and Joshi 1995:
103-106), but they were too preliminary in nature. Weber et al. (2010: 35-43)
based on comparative analysis of grains from various sites of Indus Valley
Civilization argues that, the seed size is an important variable in understanding
plant-use strategies in Prehistory. They (2010: 42) suggest that, all large sites of the
Harappan period were associated with large grained cereals, while, small
Harappan communities were focused on either large or small grained cereals
depending on their ecology. During the Post Urban Harappan period, grain size
became less important as communities became smaller and more independent.

Pastoralism
Chang and Koster (1986: 97-148) defines pastoralism as dependence upon domestic
herd animals held and bred as capital. Meadow (1996: 392) defines pastoralism as
raising of livestocks and according to him any one who husbands grazing or
browsing animals is a pastoralist. In case of Near Eastern sheep and goat
pastoralists, Abdi (2003: 398) defines pastoralismas a mode of production
concerned with the exploitation of domestic animals which occurs in a continuum
from fully sedentary (village-based herding) to fully mobile (nomadic) pastoralism.
He identified three kinds of pastoralism and they are: 1. mobile pastoralism - a
form of pastoralism that involves movement of the herd beyond the agricultural
zone, usually one to a few day’s walk from the village, 2. transhuman pastoralism a specialized form of mobile pastoralism that is still based on settlements but
involves seasonal movement of the herd between pastures with some use of
campsites and 3. nomadic pastoralism - the extreme form of mobile pastoralism,
which is a mode of subsistence (i.e., a way of living) primarily relying on

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
pastoralism involving high mobility and changing dwellings throughout the year,
living in a succession of campsites along vertical or horizontal routes.
The pastoral studies in Gujarat is not much developed and Leshnik (1972: 151-152)
mentions some of the difficulties in identifying the pastoral communities in
archaeological record like non-specific nature of pastoral nomad’s artefacts, their
likely origin with village artisans, sometimes close physical co-existence of
peasants and nomads, probable practice of supplementary agriculture or hunting
and expectedly thin traces of their habitation remains. Choksi (1991) carried out
ethnographic studies at Saurashtra and north Gujarat and compared the results to
those of Harappan sites like Jokha, Rojdi, Ratanpura, Kanewal and Zekhda/Jekhda
to understand the pastoral adaptation during the Harappan period. Her study
showed that structural activities of present and past rarely show any big
difference. She also found a pattern of migration and settlement which remained
unchanged over thousands of years. Varma (1991: 279-300) reviewed the
evidences for mobile pastoralism in Post Urban Harappan Gujarat by giving special
emphasis on settlement pattern and site types. In her study she tried to provide
ethnographic examples of pastoral adaptations and classify archaeological sites and
distinguish pastoral camp sites. Based on Varma’s (1991: 279-300) observation of
meagre animal possessions which Gujarati herdsmen carry; Ratnagar (1991: 181)
interpreted the modern pastoralists of Gujarat as “fringe groups, without economic
or military might, and in recent times have been scattered amongst farming
communities as members of low ranking castes”. Kavoori (1991: 255- 278)
analysed the movement of modern pastoral communities/transhumance and live
stocks from Rajasthan and noticed that the direction of migration of these
communities is towards areas bordering Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and
Gujarat. He also noticed that this migration pattern begins approximately in
October and they return to the home tracts by the beginning of monsoon. But the
scope of both the works are limited to modern times. Reddy (1994) based on
ethnographic and archaeological studies interpreted the Post Urban Harappan site
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
at Oriyo Timbo as a pastoral camp. Similary, Patel (1997: 111) identified that the
animal economy of Dholavira was chiefly pastoral in nature. Bhan (2004: 243-272)
carried out ethnographic studies on pastoral communities in Gujarat and tried to
find out the similarities with Post Urban Harappan pastoral camps of summer and
monsoon season. He considered the factors in choice and discard of site location
and choice of vessel preference by the community. In this study he proposed that
the proliferation of Chalcolithic settlements in north Gujarat is probably due to
the availability of nutritious grasslands that are rich in various minerals and salts,
water in inter-dune depressions and presence of sand dunes which provided
excellent breeding grounds. Due to the location and patchy deposits, most of the
Chalcolithic sites in north Gujarat are considered as pastoral encampments (Bhan
1994: 71-90). Swayam (2006) in his work made an attempt reconstruct the practice
of Urban Harappan life in Gujarat using ethnographic, excavation and exploration
data. Swayam’s study (2006: 121-122) showed that pastoral practices existed in the
Pre Urban Harappan phase at multiple sites including Padri and continued in the
Urban Harappan phase. He further suggests that though pastoralism continued in
different cultural phases, its character differed in these phases.

Language and Script
In Gujarat not many studies were conducted on the Harappan script and
Language. The evidences for the Harappan script occur in the form of writings in
seals, sealings, signboard and graffiti on potsherds and copper artefacts. Script
bearing seals/sealings were recovered from Lothal, Dholavira, Bagasra, Surkotada,
Pabumath, Desalpur, Kanmer, Khirsara, Bet Dwarka, Nagwada and Shikarpur.
Potsherds bearing scripts (incised-prefiring/ postfired or painted) were recovered
from most of the excavated sites. Rao analysed the script from Lothal and other
sites and according to him (1979: 170) Harappan writing system incorporated
pictures and ligatures (combination of linear signs and simple linear signs). Based
on his studies and cultural periods he divided the Indus writing into two namely,

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
Harappan script and Post Urban Harappan script. According to Rao (1979: 170) the
earliest Harappan writing consisted of 52 signs including 12 pictures and 40 linear
designs and Post Urban Harappan script consisted only 20 signs. The pictures were
phonetized and used as syllables. Another feature of the Indus writing is the
combination of basic signs to form compound signs. The direction of writing is
from right to left and the writing is boustrophedon when two or more lines are
inscribed. In spite of these arguments he failed to provide a convincing
explanation due to the absence of bilingual inscriptions. Parpola (1986: 401-402)
analysed the sealings from Lothal and identified impressions of 77 number.
Parpola (2007: 1-12) reanalysed the seal impressions on the clay tags from Lothal
and identified 96 clay tags having seal impressions (1 with 5, 2 with 4, 4 with 3, 26
with 2 and 63 with 1). According to him in some sealings the texts were unique
and some cases they were complete or broken. In all excavation reports there is
also mention about the graffiti or Harappan script but no other detailed study was
carried out.

Ethno Archaeology/Ethnography
Reddy (1994: 49-50, 54; 1997: 162-187) carried out ethnographic studies of millet
crop processing (summer cultivation in Gujarat and opportunistic/winter flood
plain cultivation in Andhra Pradesh) to interpret the subsistence system based on
the archaeobotanical remains from Post Urban Harappan sites like Oriyo Timbo
and Babar Kot in Gujarat. Biological characteristics and harvesting methods
necessitated various crop processing methods and she focussed on composition of
botanical assemblages produced during each stages of processing (products and byproducts), location of their deposition in respect to domestic facilities, the
products from other stages and condition of preservation. Based on these data she
developed various models and interpreted the plant based subsistence system at
Oriyo Timbo and Babar Kot. She interpreted Oriyo Timbo as a pastoral camp
which used to procure plant products cultivated and initially processed

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
somewhere else and Babar Kot as settled village which produced crops itself
(Reddy 1994: 393).
Choksi (1991) carried out ethnographic studies at Saurasthra and north Gujarat for
better understanding of pastoral adaptation in Post Urban Harappan period. She
examined the elements like environmental and ecological constraints on the
pastoral system, variables affecting location decision, pastoral mobility and
abandonment behaviour and post occupational inventories of material culture in
preliminary levels, compared its results with Harappan sites like Jokha, Kanewal,
Zekhda/Jekhda and Rojdi and found that structural activities of past and present
are not much different. Her study also pointed out the necessity to conduct
comprehensive ethnological studies about different pastoral communities of
Gujarat for better understanding of Harappan pastoral communities. Bhan (2004:
243-273) carried out ethnographic studies on pastoralism in Gujarat and
considered the factors in choice of site location, discard and choice of vessel
preference by the community and tried to find the similarities with Post Urban
Harappan pastoral camps of summer and monsoon season. Swayam (2006) in his
study of pastoral life in Proto-historic Gujarat describes the current practices of
pastoral communities in Gujarat. It covers the ecological, cultural, religious and
political aspects of pastoral communities like Bharwads and Rabaris. It also
focussed on subsistence pattern and their material culture. By using this data along
with exploration and excavation he made an attempt to reconstruct the practices
of pastoralism in Urban Harappan phase in Gujarat.
Various scholars carried out ethnoarchaeological studies to interpret various
aspects of craft specialization, organization and technology. Kenoyer et al.’s (1991;
1994) research in the contemporary agate bead industry at Khambhat revealed the
existence two different organizational models by which artisans practicing similar
techniques were organised. In the workshops organised under central authority
only certain works were carried out in the premises of workshop and other works
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
were done elsewhere. Control over the employee was very strict as he was
required to report to the employer with both products and by-products of their
labour. But in small workshops all stages of production were conducted near the
workshop. The comparison of these data with those from archaeological sites like
Chanhu-daro, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal and other sites showed that Chanhu-daro
represented more controlled workship and other sites represented small scale
entrepreneurial operations. They (Kenoyer et al. 1991: 44-63, Vidale et al. 1992:
181-194) also described the layout of workshops and debris associated with various
stages of production. The research also indicated that part-time specialization may
be subjected to hierarchic control as full time specialization (Bhan et al. 1994: 141157). To interpret the skill involved in the production of Harappan long carnelian
beads Roux et al. (1995: 63-87) carried out ethnographic studies at Khambhat. This
study revealed the duration of apprenticeship, procedures of handling complexity
of taste and its achievement. This result was used to differentiate beads on the
basis of skill involved in its making and interpret them on terms of symbolic value
and maker’s socio economic condition. Ethnographic and experimental Study of
copper working at Dariyawad in Rajasthan (Bhan et al. 2000: 35-49) describes the
need to collect the detailed information to understand and interpret the
manufacturing process of archaeological objects.
Choksi (1994; 1995: 87-108) worked on the potters from Gundiyali and Lodai
villages in Kachchh and she suggested that technical choices made by the potters
in these villages were channelized by the economic network and ideological
considerations in which these villages were situated. She also noted that potters in
the study area produced several identical vessel forms in variety of decorative
styles depending on the demand of consumers from different communities. She
also mentions that the reduction in demand for many vessel forms had lead many
potters to adopt new labor saving techniques to increase the quantity of
production and argues that economic considerations influence the technological
choices. Her observation of some groups of potters may regularly producing
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
variety of distinct vessels lead her to seriously reconsider the way in which
ceramic typologies are constructed and how they have been used to define
chronological relationships in Gujarat (Choksi 2002: 273-92). Her study of design
rules in painting shows that art and aesthetics form a very small component of the
whole design process and the particular design combination belongs to a particular
location (Choksi 1997: 227-40).
Krishnan and Rao’s (1994: 113-117) attempt to distinguish different clay paste
preparation

practices,

in

archaeological

samples

based

on

their

ethnoarchaeological and experimental research among contemporary potters of
Muzpur in Mehsana and Baroda is very important. They exhibited how different
methods were used in the preparation of clay paste are reflected in micro structure
of the end product. They documented various stages of manufacturing process in
two different workshops which use clays from different resource areas and prepare
clay through different methods. The thin section study of clay samples, prepared
using different techniques from each workshop in comparison to ceramics from
Post Urban Harappan site of Ratanpura showed different clay sources as well as
different preparation techniques. It also showed different paste preparation
technique probably used for different functional categories and significant
variation present in abundance of different sizes of inclusions in different vessel
category were also noticed. In the light of these results, they argued that different
workshops, each having different paste preparation techniques may have supplied
similar

vessel

types

to

the

site.

Chase

(2005:

123-136)

during

his

ethnoarchaeological studies at Bathinda observed the marketing and processing of
animals and meat, collected discarded bones and

conducted excavation at a

butcher’s dump to identify the mortality profile of the animals. In his thesis
(2007), he demonstrated the similarities and differences between the data from
Bagasra/Gola Dhoro and Bathinda. Bhagat (2001: 217-279) carried out
ethnographic studies at Tarasara village, Talaja taluka, Bhavnagar district to
understand the traditional pottery making techniques, their role and significance
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
in modern day traditional society and also to explain the pottery manufacturing
techniques, stylistic variability and significance in the past. Clarke (2007)
conducted ethnographic studies at different villages and shrines around Gujarat to
reconstruct social lives of terracotta figurines of Harappa. Her study pointed out
the necessity to conduct detailed ethnographic studies to understand the potential
meaning and function of the ancient figurines and illustrate the complexities of
interpreting representation and function (Clarke 2007: 56). Based on earlier
ethnoarchaeological studies (Bengal and Khambhat) and new sampling techniques,
more reliable interpretations were given to craft production in sites like Nagwada
(Gowda 2003: 2; Bhan and Gowda 2003: 51-80), Nageswar and Bagasra.
Ethnographic work of Bhagat (2001) and Bhagat et al. (1993: 143-185) at Tarsara
pointed out that change in paste preparation resulted from the exhaustion of the
clay source and complacency about an assured market.

Religion and Ritual
Till date, there is no clear cut evidence is available regarding the religious beliefs
of the Harappans. Four circular clay lined fire pits unearthed from Vagad are
interpreted as fire altars of fire worship, which is considered as Indo-Aryan
feature, may have developed from elements of Harappan culture (Sonawane 2005:
328). A structure unearthed at Nageswar is also interpreted as a fire altar (IAR
1983-84; Hegde et al 1990: 13). There are evidences for domestic fire worship at
Rangpur throughout the occupation (Rao 1963: 47). A painted terracotta bull
figurine from the site is considered as a cult object (Rao 1963: 48). Fire altars were
also reported from Lothal and they include rectangular and circular pits cut into
the floor and lined with mud plaster and enclosures built on mud brick altars (Rao
1979: 216-218). Charred animal bone, gold pendant, carnelian bead and sherds of
storage jar found associated with a mud platform and mud brick enclosures are
identified as evidences of animal sacrifice (Rao 1979: 218). Rao pointed out that if
the double burials of Lothal contain the skeletons of females along with males it

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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
might be the indication of the existence of a form of sati during that period (Rao
1979: 219). But Sankalia considers it as ceremonial burial of the wife or servant or
dependent, after the death of husband or master rather than sati (c.f. Rao 1979:
219). Some ritual association was assigned to the terracotta cakes found from fire
altar at Lothal (Rao 1985: 518). Religious significance is attested to the terracotta
female figurine (mother goddess) unearthed from Nagwada (Hegde et al. 1990:
194). A horn headed human figure is painted on a large jar recovered from Padri
and Shinde (1991: 87-89) proposes the prevalence of the worship of the same in
the Harappan empire. Pathak (1992), who studied the pot painted with horned
headed figure from Padri in comparison with vedic texts argues that it is a ritual
pot and the horned anthropomorph is the personified form of Soma (the sacred
keeper). He interprets the Harappan Jar at Padri as Soma-dhana-kalasa ‘the jar for
storing the soma juice’ (Pathak 1992: 87-89).

Dating in Gujarat
Archaeologists working on Chalcolithic Gujarat make use of an array of dating
techniques and time- referents similar to those used in other parts of the world.
Dating techniques used in Gujarat can be divided into two main categories viz.,
chronometric (radiocarbon and thermo luminescence dating) and relative
(contextual and typological/seriation).

Radiocarbon Dating
As other parts of the world, radiocarbon dating is the backbone of Gujarat’s
Chalcolithic archaeology with petite number of dated sites. Among them many
dates have never been published, either by excavators or by laboratories; hence it
is difficult to develop a full list. Sites like Loteshwar (Sonawane and Ajithprasad
1994: 129-139; Bhan1994: 71-90), Rojdi (Possehl and Rawal 1989), Kanmer
(Kharakwal: Personal Communication) and Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. 2005) have
comprehensive suites of dates for individual stratigraphic sequences or for cultural
periods. However, many sites have only one or two radiocarbon dates and it
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Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal
prevents the assessment of the reliability of individual dates. As a result it is
difficult to explain the occupational history of these sites authentically. It also
leads to unjustified assumptions of continuity of equivalent site-use over many
millenniums (Bird and Frankel 1991: 179-80). Calibration of radiocarbon
determinations is ignored in some sites of Gujarat. According to Agrawal and
Yadava (1995: 14-16), the effect of calibration is important where comparative
rates of change are discussed and where radiocarbon dates used in combination
with other radiometric techniques. AMS and conventional radiocarbon dates from
Loteshwar helped to clarify the understanding of occupation history of the site
(Patel 2008: 123). The conventional radiocarbon dates from the site probably
show a temporal gap between the Microlithic and Chalcolithic periods even
though there is no distinguishable stratigraphic break (Meadow and Patel 2003:
74, Patel 2008: 129). As the Chalcolithic studies in Gujarat become more problem
oriented, in the recent years there is a growing tendency to collect series of
samples from all occupational levels of every sites to get more accurate dates.

Thermo-luminescence Dating
Though archaeologists of Gujarat normally operate within radiocarbon method as
absolute dating system; thermo-luminescence dating is also used in sites like
Langhnaj, the Mesolithic site having Chalcolithic affinity (Sankalia 1965; CluttonBrock 1965) and Bet Dwarka, the Post Urban Harappan site (Gaur et al. 2005).
Almost all samples from Bet Dwarka provided accurate results except one sample
which exhibited a TL fading factor of more than 20% and created doubt upon the
reliability of the final age computed (Gaur et al. 2005).

Contextual Dating
Excavation strategy determine the contents of assemblages and so inextricably
link dating and explanation (Frankel 1988: 41). In many excavated sites in
Gujarat, site’s sequences are divided into chronological units with a duration of
thousands of years and it denies us the possibility of demonstrating significant
124 
 

In Gujarat. As a result of this. Ahar. Allchin and Allchin 1982: 243-44. Maheshwar. in many sites sterile deposits of even 5 cms differentiates Mesolithic and Chalcolithic cultures and excavators put them in chronological frameworks based on their convenience. flooding layers and seriation of ceramics and other finds from Rangpur. Navdatoli and Nevasa. Vadnagar. Misra 1965: 44-52. On the basis of architecture. Chalcolithic culture follows the Mesolithic/Microlithic culture without any visible break. Late Kathiawad Harappan and Post Kathiawad Harappan). one major problem due to the contextual dating is the poorly understood concept of continuity of site use. In many sites in north Gujarat. Lakhabawal. it is very difficult to determine the processes which lead to the culmination of different culture(s). Rao (1963) proposed a new relative dating technique for Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat and based on that principle. Somnath. Herman 1997: 77-112). He constructed a cultural sequence for Gujarat starting from Palaeolithic period to Early Medieval period. Chalcolithic artifacts can be classified into generally accepted technological and morphological types as lot of similarities can be identified in excavated and explored Chalcolithic assemblages. Sankalia 1974: 379-83. In the same way Urban Harappan period is followed by Post Urban Harappan Phase without a significant gap. it still remains as most popular relative 125    .Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal variation in site-use. a provisional relative sequence for Protohistoric cultures of Western and Central India was suggested by Subbarao in 1958. Amra. He also identified the differences between the Harappan artifacts from Sindh region and Saurashtra and called the Saurashtran Harappans as Kathiawad Harappans (Kathiawad Harappan. Likewise. Based on the archaeological data from Lothal. he classified the explored and excavated sites of Gujarat. Rangpur. Typological Dating/Seriation In Gujarat. In the 1950s most of the excavated and explored artifacts from Gujarat were typologically compared with those from Somnath/Prabhas Patan. Though Rao’s dating technique was criticised by many scholars (Possehl 1980.

it has a series of discrepancies. IIC and III as Post Urban Harappan. Ajithprasad (115-132) proposed a chronological sequence and stratigraphical structure for Mesolithic and Chalcolithic assemblages of North Gujarat based on artifacts and absolute and relative dates from important excavated sites in north Gujarat. Sankalia (1974) considered the pre-structural layers in trench RGP 3 in Rangpur IIA with Micaceous Red Ware. rest of Rangpur IIA. In 2004. Period IIA.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal dating technique. If one follows the typological dating system in these sites. Misra (1965: 44-52) classified the Chalcolithic sequence at Rangpur into II. According to Herman (1997: 83). Though typological dating helps us to fit the material assemblages of various sites into broader time frames. was termed as Late Impoverished Harappan Settlement and Period IIB which included Rangpur IIC and III was termed as Lustrous Red Ware related Post Harappan Settlement. Micaceous Red Ware (based on Lothal/Rangpur/Vagad) and Pre Urban Harppan Burial Pottery (based on Santhli/Motipipli/Nagwada) are dated. Rao’s investigations for the first time provided the material evidence and frame work of the transformation of the Harappan Culture down to Post-Harappan times. which incorporated Rangpur IIA and IIB. By the end of 1980s. The Rojdi sequence is also widely using to date the Sorath and Post Urban Sorath Harappan sites in Gujarat. But this classification scheme wasn’t adopted by the scholars of Gujarat. sites belonging to regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions like Anarta Tradition (based on Loteshwar/Nagwada). errors of 126    . Padri Ware (based on Padri). IIB and IIC as Period II: Harappan culture and Rangpur III as Period III: Post-Harappan culture. Buff Ware and Coarse Grey Ware as Period I: Pre-Harappan culture. Chalcolithic researches in Gujarat brought to light evidences for the existence of various regional cultures or traditions which survived for millenniums without any directly visible change in their material culture. Preprabhas and Prabhas Assemblage (based on Somnath). Possehl (1980) called Rangpur IIA as Urban Harappan and IIB. Possehl and Rawal (1989) classified the artifacts of Rojdi based on absolute date and ceramic seriation. Similarly. Both these classification schemes were not applied in the sites of Gujarat.

typological dating presents serious problems in incorporating the surface finds which make up the bulk of Gujarat’s archaeological record. They also found that sea level was higher during the Harappan period and Kuntasi might have engaged in some kind of trading activity. This strata (Layer four) showed evidences of dampness (swamp) and it was interpreted as the probable result of rain water logging and this layer was devoid of artifacts (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990: 144). A comparison of the results of phosphate analysis of soil samples from Kuntasi and Shikarpur (preliminary analysis of samples from 1980s excavation) revealed that Shikarpur had less human activity than Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. Geo-archaeology Detailed geo-morphological and stratigraphical study was conducted around and at Kuntasi to understandsite selection and sea level changes during the Harappan occupation at the site (Dhavalikar et al. (1996: 11). The subsequent top layer inhabited by the Harappans was clayey and not formed a swamp and appeared well drained (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990: 144). The study proved that the site was occupied by the Mesolithic people (?) before Chalcolithic community. The studies revealed evidences of break between Mesolithic and Chalcolithic stratas at the trench. 1996: 357-370). 1996: 5-13). Three successive flood silt deposits in stratigraphy of the mound clearly showed that floods were occurring frequently in this area as the site is located in the lower bank of the river. According to Dhavalikar et al. a tectonic activity that occurred during Holocene may be one of the reasons behind the defunctioning of the site. Analysis of carbonate and phosphate contents and particle size determination of soil sample from a representative trench from Oriyo Timbo revealed that all the layers were formed of sediments derived from alluvial deposition (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990: 142-144).Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal thousands of years may occur. Similarly. Analysis of sediments from Malvan (Allchin and Joshi 1995: 13-14. 99-101) showed that the settlement was spread out on the shore of a lake and thickness of 127    .

6 hectares of land in and around Dholavira. Geoarchaeological studies are also in progress in the Harappan site at Kanmer (Rajaguru and Deo 2008: 1-3). Based on the succession of phytoclasts and palynomorph in sedimentary soil sequence from Bet Dwarka. 99-101). Gaur et al. The study around Lothal using satellite multi spectral data revealed a number of palaeochannels and the most important features were a sinuous channel adjoining Lothal to the north. (2005: 88-91) interpreted that sea level was close to its present level some 4000 to 3500 years ago and present position of shoreline should have reached sometime during the Little Ice Age. Flourine-Phosphate analysis of bone samples from Datrana and Moti Pipli showed a clear chronological difference between Mesolithic and Chalcolithic. Analysis of the soil samples from Jokha haven’t provided expected results. Archaeological Heritage and Tourism Studies dealing with the tourism prospects of Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat are less in number.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal the mud deposit in the lake indicated that it was not an ephemeral one. while a sample from Loteshwar showed overlapping of the values of data (Ajithprasad 2004: 126-127). 1971: 60-65). enhanced 128    . The lake began to silting up during the Post Urban Harappan times and the gradual silting process destroyed the lake at Malvan (Allchin and Joshi 1995: 13-14. Bisht (2004: 35-48) emphasised the tourism potenital of Dholavira in Kachchh and the measures adopted by the Archaeological Survey of India and Government of Gujarat to develop it as an international heritage destination. Shell remains collected from this deposit were of fresh water and this indicated that the salt water from the sea during high tide probably did not reach the lake. The black soil at the site was almost as much mature at the initial stage of the Chalcolithic settlement as it is today (Mehta et al. the govt acquired 66. single thread palaeo-tributaries south east of Lothal and a palaeo-esturay east of Lothal and adjacent to its shoreline (Khadkikar et al. 2004: 896-903). According to Bisht (2004: 35-48) central protection was offered to the site.

Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. manual techniques were used in Gujarat to record the antiquities and other features of archaeological sites. Kharakwal et al. potential Indus museum in Gujarat. 2005. Contour plan of the site was prepared using data generated by total station and GIS software. storage. widened existing road from Chitrod to Dholavira. management and maintenance of heritage sites and its infrastructure. accommodation of visitors. Field Documentation Until recent times.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal telecommunication facilities. problems in showcasing Indus sites. Songadh is the first Chalcolithic site in Gujarat where topographic survey was carried out using total station (Bhan: Personal Communication). Dholavira and Kuntasi. Sharma (2000. 2008) emphasized the tourism potential of excavated Harappan sites like Lothal. upgraded the electricity supply by starting high power substation at Balasar in Kachchh. marketing and promotion of tourism products and training of cultural tourist guides. Patel (2004: 14-19) emphasised the prospects of heritage tourism in Gujarat by describing selected excavated Mesolithic and Chalcolithic sites as tourist destinations. office and cafeteria. Patel (2005) dealt with current tourism scenario of Dholavira and Lothal and emphasised the need to develop the infrastructure. Ajithprasad (2005: 22-33) also dealt with the Indus civilization and cultural heritage in Gujarat by emphasising selected excavated sites. (2005: 115-123) mentioned the potential of Kachchh as a tourism destination by describing various explored and excavated Harappan sites located there. profiling tourists. Patel (2005: 4-11) proposed management strategies for Harappan heritage of Gujarat. display. partnership with local communities. Patel (2006) described the tourism perspectives of potential Indus sites of Gujarat. partially constructed new road between Dholavira and Jam Kunharia across the Rann and constructed a building complex in a garden setting consisting halls for documentation. promotion and publicity of tourism products and development/design of tourism circuits. 129    .

At Shikarpur GPR survey was carried out to identify the presence of structures and photogrammetric recording of some structures were also made. data procuring techniques and methods of analyses in the state have changed a lot from the inception. 130    . At Lothal in 2008 preliminary magnetic surveys were carried out to identify various structures by ASI and University of Bologna. 2010) and Datrana IV (Ajithprasad and Madella: Personal Communication). Total station based topographical surveys and preparations of contour maps and digital elevation models using GIS software were conducted at the sites like Pithad/Jaidak (Bhan and Ajithprasad personal communication). Accurate section drawings of the trench were made with the help of GIS and CAD based softwares.Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan: An Appraisal 2009: 147-164) in Kachchh is another site which was documented digitally. explorations. From this review it is very clear that in Chalcolithic context. Although. At Loteshwar context of all important antiquities and features including section of the trench were recorded using total station. The use of such techniques can assure more accurate results and reduce human labour. Topographic survey (GPS and Total station). The excavations. Gujarat is one of the best explored and excavated states in India. it is necessary to conduct more scientific studies to understand various cultural processes that happened in Gujarat between 3700 BC900 BC. Italy (Frenez and Tosi 2010). Loteshwar (Madella et al. Rare antiquities like seals and sealings from the site were documented three dimensionally (Uno and Teramura 2010). Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2009: 1-9). GPR survey and photogrammetric surveys were carried out at the site (Teramura et al. 2008: 45-101).

data collection methods. The first stage dealt with the survey of published literature.Chapter – III METHODS OF STUDY You know my method. It incorporates details of selection of representative sites and type sites. these reports and articles were however found biased towards excavator’s or author’s objectives and views. It helped in the selection of the topic. Stages of Research The research was carried out in eleven stages. the drawings. Many a times. reviews and different articles in books and other published materials referred to. terracotta. stone. status of Harappan and Chalcolithic research in India and Pakistan. The study also focuses on architectural features and burials excavated at selected sites in relation with other excavated Harappan sites in Gujarat. preliminary excavation reports. shell and bone were also given due importance. It is founded upon the observation of trifles. photographs and descriptions still form a reliable and major source of information as it is almost impossible to access the artifacts recovered from many sites as they were excavated by various organizations or institutions in different time periods. The methods used for the classification and periodization of sites are also described in this chapter. macroscopic studies and techniques of data analysis. Sherlock Holmes (Doyle 1988: 214) This chapter discusses different methods employed during the research to understand various features of regional Chalcolithic cultures in Gujarat. Artifacts of metal. For comparison and correlation of archaeological data. final excavation reports. Ceramics is the important characteristic feature of regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions of Gujarat and thus formed the major artifact of analyses. understanding the basic concepts. exploration techniques. 131    . faience.

Nageswar (Hegde et al. Ehrhardt and Kennedy 1965). Preparation of chronological sequence and stratigraphy of sub. representative sites of the study were selected and from them four type sites were identified. 1980). Kanewal (Mehta et al. excavation reports of Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. 1995). database/list and separate maps of all the reported Harappan and regional Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat were prepared chronologically. 1971) and Surkotada (Joshi 1990) were referred to. nature and trend of archaeological research in the global scenario. This stage was followed by the designing of sampling strategies of excavated artifacts.regions of Gujarat was the next step. Rangpur (Rao 1963). Jokha (Mehta et al. The final stage of the research was the compilation of all the relevant data and analysing the same towards interpreting them. It was followed by the preparation of a database of antiquities from all the newly explored sites by the researcher. This stage was followed by the classification of ceramics obtained from the field survey. Somnath (Nanavati et al. Oriyo Timbo (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990). 1975). Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989). 1996). Malvan (Allchin et al. Dhatva (Mehta et al. 1971). Participation in excavations of Harappan and Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat and outside India enhanced the understanding of nature of various sites. In the following section. Lothal (Rao 1979. 132    . Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. After the initial literature survey. 1985). cleaning of samples and its documentation. Clutton-Brock 1965. Literature Survey For comparison and correlation of artifact data. other contemporary cultures in different parts of the world. Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965. In the next stage. 2005). artifact analysis and interpretation. 1990). This was followed by describing various field survey strategies and collection of information regarding the sites and artifacts.Methods of Study along with its draw backs. periodization of the explored sites using ceramics and the other data from excavated sites was done.

Lothal (Rao 1979. Bhan 1994). Loteshwar. 1980) in central/south Gujarat. Datrana IV and Vagad were explored and excavated by The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and Padri by Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute. Moti Pipli (Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-1997). Vagad and Padri were selected as type sites. At Loteshwar. Rangpur (Rao 1963). Pune. 9185). Pre-Prabhas assemblage. Micaceous Red Ware and Padri Ware in these sites. 2004) in Saurashtra and Shikarpur (IAR 1987-88. Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985) and Nageshwar (Hegde et al. Bhan et al.Methods of Study Selection of Representative Sites and Type Site Identification In order to achieve the research goals. 1988) and Zekhda (Momin 1983) in north Gujarat. 1988). From these representative sites. Datrana (IAR 1993-1994. Kanewal (Mehta et. al. Loteshwar. 1994-1995). The excavations of these sites revealed evidences for the existence of regional Chlacolithic cultures/traditions namely Anarta tradition. Nagwada (Hegde et. Loteshwar Though the ceramic types belonging to Anarta tradition were noticed during the excavations at sites like Surkotada (Joshi 1990) and Nagwada (Hegde et al. Yadav 2005) were initially thought as belonging to the later 133    . Among these. 1988-89. Anarta ceramics (Ajithprasad 2002. its nature as a distinct regional Chalcolithic tradition of Gujarat was identified only after the excavation at Loteshwar (Khari-no-Timbo) in 1990-91 by the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. 1989-90) and Surkotada (Joshi 1990) in Kachchh.al. Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989). Bhan 1989) in north Gujarat. Datrana IV(Ajithprasad 2002) in north Gujarat and Prabhas Patan/Somnath (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) in Saurashtra were selected as representative sites of Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. Padri Ware was represented by Padri (Shinde and Kar 1992) in Saurashtra and Anarta tradition by Loteshwar (IAR 1990-91. 1990) in Saurashtra and Desalpur (IAR 1963-1964) in Kachchh were selected as representative sites of Micaceous Red Ware. Ratanapura (IAR 1984-85. Datrana IV. 2003. Bagasra (Sonawane et al.

bones and ceramics were excavated. Regionalization and Integration. Thus. CAMS-55902). The Chalcolithic period was preceded by the microliths using community (100 cm deposit) datable from c. From the presence of skeletal remains of both wild and domestic varieties of cattle. Grinding/palette stones are available from Microlithic and Chalcolithic levels. Among the two skeletons unearthed from the site one belongs to the Chalcolithic period (Ajithprasad 2009). No structural remains were unearthed from the Chalcolithic level but few pits of various sizes (50 cm to 200 cm) having a somewhat plastered effect on its walls. Long span of Chalcolithic phase at Loteshwar and ephemeral nature of the settlement can be interpreted as representation of periodic visits by mobile pastoralists who travelled to the area seasonally (Patel 2009: 184). from the above discussion it appears that Loteshwar has potentials to understand the processes of Early Food Production. it has been interpreted as one of the probable centres of local domestication of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) (Patel 2009: 181). 134    . Based on these she proposes that these might have been brought into the site probably from areas to the Northwest (Patel 2009: 181). which can be viewed as an indication of the beginning of food processing by the aceramic microlithic using communities which continued in the succeeding levels (Ajithprasad and Madella: Personal Communication).Methods of Study stage of Mature Harappan or Late Harappan period. But the series of conventional and AMS radio carbon dates from the site proved its Early Harappan origin and date of its Chalcolithic phase as 3700-1900 BC. filled with ash. 7300 BC (Sample No. one of the interesting features of the site is the absence of the use of the crested ridge technique (Brahmbhatt 2000: 75) which was commonly used by the Harappan folks. Patel (2009:181) further observes that wild sheep and goat are completely absent in both levels and its domestic varieties are available at the site in the later Chalcolithic levels. Though geometric and non-geometric tools were recovered from both periods.

Methods of Study Datrana Pre-Prabhas level was first noticed at the excavations at Somnath/Prabhas Patan in 1955-56 and 1956-57 and this phase of the site was designated as Period IA (Subbarao 1958). Two radio carbon dates from the Pre-Prabhas level gave a consistent calibrated date of 2900 BC (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) and due to the notion that the Harappan sites in Saurasthra are Late Harappan in nature (Possehl 2007) it created some confusions and the data remained unpublished for a long time. As other Pre-Harappan regional Chalcolithic cultures were reported in the beginning of 1990s a preliminary article on the Pre-Prabhas level at Somnath was published (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). in the subsequent excavation report (Nanavati et al. Although. Apart from the ceramics. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda carried out excavations at Datrana. faience and steatite beads (some are segmented) and fragment of a wall plaster with reed impressions indicating wattle and daub architecture were also reported. The Chalcolithic period was represented by long crested ridge blades. prismatic blade cores. During 1993-94 and 1994-95. Government of Saurashtra revealed the Pre-Prabhas levels. 1975-76 and 1976-77 by the Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute. Pune and Department of Archaeology. copper punch point and ceramics similar to those from the PrePrabhas level at Somnath/Prabhas Patan. this ceramic was found associated with ceramics of Anarta tradition and Early 135    . stone beads and roughouts. Period I Mesolithic and Period II Chalcolithic (Ajithprasad 2002). At the upper level of the deposit. Re-excavation of the site in 1971-72. mound IV locally known as Hadkawala Khetar which revealed habitation deposit of 75-90 cm incorporating two cultural periods. crested ridge blades. which extended roughly over 75 square meters at the lowest level of the mound and was resting on a sterile deposit of marine sand at about 3 meters below from the modern surface level. 1971) there is no mention of the same as its significance was not recognized at that time.

Published burial pottery from Lothal also shows that majority of them are of Micaceous Red Ware and in some burials both Harappan and Micaceous Red Ware were found together (Rao 1985. Kanewal (Mehta et al. Desalpur (IAR 1963-64). Though. L. Lothal yielded large amounts of Micaceous Red Ware. Ajithprasad 2009). the excavator could not reach the natural soil. Although. 1985) where it was found to increase in quantity towards the lower levels and due to water logging. 1990) and in sites like Rojdi and Kanewal it is not reported as Micaceous Red Ware but under other terminologies. Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989) and Nageswar (Hegde et al. North Gujarat and Saurashtra and not a single site showed its independent existence till date. This pottery was found in the excavated sites like Rangpur (Rao 1963). Datrana is conceived as the type site which can provide important information regarding Pre-Prabhas assemblage. it is also reported from Kachchh. Possehl (Ajithprasad 2002). As the ceramics from Somnath were not available.Methods of Study Harappan Burial pottery indicating that Pre-Prabhas pottery using communities were the earliest Chalcolithic inhabitants at the site who later came into contact with the above mentioned traditions/cultures. No structural remains were unearthed from the site. its stratigraphic context and ‘cultural 136    . Ratanpura (IAR 1984-85). Coarse corrugated pottery similar to the Pre-Prabhas level was reported from Rojdi and Modhera and the evidences from Rojdi suggests that it might be the Sorath Harappan ceramics rather than the PrePrabhas pottery (Ajithprasad 2010). Rao 1979. this ceramic ware’s main concentration is in Bhal region. Pre-Prabhas nature of the ceramics from Datrana was first identified by G. Vagad Micaceous Red Ware was first reported during the excavations at Lothal (IAR 1954. Both the sites are located in distant localities and they are the only sites which revealed Pre-Prabhas pottery till date. An important feature of Datrana and Somnath is the use of crested ridge technique for blade production. Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985). 1980).

toy cart wheels. Padri Padri Ware was reported from the excavations at Padri in 1990s (Shinde and kar 1992. crucibles. Bhagat 2001) and 11 explored sites in lower reaches of Shetrunji River (Paul et al. Vagad covers an area measuring 450x300 m and rises to a height of 2 m from the ground level. The four fold cultural sequence at the site is represented by the Pre Urban Harappan (Padri culture). shell bangles with chevron motif. Post Urban Harappan and Early Historic periods. Red Painted Ware. pestles. IB and IC) based on structural levels and c14 date of Vagad IA is 2190-2080 BC. Padri Ware is represented by thick and thin varieties of Coarse Red Ware. The single cultural period of the site is divided into three sub-periods (IA. Padri 137    . saddle querns. Pink Slipped Painted Ware. Urban Harappan (Phase I and II). Vagad (located in Bhal region) excavated by The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (Sonawane and Mehta 1985) was selected as the type site for the study where Micaceous Red Ware was reported along with the Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan ceramics. Plain Hand Made Ware and White Painted Ware. spindle whorls. it has chronometric dates. Terracotta and stone weights. Six circular hut remains and yajnavedikas(?) represent the architecture of the site. Therefore Vagad was selected as one of the type sites for the study. rubber stones and sling balls were also recovered from the site. copper objects. Shirvalkar 2008). the Micaceous Red Ware from the site is limited in number. White Lustrous Ware. all trenches were excavated up to the natural soil and the excavated materials are easily accessible. 1997. terracotta discs. IB is 1800-1600 BC and Vagad I C must be later in date. Bichrome Ware. Red Painted pottery of Padri is akin to Sorath Harappan pottery and occurs from the lowest levels (Bhagat 2001). terracotta ear ornaments.Methods of Study identity’ could not be established due to limitations in excavations (Herman and Krishnan 1994) Therefore. beads of various materials. Though.

all the ceramics were recorded in a typological description chart prepared based on the ideas derived from various ceramic studies. in press). Anarta and Sorath Harappan cultures is an interesting example to understand the similarities and differences between the three cultures/traditions. Subsequently. All the ceramics and antiquities from Padri and other explored sites are preserved in the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institue. Adams and Adams (1991). The site revealed a mud structural complex of pressed clay having nine rectangular or squarish interconnected rooms measuring 12. March 138    . Vidale (2000).5 m (IAR 1995-96. Miller (2007). Padri is the only regional Chalcolithic site in Gujarat which revealed clear cut evidence for the existence of architectural structure during the regionalization era. Manchanda (1972). Padri was selected as a type site for research. Cleaning and Documentation of Artifacts Almost all the ceramics from Loteshwar. Orton et al. being the only one excavated site and representative site of Padri Ware. Rice (1987). Above all. In the next stage. Bhagat 2001. No chemicals were used to remove the encrustation as it will affect the ceramics which were very fragile in nature. Padri ware also occurs in the Mature Harappan level at the site. Shirvalkar 2008. The complex nature of the site showing the features of Padri. most of the encrustations were removed and dried them in natural condition. Shirvalkar 2008). Shinde et al. Steatite beads were also reported from the earliest level. (1993). etc. R3.Methods of Study ware also shows similarities to Anarta pottery in some decorative patterns and shapes (Shinde and Kar 1992. Pune. sherds of same vessels were noticed and they were joined using quick fix or B 72. R2.5x12. all the ceramics were numbered in serial order (R1.) and stored. Shepard (1985 reprint). Datrana and some ceramics from Vagad were heavily encrusted with salt. The C14 dates for the Pre-Harappan phase at Padri goes back to fourth millennium BC (3636 BC). Works of Dales and Kenoyer (1986). While cleaning. rubbed by a soft brush. The ceramics were soaked in the water for 3-4 days.

presence of slip and paint on the sherd. nature of fracture/breakage.). Macroscopic details recorded include serial number. and Dodd (1994) helped in understanding the basic shapes. maximum size of a sherd is given as supporting evidence. heating technique and perforations. firing technique. colour of the core. depth. Most of the sherds from Loteshwar and Datrana IV are very small in size. for clarity. there is no uniformity in the description of ceramic wares in excavation reports and they were determined on the basis of colour. mica. presence of graffiti. surface treatment. texture of the sherd. Rye and Evans (1976). decoration. maximum size of the sherd. presence of carination/projected shoulder. Banning (2002). colour of the core. Plog (1980). one side of all the sherds from 139    . type of decoration. surface. trench name. As the sections of the sherds from Loteshwar were encrusted with salt. surface. vessel shape. identification of vessel parts. texture. Generally. Turner (2004 ed. layer. Arnold (2008). nature of perforation. to maintain the uniformity in the results of analysis. finishing technique. surface treatment. So. number and position of perforations. surface condition. ware. Due to this reason.Methods of Study (1934). presence and position of decoration. thickness of ceramics.). Skibo and Feinman (1999 ed. chronology. organic inclusions. vessel forms and ceramic drawing. feel of the sherd. Hence. core condition. sometimes it was difficult to distinguish certain rim sherds into pot/ basin or bowl/basin. diameter of the vessel. In this thesis main categorization of the wares is based on colour of the sherd. it was difficult to understand the texture of the sherds. manufacturing techniques. sand particles. condition of the preservation of painting. vessel part. remarks and drawing of representative sherds (Appendix 1). Sinopoli (1993). presence of marks. Kipfer (2007). Therefore. probable manufacturing technique. O’Brien and Lyman (2002). slip and paint of the pottery were recorded using Munsell Soil Colour Chart (1954).

Texture of all the sherds was recorded in a standardized manner using sand paper chart prepared by the researcher. As the grades of sand papers increases from 36 to 120. faience beads. 3. In case of the artifacts. the records in antiquity register formed the basic data for analysis. steatite beads. Chronology of Loteshwar. 50. Texture : Denominations of Flint/Sand Paper Fine : 100/120 and 120+ Medium : 60/80 and 120+ Coarse : -36. medium and coarse.Methods of Study Loteshwar were scraped/cut using ceramic cutting machine/electric saw. 80. All sherds irrespective of coarse. medium and fine texture contained particles smaller than 120. terracotta beads. 60. Anarta Pottery and Early Harappan Burial Pottery. stone blades. 36/50 and 120+ General observation of most of the artifacts other than the ceramics from type sites has not shown any visual difference from those of the Classical Harappan sites. Various grades of sand papers of Jawan Company were used to categorize the texture of ceramics into fine.1). cores and copper objects. 140    . 100 and 120 (fig. This made the sections very clear and at the same time not leading to any significant change in the shape of the sherds. The common artifacts recovered from the sites include pottery discs. stone beads. particle size become smaller and finer. Following pattern was used to define the texture of the ceramics. The denominations of the sand papers used were 36. Padri and Vagad were assessed on the basis of conventional and AMS radio carbon dates and Datrana on the basis of relative dates of ceramics like Pre-Prabhas Pottery.

Jawan Brand 141    . 3.1: Jawan Flint/Sand Paper Chart 36 = Coarse 50 = Coarse 60 = Medium 80 = Medium 100 = Fine 120 = Fine Courtesy: Flint Papers.Methods of Study Fig.

2004). 1988-89. ceramics and other associated finds stratigraphically. 2003. Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan) (IAR 1987-88. feature and sub square of the trench. 142    . Classical Harappan and Mesopotamian) (Cleuziou and Tosi 2000) in Oman. 1989-90) and Loteshwar (Anarta) (IAR 1990-91) in Gujarat and Ra's al-Jinz (Local. Therefore. Hence. Field Survey/Exploration Field surveys were carried out in selected regions with an aim to locate and record settlements belonging to regional Chalcolithic cultures to understand the nature of the sites. Bhan et al. The re-excavation at Loteshwar in 2009 was highly precise and samples for various scientific studies and dating were collected from each lot. the researcher participated in the excavations of various Harappan associated and regional Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat and outside to understand the architectural features. All the excavations in Gujarat were vertical in nature and at Oman it was horizontal. Shikarpur and Loteshwar lot (each dig as separate entity) and feature systems (one dig may contain various features and they were treated separately) incorporated to have better control of the archaeological data. For the convenience of excavation and control of the context all these sites in Gujarat were divided into grids of 5x5m. The researcher participated in the excavations of the sites like Bagasra/Gola Dhoro (Anarta. Classical Harappan. Shikarpur (Anarta. its pits and artifacts. the investigator did not get an opportunity to participate in the excavations to understand the nature of these Chalcolithic sites located in various regions of Gujarat. At Bagasra. The excavation also helped to understand the nature of one of the type sites. identify the distribution of similar artifacts in a particular region. Jaidak/Pithad (Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan) (Ajithprasad 2008). Classical Harappan. Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan) (Sonawane et al. conventional stratigraphic method was followed while at Jaidak.Methods of Study Participation in Excavations The type sites considered for this research were excavated long time before the beginning of the study.

Washington. Apart from this.000 scale map prepared by the Army Map Service (LD). Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to record the co-ordinates of the sites. geography. C. These stood as great obstacles for full coverage/transect survey. U. The exploration was conducted with the help of an archaeologist and a vehicle to reach the village. Corps of Engineers. height of the mounds and sometimes to register the waypoints. Army. Field survey included systematic surface survey to locate archaeological sites. in 1954. While. recording features of the sites and collection of artifacts. geomorphology. location of modern settlements and its subsistence pattern. Though the study area incorporates whole Gujarat. So. Pre-exploration research in relation to present study helped in understanding the geology. followed by walking down to the archaeological mound. 1:250. Google Earth and relevant literature were used for locating villages. soil types. D. Naksha-ma-Gujarat (Gujarati language).Methods of Study periodize the explored sites based on excavated sites in the survey region and to re-examine the sites that were already reported. Methods of Exploration Full coverage survey/transect survey was almost impractical for the single investigator as the survey region was vast and due to the restraints on resources and funding. some places it was difficult to approach the villages due to the highly damaged nature of roads or due to the absence of a proper line. understanding the drainage pattern and geological features of the study area. some are marshy areas and in some places the ideas of private properties are very high. 143    . the target area of exploration had to be reduced as it was impossible to explore the whole state in limited time period. some regions are highly exploited for agricultural purposes. drainage pattern. S. probable boundary of the sites. Most of the villages in the survey regions were connected by stone paved roads and small lines. rainfall. different small pockets in various regions were selected for village to village surveys.

Palitana and 144    . Above all. Gogha. These problems showed light to the necessity to conduct full coverage surveys in the future to have more reliable data regarding the distribution pattern of sites. The survey in Padri covered parts of Talaja. Maliya and Dhrangadhra talukas of Rajkot district and Halvad and Dasada-Patdi talukas of Surendranagar district and re-examined selected excavated Chalcolithic sites in north-Gujarat. It was also impossible to relocate some of the sites reported by the previous explorers as the co-ordinates were incorrect. The sites were located by using traditional archaeological survey methods such as their proximity to noticeable geomorphologic features. soil/agricultural potentials and raw material resources. Saurashtra and South Gujarat. Intensive village to village surveys were carried out to understand the nature of the Chalcolithic settlements around Lothal and Padri along with participating in the explorations in the area around Somnath/Prabhas Patan. earth removed for domestic activities and unawareness of the local people about the sites. The shortcoming of the village to village survey is the missing out of small sites. the help of the villagers were essential to locate them. In spite of all these shortcomings. Regardless of these drawbacks. small or low artifact scatters.Methods of Study Road maps and topo-sheets were used to locate the villages and great care was taken to avoid missing any site. proximity to water sources. mounds destroyed for agricultural purposes or construction of roads. there was a tendency by the local people to misguide the investigator to exaggerate the importance of the village or due to their ignorance. the survey presents representative and accurate data. hence. The region around most of the sites were under cultivation. Explorations were carried out within a radius of 25km of the excavated sites of Padri and Lothal. Sometimes. this method was very helpful as it led to the location of many sites of archaeological interest. Kachchh. coastal regions of South Gujarat. the surveys were carried out in the summer season which gave more visibility of fields. activity areas and sites without a prominent mound.

Padri (Shinde and Kar 1992). 1988). 1995). 1996). Lothal and Dholavira have site museums and 145    . Bagasra/Gola Dhoro (Sonawane et al.Methods of Study Bhavnagar talukas of Bhavnagar district. Bhan et al. 1971. Mathutra (Majumdar 1999). Kanmer was visited during the excavation and it provided information regarding the architectural features of these sites. Rangpur (Rao 1963). Kuntasi (Dhavaliakr et al. 2009). Explorations in Maliya and Dhrangadhra talukas of Rajkot district and Halvad and Dasada-Patdi talukas of Surendranagar district under Arun Malik revealed Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan pottery. Loteshwar (IAR 1990-91). Various excavated sites located in different regions of Gujarat were surveyed/visited to understand the features of them. At Lothal. Among these. None of the explored sites in the above mentioned regions revealed evidences for the existence of Anarta pottery. Padri Ware and Pre-Prabhas Pottery. 2004). 1998-99. Moti Pipli (Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-97). Nagwada (Hegde et al. Santhli (Ajithprasad 2002. Kuntasi and Dholavira are preserved for the visitors. Explorations in Mangrol and Veraval talukas of Junagadh district under the direction of Ajithprasad yielded sites having Early Harappan Burial pottery. 2004). 2003. 1988-89. Ratanpura (Bhan 1989). Prabhas Ware and Sorath Harappan pottery. Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan Ceramics. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). The excavated sites visited by the investigator include Malvan (Allchin et al. 1994. Bhagatrav (Rao 1963). 2005. Datrana (Ajithprasad 2002). Lothal (Rao 1979. Pithad/Jaidak (Ajithprasad 2008). 1985). Micaceous Red Ware. Anand (Khambhat taluka) and Surendranagar (Limbdi taluka). Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. Lothal. H. 1989b. 1991. 2009) and Dholavira (Bisht 1989a. Somnath (Nanavati et al. 1989-90). Explorations in coastal regions of Gujarat under V. the field reconnaissance covered parts of the districts of Ahmedabad (Dholka and Dhandhuka talukas). Sonawane and Ajithprasad yielded sites having Classical Harappan. Shikarpur (IAR 1987-88.

barren lands. Palitana and Bhavnagar talukas were in the purview of the survey region. Thus an area of 25 km radius was selected. people selected sites where basic conditions of life such as natural shelter. small streams and rocky terrains. or where the basic raw material sources were not further than a day’s walking distance from the settlement (Katalin 1998: 2). In the earliest times of human history. food resources. Paul 1999) and Shirvalkar (2008). The exploitation of resources is directly related to the distance from the site. The area was earlier surveyed by Paul. To identify the distribution of Padri Ware.Methods of Study many of the antiquities recovered from the excavations kept in these museums also furnished first hand information regarding the artifact assemblage from these sites. the first survey was carried out at excavated site in Padri Gohilini in Talaja taluka and then covered all the villages in the taluka. settlements tended to be located where all of these conditions were met. none of them yielded Chalcolithic sites. it was assumed that Chalcolithic communities exploited the raw material sources closer to their habitation area for the subsistence and the maximum area they covered by foot in a day as 25km through and fro probably. 10-15km. 510km. 15-20km and 20-25km respectively. Based on these observations. water bodies. A number of sites of Chalcolithic and succeeding cultural periods were also located in this region. It was also necessary to understand the nature of neighbouring sites. grass lands. some villages in Gogha. Though. Hence. and raw material sources were present and consequently. Tripathy and Shinde (Paul et al. soil types and grass lands around the type site which might have played a major role in the life of the people in the site. the abundance of raw material should fall off with the increase in distance from its source Wilson (2007: 392) and Renfrew (1977: 71–90) called it as monotonic decrement. The survey covered cultivated lands. divided into five successive circles of 5km each with the excavated sites (Lothal and Padri) at centre and each circles covered 0-5km. Minor variations 146    . 1997.

Methods of Study were noticed in geomorphology and soil types of the region. Momin (1979). GPS (Garmin eTrex Vista) was also used to get the rough shape of the site and its size. Length. Apart from the excavated sites. The second survey was carried out in the area around Lothal. the exploration yielded number of Chalcolithic (Rangpur IIA. The explorations in parts of Dholka. disturbed nature of these sites and low density of artifacts. This also led to the loss of the original context of 147    . IIB & IIC). Early Historic and Medieval sites in various land forms. Dimri (1999) and Krishnan and Dimri (2005). Khambhat and Limbdi talukas yielded number of Chalcolithic. The excavated site at Padri is almost completely destroyed by removing earth for domestic purposes and the mound is levelled into the surrounding ground level. Though. Some sites showed evidences for the Chalcolithic and Early Historic occupation in a single mound and due to this it was also difficult to determine the distribution of artifacts belonging to each cultural phases in different parts of the mound. The boundary and size of the sites were very difficult to assess due to the agricultural practices. Dhandhuka. none of the Chalcolithic sites in the explored region showed evidence of structural remains. Most of the sites were represented by very low mounds with occasional occurrence of sites levelled to the surrounding ground level for agricultural purposes. The comparison of the data derived from pacing and GPS were used to address the methodological problems involved in traditional techniques. breadth and height of the sites were recorded in meters and from this size of the total mound was calculated in hectares. The site size was determined on the basis of artifact scatter and its boundary was estimated by pacing. This exploration yielded number of sites having Micaceous Red Ware while none of the sites showed independent existence of this ceramic type. Early Historic and Medieval sites none of them yielded Padri Ware except the excavated site at Padri Gohilini. Different parts of the Bhal region was earlier surveyed by Rao (1963).

As photographs can provide a lot of information for later studies. Samples were collected randomly in pottery bags from all over the archaeological mounds to obtain accurate information about spatial distribution of artifacts and the bags labelled with date. Selected 148    . landforms. water sources. From the sites with higher density of artifacts representative samples of different wares and from the sites with very low density of artifacts all the available specimens were collected. major artifacts and chronological position. The classification and periodization of all the artifacts were undertaken at a later stage. All the mounds are named based on their local names and sometimes the names of the owners of the fields used.Methods of Study artifacts. The ceramics were cleaned. The artifacts were more visible in ploughed fields than the cropped ones. size. distance from the village. material. In some sites antiquities are highly weathered due to their prolonged exposure to natural agencies and some are highly encrusted with salts. As some archaeological sites showed different cultural phases it was difficult to determine visible differences in the artifact scatter in various parts of the same. labelled and documented in the pottery recording sheet. colour. Site details were recorded on site recording sheet (Appendix 2) prepared as per researcher’s objectives and requirements. its shape. stone objects. size (using digital calliper) and other features of the artifacts other than ceramics were also recorded in separate sheets. Special care was taken to avoid any bias during sampling and recording artifact information. shell objects and some faunal remains. co-ordinates. Major artifacts recovered from the sites include diagnostic sherds of pottery. site name and village name. Details like object. Both complete name of the sites and its abbreviations were filled in the recording sheet along with names of village and taluka. Other data filled in the form for primary analysis include condition of the site. This helped the investigator to systematically record the comparable parallel primary set of data regarding each site. digital colour photographs of the sites and its all relevant features were taken. soil types.

2003. 1971). Bagasra (Sonawane et al. Nagwada (Hegde et al. 2004). Somnath (Nanavati et al. photographed and compared with other excavated ceramics from the study area. Kanewal (Mehta et al. These ceramics were compared with those of the excavated sites in the survey region. Periodization of Sites Relative chronology and classification of sites into various periods were done on the basis of comparative analysis of the ceramics from explored sites with various excavated sites in Gujarat. Shinde 1992a. 1971). Clutton-Brock 1965. Classification of Ceramics Ceramics from the explored sites were classified based on typology for relative dating and periodization of settlements. Lothal (Rao 1979. Jokha (Mehta et al. 2005). 1990). sites from the explored areas were 149    . Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. Malvan (Allchin et al. Dhatva (Mehta et al. Excavation reports of the sites like Rangpur (Rao 1963). Based on shape. they were classified and defined. 1995). Periodization of the explored sites was done through the relative dates of ceramics and chronometric dates of excavated sites. Nageswar (Hegde et al. 1980). 1975). Chalcolithic ceramic group from the survey regions included Sorath Harappan pottery. All macroscopic details of the ceramics were recorded in the pottery description chart (Appendix 1) as in the case of the excavated ceramics. Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. Classical Harappan pottery and Micaceous Red Ware at Lothal area. The sherds were separated into diagnostic and undiagnostic forms and further divided into regional Chalcolithic. Oriyo Timbo (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990). 1996). 1988). Surkotada (Joshi 1990). Early Historic and Medieval types. Based on the results of the analysis. colour and texture of the vessels. Harappan. Bhan et al. Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965. Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989).Methods of Study samples were drawn. 1992b). 1985). Ehrhardt and Kennedy 1965) and Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985) were used for this purpose. Padri (Shinde and Kar 1992. Padri Ware was completely absent in the explored regions.

It also prevents the accurate representation of site distribution in various regions. This data base was prepared by combining the data from various excavation reports. Size of the sites are not given in many reports and it also prevents the possibilities of further studies like rank size analysis. the co-ordinates of almost all sites reported till 2000 are incorrect. In Gujarat.D. sometimes it is impossible to locate the sites. Preparation of Site Data Base and Maps In order to understand the broad distribution pattern of Harappan and other regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions in Gujarat a data base of reported explored sites was prepared. with in a district there are many villages having the same name.A Review. it is impossible to prove the Early/Pre Urban Harappan nature of the sites based on surface finds and in the absence of other Pre Urban Harappan Ceramics. there was a default error of approximately half kilometre in GPS data and by the end of 2000 this error was rectified. Till 2000. books. The ceramics from the survey regions can be fit into the Rangpur and Rojdi sequences. theses. hence the sites reported 150    . Therefore. As this database is based on secondary data. many areas were repeatedly explored by various researchers in different time periods. Geo-coordinates of many sites are not given and in most of the cases they are not accurate.Methods of Study placed in Mature/Urban Harappan and Late/Post Urban Harappan phases. hence many sites were reported more than once by different explorers or by the same explorer(s) with the same name or different names. In the earlier times. articles in journals and Ph. Hence. in the absence of co-ordinates. Though Micaceous Red Ware was recovered from some of the explored sites in Lothal area. Indian Archaeology. Many districts were created dividing the existing ones. All the sites are dated based on the ceramics and there is no uniformity in the same and many regional Chalcolithic ceramics were considered as Harappan ones. there are all possibilities of error of at least half a kilometre. the co-ordinates were calculated from the topo-sheets and location of the villages was given instead of sites. In Gujarat. Hence. there are all possibilities of using secondary references.

Micaceous Red Ware Tradition. This database does not represent the original distribution of sites as many sites were destroyed by the vagaries of human and nature. Late Sorath Harappan. Some areas are very intensively explored while others are not at all explored. In Gujarat. sites of Anarta tradition. Lustrous Red Ware. it is imperative to conduct a full coverage survey in Gujarat by a centrally organized team. its co-ordinates and approach roads. 151    .Methods of Study prior to the partition of districts may bear the wrong district name. Google Earth and Microsoft Office were used for the preparation of distribution maps. Various softwares like Adobe Photoshop. Padri culture. the difference of half or one kilometre will not make much difference. Early Harappan Burial Pottery. In spite of all these drawbacks. therefore. One can compare this data with the previous ones and address various methodological issues. various maps prepared based on these data base can provide broad distribution pattern of various cultures/traditions in different regions of Gujarat. Integration Era. Classical Harappan. GIS and Google Earth aided photography and collection of various artifacts to fix the chronology of various sites and distribution of various cultures/cultural phases within the site. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. Corel Draw. raw material sources and artifact scatters. village to village survey is the common exploration technique and it is mainly based on the information provided by the villagers. Prabhas Assemblage. Map Info Professional. preparation of contour plans using total station. there is a chance of missing hundred of small sites. Sorath Harappan. This will immensely help to understand the distribution of various sites in different regions of Gujarat. recording the measurements of the sites. Jorwe Ware and Malwa Ware in Gujarat were plotted separately. all the sites of Regionalization Era. In an A4 size map. Thus. Global Mapper. Localization Era. some are not discovered till date and many discovered sites are not reported. Maps showing the distribution pattern of all the explored Chalcolithic sites.

there is a chance of huge variation in the number of artifacts from different size. differences in raw material sources. Some sites were excavated widely while trial trenches or limited number of trenches were dug in others. EMS. cultural sequence and regional stratigraphy of Gujarat was prepared to understand the distribution of various cultures/traditions in different region of Gujarat in different time periods. Compilation of Data and Thesis Writing Final stage of the research was the compilation of all the relevant information and drafting of the thesis. relative chronology (stratigraphy and seriation) and other material remains from the excavated sites. Preparation of Database of Antiquities and Graphs In order to understand the site wise and region wise variability in the use of raw materials and artifacts. But. Some of the sites are very huge (above ten to sixty hectare) in nature while some are medium size (above one to ten hectare) or very small (less than one hectare). variation in materials and artifacts can be considered as indicators of variation in cultures/traditions. The sites of Gujarat were excavated in various degrees. Necessary maps. Thesis was structured into five chapters that incorporated. and thermoluminescence dates). bibliography and appendices. review of Chalcolithic studies in Gujarat. The distribution of artifacts is high (thousands of ceramics) in some sites while others have moderate or very low number (less than ten). trade contacts and site function. conclusion. results of survey and reanalysis of artifacts. tables and graphs were also placed in appropriate sections. methods of study. introduction. database and graphs of artifacts from available excavated Chalcolithic sites were prepared. Various softwares were used during the final drafting of the thesis and they include 152    .Methods of Study Preparation of Chronological Sequence and Regional Stratigraphy Based on chronometric dates (conventional radio carbon. discussion on chronology and construction of regional stratigraphy. So. figures.

Adobe Photoshop. Google Earth. Map Info Professional. Microsoft Origin.Methods of Study Microsoft Office. Global Mapper and Golden Software Surfer. Corel Draw. Map Source. End Note. 153    . Acrobat Professional.

But if you do nothing there will be no result. re-analysis of ceramics and other artifacts from selected excavated sites and its comparison with those of other excavated sites. Padri and Vagad are studied in detail to understand the characteristic features of the regional Chalcolithic people and recognize the changes they underwent from the Pre Urban Harappan Period to the Post Urban Harappan Period. Chalcolithic researches in various subregions of Gujarat resulted in the discovery of 755 sites belonging to different 154    . The characteristic features of Anarta Tradition. The second section presents the results of the study conducted by the researcher on the materials which were recovered from the excavations carried out by different institutes in various parts of Gujarat. The first section deals with the distribution pattern of the chalcolithic sites in Gujarat along with its relative chronology as derived from the data of previous researchers. Padri Culture and Micaceous Red Ware are discussed here in detail. Prabhas Assemblage. The results of the study are presented in the following three sections. Section I DISTRIBUTION OF CHALCOLITHIC SITES IN GUJARAT Introduction As mentioned in the previous chapters. Pottery and other artifacts from Loteshwar.Chapter – IV RESULTS You may never know what results come of your action. Datrana. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. The third section presents the results obtained through the explorations of the sub-region that was considered as one of the ‘type regions’ for the present study by the researcher. (Mahatma Gandhi) This chapter presents the results of explorations.

Chronological classification 155    . Most of these sites may contain artifacts of a single culture/period or of multiculture/period. In many sites. articles in journals and Ph. district.D.A Review. In the context of Chalcolithic cultures in Gujarat. the definition of site might vary from find spot of two or three potsherds or artifacts to landscape having millions of potsherds. books. District and sub-region wise distribution of cultures/traditions which existed in Gujarat in between c. taluka. there are some lacunas in the data regarding the sites. 3700-900 BC excluding the Mesolithic culture is described in the following section. rivers and sea are not mentioned. Many of the reported sites are also creating challenges to the researchers as sometimes the same site is repeatedly reported by one explorer himself/herself or by other explorers in the same name or in some other name. Sites and Location Details In majority of the publications related to exploration and excavation data. the term site is not defined. village. owner of the land. hence. In many cases the size of the sites are not mentioned and there are also differences in the size of the same site published by different explorers. nearby water bodies such as lakes. theses. In many publications. different kinds of artefacts representing Classical Harappan and Regional Chalcolithic Cultures are occurring but many of the explorers report them as sites of Harappan or the culture/tradition of their interest. while others are concentrated in certain areas and sparsely distributed in other parts of the state. Some of these cultures/traditions are widely spread all over Gujarat. exploration and excavation reports. the location details such as local name of the site.Results cultures/traditions. Size of the sites (distribution of artifacts) also varies from 5x5 m to 60 ha. other artifacts and elaborate architectural features. The districtwise distribution pattern of the Chalcolithic cultures/traditions are prepared based on sites reported in Indian Archaeology.

In many occasions. location details provided in the excavation and exploration reports are used. there are very few publications dealing with the discovery of new sites.5 km to 5 kms as co-ordinates of most of the sites were recorded using topo-sheets. Similarly. Chalcolithic sites were not reported from Navsari. While using the topo sheets. However. Co-ordinates of many sites are not given in excavation and exploration reports. At the reference sections. this will not create much disparity as the details/features visible in the A4 size map are very minimal. sometimes there will be mismatch in the data in the table and map. the published details of the sites can be used to draw a broad pattern of distribution of Chalcolithic sites in different sub-regions of Gujarat. Valsad. as it is based on secondary data. Dahod. incorrect co-ordinates make relocating many sites very difficult or almost impossible. Dangs. in this thesis the references regarding sites may not carry details of the original discoverer of the same or original year of discovery. Due to this. In this thesis. In spite of all the aforesaid lacunas. Gandhinagar and Sabarkantha districts. Many of the co-ordinates collected prior to the beginning of 21st century using Global Positioning System(s) are also incorrect (error up to 500m) due to an inherent error in the GPS for the global security purposes. location details of the sites are not updated. there is no uniformity in the same. It may also be noted that while plotting in an A4 size map differences of 2 or 3 km have occured. Narmada. In many exploration and excavation reports. mostly coordinates of villages are given instead of the sites. After 2000 (the error in GPS rectified). Even in many geo-coordinated sites. Tapi. One site each was 156    . the works referred by the researcher are mentioned and thus may have missed the name of the first explorer or his/her work. there is a chance of an error of at least 0. Till date. due to the later division of districts and talukas to form newer ones.Results of many of the sites is based on ceramics and as the methodology adopted by each researcher while recording them varies.

Among the 755 Chalcolithic sites identified till date. The probabilities of non preference of certain areas for habitation by the Chalcolithic communities cannot be ruled out. 19 (2.2. Ahmedabad and Amreli districts.3.1 and 4. The reasons for the absence of sites in certain areas in different districts may be many including destruction of sites due to cultural and natural processes and unexplored nature of certain areas.1) in various degrees ranging from surface scrapping/trial digging at sites like Khanpur and large scale excavations at Dholavira. 500 400 300 200 100 0 Kachchh Saurashtra North Gujarat South Gujarat Unknown 19 10 Sub-Regions Number of Sites 62 482 182 Chart 4. No full coverage survey is carried out in Gujarat till date and this may be a reason for considering that sites are absent in certain areas.84%) were reported from Saurashtra. Table 4.1).2. In Saurashtra. which may even change in due course of time.Results reported from Vadodara and Panchmahal districts. Rajkot.52%) from South Gujarat and 10 (1. In North Gujarat. fifty six were excavated (Chart 4. Map 4.1.32%) from localities whose details are not available (Chart 4. While considering the 157    . Table 4.1: Sub-region wise Distribution of All Reported Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat Among the reported sites. 482 (63.11%) from North Gujarat. most of the sites are reported from Banaskantha district followed by Surendranagar and Mehsana. most of the sites are reported from Bhavnagar. Map 4.21%) from Kachchh. followed by Jamnagar. 62 (8. 182 (24. The reasons for the conspicuous absence of Chalcolithic sites in the districts along the eastern border of Gujarat are not very clear.

Results 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Suren Kachc Jamna Porba Junaga Amrel Bhavn Ahme Mehsa Banas Vadod Panch Bharu Unkno Rajkot Anand Kheda dranag Patan Surat hh gar ndar dh i agar dabad na kantha ara mahal ch wn ar Kachchh Number of Sites 62 Saurashtra 105 3 17 87 30 North Gujarat 151 68 2 19 63 50 3 South Gujarat 66 1 1 9 Unknown 8 10 Chart 4.2: District wise Distribution of All the Reported Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 158    .

Results Map 4.1: District wise Distribution of All the Reported Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 159    .

Jorwe Ware and Microliths in Chalcolithic context were reported from sixteen. 28 in Saurashtra. Absolute dates (mainly radio carbon and few thermo-luminescence dates) are available from twenty one excavated sites (Chart 4. Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery. Malwa Ware. five hundred and forty six and four hundred and twenty nine sites respectively.Results distribution of excavated sites. 10 in North Gujarat and 9 in South Gujarat. Padri Ware. Micaceous Red Ware. Classical Harappan/Sorath Harappan. Map 4.1). Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan artefacts of Classical Harappan and regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions were revealed by twenty one. Reserved Slip Ware. twenty.6. Black and Red Ware. Table 4. three. nineteen. Map 4.5. Prabhas Ware. Table 4.1). Anarta Tradition.5.4. three and one hundred and sixty eight sites respectively. two. Among the reported sites. Among the excavated sites. twenty eight. twelve. 4 in North Gujarat 2 in South Gujarat and 3 in Saurashtra subregions (Chart 4.4.1). Lustrous Red Ware. 9 6 3 0 Sure Ban Ah Bha Me Bha Jam Kac Juna Por Sura Pata ndr Rajk aska Am Khe med ruc hsa vna nag hch gad ban t n ana ot nth reli da aba h na gar ar h h dar gar a d Kachchh Number of Sites 9 1 Saurashtra 1 2 1 3 North Gujarat South Gujarat 6 6 8 5 1 2 2 4 5 Chart 4. five hundred and forty six. thirteen have fortifications and two of the explored sites also show its presence (Chart 4. PreUrban Harappan. PrePrabhas Assemblage. Twelve sites showed the presence of burials and among them 3 are located in Kachchh.3: Sub-region wise Distribution of Excavated Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 160    . Map 4. Table 4. The Burials in Langhnaj (Mesolithic site having Chalcolithic affiliation) is Mesolithic in nature.3. sixty seven. forty six. 9 are located in Kachchh. one hundred and twenty four.

2: District wise Distribution of Excavated Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat 161    .Results Map 4.

5 0 Suren Ahm Bhav Jamn Rajko Porba Mehs Kach Junag drana Patan Surat edaba nagar agar t ndar ana chh adh gar d Kachchh Number of Sites 3 Saurashtra 1 2 3 3 North GujaratSouth Gujara 3 1 1 1 2 1 Chart 4.5 2 1.6: District wise Distribution of Sites Having Chronometric Dates in Gujarat 162    .4: District wise Distribution of Fortified Settlements in Gujarat 4 3 2 1 0 Kachch Banask Mehsa Surend Bharuc Ahmed Bhavna Patan Rajkot h antha na ranagar h abad gar Kachchh Number of Sites North Gujarat 3 1 1 1 South Gujarat 1 2 Saurashtra 1 1 1 Chart 4.5 1 0.Results 10 8 6 4 2 0 Kachchh Bhavnagar Ahmedabad Kachchh Number of Sites Jamnagar Rajkot Surendranag ar North Gujarat Saurashtra 8 1 1 1 3 1 Chart 4.5: District wise Distribution of Burial Sites in Gujarat 3.5 3 2.

Results Map 4.3: District wise Distribution of Fortified Chalcolithic Settlements in Gujarat 163    .

Results Map 4.4: District wise Distribution of Burial Sites in Gujarat 164    .

5: District wise Distribution of Chalcolithic Sites Having Absolute Dates in Gujarat 165    .Results Map 4.

Pre Urban Harappan sites can be broadly dated between c. Padri. Small scale trade and transportation through sea cannot be ruled out as well. Map 4.1 show the distribution pattern of Pre Urban Harappan sites in Gujarat.Results Pre Urban Harappan Sites Twenty one sites of the Pre Urban Harappan period were discovered from various parts (three from Kachchh. fishes and salt. thirteen from North Gujarat and five from Saurashtra sub-regions) of Gujarat. in Press). These sites revealed evidences of Anarta Tradition. 10 8 6 4 2 0 Kachchh Kachchh Number of Sites 3 Banaskan Bhavnag Mehsana Junagadh tha ar Saurashtra 1 4 Patan Surendra nagar North Gujarat 8 3 1 1 Chart 4. While looking at the distribution of sites along the area bordering the Saurashtra coast and Kachchh. Chart 4. At Saurashtra all the sites are located near the sea coast and selection of this geographical area might be for the exploitation of marine resources like shells.6 and Table 4. 3700-2600 BC. located in Talaja taluka is interpreted as a salt manufacturing centre by the excavator (Shinde et al. eleven were excavated in various degrees. Among the twenty one sites. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage and Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type pottery. These sites are mainly concentrated as two different clusters leaving a wide gap in between and the reasons for this gap are not clear.7: District and Sub-region wise Distribution of Pre Urban Harappan Sites 166    . Padri Ware. unexplored nature of the areas or non-preference of certain areas by the PreUrban Harappans for settlement.7. it is not wrong to assume that the mean sea level has remained the same since the Pre Urban Harappan period. The non-availabilty of sites of this period in many parts of Gujarat may be due to the shortcomings in exploration techniques. Based on the excavation data.

6: District wise Distribution of Pre Urban Harappan Sites in Gujarat 167    .Results Map 4.

The possibilities of the origin of the Chalcolithic communities from the Mesolithic folk settled in the area also cannot be ruled out. The reasons for the selection of such geographical area may be due to the accessibility of fresh water preserved in inter dunal depressions and the availabilty of pastures for domesticated animals. majority of the sites were reported from erstwhile Mehsana and Banaskantha districts and now most of the sites are located in the newly formed Patan district.7 and Table 4.8.Results Anarta Tradition The evidence available till date suggests that the core area of the spread of this tradition is North Gujarat. In North Gujarat. the number of the Anarta sites from the Saurashtra region will be fifteen and the overall site number will increase to seventy nine. If the so called Padri Ware is not different from the Anarta Tradition.8: District and Sub-region wise Distribution of Sites of Anarta Tradition 168    . The availability of raw materials like agate and amazonite in the area could be another reason. 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Kachch Surendr Mehsan Banaska Bhavna Ahmed Patan Rajkot h anagar a ntha gar abad Kachchh Number of Sites 4 North Gujarat 7 2 18 Saurashtra 34 1 1 1 Chart 4. Material remains of the Anarta tradition primarily characterized by the pottery are reported from sixty one sites in North Gujarat. Map 4. In North Gujarat.1 show the districtwise distribution of Anarta tradition in various sub-regions of Gujarat. Anarta sites are located in sand dunes. The Chart 4. four in Kachchh and three in Saurashtra sub-regions.

Results Map 4.7: District wise Distribution of Anarta Sites in Gujarat 169    .

Among the twelve reported sites.8 and Table 4. Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery Till date. The Harappan type ceramics (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) reported along with the Pre-Prabhas ceramics at Somnath may be the Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type pottery. 2011) also supports this possibility. Intensive explorations in other parts of Bhavnagar district and Saurashtra may provide a better picture regarding the distribution of this Ware. it was reported along with PrePrabhas and Anarta ceramics. In the sites located in North Gujarat and Kachchh these ceramics were found in symbolic burials or associated with burials and hence commonly called as burial pottery. The availability of these ceramics in different sub-regions of Gujarat shows that more systematic explorations can bring to light 170    .Results Padri Ware Till date. In most of the sites. none of the sites outside the Bhavnagar district produced evidence for the existence of Padri Ware. The discovery of this kind of ceramics in the nearby areas of Somnath (Ajithprasad et al. The occurrence of these ceramics in certain Anarta sites in North Gujarat indicates the earliest contacts of the Pre Urban Harappan communities of Sindh region (who were probably in search of raw materials or for the markets of finished products) and regional population. ten are from Talaja and two from Mahua talukas respectively (Map 4. Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type pottery is reported from fifteen sites in Gujarat. they were found associated with the Anarta ceramics.1). In all sites Padri Ware is chiefly associated with Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan ceramics. two in Kachchh and three in Saurashtra sub-regions respectively. All the sites reported till date from Saurashtra are located along the coast and it may be due to the existence of maritime trade (connecting Gujarat and other parts of Greater Indus region) and for the exploitation of marine resources. Among all the reported sites. At Datrana. Padri is the largest and the only excavated site. Among them ten are located in North Gujarat. Almost all the sites yielding this Ware are located in a cluster in the lower Shetrunji river basin.

Results Map 4.8: District wise Distribution of Padri Ware Sites in Gujarat 171    .

The reasons for the availability of this assemblage in two sites only of two different sub-regions need to be explored systematically. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Number of Sites Kachchh Junagadh Kachchh Saurashtra 2 3 Banaskantha Mehsana Surendranag ar North Gujarat 8 1 1 Chart 4. Anarta ceramics and Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type pottery are found together only in the upper level of the top layer. Pre-Prabhas pottery.9. there are only two Pre-Prabhas sites in Gujarat and they are located in Saurashtra and North Gujarat sub-regions respectively. The probable reason for the same may be the movement of people from one place to another.9 and Table 4. The possibilities of contact of the Pre-Prabhas people at Datrana with 172    . Chart 4. At Datrana. Map 4. the Urban Harappan like ceramics (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) was found along with the Pre-Prabhas assemblage. While at Somnath.9: District wise Distribution of Pre-Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery Pre-Prabhas Assemblage As per current knowledge.1 show the districtwise distribution of Pre-Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery in different sub-regions of Gujarat.Results more number of sites and better understanding of Sindh type ceramic using community. Based on the available data one can assume that the Pre-Prabhas assemblage at Datrana is older than the same in Somnath/Prabhas Patan.

9: District wise Distribution of Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery in Gujarat 173    .Results Map 4.

Map 4.10 and Table 4. Black and Red Ware Black and Red Ware ceramics are available from all the sub-regions of Gujarat. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Sur Ban Ah Bha Me Bha Jam Jun Kac aska med Am Ana Pata end Khe Raj Sura ruc hsa vna nag aga hch n rana da kot t nth aba reli nd h na gar ar dh h gar a d Kachchh Number of Sites 9 4 Saurashtra 1 2 7 4 South Gujarat North Gujarat 1 1 2 4 3 2 2 1 3 Chart 4.1 show the districtwise distribution of the same in different sub-regions of Gujarat. This ware is reported from nine sites in Kachchh. Datrana has more varieties and a greater concentration of artefacts too. While considering the ceramics and other material relics.1 show the district wise distribution of Pre-Prabhas Assemblage in Gujarat. This ceramic group occurs in different varieties throughout the Chalcolithic phase of Gujarat.10.Results the Sindh people at a later date cannot be ruled out as well. Map 4.10: District wise Distribution of Black and Red Ware in Gujarat 174    .11 and Table 4. twenty two in Saurashtra and seven in South Gujarat. Chart 4. eight in North Gujarat. The distribution of these ceramics does not reveal any particular pattern. The actual number of this kind of ceramic yielding sites may be higher than reported as in many exploration reports the availability of this ceramic type from various sites are not mentioned.

10: District wise Distribution of Pre Prabhas Sites in Gujarat 175    .Results Map 4.

Results Map 4.11 District wise Distribution of Black and Red Ware Sites in Gujarat 176    .

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Number of Sites Kachchh Ahmeda Jamnagar bad Kachchh Saurashtra 11 1 1 Rajkot Patan Banaskan Bharuch tha North Gujarat 3 1 2 South Gujarat 1 Chart 4.11: District and Sub-region wise Distribution of Reserved Slip Ware Urban Harappan (Classical/Sorath Harappan) Sites As per the available data it is very difficult to distinguish both the Classical and Sorath Harappan sites as majority of the sites of Urban Harappan period were reported as Harappan irrespective of its differences.12 and Table 4.Results Reserved Slip Ware Reserved Slip Ware (both ‘glazed’ and ‘unglazed’ variety) was reported from eleven sites in Kachchh.1 show the districtwise distribution of Reserved Slip Ware in different sub-regions of Gujarat. Map 4. Sites of this period are distributed in the coastal regions as well as the interiors of 177    . Most of the Reserved Slip Ware yielding sites are located in the area bordering the sea or near to the Rann. The availability of these ceramics at the sites in Kachchh is however much higher. these ceramics were found in very less quantity. five sites in Saurashtra. three sites in North Gujarat and one site in South Gujarat regions. Five hundred and forty six sites of the Urban Harappan period were reported from different parts of Gujarat. Chart 4. The special technique of its production. its fine quality and limited availability of the same in small number of sites shows it to be a luxurious table ware. In all the explored and excavated sites in Gujarat.11.

Results Map 4.12: District wise Distribution of Reserved Slip Ware Sites in Gujarat 178    .

Chart 4. five sites in North Gujarat and one 179    .12.13 and Table 4.1 show the districtwise distribution of Classical Harappan/Sorath Harappan artefacts in different sub-regions of Gujarat. seventy two in North Gujarat.Results Saurashtra and North Gujarat. 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Sur Pan Ah Bh Ban Un Jam Jun Por Bh Me end Kac ch Sur me Am An avn Kh Raj ask kno nag aga ban aru hsa ran hch eda kot ma at dab reli and aga ant wn ar dh dar ch na aga h hal ad r ha r Kachchh North Gujarat Number of Sites 54 22 16 36 62 25 Saurashtra 2 137 82 11 20 South Gujarat Unknown 1 67 7 1 3 10 Chart 4. ten in South Gujarat and ten are unknown due to the drawbacks in locational description. At Saurashtra maximum number of sites was reported from Bhavnagar district followed by Jamnagar. Hence. Micaceous Red Ware is reported from twenty two sites in Saurashtra. both the Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan sites are treated together due to the difficulty in distinguishing both the groups. Map 4. Majority of the sites showing Classical Harappan features are located in Kachchh and almost all the sites earlier reported as Harappan/Classical Harappan shows more affinity to Sorath Harappan rather than the Classical Harappan.12: District wise Distribution of Classical/Sorath Harappan Sites Micaceous Red Ware The material remains collected from different parts of Gujarat suggests that the core area of the existence of this tradition is Saurashtra. fifty four are located in Kachchh. Ahmedabad and Amreli respectively. Among the five hundred and forty six sites reported from Gujarat. four hundred in Saurashtra. Rajkot.

Results Map 4.13: District wise Distribution of Classical/Sorath (Urban Harappan) Sites in Gujarat 180    .

Map 4. Chart 4. Among the nineteen sites reported till date eighteen are from Saurashtra region and one from Kachchh. Map 4. At Saurashtra.14. At Saurashtra. Rajkot. Chart 4. it is mainly found in the districts of Junagadh.14 and Table 4.Results site in Kachchh sub-regions.13. A number of sites yielding Prabhas Ware are located in the areas bordering the sea. Amreli and Ahmedabad. the core region of the distribution of this ceramic type is Saurashtra. 181    .1 show the districtwise distribution of Micaceous Red Ware in different sub-regions of Gujarat. It is not a dominant Ware in any of the sites.15 and Table 4. it is found in a cluster in the district of Ahmedabad and the area of its distribution is known as Bhal region. Jamnagar. the low lying Marshy land.13: District wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware in Gujarat Prabhas Ware As per the available data.1 shows the district and sub-region wise distribution of Prabhas Ware in Gujarat. 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Banas Suren Kachc Ahme Anan Bhavn Jamna Kheda Rajkot kanth Patan drana hh dabad d agar gar a gar Kachchh Number of Sites 1 Saurashtra 14 1 3 1 North Gujarat 1 2 2 1 2 Chart 4.

14: District wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware Sites in Gujarat 182    .Results Map 4.

Results Map 4.15: District wise Distribution of Prabhas Ware Sites in Gujarat 183    .

Chart 4. Prabhas Ware. Only fifteen sites of this period instead of fifty four belonging to the Urban Harappan period are reported from Kachchh. Padri Ware. Map 4. followed by North Gujarat. Major concentration of the sites of this period is in Saurashtra. At North 184    . Lustrous Red Ware Lustrous Red Ware ceramics are reported from one hundred and twenty four sites in Gujarat.Results 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Kachchh Ahmedaba d Amreli Kachchh Number of Sites 1 Rajkot Junagadh Jamnagar 7 5 Saurashtra 1 2 3 Chart 4.16 and Table 4. Lustrous Red Ware. two each from Kachchh and South Gujarat regions showed its presence. The Post Urban Harappan sites revealed evidences of Micaceous Red Ware. Post Urban Harappan sites can be broadly dated between c.15. Sixty seven sites from Saurashtra. 1900-900 BC. Kachchh and South Gujarat sub-regions respectively. Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware. Based on the excavated artefacts and chronometric dates.14: District wise Distribution of Prabhas Ware in Gujarat Post Urban Harappan Sites Four hundred and twenty nine sites of the Post Urban Harappan period are reported from various parts of Gujarat.1 show the distribution pattern of Pre Urban Harappan sites in Gujarat. There is a reduction in the number of the sites during the Post Urban Harappan Period. fifty three from North Gujarat.

Anand and Jamnagar districts. Map 4. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sur Pa Va Ba Ah Bh Ja Bh en nc Me Por Ka Jun do me Am An avn mn Sur Pat Raj nas Kh aru dra hm hsa ban chc aga at dar an kot kan eda dab reli and aga aga nag aha ch na dar hh dh a tha ad r r ar l Kachchh Saurashtra Number of Sites 15 30 24 1 69 78 13 7 North Gujarat South Gujarat 3 46 49 34 2 45 1 1 5 6 Chart 4.15: District wise Distribution of Post Urban Harappan Sites in Gujarat 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sure Ban Juna Bha Jam Kac Ah Khe Sura ndra Meh Pata Rajk Amr Ana aska gad vnag naga hch med da t naga sana n ot eli nd ntha h ar r h abad r Kachchh Number of Sites 2 Saurashtra 1 6 1 14 31 South GujaratNorth Gujarat 7 1 6 2 13 27 1 12 Chart 4.17 and Table 4. Amreli.16. sites yielding this Ware were found distributed all over with few small clusters in Ahmedabad. these sites were found in a cluster.Results Gujart.1 show the districtwise distribution of Lustrous Red Ware in Gujarat.16: District wise Distribution of Lustrous Red Ware in Gujarat 185    . Chart 4. At Saurashtra.

16: District wise Distribution of Post Urban Harappan Sites in Gujarat 186    .Results Map 4.

17: District wise Distribution of Lustrous Red Ware Sites in Gujarat 187    .Results Map 4.

Map 4. Malvan and Nagal) of South Gujarat region in small quantities. This ceramic type might have come to the sites in South Gujarat probably due to the contacts of the inhabitants of the sites with the Deccan Chalcolithic communities. forty three in North Gujarat. The availability of the microliths in the Chalcolithic level shows the 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Ban Pan Sur Ah Bha Me Jam Bha Jun Por Kac Sur ask ch Pat end Raj Khe me Am ruc hsa nag vna aga ban hch at an ran kot da dab reli ant ma h na ar gar dh dar h ha hal agar ad Kachchh Number of Sites 13 1 Saurashtra 1 1 5 7 North Gujarat South Gujarat 10 17 59 2 6 15 20 1 4 6 Chart 4. Jokha and Malvan) in Surat district of South Gujarat region in very minimul qunatity. Jorwe Ware Jorwe Ware is also reported only from three sites (Jokha.17: District wise Distribution of Microliths Yielding Chalcolithic Sites 188    . Chalcolithic Sites Having Microliths Microliths in Chalcolithic levels were reported from one hundred and sixty eight sites in Gujarat.1 show the distribution of Jorwe Ware in Gujarat. Like the Malwa Ware.Results Malwa Ware Malwa Ware is reported only from three sites (Dhatva. It might have reached sites in South Gujarat probably due to the contacts maintained by the inhabitants of these sites with the Deccan Chalcolithic communities. hundred and one in Saurashtra and eleven in South Gujarat regions. Among them thirteen sites are located in Kachchh.19 and Table 4.18 and Table 4.1 show the distribution of Malwa Ware in Gujarat. Map 4.

18: District wise Distribution of Malwa Ware Sites in Gujarat 189    .Results Map 4.

19: District wise Distribution of Jorwe Ware Sites in Gujarat 190    .Results Map 4.

there was a sudden increase in the number sites during the Urban Harappan period compared to the Pre Urban Harappan period (Chart 4.18: Number of Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat agricultural activities could be another reason.1 show the sub-region wise distribution of Chalcolithic sites yielding Microliths. Chart 4. Map 4. social hierarchy and concept of private property may also led to the increase in the number of settlements.18). existence of controlling authority. The economic well being.17. The possibilities of population 191    . In the Post Urban Harappan period.Results continuation of the stone tool tradition from the Mesolithic period or/and interaction with the contemporary indigenous microlithic using communities.20 and Table 4. Anand. Patan and Surendranagar. The increase in the pastoral and 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Number of Sites Pre Urban Harappan Urban Harappan Post Urban Harappan 21 546 429 Chart 4. a general decline in the number of sites can be noticed. These sites were also found in clusters at Bhavnagar. Ahmedabad. The reasons for the increase in the number of sites during the Urban Harappan period may be the identification of Gujarat as a potential raw material source/market for finished goods by the Harappans of Sindh region or the assimilation of regional Chalcolithic communities and microliths using communities into the Harappan culture. Observations While observing the distribution pattern of the Chalcolithic settlements in Gujarat.

20: District wise Distribution of Chalcolithic Sites Yielding Microliths in Gujarat 192    .Results Map 4.

Post Urban Harappan sites. During this period the economy probably subsided on pastoral and agricultural activities and small scale internal trade. Padri. Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware show its major concentration in certain sub-regions or areas while Classical Harappan/Sorath Harappan sites. Various cultures/traditions/ceramic types like Anarta. This period also showed the presence of large fortified settlements indicating the presence of controlling authority and social hierarchy. The arid and semi arid regions of Gujarat are the noted grass growing areas and to exploit the grazing fields.Results pressure cannot be ruled out as well. Very less number of the sites are located in the densely vegetated fertile alluvial plains of South Gujarat. At times the ‘glazed’ variety also shows preferential distribution within the site (Krishnan: Personal Communication). Reserved Slip Ware. the Chalcolithic communities may have preferred these regions. The location of sites in different pockets of Gujarat close to various raw material sources also indicates the possibilities of the procurement of raw materials by the inhabitants of the settlements to support the craft industry. Certain ceramics like Reserved Slip Ware was probably used as a luxurious table ware as indicated by its limited presence in small number of sites. Lustrous Red Ware and Black and Red Ware are distributed all over Gujarat. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. This indicates the possibilities of an economy predominantly depended on pastoral activities. 193    . Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery. Micaceous Red Ware. The sites yielding the Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware are located in the South Gujarat and it might be due to the proximity to other sites in the Deccan region. The decrease in the number of sites during the Post Urban Harappan period may be due to economic setback suffered from the collapse of foreign trade. Prabhas Ware. Majority of the sites are located in the arid and semi arid regions of Gujarat like Kachchh. The results of the economic collapse of the settlements in the Indus region may have also affected the economy of the people of this region. North Gujarat and Saurashtra.

surface features. The drawbacks in the data related to sites. measurements. It is also important to collect various artifacts from different parts of the sites to understand the relative chronology and its different occupants or their contact with different cultures or traditions. different names of the sites.Results The absence of sites in certain areas of Gujarat may be due to its unexplored nature. points towards the necessity to undertake a full coverage survey of Gujarat region by a single team (to maintain consistency) and digitally document the co-ordinates. Such a systematic study can provide more information regarding the distribution pattern of Classical Harappan and other regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions of Gujarat. its location details and nearby raw material sources. lacunas in earlier exploration techniques or due to the non preference of certain areas by the Chalcolithic communities for habitation purposes. 194    .

POUH 7 Akvada Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 72° 15' 00" E UHCS. Majumdar 1999 Jairath 1986 2 Adeva Kheda Saurashtra 22° 36' 00" N 72° 33' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. Ghosh 1989 Possehl 1980: 89. Joshi et al. 1984 IAR 1972-73: 10. 1984 Rao 1963. POUH UHCS. 1999. Joshi et al. POUH Possehl 1980: 89. POUH 11 Ambaradi Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ POUH IAR 1960-61. Momin 1979 Ghosh 1989 IAR 1982-83.  Results    Table 4. MC 8 Alatala Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ POUH 9 Alau Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 71° 30' 00" E 10 Alia Bada Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 08' 00" N 69° 07' 00" E UHCS. 1984 IAR 1980-81 195    . No. Bhan 1986 IAR 1978-79 12 Ambardi _ _ _ _ UHCS Chitalwala 1985 Possehl 1980. MC 3 Ajamer 4 Akata Rajkot Mehsana Saurashtra North Gujarat 22° 40' 00" N _ 70° 50' 00" E _ POUH UHCS 5 Akhavadi no Timbo/Goradka 6 Akru Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 06' 00" N 72° 35' 00" E UHCS Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 71° 55' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. BRW.1: All the Reported Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat Sl. Site District Sub-Region Latitude Longitude Remarks References* 1 Adatala Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 05" N 71° 37' 06" E UHCS.

Possehl 1980. MC. 1999. 1984 Dimri 1999 196    . MC. ES. Bhan 1994 IAR 1957-58. Rao 1963. Rao 1963. Bhan 1986 IAR 1961-62 17 Aralee Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. POUH Bhan 1986 14 Ambliala Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 69° 44' 00" E UHCS Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. LRW. 1984 IAR 1957-58. Joshi et al. 1984 15 Amra Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 16' 00" N 69° 56' 00" E 16 Andhi Surat South Gujarat 21° 23' 00" N 72° 47' 00" E Rao 1963. 1999. MC. BRW. Possehl 1980. POUH LRW. POUH UHCS 18 Ardoi Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 05' 00" N 70° 47' 00" E POUH 19 Areeno no Timbo Amreli Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. 1984 Possehl 1999 20 Arikhan I Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 05' 00" N 70° 01' 00" E 21 Atariya no Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 39' 30" N 71° 55' 30" E UHCS.  Results    13 Ambhliyar Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 59' 00" N 69° 42' 00" E UHCS. 1999. 1984. POUH 22 Atkot Bus Stand Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 00' 42" N 71° 08' 46" E UHCS. ES. POUH IAR 1957-58. BRW. Joshi et al. POUH 24 Baba no Aohado Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 28' 30" N 71° 43' 55" E UHCS IAR 1980-81 Bhan 1986 IAR 1982-83. 1999. LRW. Hegde and Sonawane 1986. Possehl 1980. POUH 23 Atkot/Adkot Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 00' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E UHCS. POUH ES. Joshi et al. Rao 1963. Joshi et al.

P Researcher's Exploration Paul et al. Possehl 1980. LRW UHCS. MRW. POUH Bhan 1986 31 Balamdi Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 08' 00" N 70° 25' 00" E Bhan 1986 North Gujarat 23° 27' 00" N 71° 46' 00" E Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 17' 00" N 71° 58' 35" E UHCS. MC. FS. MC. PUHSRP. MC Sonawane et. Rao 1963. 2004 28 Bagaya no Timbo/Panchasar I 29 Bajaniya no Thumdo/ Koliwada III 30 Balamba Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 25' 30" N 71° 49' 30" E Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 49' 40" N 71° 29' 30" E Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 40' 00" N 70° 20' 00" E UHCS. POUH PUH.  Results    25 Babarkot Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 16' 04" N 71° 34' 15" E UHCS. MC. ES. ES.al. FS. 1999. POUH UHCS IAR 1955-56. al. POUH Bhan 1986 Hegde and Sonawane 1986. POUH UHCS. Bhan et. 1984 IAR 1965-66 26 Babra Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ 27 Bagasra/ Gola Dhoro Rajkot Saurashtra 23° 03' 30" N 70° 37' 10" E AT. POUH AT. LRW. AD. MC. RSW. AD. BRW. Joshi et al. UHCS. POUH 32 Balbhai no Timbo Mehsana 33 Balgamada/Govind Parekh no Khetar 34 Bandi Rohil Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 24' 00" N 72° 04' 00" E UHCS. MC. Bhan 1994 Ajithprasad and Sonawane (in press) Majumdar 1999 197    . 1997 35 Baraniya Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 00" N 72° 49' 00" E UHCS Mirchandani 1980 36 Bareja Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 27' 20" N 71° 58' 20" E POUH Dimri 1999 37 Bava Khakaria I Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 14' 00" N 70° 24' 00" E UHCS. 2003.

Possehl 1980. POUH 42 Bet Dwarka Jamnagar Saurashtra 22o 20' 00" N 69o 05' 00" E ES. POUH 43 Beyt Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Bhan 1986. 1999. AD. Shirvalkar 2008 IAR 1978-79. BRW. Bhan 1989 Rao 1987. 1984. 1999.  Results    38 Bed/Bedi Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 26' 00" N 69° 57' 00" E UHCS. 1999. Possehl 1980. Rao 1963 . Bhan 1986 IAR 1957-58. Gaur et al. RSW. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. POUH 40 Benap Banaskantha North Gujarat _ _ UHCS 41 Beraja no Timbo Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 20' 00" N 69° 44' 00" E UHCS. 1997. Bhan 1994 Rao 1963. LRW. 2005 Bhan 1983 44 Bhachau Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1985-86 45 Bhagatrav Bharuch South Gujarat 21° 29' 00" N 72° 42' 00" E 46 Bhagedi Mota Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. 1984 IAR 1966-67 198    . Joshi et al. ES. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. PW. Joshi et al. 1999. 1984 Bhan 1983 Paul et al. MC. POUH IAR 1957-58. POUH UHCS. 1984 47 Bhalar/Bhalar Bhavnagar Dhoro 48 Bhalbhai no Timbo Mehsana Saurashtra 21° 24' 42" N 72° 06' 00" E UHCS. Gaur and Sundaresh 2003. POUH 39 Belora Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 47' 00" N 70° 46' 00" E UHCS. 1984. Rao 1963. P North Gujarat 23° 27' 00" N 71° 46' 00" E POUH 49 Bhalgam Saurashtra 22° 02' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E UHCS Rajkot Rao 1963. MC.

PUHSRP. Rao 1963. POUH Ajithprasad et al. BRW. 1999. 1999. Dhamlej Junagadh Saurashtra 20° 47' 00" N 70° 35' 90" E UHCS. 1999. 2011 Ajithprasad et al.  Results    50 Bhamakdal Amreli Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 70° 50' 00" E UHCS IAR 1957-58. LRW. 1984 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) 51 Bhamaria Thumdo/Jhandada III 52 Bhana bhai no Khetar/Gayatrimat a ni Thumdo-II. Joshi et al. Personal Communication Jairath 1986 Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 70° 50' 00" E 57 Bhatti no Timbo/Bhadravadi Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. POUH Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 05' 00" N 69° 22' 00" E LRW. Joshi et al. 1984 Arun Mallik. PW. MC IAR 1957-58. 2011 199    . Possehl 1980. AT. Joshi et al. 1984 Jairath 1986 58 Bhavani Timbo. POUH UHCS. POUH 54 Bhanguri Bet/Little Surendranagar Rann of Kachchh 55 Bhar no Bhavnagar Timbo/Nasitpur 56 Bhatiwadi Amreli North Gujarat 23° 16' 57" N 71° 05' 41" E POUH Saurashtra 22° 24' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E UHCS Rao 1963. POUH UHCS. Pasnawara 53 Bhangor Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 27' 00" E Junagadh Saurashtra 20° 49' 36" N 70° 33' 33" E PUH. Possehl 1980.

MC 67 Bhojavadar III Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 59" N 71° 42' 49" E UHCS. POUH o o Jairath 1986 IAR 1978-79. MC. POUH 66 Bhojavadar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E UHCS. MC IAR 1957-58. 1984 200    . POUH UHCS. Joshi et al. 1999. Joshi et al. 1999. Krishnan and Dimri 2005 Dimri 1999 IAR 1956-57. LRW. LRW. POUH UHCS. Rao 1963. 1984 Jairath 1986 IAR 1971-72. Possehl 1980. 1999. Possehl 1980. MRW. POUH UHCS. Possehl 1980. 1984 Possehl 1999 62 Bhimdad Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 05' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E 63 Bhimnath I/Jarwalia Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22 14' 27' N 71 55' 31' E UHCS. POUH 68 Bhokhardhar/ Hadadad 69 Bhoklidhar/ Bokhalidhar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 08' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 38' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. 1984. POUH 64 Bhimnath II/Kharsalia 65 Bhimpatal Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22o 14' 27' N 71o 55' 31' E Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 71° 30' 00" E UHCS. Bhan 1986. Joshi et al. MC. MRW.  Results    59 Bhavgan Sadur Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 33' 40" N 71° 50' 55" E POUH Dimri 1999 60 Bhayakhakharia Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 10' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E UHCS 61 Bhbhuro Dhoro Amreli Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. 1999 Jairath 1986 Possehl 1980.

POUH. Joshi et al. POUH 77 Bokhira Porbandar Saurashtra 21o 39' 20" N 69o 36' 10" E 78 Bordanu Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 32' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E ES. POUH 74 Bodaka Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 20' 00" N 70° 30' 00" E UHCS. 1984 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Rao 1963. POUH Researcher's Exploration IAR 1982-83. Joshi et al. POUH IAR 1962-63.  Results    70 Bhumlani Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 33' 00" N 71° 40' 20" E POUH Dimri 1999 71 Bhut Kotada Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 35' 00" N 70° 45' 00" E UHCS 72 Bhutawed no Godh/Unrot II 73 Binanagari Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 51' 00" N 71° 23' 00" E Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 43' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E AT. MC. POUH Possehl 1999 76 Bodki/Pir ni Darga Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 55' 02" N 70° 34' 33" E UHCS. Bhan 1994 IAR 1969-70 83 Budhej Kheda Saurashtra 22° 26' 00" N 72° 36' 00" E UHCS Dimri 1999 IAR 1971-72. POUH LRW. 1999. Hegde and Sonawane 1986. POUH 82 Broach College Bharuch South Gujarat 21° 48' 00" N 72° 58' 00" E UHCS. POUH AT. BRW. LRW. Personal Communication Gaur et al. Momin 1979 201    . AD POUH Arun Mallik. 2006 79 Boria Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1980-81 80 Borla Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 24' 96" N 72° 03' 09" E 81 Borwalo Khetar Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 42' 00" N 71° 51' 00" E UHCS. LRW. Possehl 1980. 1984 Bhan 1986 75 Bodio no Dhoro Amreli Saurashtra 21° 49' 00" N 71° 06' 00" E UHCS.

Joshi et al. POUH Possehl 1980. 1984 Rao 1963.  Results    84 Budhel Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 72° 09' 00" E UHCS. IAR 1974-75. POUH IAR 1995-96. Bhan 1986 IAR 1972-73:. Momin 1979 Bhan 1983 92 Chaniyathar no Timbo 93 Charanio Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 31' 00" N 71° 44' 00" E LRW. Joshi et al. 1999. POUH 90 Changda Kheda Saurashtra 22° 32' 00" N 72° 33' 00" E UHCS 91 Chanidhar Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 16' 00" N 70° 01' 00" E LRW. 1999. POUH Bhan 1994 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 38' 00" E UHCS. POUH 89 Chandrawara II/Vankiner Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 69° 25' 00" E LRW. 1984 Bhan 1983 85 Chachana/Chashia na Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 25' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E UHCS. Rao 1963. POUH IAR 1960-61. Krishnan and Dimri 2005 IAR 1957-58. IAR 1980-81. Bhan 1986 IAR 1957-58. Possehl 1980. LRW. 1999. Joshi et al. 1999. Possehl 1980. MRW 88 Chandrawara I Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 69° 25' 00" E LRW. POUH 86 Chada no Timbo/Chada 87 Chandarwa/Chand arvaha Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 54" N 71° 51' 19" E UHCS. 1984 202    . Possehl 1980. 1999. Possehl 1980.

1999. 1984 Rao 1963. Possehl 1980. 1984 95 Chhabasr Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 46' 00" N 72° 16' 00" E UHCS 96 Chipa no Godh Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 45' 00" N 71° 16' 30" E LRW. MC. 1997 105 Dared _ _ _ _ UHCS Chitalwala 1985 106 Dared II Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 46' 00" E LRW.  Results    94 Chavaneshwar Bharuch South Gujarat 21° 41' 00" N 72° 48' 00" E UHCS. POUH 99 Choteria Timbo/Munjpur I 100 Chravad I Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 36' 00" N 71° 51' 00" E PUH. 1999. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) 203    . POUH Bhan 1994 101 Cycle Factory Site/Valabhipur 102 Dad Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 15" N 71° 38' 31" E Jairath 1986 Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 50' 00" N 70° 55' 00" E UHCS. POUH 104 Dankana Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 19' 00" N 72° 07' 00" E UHCS IAR 1957-58. POUH Possehl 1999 107 Datrana I Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 10" N 71° 07' 00" E LRW. 1984 Joshi et al. Possehi 1980. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. Possehl 1999. POUH 97 Chitrod Kachchh Kachchh 23° 24' 00" N 70° 40' 00" E UHCS 98 Chosla Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 53' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E UHCS. AT Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1977-78. Joshi et al. 1984 Paul et al. 1984 Bhan 1994 Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. 1984 Possehl 1980. POUH UHCS 103 Daidungri Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 00' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E LRW. POUH IAR 1966-67. Joshi et al. Joshi et al.

RSW. Rao 1963. ES. POUH UHCS. MRW. 1997 72° 33' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. PUHSRP. POUH Bhan 1994 23° 37' 00" N 69° 08' 00" E UHCS. POUH PUH. AT.  Results    108 Datrana II Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 07' 10" E 109 Datrana III Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 45' 50" N 71° 07' 00" E 110 Datrana IV/Hadka Walo Khetar Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 06' 00" E 111 Datrana V Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 15" N 71° 07' 00" E 112 Datrana VI Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 07' 00" E 113 Datrana VII Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 07' 00" E 114 Datrana VIII/Vatkiwalu Khetar 115 Datravad/Dantred Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 06' 45" E Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 24' 10" N 71° 59' 35" E 116 Dehada Kheda Saurashtra 22° 23' 00" N 117 Deriwalo Khetar I Mehsana North Gujarat 118 Desalpur/Gunthali Kachchh Kachchh UHCS. PP. POUH UHCS. BRW. ES. UHCS. POUH AT AT. ES. FS. MC. MC Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Majumdar 1999 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Majumdar 1999 Majumdar 1999 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Paul et al. BRW. LRW. ES. UHCS. MC IAR 1955-56. P. MRW. MC AT. MC 23° 30' 20" N 71° 55' 30" E LRW. 1999 Momin 1979 204    . POUH AT.

Rao 1963. Possehl 1980. 1984 205    . 1984 Joshi et al. 1999. 1984 Possehl 1980. Krishnan and Dimri 2005 Jairath 1986 Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 23' 00" N 71° 39' 00" E AT. 1999. 1999. LRW. 1999. Possehl 1980. 1999. POUH Bhan 1994 127 Dhankanio I Amreli Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 70° 55' 00" E UHCS 128 Dhankanio II Amreli Saurashtra 21° 47' 00" N 70° 55' 00" E UHCS IAR 1957-58. 1984 IAR 1958-59. 1984. MC. IAR 1958-59. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980.  Results    119 Deudhar Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 07' 00" N 71° 09' 00" E UHCS IAR 1957-58. Rao 1963. Possehl 1980. 1984 Possehl 1999 120 Devalio/Devaliyo Amreli Saurashtra 21° 53' 00" N 71° 23' 00" E UHCS. 1999. Joshi et al. MC IAR 1957-58. POUH 121 Devalio/Devaliyo Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 25' 00" N 71° 55' 00" E UHCS 122 Devalkano Doro Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ POUH 123 Devdhar Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 07' 00" N 71° 09' 00" E POUH 124 Devgana/Devganga Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 18' 03" N 71° 48' 23" E UHCS. MRW 125 Dhakhan Kunda no Timbo 126 Dhama Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 09' 00" N 71° 35' 00" E UHCS. 1984 IAR 1955-56. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. Rao 1963. Joshi et al.

Mehta and MW. 1994. Rao 1963. Joshi et al. MC.  Results    129 Dharovad no Timbo 130 Dhatva Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 23' 30" N 71° 48' 00" E LRW. BRW. BRW. 1984 IAR 1957-58. Bhan 1994 ES. Possehl 1980. IAR 1967-68. B POUH IAR 1978-79 133 Dhrosan Amreli Saurashtra 20° 50' 00" N 70° 40' 00" E UHCS 134 Dhrufaniya Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ POUH 135 Dhuapino Amreli Saurashtra 21° 27' 00" N 71° 49' 00" E UHCS 136 Dhudasia Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1960-61. ES. AD. Joshi et PUHSRP. POUH Chaudhary 1975. Joshi et al. POUH Surat South Gujarat 21° 09' 00" N 72° 46' 00" E 131 Dholavira Kachchh Kachchh 23° 53' 10" N 70° 13' 00" E 132 Dhoraji Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ IAR 1984-85. POUH. 1984 IAR 1957-58 137 Dhulkhan/Moti Dharai 138 Dhulkot Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 57' 00" E UHCS Jairath 1986 Jamnagar Saurashtra 20° 50' 00" N 71° 02' 00" E POUH Rao 1963. 1999. Joshi et al. 2004 RSW. Bhan 1989 PUH. AT. al. UHCS. Bisht 1989a. 1999. 1991. 1999. Possehl 1980. FS. Possehl 1980. 1984 IAR 1982-83 206    . 1984. MC.

Possehl 1980. Rao 1963. POUH 146 Dumiani Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 70° 20' 00" E UHCS 147 Dungarpur Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 03' 00" N 71° 31' 00" E POUH 148 Dwarka Jamnagar Saurashtra 22o 13' 00" N 69o 00' 00" E 149 Fala Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ ES. 1999. 1984 IAR 1957-58. LRW. POUH Possehl 1999 141 Dhutarpur Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 71° 00' 00" E UHCS 142 Dikwa no Khetar Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 40' 45" N 71° 55' 52" E UHCS IAR 1958-59. 1999. 1984 Dimri 1999 143 Dubhakia Mound/Chamardi 144 Duderia Timbo/ Panchasar II 145 Dudhala Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 05' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E UHCS Jairath 1986 Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 25' 00" N 71° 48' 00" E Majumdar 1999 Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 14' 00" N 70° 17' 00" E AT. Possehl 1980. POUH UHCS 150 Footariya Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 36' 50" N 71° 44' 00" E AT Bhan 1994 151 Gachi no Bor/Munjpur II 152 Gadhada Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 36' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E AT. Joshi et al. 1984 IAR 1979-80 Chitalwala 1985 207    . Joshi et al. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. MC.  Results    139 Dhulkot Junagadh Saurashtra 20° 50' 00" N 71° 02' 00" E UHCS Rao 1963 140 Dhurasia no Timbo Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. UHCS Majumdar 1999 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 20" N 71° 33' 45" E UHCS Chitalwala 1985 Bhan 1986 IAR 1958-59. POUH UHCS. 1999.

1999.  Results    153 Gadhada I Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 26' 00" N 70° 36' 00" E UHCS 154 Gadhada II Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 26' 00" N 70° 36' 00" E UHCS 155 Gadhada III Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 26' 00" N 70° 36' 00" E UHCS 156 Gadhadiya Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 17' 00" N 71° 25' 00" E UHCS IAR 1960-61. 1999. Joshi et al 1984 IAR 1960-61. Dimri 1999 _ _ _ _ UHCS Chitalwala 1985 208    . MC Jairath 1986 158 Gadhiya no Timbo/Godhiya no Timbo 159 Gadia Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 31' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E LRW. MC Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 54" N 71° 53' 14" E UHCS. Bhan 1994. MC Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1995-96. POUH Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 70° 65' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al 1984 IAR 1960-61. POUH Joshi et al. 1999 Jairath 1986 157 Gadhali Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 36' 00" E UHCS. Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Bhan 1989 160 Gamapipalia _ _ _ _ UHCS Chitalwala 1985 161 Gameri Kachchh Kachchh _ _ POUH IAR 1953-54 162 Ganajadia no Timbo/Valabhipur Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 15" N 71° 38' 31" E UHCS Jairath 1986 163 Ganario-no Thumdo/Dehisar I 164 Gandobhai no Timbo/Ganda Bhai no Khetar 165 Garani Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 56' 10" N 71° 31' 00" E AT. 1984. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980.

POUH 168 Ghachiya Wado/Gachi no Thumdo/Santhli II 169 Ghelo Bund Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 27' 00" E PUH. MC. Joshi et al. PUHSRP. 1999. POUH LRW. POUH Majumdar 1999 Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 50' 00" N 71° 22' 00" E AT. MC Jairath 1986 173 Ghorwada Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 57' 00" N 71° 00' 00" E UHCS. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Majumdar 1999 170 Ghelri no Timbo/Anpur 171 Ghoda Daman Tank/Valabhipur Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 55' 00" E UHCS. Rao 1963. LRW. 1984 Jairath 1986 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 15" N 71° 38' 31" E UHCS. Joshi et al. 1984 Bhan 1989 176 Godha Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 40' 00" N 71° 36' 00" E UHCS. POUH 174 Godavari I Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 69° 55' 00" E 175 Godha Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 36' 00" N 71° 28' 00" E UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 172 Ghogralu no Timbo/Khijadiya Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E UHCS. MC. MC Possehl 1980. POUH IAR 1958-59. ES. B UHCS. POUH Bhan 1994 Bhan 1994 209    . 1999. Possehl 1980.  Results    166 Garasya no Thumdo/ Charandha I 167 Genghda Thumbo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 60' 00" N 71° 30' 00" E UHCS.

Personal Communication Bhan 1994 178 Godhio Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 08' 27" N 71° 19' 75" E UHCS. POUH 181 Gomsar no Timbo Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 16' 20" N 71° 41' 25" E 182 Goni Timbo Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 27' 00" N 71° 55' 00" E AT. P Paul et al. POUH IAR 1958-59 187 Gorkhi Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 20' 00" N 72° 06' 00" E UHCS. POUH 185 Gorivata no Timbo/Bolera I 186 Goriya Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 29' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E AT.  Results    177 Godhapadar/ Ghoda Padar Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 71° 03' 00" E UHCS. POUH IAR 1954-55. Personal Communication Bhan 1994 210    . 1999. MC Surendranagar North Gujarat _ _ UHCS. POUH UHCS 183 Gop Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 01' 00" N 69° 56' 00" E UHCS. 1984 IAR 1953-54. POUH 184 Gordhan Timbo Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 27' 00" N 71° 48' 00" E AT. UHCS. 1997 188 Gudel Kheda Saurashtra 22° 44' 00" N 72° 31' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. POUH 179 Gokhijadio no Timbo 180 Golabo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 37' 00" N 71° 52' 30" E PUH. MC Momin 1979 Arun Mallik. Joshi et al. 1984 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press). 1999. Rao 1963. Possehl 1980. POUH IAR 1957-58. Possehl 1980. Rao 1963. 1999 Arun Mallik. Bhan 1994 Majumdar 1999 Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. AT. Joshi et al.

  Results    189 Gunthai Kachchh Kachchh 23° 28' 00" N 69° 09' 00" E UHCS 190 Hadiyana I Jamnagar Saurashtra 23° 35' 00" N 70° 15' 00" E UHCS. POUH Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. MRW. 1999. 1984 Bhan 1989 IAR 1978-79. Possehl 1980. POUH 191 Hadmatala Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 30' 00" N 72° 08' 00" E UHCS 192 Haiduk no Thumdo II/ Dehisar II 193 Hajanbi Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 56' 00" N 71° 31' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. 1984 Majumdar 1999 Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 36' 00" N 70° 15' 00" E UHCS. 1999 Majumdar 1999 Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1957-58 196 Hamirpara Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 29' 78" N 72° 03' 63" E 197 Hanuman no Timbo/Gadhada 198 Harhari no Thumdo 199 Hariana Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 57' 43" N 71° 34' 44" E Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 53' 00" N 71° 27' 00" E Researcher's Exploration Possehl 1980. POUH UHCS. LRW. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. BRW. MC. 1999. MC Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 50' 00" N 70° 35' 00" E UHCS 194 Haji no Kachha/ Varanasi II 195 Halenda Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 55' 00" N 71° 20' 00" E AT IAR 1959-60. POUH AT. 1984 Majumdar 1999 Rao 1963. POUH UHCS 200 Haripur I Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 16' 00" N 70° 01' 00" E MC. 1984 Bhan 1986 211    . 1999. Joshi et al.

POUH BRW. 2011 Possehl 1999 208 Hodthali _ _ _ _ UHCS Chitalwala 1985 209 Holidhar/ Lakhanka 210 Holivalo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 38' 00" E UHCS Jairath 1986 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 57' 00" N 71° 40' 00" E LRW. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press). POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) 212    . POUH UHCS. LRW. Joshi et al. 1984 204 Hatangiri no Timbo/Akvada 205 Hathab Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 44' 00" N 72° 04' 00" E UHCS. MC. 1984 211 Inderwa no Timbo I 212 Inderwa no Timbo II Banaskantha North Gujarat 24° 01' 10" N 71° 28' 00" E LRW. POUH Banaskantha North Gujarat 24° 01' 10" N 71° 29' 00" E MC. UHCS. Possehl 1980. POUH Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ POUH Ajithprasad et al. POUH Jairath 1986 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 36' 00" N 72° 21' 00" E Paul and Shinde 1999 206 Haveda Bapa/Warodra -II 207 Hemadra Junagadh Saurashtra 20° 49' 07" N 70° 31' 07" E UHCS. AT. POUH IAR 1960-61. PUHSRP. Rao 1963.  Results    201 Harthar no Timbo (Panchasar III) Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 25' 00" N 71° 48' 00" E 202 Hasanpur Bharuch South Gujarat 21° 15' 00" N 72° 44' 00" E PUH. Bhan 1994 203 Hasanpur Surat South Gujarat 21° 25' 00" N 72° 46' 00" E LRW. Ghosh 1989 Joshi et al. 1999. POUH Rao 1963.

ES.  Results    213 Indranagar no Thumdo 214 Indranj Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 53' 00" N 71° 35' 00" E UHCS. LRW. Joshi et al. 1984 IAR 1966-67 Kheda Saurashtra 22° 25' 00" N 72° 32' 00" E UHCS Momin 1979 220 Jagaroh Kachchh Kachchh 23° 21' 00" N 70° 11' 00" E POUH IAR 1986-87 221 Jagta Pir no Dhoro Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ POUH Possehl 1999 222 Jaidak/ Pithad I and II Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 40' 00" N 70° 35' 00" E UHCS. MC Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1957-58 226 Jam Kandorna Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1956-57 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Joshi et al. BRW. 1999. POUH POUH 216 Isvaria Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E POUH 217 Itaria Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 27' 00" E UHCS. MC. POUH 218 Jabalanes no Timbo 219 Jafrabad Ahmedabad Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Possehl 1980. FS. MC. 1984 213    . 223 Jakhra Pir no Thumdo 224 Jakhra Pir no Thumdo/Suigam II 225 Jam Ambardi Mehsana North Gujarat 24° 07' 00" N 71° 20' 00" E POUH Banaskantha North Gujarat 24° 07' 00" N 71° 20' 00" E AT. POUH Rao 1963. Possehl 1999. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Momin 1979 Kheda Saurashtra 22° 30' 00" N 72° 33' 00" E 215 Ishwar Godh Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 18' 00" E UHCS. IAR 19791980. AD.

MC. Bhan 1994 Bhan 1986 230 Jaska Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 10" N 71° 56' 10" E UHCS Dimri 1999 231 Jasvantgadh Amreli Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. POUH Possehl 1999 232 Jatavadar Kachchh Kachchh 23° 45' 00" N 70° 40' 00" E UHCS Joshi et al. RSW 241 Jhangar. LRW. POUH 234 Jawanpura Panchmahal South Gujarat _ _ 235 Jawarj Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 34' 00" N 72° 16' 00" E UHCS. POUH Bhan 1983 237 Jhaloria no Tekro Ahmedabad Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1976-77 238 Jhandada no Thumdo I/ Jhandada I 239 Jhandada no Thumdo II/ Jhandada II 240 Jhangar. LRW. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 10" N 71° 27' 00" E AT. POUH UHCS Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1959-60 236 Jhakar Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. Anjar Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 20" N 71° 27' 00" E AT. Joshi 1990 Chitalwala 1985 Mirchandani 1980 214    . MC. 1984 233 Javantri Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 33' 00" E AT. MC. Khavada Kachchh Kachchh 23° 53' 00" N 69° 44' 00" E UHCS IAR 1965-66. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) 228 Janoya no Timbo Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 25' 00" N 71° 51' 20" E 229 Jasapar Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 25' 00" E UHCS. POUH LRW. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Kachchh Kachchh 23° 19' 10" N 70° 05' 00" E UHCS.  Results    227 Jamathar no Thumdo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 45' 00" N 71° 14' 00" E UHCS. POUH Hegde and Sonawane 1986. Possehl 1980.

Mehta and Chaudhary 1971 IAR 1995-96: 9. Joshi et. MC. Personal Communication Momin 1979 246 Jinger Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 17' 10" N 71° 56' 10" E UHCS IAR 1995-96: 9 247 Jivani no Dhoro Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 29" N 71° 45' 34" E UHCS. JW. POUH UHCS. Joshi et al. 1999. 1999. POUH IAR 1966-67. al 1984 Bhan 1989 249 Jodhpur Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 40' 00" N 70° 53' 00" E UHCS IAR 1980-81 250 Jokha Surat South Gujarat 21° 17' 00" N 73° 00' 00" E 251 Jorubhai no Timbo/Juru Bhai no Timbo 252 Juna Babarkot/ Paliyad 253 Juna Chopadwa Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 18' 20" N 72° 01' 02" E ES. Possehl 1980. 1984 Arun Mallik. POUH 245 Jinaj Kheda Saurashtra 22° 24' 00" N 72° 36' 00" E UHCS IAR 1959-60. MW. Possehl 1980. Dimri 1999 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 17' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E UHCS Jairath 1986 Kachchh Kachchh 23° 16' 00" N 70° 15' 00" E UHCS IAR 1986-87 254 Juna Rampur Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E UHCS Jairath 1986 215    .  Results    242 Jhanjmer Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. POUH IAR 1957-58 243 Jhikri Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 55' 00" N 70° 50' 00" E UHCS 244 Jilesari Mata Surendranagar North Gujarat _ _ UHCS. POUH IAR 1960-61. POUH 248 Jivapar Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E UHCS. MC. Rao 1963.

MC. POUH MC. MC Pramanik 2003-04 256 Juni Timbo Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 09' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E UHCS 257 Kaap-no-Timbo/ Nana Paliyad 258 Kachcha no Thumdo 259 Kacho Timbo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 17' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 53' 00" N 71° 24' 30" E UHCS. POUH 264 Kalari no Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 29' 00" N 71° 45' 20" E 265 Kalatalawadi no Thumdo/Santhli V 266 Kalavad I Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E AT. Rao 1963. 1984 Chitalwala 1985 IAR 1957-58. LRW. LRW. B. 1984 IAR 1957-58 Bhan 1994 216    . Joshi et al. Bhan 1989 Jairath 1986 Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 25' 00" N 71° 45' 00" E 260 Kaero Timbo Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 24' 00" N 71° 55' 00" E AT. 1999. FS. Possehl 1980. POUH LRW. Joshi et al 1984. 1999. Possehl 1980. UHCS. Joshi et al. MC. POUH UHCS 261 Kagvadar _ _ _ _ UHCS 262 Kaj Amreli Saurashtra 20° 44' 00" N 70° 51' 00" E UHCS 263 Kalapan/Kalapana Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 55' 00" N 70° 20' 00" E UHCS. POUH IAR 1980-81. ES.  Results    255 Juni Kuran Kachchh Kachchh 23° 27' 00" N 69° 47' 00" E UHCS. RSW. POUH Majumdar 1999 Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1954-55 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1978-79. Bhan 1994 IAR 1954-55.

1999. ES.  Results    267 Kalavad II Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E UHCS. 1984 Bhan 1986 Majumdar 1999 217    . MRW. 1999 Dimri 1999 268 Kalavad III Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E UHCS. Bhan 1989 IAR 1957-58. POUH 274 Kanadia Thumdo Rajkot Saurashtra 24° 01' 00" N 71° 28' 50" E Possehl 1999 275 Kanakrialo Thumdo/ Charandha II 276 Kanasutaria Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 60' 00" N 71° 30' 00" E AT. 197475. POUH Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 47' 00" N 72° 16' 00" E ES. POUH IAR 1957-58. Kesari Singh no Timbo Kheda Saurashtra 22° 28' 00" N 72° 30' 00" E UHCS. Rao 1963. POUH IAR 1954-55. POUH 270 Kalipat Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS 271 Kalubhai ni Vadi Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' ' 54" N 71° 51' 19" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. BRW. POUH 277 Kanewal. 1984 IAR 1972-73. Possehl 1980. 1977-78. 1999. Bhan 1989 IAR 1957-58. LRW. POUH 272 Kalyanpur Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 69° 25' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. POUH 273 Kalyanpur III Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 41' 00" N 69° 37' 00" E LRW. POUH AT. Momin 1979 Rao 1963. BRW. UHCS. POUH 269 Kalavad IV Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E UHCS. UHCS. Joshi et al. Bhan 1989 IAR 1957-58. LRW.

Mehta et al. Joshi et al. BRW. UHCS. ES. LRW. POUH IAR 1956-57. 2009. Possehl 1980. MC. 1984 Bhan 1994 287 Katadia no Thumdo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 55' 10" N 71° 20' 00" E POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) 218    . 1977-78. AT. 2008. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. POUH IAR 1967-68. 1980 279 Kanjetar Amreli Saurashtra 20° 45' 00" N 70° 40' 00" E UHCS. AD. Sai no Tekro Kheda Saurashtra 22° 27' 00" N 72° 30' 00" E UHCS. Rao 1963. 1984 Kharakwal et al. Momin 1979. 1999. ES. FS. 2007. ES. POUH IAR 1977-78. 1999. MC. Joshi et al. POUH 280 Kanmer Kachchh Kachchh 23o 23' 00" N 70o 52' 00" E PUH. Agrawal et al. 1984 Dimri 1999 283 Karim Chika/Joliya Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 28' 30" N 71° 43' 55" E UHCS Dimri 1999 284 Karmalkota Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 56' 01" N 71° 00' 09" E UHCS Chitalwala 1985 285 Karmar Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 70° 53' 00" E UHCS 286 Kasa no Relo Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 27' 00" N 71° 29' 20" E LRW.  Results    278 Kanewal. POUH IAR 1972-73. 197475. 2010 281 Kanthkot Kachchh Kachchh 23° 29' 00" N 70° 29' 00" E UHCS 282 Karedia no Timbo Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 18" N 71° 42' 02" E UHCS. RSW.

2011 IAR 1960-61 299 Khakhara Bela III Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 29' 00" N 70° 35' 00" E UHCS IAR 1960-61. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980. Atroli 298 Khakhara Bela I Junagadh Saurashtra 21°13' 14" N 70° 00' 33" E Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 29' 00" N 70° 35' 00" E UHCS. POUH Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 00' 00" N 70° 20' 00" E POUH 292 Kerasi Kachchh Kachchh 23° 40' 00" N 70° 44' 00" E UHCS. MC IAR 1960-61. 1984 Jairath 1986 297 Khaganath no Timbo. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. POUH UHCS. Possehl 1999 IAR 1965-66. 1999 Bhan 1994 289 Kathairya no Timbo 290 Kedio no Timbo/ Kediya Timbo 291 Kerali Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 42' 00" N 71° 51' 00" E Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 20' 10" N 71° 56' 53" E AT. 1984. PW.  Results    288 Katasar Kachchh Kachchh 23° 34' 00" N 70° 29' 00" E POUH Rao 1963. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. BRW 293 Keriya Mehsana North Gujarat _ _ UHCS IAR 1958-59. Possehl 1980. POUH 296 Khadsaliya Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 33' 00" N 72° 14' 00" E UHCS. MC. 1999 IAR 1995-96: 7 219    . 1999. Rao 1963. MC Jairath 1986 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 24" N 71° 39' 32" E UHCS. POUH UHCS Ajithprasad et al. Rao 1963. 1999. Joshi 1990 Majumdar 1999 294 Keriya no Doro/ Keriya 295 Kerlavlo Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. UHCS. MRW.

2011 Possehl 1999 220    . MRW. POUH IAR 1960-61. Joshi et al. POUH 310 Khanderio II Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 30' 00" E 311 Khandero/ Bhimbhai no Khetar. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980 IAR 1957-58 307 Khandariya Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1985-86 308 Khandera Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 17' 22" N 72° 03' 85" E UHCS 309 Khanderio I Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E UHCS. Lodhwa Junagadh Saurashtra 20° 49' 45" N 70° 35' 46" E UHCS. LRW. POUH Jairath 1986 Kachchh Kachchh 23° 34' 00" N 70° 29' 00" E UHCS 302 Khakhsar Kheda Saurashtra 22° 27' 00" N 72° 30' 00" E 303 Khambala no Dhoro 304 Khambhlav Amreli Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. Rao 1963. 1999. 1984 Ajithprasad et al.  Results    300 Khakhariya no Timbo/ Juna Ishvariya 301 Khakhra Dera Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. 1984 Momin 1979 Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 32' 10" N 71° 54' 50" E POUH Dimri 1999 305 Khambhodhar Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 69° 35' 00" E 306 Khandadhar Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. POUH Researcher's Exploration IAR 1960-61. 1999. 1999. POUH UHCS. Joshi et al. POUH UHCS. POUH UHCS IAR 1957-58. 1984 Possehl 1980. PW.

Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. 2011 IAR 1972-73. Lodhwa 313 Khanpur Junagadh Saurashtra 20° 49' 35" N 70° 35' 52" E PW. MC Bhan 1994 323 Khatli Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1957-58 221    .  Results    312 Khandi ni Timbo. BRW. MRW. Joshi et al. Researcher's Exploration IAR 1995-96. Joshi et al. POUH UHCS 319 Khari ka Khanda Kachchh Kachchh 23° 27' 00" N 70° 29' 00" E UHCS 320 Khari no Khetar Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 59' 10" N 71° 26' 00" E AT 321 Khari Timbo Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 17' 45" N 71° 58' 50" E UHCS. POUH Ajithprasad et al. 197475. Dimri 1999. Possehl 1980. ES 316 Kharad I Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 10" N 72° 00' 50" E UHCS. POUH Kheda Saurashtra 22° 29' 00" N 72° 23' 00" E UHCS 314 Khanpur Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 32' 00" N 71° 58' 00" E UHCS 315 Khanpur Rajkot Saurashtra 22o 44' 00" N 70o 41' 30" E UHCS. 1984 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Dimri 1999 322 Khaso Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 25' 00" N 71° 45' 00" E UHCS. MRW. POUH 317 Kharad II Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 16" N 71° 59' 29" E 318 Khareda no Timbo Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 05' 00" N 70° 48' 00" E UHCS. 1984 IAR 1965-66. Momin 1979 IAR 1962-63. Possehl 1980. Dimri 1999 IAR 1967-68. 1984 Chitalwala and Thomas 1978 IAR 1995-96. 1999. 1999. 1999.

Joshi et al.  Results    324 Khavda Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1977-78 325 Khedo Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 03' 21" N 71° 35' 05" E UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 329 Kherio no Timbo/Kerala Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 02' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E UHCS. 1999 222    . 1984 Possehl 1980. Bhan 1994 IAR 1976-77. 1999. 1999. Possehl 1980. POUH 332 Khirsara/Gadhwali wadi Kachchh Kachchh 23° 30' 00" N 69° 08' 00" E UHCS. Valabhipur Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 57' 00" E UHCS IAR 1960-61. Rao 1963. Possehl 1980. MC 327 Kherio I/Rampara Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 30' 00" E UHCS IAR 1970-71. Joshi et al. 1984. POUH 334 Khodiyar. 197677. Personal Communication 326 Khedoi Kachchh Kachchh 23° 03' 00" N 69° 57' 00" E UHCS. 1984 Rao 1963. Talaja Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 24' 05" N 71° 59' 24" E UHCS. FS 333 Khodiyar. IAR 1978-79. Joshi et al. POUH 331 Kheth Talvadi Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 39' 30" N 71° 45' 10" E LRW. POUH Arun Mallik. 1984 IAR 1982-83. Joshi et al. ES. Joshi et al. POUH Jairath 1986 330 Khetarvalo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 48' 00" N 71° 37' 00" E LRW. RSW. 1984 Jairath 1986 328 Kherio II/Rampara Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E UHCS.

Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980. 1984 344 Kotada Bhadli I Kachchh Kachchh 23° 22' 00" N 69° 26' 00" E 345 Kotada Bhadli II Kachchh Kachchh 23° 22' 00" N 69° 26' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. Sil Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 21' 25" N 71° 52' 30" E UHCS. 1999 IAR 1965-66. POUH Ajithprasad et al. POUH 337 Kinner Kheda Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Rao 1963. LRW. 2005 IAR 1955-56 338 Koba Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 70° 50' 00" E POUH 339 Kodir Mata no Timbo/Kodiyar Mata no Timbo 340 Kodiyar Mata no Mandir 341 Kokru. POUH 342 Konjali Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 10' 22" N 71° 44' 00" E P. Ghosh 1989. 2011 Shirvalkar 2008 343 Kota Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 10' 00" N 69° 42' 00" E UHCS Joshi et al. POUH UHCS. Joshi et al. FS IAR 1965-66. POUH Rao 1963. Gaur and Sundaresh. 1999. Possehl 1980. ES. 1999. MC Jairath 1986 336 Kindar Kheda/ Kinnar Kheda Porbandar Saurashtra 21° 47' 50" N 69° 37' 50" E UHCS. 1984 223    .  Results    335 Khothawadi Timbo/Bhojavadar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E UHCS. 1984 Dimri 1999 Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 25' 50" N 72° 47' 30" E POUH Dimri 1999 Junagadh Saurashtra 21° 10' 81" N 70° 02' 70" E PW.

1999. Possehl 1980.  Results    346 Kotada Bhadli III Kachchh Kachchh 23° 22' 00" N 69° 26' 00" E UHCS IAR 1965-66. 1999. 1984 Rao 1963. BRW. POUH IAR 1995-96. 1984. Possehl 1980 224    . Dimri 1999 IAR 1967-68. Joshi et al. POUH UHCS Rao 1963. LRW. Joshi et al. MRW. Personal Communication IAR 1957-58. 1984 Possehl 1980. RSW. Bhan 1989 Possehl 1980. POUH Arun Mallik. Joshi et al. Jamnagar Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E UHCS 348 Kotada. Possehl 1980. 1999. Rao 1963. 1999 Majumdar 1999 Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 35' 00" N 71° 51' 00" E AT Bhan 1994 355 Kuda II Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 01' 00" N 71° 22' 00" E POUH 356 Kundanpur Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 05' 00" N 71° 10' 00" E UHCS. POUH UHCS. 1984 351 Kotda Jamnagar Saurashtra 23° 14' 00" N 70° 21' 00" E UHCS 352 Koth/Manubhai no Khetar 353 Kothoda no Thumdo/ Mathutra III 354 Kuaward Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 37' 60" N 72° 17' 83" E Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 44' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E UHCS. MRW. POUH UHCS. Joshi et al. 1999 347 Kotada. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980. 1999. Kachchh Kachchh Kachchh 23° 18' 00" N 70° 06' 00" E 349 Kotadiya Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 20' 05" N 71° 59' 51" E 350 Kotara Kachchh Kachchh 23° 58' 00" N 69° 47' 00" E UHCS.

1999.  Results    357 Kuntasi Rajkot Saurashtra 22o 50' 40" N 70o 37' 30" E _ UHCS. RSW. POUH IAR 1978-79: 7 360 Labro no Khetar Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 25' 50" N 71° 53' 20" E POUH Dimri 1999 361 Ladai/Lodai Kachchh Kachchh _ _ MC. LRW. POUH UHCS. ES. 1984 Jairath 1986 Kachchh Kachchh 23° 14' 00" N 70° 41' 00" E UHCS IAR 1986-87 225    . PW. AD. Possehl 1999. Dhavalikar et al. 1989-90. POUH IAR 1955-56 362 Lakahar no Thumdo/ Ranmalpura IV 363 Laketra no Timbo/ Visnagar I 364 Lakhabawal Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 45' 00" N 71° 09' 00" E POUH Majumdar 1999 Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 28' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E POUH Majumdar 1999 Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 24' 00" N 70° 00' 00" E 365 Lakhadungri Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 34' 50" N 71° 49' 50" E UHCS. Rao ES. Joshi et al. IAR 1955-56. FS. Joshi et al. 1963. POUH Joshi et al. 1984 Possehl 1980. 1999. MC IAR 1960-61. MC. 1984. MC. MC. MC IAR 1987-88. Possehl 1980. 198889. Bhan 1989 POUH Dimri 1999 366 Lakhan Timbo Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 29' 00" N 70° 36' 00" E UHCS 367 Lakhanka Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 48' 00" N 71° 38' 00" E 368 Lakharia no Doro/ Timbi 369 Lakhasar I Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 71° 46' 00" E UHCS. BRW. POUH UHCS. 1996 IAR 1980-81 358 Kutharivad Jamnagar Saurashtra _ 359 Kuwar Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 27' 00" N 71° 46' 00" E LRW.

POUH 377 Lakhpat Kachchh Kachchh 23° 50' 00" N 68° 47' 00" E UHCS 378 Laloi no Timbo Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 14' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. 1999. POUH Bhan 1994 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press). Joshi et al. 1984 Saurashtra 22° 14' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980. Bhan 1986. ES. Joshi 1990 IAR 1960-61. POUH 376 Lakhpar/Lakhapur Kachchh Kachchh 23° 33' 00" N 70° 28' 00" E UHCS. MC. Bhan 1994 IAR 1965-66. POUH 379 Langhnaj Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 27' 00" N 72° 32' 00" E 380 Lavana no Godh Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 49' 00" N 71° 35' 00" E UHCS. 1999 Joshi et al. AD. 1984.  Results    370 Lakhasar II Kachchh Kachchh 23° 14' 00" N 70° 41' 00" E UHCS IAR 1986-87 371 Lakhavav no Dhoro/Lakhavav Amreli Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 27' 00" E UHCS. BRW. 1984 IAR 1980-81. RSW. BRW. MC Jairath 1986 North Gujarat 23° 27' 00" N 71° 33' 00" E LRW. LRW. 1999. POUH Saurashtra 21° 30' 00" N 71° 55' 00" E UHCS IAR 1960-61 Rao 1963. B AT. Bhavnagar Bhavnagar 373 Lakhawad-noBhavnagar Timbo/Kaniyad 374 Lakhetra no Timbo Surendranagar 375 Lakhneya ni Thumdo I Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 39' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E LRW. Bhan 1989 Sankalia 1965 372 Lakhavav. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) 226    . Possehl 1980.

POUH Bhan 1994 Junagadh Saurashtra 21° 09' 53" N 70° 03' 45" E PW. POUH Majumdar 1999 383 Lilivav/ Rakhodi Timbo 384 Limbadka no Thumdo 385 Limbavala Khetra Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 20' 50" N 72° 03' 17" E UHCS. POUH PUH. PUHSRP.  Results    381 Liad II Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 30' 55" N 72° 48' 20" E POUH Dimri 1999 382 Lihimo no Timbo Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 34' 20" N 71° 53' 10" E UHCS. POUH Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 32' 00" N 71° 46' 00" E UHCS. P Shirvalkar 2008 Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 31' 00" E AT. LRW. PW. AT. MC Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Dimri 1999 386 Limbdo no Khetar Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 27' 50" N 71° 51' 53" E UHCS Majumdar 1999 387 Limbuni no Godh (Suigam I) Banaskantha North Gujarat 24° 09' 00" N 71° 20' 00" E MC. Bhan 1994 Momin 1979 227    . POUH Junagadh Saurashtra 21° 09' 49" N 70° 03' 50" E Junagadh Saurashtra 21° 09' 66" N 70° 03' 10" E Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 33' 00" N 71° 41' 00" E UHCS. 2011 Ajithprasad et al. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) 388 Limdio no Khetar Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 18' 20" N 72° 01' 02" E UHCS IAR 1995-96: 9 389 Line Doriwalo Khetar 390 Lohij-I/ Sanavav Pa-I 391 Lohij-II/ Sanavav Pa-II 392 Lohij-III (Devariya Nagari) 393 Lolara/Lolada Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 27' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E LRW. 2011 Ajithprasad et al. 2011 IAR 1978-79. POUH 394 Loliana Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 54' 00" N 71° 48' 20" E UHCS Ajithprasad et al.

1999. B IAR 1990-91. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. 2010 396 Lothal Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 31' 25" N 72° 14' 59" E Rao 1963. POUH 403 Madhapar Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS. Madella et al. RSW. 1985. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. RSW. 1979. 1984 228    . LRW. POUH UHCS 399 Luna Mandvi Kachchh Kachchh 22° 50' 00" N 69° 24' 00" E UHCS 400 Machiala Mota Amreli Saurashtra 21° 41' 00" N 71° 14' 00" E UHCS. MRW. 1999. ES. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980. BRW. 1984 Rao 1963 IAR 1958-59. Joshi et al. Possehl 1999. FS. LRW. 1999 Rao 1963.  Results    395 Loteshwar I/Khari no Timbo Patan North Gujarat 23o 36' 00" N 71o 51' 00" E PUH. POUH. Possehl 1980. AT. B. AT UHCS. 1999. PW. BRW. AD. POUH IAR 1983-84 Amreli Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 71° 24' 00" E UHCS. MC Rao 1963. Joshi et al. MC. 1984 Possehl 1980. ES. 1999. AD. MC. POUH 401 Madan Kundala/ Gondal 402 Madeva Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. ES. 1984 Rao 1963. 1984 397 Lukhela Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 70° 00' 00" E 398 Luna Kachchh Kachchh 23° 40' 00" N 69° 15' 00" E UHCS.

2011 Amreli Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 70° 50' 00" E LRW. 1984 Jairath 1986 414 Malanpur Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 18" N 71° 46' 02" E MRW 415 Malasara Talavdi Ahmedabad Saurashtra _ _ UHCS 416 Malgam Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 01' 00" N 71° 26' 00" E UHCS. LRW 413 Mala Talav Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 29 ' 00" N 72° 02' 00" E UHCS IAR 1960-61. IAR 1976-77 410 Mahua Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 06' 00" N 72° 05' 00" E UHCS. 1999. Mul-Madhavpur 405 Madhi Junagadh Saurashtra 21°15' 32" N 69° 58' 79" E UHCS. PUHSRP. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. 1984 229    . Possehl 1980. POUH Krishnan and Dimri 2005 IAR 1974-75 Possehl 1980.  Results    404 Madhavrai no Timbo. Joshi et al. BRW. 1999. 1984 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Possehl 1999 Amreli Saurashtra 21° 54' 00" N 71° 17' 00" E UHCS. ES UHCS. POUH 409 Mahakalino Timbo Ahmedabad Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1960-61. Rao 1963.1997 411 Makansar Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1957-58 412 Makavana Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 57' 00" N 71° 40' 00" E UHCS. 1999. POUH Ajithprasad et al. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. POUH Rao 1963. 1999. POUH 406 Madhvya no Timbo/Mathutra I 407 Mahadev no Timbo 408 Mahadevio Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 44' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E Amreli Saurashtra _ _ PUH. P Paul et al.

1984 IAR 1980-81: 12 418 Maliyadar no Timbo/Fariyadka 419 Malvan Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 43' 00" N 72° 03' 00" E UHCS Surat South Gujarat 21o 06' 00" N 72o 43' 00" E 420 Manar Bharuch South Gujarat 21° 42' 00" N 72° 47' 00" E ES. 1999. POUH 428 Matewal no Tekro Ahmedabad Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1982-83. Joshi et al 1984 Dimri 1999 422 Mandriyara Mohra Kachchh Kachchh 23° 30' 00" N 70° 16' 00" E UHCS IAR 1986-87 423 Manpur Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 01' 00" N 71° 39' 00" E 424 Manverpura Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 35' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E UHCS. AD. MC. BRW. POUH LRW. Allchin and Joshi 1995 230    . MW. POUH AT Arun Mallik. Ghosh 1989 Possehl 1999 IAR 1969-70. POUH UHCS 421 Mandal Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Possehl 1980. POUH POUH IAR 1957-58. LRW. Joshi et al. Personal Communication Bhan 1994 425 Maran Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 27' 50" N 71° 51' 53" E POUH Majumdar 1999 426 Mata no Thumdo/Suneth I 427 Mataji no Timbo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 59' 00" N 71° 26' 30" E Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 25' 35" N 71° 51' 50" E AT. 1999. MC. Possehl 1980. JW.  Results    417 Malgodh Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 00' 00" N 70° 34' 00" E UHCS IAR 1957-58. Hegde and Sonawane 1986 IAR 1974-75 429 Mayo no Khado/ Valabhipur 430 Meghapar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 15" N 71° 38' 31" E Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. MC. MRW.

POUH IAR 1957-58. POUH POUH 439 Mora Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 03' 65" N 70° 39' 63" E UHCS. 1984 Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 17' 00" N 71° 43' 00" E AT Bhan 1994 437 Moda no Thumdo/ Ranmalpura III 438 Modhera Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 45' 00" N 71° 09' 00" E Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 42' 00" N 72° 37' 00" E AT. POUH UHCS Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Joshi et al. 1999. Possehl 1980. Personal Communication Rao 1963. ES. POUH 440 Mora/Moda Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 28' 00" N 70° 14' 00" E UHCS. 1984. Possehl 1999. UHCS. Ghosh 1989 Arun Mallik. Bhan 1986 231    . Joshi et al. B 433 Melana IV Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 55' 40" N 71° 46' 50" E UHCS. POUH 441 Moriyo no Timbo Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 18' 20" N 72° 01' 02" E POUH IAR 1953-54. MC. POUH. Bhan 1989 Rao 1963 442 Morpur Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 16' 00" N 69° 49' 00" E LRW. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. Ghosh 1989 Rao 1963.  Results    431 Meghper/Meghpar Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1980-81 432 Mehgam/Megham Bharuch South Gujarat 21° 42' 00" N 72° 45' 00" E UHCS. Rao 1963. UHCS. 1984. Possehl 1980. 1999. 1984 Possehl 1999 434 Mepla no Thumdo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 09' 00" E 435 Metal Mata No Timbo 436 Mithghoda Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 47' 00" N 72° 14' 00" E AT. Rao 1963. POUH IAR 1978-79.

POUH IAR 1961-62. AT. RSW. MC LRW.  Results    443 Morvo Kachchh Kachchh 23° 50' 00" N 70° 42' 00" E UHCS 444 Mota Choprika Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 21' 30" N 71° 48' 00" E UHCS IAR 1967-68. BRW. Joshi 1972a. Possehl 1980. MC. Bhan 1989 IAR 1955-56 Majumdar 1999 Bhan 1994 IAR 1961-62 232    . ES. Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 31' 50" N 71° 57' 52" E UHCS Jairath 1986 447 Moti Dharai Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21 58' 00" N 71 57' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. LRW. POUH UHCS 451 Moti Majethi Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 00' 60" N 71° 52' 00" E UHCS. Personal Communication Possehl 1999 453 Moti Pipli/ Shakatri Timbo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 49' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E 454 Mullada II Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 18' 00" N 71° 44' 00" E PUH. ES IAR 1957-58 448 Moti Gop Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 19' 00" N 69° 30' 00" E Bhan 1986 449 Moti Kalavad Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E 450 Moti Khilori Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. 1999. UHCS. MC IAR 1961-62. POUH 452 Moti Parbadi Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ POUH Arun Mallik. POUH 455 Mulmadhavpur Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 56' 00" N 69° 45' 00" E o o PW. PUHSRP. LRW. POUH PW. 1984 Possehl 1999 445 Mota Khara/ Langala 446 Mota Tarardia Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 48' 00" N 71° 43' 00" E UHCS.

BRW. IAR 1979-80 POUH ES. MC. PW. AD. Nakhatrana Kachchh Kachchh _ _ MC. MRW. 1999. B 466 Nageshri Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ POUH Chitalwala 1985 467 Nageshwar Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 18' 00" N 69° 02' 00" E UHCS. Hegde et. MC IAR 1980-81. Possehl 1980. Personal Communication 463 Nadiyara no Timbo Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 28' 30" N 71° 57' 51" E UHCS 464 Nagadia/Nagadiya Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 55' 00" N 69° 33' 00" E 465 Nagal Bharuch South Gujarat 21o 34' 00" N 72o 53 ' 00" E MC. a1. Kalyanpar Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 56' 00" N 69° 45' 00" E UHCS. 1984. IAR 1961-62 JW. POUH IAR 1957-58. ES. Dimri 1999 Arun Mallik. LRW. 198384. RSW. Bhan 1989 457 Mulparda Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1979-80 458 Mulu Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1979-80 459 Mum. Bhan 1986. POUH IAR 1993-94 460 Mungatoda Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1980-81 461 Murajpur Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 24' 43" N 72° 56' 46" E UHCS 462 Murvadhar Rajkot Saurashtra 23° 09' 10" N 70° 48' 79" E UHCS IAR 1995-96.  Results    456 Mulpadar. 1990 Dimri 1999 233    . Joshi et al. BRW.

Bhan 1994 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1971-72. POUH 474 Nana Khara/ Langala 475 Nana Sapaka Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 48' 00" N 71° 43' 00" E Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 21' 57" N 71° 35' 53" E UHCS. UHCS. 197475. Bhan 1994 IAR 1984-85. AD. POUH UHCS 72° 42' 00" E UHCS IAR 1972-73. POUH 473 Nana Isvariya/ Chota Isvaria Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E UHCS. POUH 470 Nagwada III Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 18' 50" N 71° 42' 30" E LRW. LRW. PUHSRP. POUH 471 Nagwada IV Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 17' 20" N 71° 41' 30" E AT. ES. B LRW. Bhan 1994 IAR 1984-85. UHCS 472 Nagwada V Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 17' 50" N 71° 43' 00" E LRW. 1984 Jairath 1986 Dimri 1999 Bhan 1994 71° 46' 00" E AT. MC. MC. BRW. Momin 1979 Possehl 1999 234    . LRW. MRW. MC. MC 476 Nani Chandur Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 35' 00" N 71° 37' 30" E 477 Nani Choprika Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 22' 00" N 478 Nar Kheda Saurashtra 22° 28' 00" N IAR 1984-85 IAR 1984-85. Possehl 1980. 1999. Joshi et al.  Results    468 Nagwada I/Godh Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 18' 15" N 71° 42' 45" E 469 Nagwada II Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 19' 00" N 71° 43' 15" E PUH. POUH UHCS. AT.

MC Jairath 1986 489 Navapur Ahmedabad Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1972-73 490 Navinal Kachchh Kachchh 22° 50' 00" N 69° 35' 00" E UHCS 491 Navod no Thumdo/ Santhli IV 492 Nelavada Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E PUH. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980.  Results    479 Narapa Kachchh Kachchh 23° 29' 00" N 69° 09' 00" E UHCS 480 Narmana I Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 70° 09' 00" E UHCS. POUH IAR 1967-68. 1999. Bhan 1989 Bhan 1983 482 Nashado Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 33' 30" N 71° 43' 50" E UHCS. MC Rao 1963. 1984. 1999. 1984 488 Navagam/Gaekwad Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 55' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E UHCS. PUHSRP. POUH Dimri 1999 483 Nashado I Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 28' 30" N 71° 57' 51" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. 1999 Majumdar 1999 Amreli Saurashtra _ _ POUH Possehl 1999 493 Nenu ni Dhar Kachchh Kachchh 23° 51' 00" N 69° 44' 00" E UHCS IAR 1967-68. Possehl 1980. 1984 Rao 1963. 1999. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. POUH Dimri 1999 485 Nasitpur Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1980-81 486 Navagam Junagadh Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1957-58 487 Navagam Surat South Gujarat 21° 16' 00" N 72° 56' 00" E UHCS Joshi et al. POUH 481 Narmana II Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. 1984 235    . POUH Dimri 1999 484 Nashado II Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 71° 52' 12" E MC.

1999. Dimri 1999 IAR 1995-96. MC Jairath 1986 Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. Jairath 1986 Arun Mallik. POUH 503 Netra Khirasara Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1995-96. POUH Bhan 1994 Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ BRW. Joshi et al. MC Jairath 1986 Patan North Gujarat 23° 36' 20" N 71° 49' 00" E AT. Dimri 1999 Possehl 1980. Personal Communication Dimri 1999 500 Neshado II Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 71° 52' 12" E UHCS 501 Neshado III Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 71° 52' 12" E UHCS 502 Neshdo Amreli Saurashtra 21° 53' 00" N 71° 23' 00" E UHCS. POUH IAR 1960-61 236    . 1976-77 504 Nikawa I Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 11' 00" N 70° 36' 00" E UHCS. LRW. POUH Bhan 1986 505 Odee Ka Talia/ Nasitpur 506 Odherio Timbo/ Loteshwar II 507 Old Alatala/ Juna Alatala Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 24' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E UHCS. 1984 IAR 1969-70. POUH 499 Neshado Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 27' 13" N 71° 48' 58" E POUH IAR 1980-81. POUH Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 03' 00" N 71° 22' 00" E UHCS.  Results    494 Ner Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1980-81 495 Nesda no Timbo/ Shervania 496 Nesda/ Nana Paliyad 497 Nesda/Tarasamra/ Tarasmia 498 Nesdo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 24' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E UHCS Jairath 1986 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 10' 00" N 71° 31' 00" E UHCS.

Possehl 1980. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1984-85. 1999. 1984 237    . Bhan 1983 509 Ood no Doro/ Juna Ishvariya 510 Ori no Thumdo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E UHCS. Rissman and Chitalwala 1990 Hegde and Sonawane 1986 Bhan 1994 515 Pachahari no Thumdo/ Ranmalpura II 516 Padadhari Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 45' 00" N 71° 09' 00" E POUH Majumdar 1999. POUH IAR 1980-81. LRW. Joshi et al. MC Jairath 1986 Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 50' 00" N 71° 09' 00" E 511 Oriyo Timbo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 53' 12" N 71° 36' 16" E AT. MC. Joshi et al. LRW. RSW. POUH UHCS. MC. POUH Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 36' 00" N 71° 53' 40" E 514 Pabumath Kachchh Kachchh 23° 37' 00" N 70° 31' 40" E AT. POUH ES. AD. IAR 1994-95: 18 Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ POUH IAR 1978-79 517 Padana Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 50" N 71° 56' 00" E UHCS. BRW.  Results    508 Oliya Peer Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 16' 00" N 70° 01' 00" E UHCS. POUH 512 Oriyodada no Timbo 513 Orumana Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 23' 00" N 71° 48' 00" E LRW. LRW. MRW Mirchandani 1980 518 Padar Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 59' 00" N 70° 50' 00" E UHCS IAR 1957-58. 1984 IAR 1977-78. Possehl 1980. LRW. ES.

LRW. 1999. POUH Saurashtra 22° 02' 00" N 70° 05' 00" E 528 Panchpir Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 22' 47" N 71° 52' 39" E UHCS. POUH UHCS. 1984 Jairath 1986 525 Paliyad Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 10' 00" N 71° 31' 00" E UHCS. Dimri 1999 IAR 1957-58 530 Paria Waro Mohra Kachchh Kachchh 23° 06' 00" N 70° 05' 00" E POUH IAR 1986-87 Momin 1979 Shinde 1991. LRW. ES. Possehl 1980. POUH Jairath 1986 Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 18' 00" N 70° 43' 00" E UHCS. BRW. Joshi et al. POUH UHCS. MC IAR 1964-65. AT. MC 524 Palanpar no Timbo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 15" N 71° 38' 31" E UHCS. BRW.  Results    519 Padar no Timbo/ Khijadiya 520 Padra Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 33' 00" E Kheda Saurashtra 22° 28' 00" N 72° 33' 00" E 521 Padri Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 20' 21" N 72° 06' 32" E 522 Pagiyavalo no Thumdo/ Mathutra IV 523 Pal Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 44' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E UHCS. Bhan 1989 IAR 1995-96. MC Jairath 1986 526 Panasina/Pampadia Surendranagar Hanumanji no Tekaro 527 Pancha Pipro Jamnagar North Gujarat 22° 30' 74" N 71° 58' 02" E UHCS. Shinde 1992 Majumdar 1999 238    . 1999. Joshi et al. UHCS. MC. POUH 529 Parewala Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Rao 1963. 1984 IAR 1980-81. POUH UHCS. POUH PUH. MC. MC. P. AD. Possehl 1980.

POUH IAR 1954-55. Possehl 1999 239    . POUH IAR 1957-58.  Results    531 Parieji Kheda Saurashtra 22° 32' 00" N 72° 37' 00" E UHCS Momin 1979 532 Pasegam Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 14" N 71° 38' 48" E UHCS. POUH 533 Patana no Timbo/Patana 534 Patdi Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E UHCS. Bhan 1983. LRW. MC IAR 1960-61. 1999. Rao 1963. MC Jairath 1986 538 Pavatdhi/Patna Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Jairath 1986 539 Pavateswar Mahadev Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 10' 00" N 71° 54' 00" E UHCS. Bhan 1989 Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) 543 Phala Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 18' 00" N 70° 32' 00" E UHCS. POUH 540 Peer ni Durga Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 17' 00" N 70° 04' 00" E LRW. 1999. 1984 IAR 1980-81. POUH 541 Peervala Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 05' 00" N 70° 01' 00" E UHCS 542 Pepadia Timbo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 50' 00" N 71° 30' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. MC. Joshi et al. Bhan 1989 IAR 1980-81. 1984 Jairath 1986 Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1965-66 535 Patel no Khetar/Koliwada I 536 Patel Raniji ka Magsa 537 Pati no Timbo/Pati Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 51' 00" N 71° 30' 00" E Kachchh Kachchh 23° 06' 00" N 70° 11' 00" E AT. POUH POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1986-87 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 51' 00" E UHCS. Rao 1963.

Jairath 1986 Paul et al.  Results    544 Phul Timbo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 51" N 71° 43' 30" E LRW. 1997 551 Pipartoda I Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 02' 00" N 70° 05' 00" E LRW. Jairath 1986 IAR 1978-79: 5 555 Pir no Dhoro Amreli Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. Bhan 1994 IAR 1965-66. POUH 546 Phulsar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 03' 00" N 72° 05' 00" E UHCS 547 Pingi no Timbo I Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 52" N 72° 00' 35" E UHCS. Majumdar 1999 IAR 1978-79. 1999 240    . MC. 1999. POUH 557 Pirojpur Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 25' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E LRW. 1984 Paul and Shinde 1999 545 Phul Wadi Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 40' 00" E LRW. POUH Possehl 1980. POUH Bhan 1986 553 Pipli/Knee Bni na Kharo 554 Pipllage Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E UHCS Amreli Saurashtra _ _ POUH IAR 1980-81. Joshi et al. 1984. POUH Bhan 1986 552 Pipartoda II Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 02' 00" N 70° 05' 00" E LRW. Possehl 1980. P IAR 1980-81. MC 548 Pipalia Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1995-96. POUH UHCS. Dimri 1999 IAR 1980-81 549 Pipalia no Dhoro/ Sidsar 550 Piparla Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 43' 00" N 72° 05' 00" E Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 23' 00" N 72° 08' 00" E UHCS. 1999. Joshi et al. POUH Possehl 1999 556 Piriya no Timbo/Kuvarad II Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 32' 00" N 71° 51' 00" E LRW. POUH 558 Pirwada Khetar Kachchh Kachchh 23° 20' 00" N 70° 00' 00" E UHCS Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press). 1984 Possehl 1980. Joshi et al.

MC. 1999. 1984 Possehl 1980. 1984 IAR 1957-58 Chitalwala 1985 Possehl 1980. 1984 Bhan 1986 565 Rajda Jamnagar 566 Rajpipla I Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 33' 00" E 567 Rajpipla II Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 33' 00" E 568 Rajpipla III Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 33' 00" E 569 Rajpipla IV Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E UHCS. 1984 Possehl 1980. Jamnagar Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 24' 00" N 70° 29' 00" E UHCS. 1999. Joshi et al. POUH UHCS Bhan 1986 560 Pithadia/Pitaria Rajkot Saurashtra 21o 46' 00" N 70º 40' 00" E 561 Pithavajal _ _ _ _ 562 Popatpura Kheda Saurashtra 22° 35' 00" N 72° 32' 00" E Momin 1979 _ UHCS. POUH UHCS. 1984 Joshi et al. POUH UHCS. MC. POUH POUH 563 Rahlavadar Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ 564 Rajathali Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 55' 00" N 71° 01' 00" E UHCS Saurashtra 22° 11' 00" N 70° 36' 00" E LRW. 1999. POUH UHCS. 1999 241    . ES. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. LRW. Possehl 1980. 1999. POUH MC. POUH IAR 1957-58. POUH 570 Rajpipla IX Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E POUH Possehl 1980. 1999. LRW. POUH Possehl 1980. 1984 571 Rajpipla V Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E POUH Joshi et al. Joshi et al. Joshi et al. 1984 572 Rajpipla VI Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 38' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al.  Results    559 Pithadia. 1999. 1984 Possehl 1980. LRW.

Joshi et al. 1999. LRW.  Results    573 Rajpipla VII Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 33' 00" E LRW. 1999. 1984 Possehl 1980. POUH Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. POUH. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. 1984 IAR 1958-59. B POUH IAR 1977-78. POUH 581 Rampara II Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E 582 Rampur Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 17' 00" N 70° 04' 00" E Possehl 1980. B Joshi et al. 1999. POUH Bhan 1986 583 Ramvav Kachchh Kachchh 23° 32' 00" N 70° 28' 00" E UHCS 584 Randaliyo/ Randal Dadwa 585 Randia no Thumdo/ Datrana IX 586 Rangola Rajkot Saurashtra 21o 48' 00" N 71o 03' 00" E Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 07' 00" E UHCS. 1984 UHCS. 1984 Jairath 1986 574 Rajpipla VIII Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 34' 00" E POUH 575 Rajthali Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 71° 48' 00" E 576 Rajwadio Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 35' 00" N 71° 51' 00" E 577 Rakhodio Doro/ Dharuka 578 Rampar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 49' 00" N 71° 52' 00" E UHCS. ES. POUH Jairath 1986 _ _ _ _ UHCS Chitalwala 1985 579 Rampara Kachchh Kachchh 23° 30' 00" N 70° 45' 00" E UHCS Joshi et al. IAR 1983-84 Majumdar 1999 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 47' 00" N 71° 38' 00" E UHCS. POUH UHCS. 1984 LRW. Joshi et al. POUH. MC. 1999. POUH MC. 1984 580 Rampara I Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 Bhan 1994 242    .

BRW. Rao 1963. Possehl 1980 IAR 1984-85 591 Ranol no Timbo Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 23' 00" N 71° 38' 00" E 592 Ranparda Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 55' 00" N 69° 23' 00" E AT. MRW.  Results    587 Rangpur Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 23 56" N 71° 55' 19" E UHCS. POUH 1984 588 Rangpur no Timbo/Haliad 589 Ranigam Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 53' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E UHCS. Possehl ES. POUH UHCS. POUH 593 Ranpur Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 45' 00" N 72° 34' 50"E UHCS IAR 1984-85. AD. Rao 1963. Bhan 1986 Jairath 1986 Patan North Gujarat 23o 28' 00" N 71o 48' 00" E 599 Rel Kheda Saurashtra 22° 28' 00" N 72° 30' 00" E MRW. 1980. LRW UHCS IAR 1960-61. UHCS. LRW. LRW. MC. Bhan 1986 Mirchandani 1980 594 Ranpur Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. Momin 1979 243    . MC IAR 1980-81 595 Rapar Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1997-98: 22 596 Rasnal Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 00" N 70° 35' 00" E UHCS. Bhan 1994 IAR 1957-58. ES. MC Jairath 1986 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 43' 00" E 590 Ranio no Timbo Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. Joshi et al. POUH 597 Rasnalia no Timbo/Patana 598 Ratanpura Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 51' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E UHCS. BRW. MC IAR 1958-59. POUH UHCS. MC IAR 1984-85 IAR 1972-73. 1999. MC. Rao 1963.

MC. LRW. FS. MC. MC. Bhan 1986 Dimri 1999 608 Rupavati Doro/Piparali 609 Rustamgadh Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 40' 00" N 71° 45' 00" E UHCS. POUH UHCS. AD. ES. BRW. POUH UHCS. MRW. RSW. Rao 1963. MC Jairath 1986 Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 21' 32" N 72° 02' 12" E UHCS. MC IAR 1978-79.  Results    600 Rhalia no Timbo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 15" N 71° 38' 31" E UHCS. MC. POUH LRW. PW. Possehl and Rawal 1989. POUH Bhan 1994 612 Sakhavadar/Nehda Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 17' 46" N 72° 02' 73" E UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 Surendranagar North Gujarat _ _ POUH Majumdar 1999 610 Saaheer no Timbo/ Bhadi 611 Sai Timbo Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ Jairath 1986 Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 33' 00" N 71° 54' 00" E UHCS. POUH Dimri 1999 603 Rojdi Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 51' 47" N 70° 55' 08" E IAR 1957-58. POUH Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS IAR 1995-96: 16 606 Rupamore Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 60' 00" N 69° 45' 00" E 607 Rupavati Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 43' 50" N 71° 58' 20" E UHCS. P Paul and Shinde 1999 Researcher's Exploration 244    . Possehl 1999 604 Rojka/Jasabhai Bachu Bhai no Khetar/Timbo 605 Rozi Mata Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 20' 83" N 72° 02' 18" E UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 601 Rohiodas no Timbo/ Navagam Gaekwad 602 Rojasar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 55' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E UHCS.

POUH Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1957-58 622 Santhli no Thumdo/Santhli I 623 Santhli V Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E AT. 1984 Rao 1963 619 Sanara Timbo Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1978-79 620 Sankatrawalo Thumdo 621 Santhali Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 20' 00" E AT. 1984 Mirchandani 1980 Kachchh Kachchh 22° 55' 00" N 69° 40' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. 1999. 1984 Possehl 1980. 1999. POUH 625 Sapara Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) IAR 1979-80 626 Saparwadi Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1980-81 627 Sarkhadoli no Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat _ _ POUH Bhan 1994 245    . Joshi et al. POUH Possehl 1980. POUH Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 00" N 71° 57' 00" E UHCS Possehl 1980. POUH 618 Sanalo Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 25' 00" E LRW.  Results    613 Saladi Mehsana North Gujarat _ _ UHCS Majumdar 1999 614 Samadhiala Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 19' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E UHCS 615 Samadhiala/ Samadhi Timbo 616 Samadhiyala Vagad 617 Samagogha Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 52' 00" N 71° 38' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. 1999. MC Majumdar 1999 Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 15" N 71° 29' 50" E POUH 624 Santhli VI Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 30' 20" E MC.

2011 Dimri 1999 641 Shiharu no Thumdo/ Koliwada II Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 50' 20" N 71° 30' 00" E AT. Joshi et al. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Bhan 1986 Hegde and Sonawane 1986. POUH LRW. POUH 636 Selari Kachchh Kachchh 23° 42' 00" N 70° 37' 00" E UHCS 637 Senalo Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 12' 00" N 70° 25' 00" E POUH Possehl 1980. Joshi et al.  Results    628 Sartanpur I/ Sultanpur I 629 Sartanpur II/ Sultanpur II 630 Sarwania Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 18' 59" N 72° 05' 06" E POUH Researcher's Exploration Paul et al. 1984 IAR 1967-68. 1999. 1999 638 Shankar Mandir Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 24' 18" N 72° 02' 39" E UHCS IAR 1995-96: 10 639 Shapur/Puncha Hira ni Khetar 640 Sheikhpur Junagadh Saurashtra 21° 05' 65" N 70° 07' 56" E Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 21' 57" N 71° 45' 53" E PUH. Joshi et al. POUH. PUHSRP. Bhan 1994 Bhan 1983. 1984 IAR 1977-78. POUH Ajithprasad et al. 1997 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 18' 21" N 72° 05' 62" E UHCS. 1999 Possehl 1980. MC. PW UHCS. POUH Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 09' 00" N 70° 22' 00" E 631 Sasiya ni Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 35' 00" N 71° 51' 10" E UHCS. 1984 Chitalwala 1985 246    . POUH Jamnagar Saurashtra 20° 58' 00" N 70° 28' 00" E UHCS 634 Sayra _ _ _ _ UHCS 635 Seed Farm Bhavnagar Saurashtra 20° 57' 52" N 71° 35' 15" E UHCS. POUH 632 Saudevalio/ Sai Devaliya 633 Savani Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 00' 00" N 69° 44' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980.

MC. BRW. Ajithprasad et al. POUH Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Rao 1963. PP. MC.  Results    642 Shikarpur Kachchh Kachchh 23° 07' 00" N 70° 35' 00" E 72° 03' 00" E AT. UHCS. RSW. LRW. ES. UHCS. BRW.al. Personal Communication IAR 1995-96 654 Soont no Timbo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 56' 00" N 71° 20' 00" E AT. POUH Rao 1963 647 Sihor Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 43' 00" N 72° 00' 00" E UHCS. 1971. POUH Nanavati et. POUH UHCS. FS. POUH UHCS Arun Mallik. POUH UHCS 643 Shilavadar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 03' 00" N 644 Shimoy no Dhoro Rajkot Saurashtra 645 Shisak Rajkot 646 Shrinagar IAR 1986-87 Paul and Shinde 1999 _ _ POUH Possehl 1999 Saurashtra _ _ POUH Possehl 1999 Porbandar Saurashtra 21° 35' 00" N 69° 34' 00" E UHCS. AD. FS. Possehl 1980. ES. Bhan 1994 247    . MC Jairath 1986 648 Singeh Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Bhan 1983 649 Siyanagar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 02' 00" N 71° 41' 00" E UHCS Jairath 1986 650 Somnath/ Prabhas Patan/ Nagara Timbo Junagadh Saurashtra 20° 54' 00" N 70° 25' 30" E 651 Sonaria Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 00' 00" N 69° 46' 00" E PUH. PW. POUH 655 Sujnipur Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 72° 12' 00" E BRW. 2011 Bhan 1989 652 Songarh Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 01' 00" N 71° 21' 00" E 653 Sontha Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 23' 07" N 71° 52' 12" E UHCS. LRW. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992.

Ghosh 1989 Paul et al. Bhan 1989 248    . POUH 665 Tankaria Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 56' 00" N 69° 25' 00" E UHCS. BRW.  Results    656 Sultanpur Amreli Saurashtra 21° 45' 00" N 70° 50' 00" E PW. MC IAR 1964-65. Rao 1963. Joshi et al. 1999. ES. POUH IAR 1980-81. 1984 Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 02' 00" N 70° 05' 00" E LRW. FS. POUH Researcher's Exploration IAR 1979-80. B. POUH Bhan 1986 660 Talavadi/Jalampar Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 35' 34" N 72° 03' 85" E UHCS 661 Talavadi no Thumdo/ Mathutra V 662 Talawadi no Timbo 663 Talewadi/Talawadi Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 44' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E POUH Researcher's Exploration Majumdar 1999 Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 45' 00" N 72° 20' 00" E UHCS Joshi et al. UHCS. Possehl 1980. PW. RSW. Possehl 1999. PUHSRP. Rao 1963. Bhan 1989 664 Talli Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 10' 99" N 71° 58' 43" E UHCS. 1984. AT. P 658 Surkotada Kachchh Kachchh 23° 37' 00" N 70° 50' 00" E PUH. Joshi et al. 1984 659 Suryavadar I Jamnagar Saurashtra 21° 56' 00" N 69° 45' 00" E UHCS.1997 657 Sultanpur Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 18' 00" N 72° 08' 00" E UHCS. POUH IAR 1958-59. AD.

MC. Joshi et al. POUH UHCS. Rao 1963 IAR 1958-59. Possehl 1980. Possehl 1980. MC IAR 1958-59. POUH 675 Telod Bharuch South Gujarat 21o 42' 00" N 72o 46' 00" E UHCS. 1984 Jairath 1986 678 Thebachada I Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 22' 00" N 70° 51' 00" E POUH IAR 1961-62. POUH Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 43' 00" N 70° 27' 00" E 671 Tarana IV Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 43' 00" N 70° 27' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. POUH 677 Thapnath/Chogath Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 00" N 71° 50' 00" E UHCS. POUH UHCS. 1984 249    . ES 676 Tetariyo Amreli Saurashtra 21° 49' 00" N 71° 06' 00" E UHCS. 1999. POUH IAR 1979-80 669 Tarana II Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 43' 00" N 70° 27' 00" E UHCS. 1984 IAR 1957-58. 1984 Jairath 1986 667 Taragraha Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ 668 Tarana I Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 43' 00" N 70° 27' 00" E UHCS. 1999. MC Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. 1984.  Results    666 Taraghada Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 44' 00" N 70° 26' 00" E _ UHCS. LRW. Rao 1963. ES. Bhan 1986 Bhan 1989 670 Tarana III 672 Tarshikhad Ahmedabad Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1979-80. Joshi et al. Bhan 1989 IAR 1974-75 673 Tatam Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 04' 00" N 71° 36' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. 1999. MC Jairath 1986 674 Tatana Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 58' 00" N 71° 40' 00" E UHCS. PW. 1999. POUH IAR 1960-61. Joshi et al. 1999.

Joshi et al. 1984 Bhan 1994 682 Thumda I Mehsana North Gujarat _ _ UHCS. Dimri 1999 Dimri 1999 687 Timbo I Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 18' 03" N 71° 48' 23" E UHCS. MC IAR 1957-58. Joshi et al. POUH 681 Thumba Banaskantha North Gujarat _ _ UHCS. MC Dimri 1999 688 Timbo I Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 43' 00" N 71° 36' 00" E LRW. Bhan 1994.  Results    679 Thebachada II Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 22' 00" N 70° 51' 00" E LRW. LRW. Possehl 1980. POUH 684 Timbi I Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. MC IAR 1982-83 250    . MC. POUH Possehl 1999 680 Thikariya no Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 31' 40" N 71° 45' 20" E AT. MC IAR 1995-96: 9 690 Timbo II Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 43' 10" N 71° 37' 00" E LRW. Possehl 1980. POUH Bhan 1994 689 Timbo II Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 52" N 72° 00' 35" E UHCS. 1984 IAR 1980-81 685 Timbo Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 20' 50" N 71° 49' 70" E UHCS 686 Timbo Surendranagar North Gujarat 22° 23' 07" N 71° 51' 10" E POUH IAR 1995-96. 1999. POUH Bhan 1994 691 Todio Kachchh Kachchh 23° 05' 00" N 68° 55' 00" E UHCS 692 Tokariya Timbo/Ratanpur Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 28' 00" N 71° 49' 30" E UHCS. Joshi et al. 1984 IAR 1989-90 693 Ubhad Surat South Gujarat _ _ UHCS. LRW. MC Hegde and Sonawane 1986. 1999. POUH Rao 1963. MC Bhan 1994 683 Timaram/Timran Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 53' 00" N 70° 30' 00" E UHCS.

MRW. MC Jairath 1986 Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1956-57 696 Unchadi Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 16' 40" N 71° 53' 14" E MRW 697 Vachali Ghodi Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ POUH Krishnan and Dimri 2005 IAR 1978-79 698 Vada Kachchh Kachchh 23° 29' 00" N 69° 07' 00" E UHCS IAR 1967-68. Joshi et al. POUH PUH. Joshi et al. Bhan 1994 251    . Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. 1999.  Results    694 Ujalvav no Timbo/Ujalvav 695 Una Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 03' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E UHCS. 1984. LRW. POUH IAR 1994-95 IAR 1982-83. 1984 IAR 1978-79 702 Vadgam II Anand Saurashtra 22° 29' 90" N 72° 25' 94" E UHCS. MC Majumdar 1999 700 Vadasada Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 47' 00" N 70° 45' 00" E UHCS 701 Vadera Amreli Saurashtra 21° 36' 00" N 71° 06' 00" E UHCS. Joshi et al. 1984. BRW. Possehl 1980. BRW Researcher's Exploration 703 VadgamI/Vadgam Anand Saurashtra 23° 21' 00" N 71° 48' 00" E IAR 1964-65. POUH LRW. Bhan 1994 704 Vadi Talavadi no Thumdo/ Mathutra II 705 Vadia no Timbo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 44' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 34' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E UHCS. POUH IAR 1958-59. PUHSRP. 1984 699 Vadadi no Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 35' 00" N 71° 53' 00" E UHCS. 1999. UHCS.

MRW. POUH Possehl 1999 709 Vagad Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 19' 00" N 71° 52' 00" E Mehta and Sonawane 1985 710 Vaghania Juna Amreli Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. ES. POUH IAR 1960-61 714 Vaidwali Mohra Kachchh Kachchh _ _ UHCS. AD. POUH POUH 711 Vaghatalav Kheda Saurashtra 22° 32' 00" N 72° 27' 00" E Momin 1979 712 Vagra no Dhoro Amreli Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. POUH 713 Vaharvo Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 50' 50" N 71° 43' 55" E UHCS. POUH 707 Vadiya Vala Dhoro Bhavnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Arun Mallik. 708 Vadli Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 720 Valavadhar/Daya Bhai no Dhoro Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 23' 00" N 72° 06' 00" E UHCS. IAR 1979-80. 1997 252    . ES. MC. Mehta LRW 1984 UHCS. P IAR 1978-79 Possehl 1999 Paul et al. MC Ajithprasad and Sonawane ( in Press) Junagadh Saurashtra 21° 01' 00" N 70° 38' 00" E POUH IAR 1999-00: 22 717 Vala no Timbo/ Kerala 718 Valabhi/Nesdi Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 59' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E UHCS. ES. LRW. MC Jairath 1986 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21o 53' 00" N 71o 55' 00" E 719 Valabhipur Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 15" N 71° 38' ' 31" E UHCS. POUH UHCS.  Results    706 Vadiya Talav Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 10' 12" N 71° 10' 20" E UHCS. MC IAR 1985-86 715 Vajiyasri no Thumdo/ Santhli III 716 Vajjra Pannat Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 53' 50" N 71° 29' 00" E AT. Personal Communication IAR 1971-72.

POUH 731 Varudimata no Timbo 732 Varwala Ahmedabad Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Arun Mallik. Personal Communication IAR 1979-80 253    . POUH 727 Vanta no Thumdo/ Datrana X 728 Vanta Vash Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 07' 00" E Surendranagar North Gujarat _ _ AT. 1984 725 Vanali no Timbo/ Vanali 726 Vaniavadar Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 54' 00" N 71° 35' 00" E UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 Surendranagar North Gujarat _ _ UHCS IAR 1962-63 723 Valotri Kheda Saurashtra 22° 32' 00" N 72° 35' 00" E UHCS IAR 1972-73. POUH UHCS Rao 1963. Joshi et al. LRW. UHCS.  Results    721 Valbai no Timbo/Turkha 722 Vallabhipura Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 08' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 Amreli Saurashtra 21° 39' 00" N 71° 09' 00" E UHCS. Personal Communication IAR 1976-77 Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1979-80 733 Vasai Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 24' 00" N 70° 00' 00" E 734 Vasavad _ _ _ _ UHCS. Bhan 1983 Chitalwala 1985 735 Vasda Dada ni Jagya/Kuda I Surendranagar North Gujarat 23° 07' 00" N 71° 23' 00" E POUH Arun Mallik. Possehl 1980. 1984 Majumdar 1999 729 Varnu Wandh Kachchh Kachchh _ _ MC IAR 1985-86 730 Varsamedi Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 58' 55" N 70° 34' 05" E UHCS. 1999. 1974-75 724 Valpura Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 57' 00" N 71° 42' 00" E UHCS Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. POUH UHCS Rao 1963.

BRW.  Results    736 Vegadi Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 47' 00" N 70° 30' 00" E UHCS. POUH Bhan 1986 742 Veraval Moti Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 17' 00" N 70° 04' 00" E LRW. 1984 Majumdar 1999 254    . MC Jairath 1986 Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 18' 20" N 72° 01' 02" E Dimri 1999 Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 59' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980 Krishnan and Dimri 2005 IAR 1958-59 739 Vejodhari Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21° 12' 14" N 72° 00' 12" E 740 Veranatha Timbo Mehsana North Gujarat 23° 39' 00" N 71° 54' 10" E UHCS. POUH LRW. MC Bhan 1994 744 Vhali no Timbo/Bhadravadi 745 Vikrarambhai no Timbo 746 Virpur no Timbo/Haripar 747 Virpur. Jamnagar Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 07' 00" N 70° 56' 00" E UHCS. POUH UHCS. LRW. POUH Researcher's Exploration Bhan 1994 741 Veraval Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 22' 00" N 69° 05' 00" E LRW. MC IAR 1958-59. 1999. LRW. Bhan 1983. Chitalwala 1979: 115. Joshi et al. MC. POUH 749 Vokda no Thumdo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 51' 00" N 71° 20' 00" E AT. POUH Bhan 1986 743 Vernatha Mehsana North Gujarat 71° 54' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. UHCS. POUH 737 Vejalka II Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 15' 00" N 71° 52' 12" E MRW 738 Vejalpur Bharuch South Gujarat _ _ UHCS. Gondal Bhavnagar Saurashtra 23° 38' 00" N 22° 13' 00" N 71° 33' 00" E UHCS. MC Jairath 1986 Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS Chitalwala 1985 748 Virpur. POUH Rao 1963.

MRW: Micaceous Red Ware. FS: Fortified Settlement.  Results    750 Vora Kotra Rajkot Saurashtra _ _ UHCS IAR 1957-58 751 Vrundavan Vadodara South Gujarat 22° 07' 00" N 73° 05' 00" E POUH IAR 1999-00 752 Warodra-I Junagadh Saurashtra 20° 48' 75" N 70° 31' 41" E 753 Warthan Surat South Gujarat 21° 22' 00" N 72° 51' 00" E Ajithprasad et al. BRW. JW: Jorwe Ware. P: Padri Ware. POUH: Post Urban Harappan Site. PW: Prabhas Ware. occasionally the works which is referred to by the researcher is mentioned and not the name of the first explorer or his/her work. AD: Chronometric Date. RSW: Reserve Slip Ware. ES. 2011 IAR 1961-62 754 Zekhada/Jekhda/A masari no Tekro Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 51' 00" N 71° 28' 00" E 755 Zinawari Jamnagar Saurashtra _ _ PUH. UHCS: Urban Harappan (Classical/Sorath Harappan) Site. MC. B: Burial. PUHSRP. POUH UHCS. POUH Mehta 1982. UHCS. MC: Presence of Microliths in Chalcolithic Levels. POUH AT. BRW: Black and Red Ware. 255    . LRW: Lustrous Red Ware. Bhan 1994 Bhan 1983 PUH: Pre Urban Harappan Site. AT: Anarta Tradition. MC. ES: Excavated Site. ES. RSW. PPA: Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. PUHSRP: Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Related Pottery. As it is based on secondary data which is available. and MW: Malwa Ware * Sometimes. the references do not represent the original discoverer of the site or original year of discovery.

Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) in Gujarat and Sind region are commonly used to fix the approximate chronology of the occupation of sites. Rojdi phase sequence (Possehl and Raval 1989) and phase sequences of sites like Lothal (Rao 1979. Relative Dates Among the 755 sites reported in Gujarat 734 are dated using relative dating techniques. Lakhabawal (IAR 1955-56) and Somnath (Nanavati et al. Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. Rangpur phase Sequence (Rao 1963). the Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery known as Burial pottery recovered from certain sites in Gujarat is comparable to those from the Pre Urban Harappan levels of the sites like Kot Diji (Khan 1965). an attempt has been made in this section to propose a chronological synopsis of Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat based on the available chronometric and relative dates. Only twenty one excavated sites in Gujarat have chronometric dates (radiocarbon and thermo luminescence dating) and series of dates have been obtained from sites like Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989). For instance. Loteshwar (Patel 2008) and Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. Amri (Casal 1964) and Balakot (Dales 1974) in modern day Pakistan. 1996).    Results  CHRONOLOGICAL SYNOPSIS OF CHALCOLITHIC GUJARAT Introduction As mentioned in chapter II. For instance. Surkotada (Joshi 1990). 2011). Amra (IAR 1955-56). 1985). In spite of these major drawbacks. 1971. 2005). chronology of most of the sites in Gujarat was established based on relative dating techniques (contextual and typological/ seriation). The proposed phase sequences however were used without much caution at times to interpret the cultural periods of certain explored sites. due to the similarities in the features of Pre-Urban Harappan Padri Ware which were recovered from the earliest levels of Padri and the Padri Ware affiliated to 256    .

1997). Misra (1965) criticized this phase sequence and suggested a twofold sequence for the site i. Through this sequence Rao established the presence of Harappan culture at Rangpur which gradually evolved into a new regional culture characterized by the Lustrous Red Ware (Rao 1963. Herman 1997). only period III is characterized as Lustrous Red Ware cultural deposit. though Lustrous Red Ware is ubiquitous in RGP IIC. shapes. RGP IIA (Harappa Culture: 2000-1500 BC). the sequence is primarily based on architecture followed by flooding layers and lastly on pottery and other finds. 257    . Misra (1965) points out that Rangpur phase sequence is not completely vertical but also lateral. Rangpur phase sequence introduced in the 1950s for the first time provided the material evidence and a framework for the transformation of the Harappan Culture down to Post Urban Harappan period (Herman 1997).    Results  Rangpur IIB and IIC which were recovered from explorations of a few other sites were termed by the explorers as Pre Urban Harappan sites (Paul et al. and the division between RGP IIC and RGP III are problematic. and RGP III (Lustrous Red Ware Culture: 1000800 BC) (Rao 1963). rim profiles and decorations. the ceramics of RGP IIA and IIB does not reveal clear differences in wares. shapes or decorations but have differences with RGP IIC and RGP III in fabrics. In spite of the criticisms. Rao’s proposition of the existence of Mature Harappan lithic technology at the site was based on a single blade fragment. Rangpur Phase Sequence Majority of the Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat are relatively dated based on the four fold Rangpur phase sequence i. RGP IIC (Transitional Phase of Harappa Culture: 1100-1000 BC). Period IIA: Late Impoverished Harappan Settlement (RGP IIA-B: 2000-1800 BC) and Period IIB: Lustrous Red Ware Related Post-Harappan Settlement (RGP IICIII: 1800-1500 BC).e.e. RGP IIB (Late Harappa Culture: 1500-1100 BC).

Rojdi A. The ceramics sequence at Rojdi developed out of the systematic analysis of pottery relied on the fabric. Surkotada (Joshi 1990). the period covering 3700 BC to 900 BC. 1996) and even from the sites of Sindh region. Many of the excavated sites showed evidences for the existence of a preceding Mesolithic culture and succeeding periods like Early Historic. Surkotada (Joshi 1990). Lakhabawal (IAR 1955-56). Sites Having Relative Dates Among the 56 excavated sites. form. The ceramics from various occupation levels at Rojdi organized into three fold scheme namely Rojdi A. Medieval and Modern. Chronometric dates are available for the sites like Dholavira (Bisht 2000. 2200-2000 BC and 2000-1700 BC respectively (Possehl and Raval 1989).e. As per the Radio carbon dates. Amra (IAR 1955-56). Lothal (Rao 1979. Rojdi B and Rojdi C are equitable to 2500-2200 BC.2) are dated using relative dating techniques based on the phase sequences of Rangpur (Rao 1963). 2011). sometimes with a perceived gap. 1985). B and C can generally be compared to Rangpur IIA. Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. Loteshwar 258    . decoration and statistical data of ceramics showed a change in the Sorath Harappan ceramic tradition similar to the one noticed at Rangpur (Possehl and Rawal 1989). IIB and IIC. Chronometric Dates The chronometric techniques used to date the sites in Gujarat are conventional and AMS radio carbon techniques and thermo-luminescence method. Nageshwar (Hegde et al. 1990) and Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. 35 (Table 4.  Results    Rojdi Phase Sequence Rojdi phase sequence is the second popular relative dating technique commonly used to date the Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan sites in Gujarat since 1990. Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989). IAR 1993-94). The relatively dated sites altogether represent three phases of Chalcolithic culture in Gujarat i.

Nagwada (Hegde et al.    Results  (Patel 2008). The phase III at the site is Late Urban in nature equivalent to the Rangpur IIA and IIB phases and Rojdi A and B phases. This date matches with generally accepted date for 259    . The phase II at the site was marked by the fortification wall and by Classical Harappan and Anarta artifacts. 2003). 2003. Hegde et al. Phase IV at the site is Late Sorath Harappan in nature and marked by artefacts similar to Rangpur IIC and Rojdi C. Urban. Bagasra The Chalcolithic occupation at Bagasra (Gola Dhoro) is divided into four phases i. Radiocarbon dates from the site also approximately falls in this range (Table 4. Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965). Padri (Shinde and Kar 1992). Four conventional radiocarbon dates are available for the site.3). Jaidak (Sen 2009). Somnath (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). Early Urban phase which is pre-fortification in nature is characterized by Classical Harappan and Anarta artifacts.4) available for the phase I has two calibrations of 2550-2540 BC and 2490-2300 BC (Chase 2007). relatively datable to c. 2200-1700 BC. Kuntasi (Dhvalikar et al. Babarkot According to Possehl (1994b). 2005).e. 1988.e. the Chalcolithic ceramics from Babarkot suggest that chronologically the site is equivalent to Rojdi B and Rojdi C phase sequences i. Herman 1997). The site also revealed evidences for the existence of Early Historic and Medieval artifacts. 1990). Malvan (Allchin and Joshi 1995) and Bokhira (Gaur et al. 2005). Chase 2007). Single c14 date (Table 4. Majority of the sites do not have series of dates and some have one date only. 1990. Oriyo Timbo (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990). Ratanpura (IAR 1984-85. 1985). Babarkot (Possehl 1994a). Bagasra (Sonawane et al. Nageshwar (Hegde et al. Sorath Harappan and Anarta artifacts. Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. Late Urban and Post Urban (Sonawane et al. The artifacts of this phase were characterized by Classical Harappan. Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989). Early Urban. 1996). Lothal (Rao 1979. Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985). Possehl 1994b).

These discrepancies in the dates of Phases III and IV suggest the necessity of more radio-carbon dates from various phases to resolve this contradiction. Dholavira The relative dates from the Chalcolithic site at Dholavira suggest that the site was occupied between Pre Urban Harappan period to Post Urban Harappan period. As per the excavators (Gaur et al. This date is later than the date suggested for the Rangpur IIC and Rojdi C type artefacts. This date also comes under the Urban Harappan phase. Bet Dwarka The ceramics from the Chalcolithic level of the site is very much similar to the Post Urban Harappan ceramics reported from Rangpur IIC. Phase II at the site has a calibrated c14 date of 2480-2280 BC (Chase 2007). Material remains of the Early Historic period were also unearthed from different parts of the island. Rest of the uncalibrated dates also falls under this category (IAR 1993-94). it shows that the relative and chronometric dates suggested for the site is different. Though this date comes under Urban Harappan period. Among the eleven c14 dates obtained for the site one is modern in nature. Only two of the dates are calibrated (Table 4. The calibrated single date available for Phase IV is of 2480-2280 BC range (Chase 2007). The single calibrated c14 date available for Phase III falls in the range between 2490-2290 BC (Chase 2007). 2005).5) from the island are in the range of 2070-1730 BC (BDK – I/Charcoal/ 2001/20) 1830-1640 BC (BDK -VI/Shell/2001/27) and 1470-1260 BC (BDK -VI/Shell/2001/26) (Gaur et al.6) and they fall within the range of suggested relative dates. 2005).    Results  the beginning of Urban Harappan Phase in Gujarat. The site has a number c14 and TL dates for Chalcolithic and Historic periods. Three of the published c14 dates (Table 4. 260    . the caliberated dates from the site indicate a time bracket for the chalcolithic habitation between 1600-1400 BC. Instead of Post Urban Harappan period it falls under Urban Harappan period.

All dates except one from Period V also falls in the range of Early Historic period. 2011). 1900-1700 BC 261    . only one c14 date (Lab Ref. BS-2619: 2888-2623 BC) belongs to the Pre-Urban Harappan Period (Kharakwal et al. Period I is Urban Harappan datable between ca.7) also confirm the relative dates of the site (Sen 2009). Period IIB is Late Sorath Harappan comparable to Rangpur IIC and Rojdi C (Ajithprasad 2008).e. 1950-1750 BC (Table 4. The dates from Period III show that the chronometric dates of Post Urban Harappan phase at Kanmer are not coeval with those of Rojdi Phase C and Jaidak IIB. Thus. IIB and III are within the range of Urban Harappan period. Post Urban Harappan and Medieval periods of the site. Period II (KMR II: Urban Harappan). c.    Results  Jaidak/Pithad The overall habitation deposit at the site can be divided into two cultural periods namely. Kanmer According to the excavators.8) from Period I. All other dates from period I. Mesolithic (Period I) and Sorath Harappan (Period IIA and IIB). Period IIA is Sorath Harappan in nature comparable to Rangpur IIB and Rojdi B.e. No. Period I (KMR I: Pre Urban Harappan). the habitation deposit in the archaeological mound at Kanmer can be divided into five periods i. While considering the dates (Table 4. 2200 -1910 BC and c. Period IV (KMR IV: Early Historic) and Period V (KMR V: Medieval). Period IIA. the available chronological data throw light on the necessity to have more dates from Pre Urban Harappan. Calibrated c14 dates from the site for Periods IIA and IIB i. One of the samples each from the Period III and IV gives the date of Early Historic period. Kuntasi The excavations at Kuntasi revealed evidences of Chalcolithic occupation divisible into two cultural Periods. 24001900 BC and Period II is Post Urban Harappan datable between ca. Period III (KMR III: Post Urban Harappan).

10) which is coeval with the relative date (Possehl 1994). copper knife and black and red pottery is dated to c. Langhnaj The human occupation at the excavated archaeological mound at Langhnaj is divided into three cultural periods. period I Mesolithic and Period II Chalcolithic (IAR 1990-91) including two phases i. Though the cultural affiliation of the charcoal samples collected for dating from the site is Urban Harappan. Based on the 2 sigma range of AMS dating technique. Based on a calibrated conventional c14 date from a charred bone piece (PRL-1567).e. Loteshwar The occupational history of the Chalcolithic site at Loteshwar can be divided into two i. The Period II represented by microliths. 1996). ring stone. two samples (PRL-1565 and PRL 1564) from two pits of the Chalcolithic level (Ajithprasad 2002) provided calibrated dates of 3690-3660 BC and 2920 BC. Period III datable to 100 AD-BC was represented by modern looking pottery. One sample collected from the site provided a calibrated c14 date of 24682145 BC (Table 4. the Chalcolithic settlement at Kuntasi began at the close of the early phase of Urban Harappan period and flourished mainly in the late phase of the Urban Harappan period. 1996). crude pottery and burials is relatively dated prior to 2500 BC (Sankalia 1965). iron arrow head. In the absence of series of 262    . Mesolithic occupation at the site is dated to 4715 BC (Table 4. 2000 BC. the calibrated c14 dates (Table 4.11). Pre Urban Harappan Anarta Tradition and Urban Harappan Anarta tradition. Similarly.9) gives the range of 2560-1670 BC (Dhavalikar et al. Patel (2008) dates the Mesolithic period of the site between 7446-5476 BC and Chalcolithic period between 3774-2042 BC and proposes the possibilities of the existence of a gap of a millennium or more between the two periods. microliths and bones (Sankalia 1965).e. According to the excavators. The Period I represented by microliths.    Results  (Dhavalikar et al. These disparities in the dates also suggest the need for more radiocarbon dates.

IIC. Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware and based on these evidences the excavators suggested a relative date of 1400-1000 BC for the habitation and the end of first millennium for the Period II.    Results  dates obtained from the samples from regular intervals the validity of this proposal is minimal.13) from Period I of the site is in the range of 904-703 BC (Herman 1997). More c14 dates from the site can resolve the problems or confirm the available date. IIIB. Period I: Chalcolithic and Period II: Medieval (Allchin and Joshi 1995). VA and VB.e.12) from the site. IVA. 263    . Subphases in the site are IIA. Post Urban Harappan. IIB. Period I can be dated between 2600-1900 BC and Period II to 1900-1700 BC (Rao 1979. Two c14 dates (Table 4. 2340-2140 BC and 1980-1870 BC (Herman 1997). Nagwada Chalcolithic occupation at the site in Nagwada is divided into two Periods i. Lothal Cultural occupation at Lothal is divided into two periods namely Period A: Urban Harappan and Period B. 1990).e. Malvan The evidences for the human occupation at the archaeological mound at Malvan can be divided into two periods i.e. IVB. The period I revealed the evidences for the existence of Lustrous Red Ware. Period A is divided into four structural phases (I – IV) and Period B (V) comprised of one structural phase. Based on the available calibrated c14 dates (Table 4. IIIA.14) from the site fit well within the range of Urban Harappan period i. 1985). Nageshwar The single cultural period site (structural phases A and B) at Nageshwar is Urban Harappan in nature and it is relatively dated 2500-2000 BC (Hegde et al. One sigma calibration of single c14 date (Table 4.

Urban Harappan (structural Phases I and II).16).  Period IA and IB (Hegde et al. Rojdi A. microliths using inhabitants preceding a pastoral camp of Lustrous Red Ware using community. 2200-2000 BC (Rojdi B) and 2000-1700 BC (Rojdi C) (Possehl and Raval 1989).e. the Pre Urban Harappan (Padri Ware). Possehl 1994).17) from the Pre Urban Harappan level at the site gave a range of 3699-2784 BC. Rojdi B and Rojdi C which is approximately equivalent to Rangpur sequence. Two 264    . Few of the dates from this level revealed a time bracket within the Urban Harappan period and clearly reveal the necessity of more chronometric dates. Padri The site revealed 4 fold cultural sequence i. Period I at the site can be dated in to the range of 2915 and 2409 BC (Rissman and Chitalwala 1990. One of the dates for the Period II at the site represented by Lustrous Red Ware is 1626-1405 BC. Rojdi On the basis of c14 dates. The c14 dates (Table 4. Oriyo Timbo Excavations at the archaeological mound at Oriyo Timbo revealed two periods of cultural occupation i. The Period IA of the site yielded artefacts comparable to the Pre Urban Harappan phase and Period IB belong to the Urban Harappan phase is divided into four structural sub-phases.e. Based on three calibrated c14 dates (Table 4. 1988). Two calibrated dates (Table 4. Post Urban Harappan and Early Historic phases (Shinde and Kar 1992). the excavators divided the occupational strata of Rojdi into three periods namely. the Urban Harappan period in the site is dated to last quarter of the third millennium BC to early centuries of the second millennium BC.19) assigned to the ceramic phases of the site are: 2500-2200 BC (Rojdi A).15) from the upper level of Period IB also confirms the relative date (Herman 1997). Based on relative chronology of Surkotada and Lothal. The radiocarbon date in the range of 2199-1969 BC (Table 4.

Period IV by Early Historic (c. The problems in the date obtained for the Urban Harappan period and Post Urban Harappan period.18) are representing the last phase of the Urban Harappan period (Herman 1997). Surkotada The excavations at Surkotada brought to light remains of Urban Harappan 265    .    Results  other dates from the same level is in the range of 2285-1887 BC. Based on the c14 dates (Table 4.2200-1700 BC).e. the Chalcolithic period at the site is relatively dated to Rangpur IIC and Rojdi C.1st to 4th Century AD) (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). Period I: Mesolithic and Period II: Post Urban Harappan (IAR 1984-85). The discrepancies and the wide ranges in the dates show the necessity of more chronometric dates from the site. 30002800 BC). Two ranges of dates (2130-2070 BC and 2050-1950 BC) obtained from the single c14 sample (Table 4. Period II by Early Prabhas Culture (c. the Period I can be dated to 3019-2625 BC.1700-1400 BC). The Urban Harappan period at the site can be dated to 2861-2321 BC on the basis of a single c14 date (Possehl 1994). point towards the necessity of more accurate dates from the site. Ratanpura The occupational debris in the archaeological mounds at Ratanpura can be broadly divided into two periods i. Based on the similarities in ceramics. This also indicates the necessity of more chronometric dates from the site. Period II to 24561674 BC and Period III to 2560-1124 BC (Possehl 1994). Period III by Late Prabhas Culture/Lustrous Red Ware (c.20). 4th century BC to 1st century AD) and Period V by Kshatrapa-Gupta Period (c. Somnath Archaeological site at Somnath/Prabhas Patan has evidence for five periods of occupation and the Period I was represented by Pre-Prabhas Culture (c.

Period IA can be dated to 2888-2045 BC. Based on the c14 dates (Table 4. Amra (IAR 1955-56). a comprehensive list of dates from the site is very essential. Period IA. 2006. Bokhira The archaeological remains from the Chalcolithic site at Bokhira are divided into two periods i. Posssehl identified Pre-Urban Harappan Sindh type pottery from some of the burials from the site. Vagad The cultural remains from the Chalcolithic mound at Vagad representing both Urban and Post Urban Harappan periods are divided into three structural sub periods viz. Four samples collected from the site (Table 4. Chronological Sequences Based on the archaeological data from excavated sites like Lothal (Rao 1973. Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan associated with Prabhas Ware (Gaur et al. Lakhabawal (IAR 1955-56) and Vadnagar (Subbarao and Mehta 1955) and explored sites in Gujarat. Period IA. Gaur: Personal Communication). Rangpur (Rao 1963). Somnath (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992).22). Hence. 1985). Based on the calibrated radiocarbon dates (Table 4. Period IB and Period IC (Joshi 1990). Many of the dates do not agree with the generally accepted relative dates of the site.e.    Results  artefacts of a period divisible into three sub-periods namely. IB and IC. 1979.21). Subbarao (1958) created the widely accepted cultural 266    . Vagad IA is dated to 2190-2160 BC and IB to 2200-1510 BC (Sonawane and Mehta 1985).23) for c14 dating provided erroneous dates and it also indicate the necessity of collection of uncontaminated data from proper context. Period IB to 2391-2036 BC and Period IC to 2135 to 1684 (Possehl 1994). The date of Period IC is 2190-2030 BC which is not coeval with the relative dates of the area and shows the necessity of more radiocarbon dates from the site to fix the chronology.

being a part of Surendranagar district. This study revealed that Kachchh region and Saurasthra regions have different time frames and paces of urbanization. Though Rangpur is generally considered in the Saurashtra sub-region. a review of Subbarao’s cultural sequence is needed. Zekhada (Momin 1983). In the presence of large number of excavated sites and explored sites of different periods and chronometric dates. North Gujarat One hundred and eighty two sites of the Chalcolithic period were reported from the North Gujarat sub-region and among them ten sites were excavated in various degrees.    Results  sequence of Gujarat covering the time period from Palaeolithic to Early Medieval. 1988). Santhli (Ajithprasad 2002). Apart from this. In the presence of new radio carbon dates and more excavated sites in the area. Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965) and Rangpur (Rao 1963). Ajithprasad (2004) proposed a chronological sequence and stratigraphical structure for Mesolithic and Chalcolithic assemblages of North Gujarat based on artifacts and chronometric and relative dates from five excavated sites in north Gujarat. Ratanpura (IAR 1984-85). in this study it is 267    . Nagwada (Hegde et al. Herman (1997) tried to chronologically arrange various Chalcolithic sites reported and dated based on Rangpur phase sequence occurring in different parts of Gujarat with the help of the cultural remains from various excavated sites and chronometric dates. a review of this chronological sequence is also necessary. Chronometric dates for the sites were also absent. with the creation of the chronology and stratigraphy of all excavated Chalcolithic/Chalcolithic affiliated Mesolithic sites in Gujarat one can test the validity of the earlier propositions of the presence of cultural gaps and can also understand the cultural changes that took place in different sub-regions in Gujarat during various time periods. Mathutra (Majumdar 1999). Loteshwar (IAR 1990-91). Moti Pipli (Majumdar 1996-97). At the time of the creation of the sequence. there were very limited excavated sites in Gujarat. The excavated sites in the North Gujarat sub-region are Datrana (Ajithprasad 2002).

no clear stratigraphial gap exists in between the Chalcolithic and Mesolithic levels.    Results  included in North Gujarat. Datrana. The dates of the Chalcolithic period from Loteshwar is in the 2 sigma range of 37742042 BC (Patel 2008). Patel (2008) proposes the possibility of the presence of the gap of a millennium or more in between the Mesolithic and Chalcolithic periods at Loteshwar. Chalcolithic occupational layers were preceded by the aceramic Mesolithic layers. Early Historic and Medieval artefacts. The evidences from the sites like Santhli (Ajithprasad 2002). Classical/Sorath Harappan. Moti Pipli. Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965) and Rangpur (Rao 1963) indicate the continuation of Mesolithic way of life in different parts of North Gujarat sub-region even after the beginning of Chalcolithic way of life (Ajithprasad 2004). As mentioned in earlier paragraph. Based on the chronometric dates for both the periods. Though. Reserved Slip Ware. Moti Pipli (Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-97). Black and Red Ware. Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type pottery. while considering the excavated trenches at the site. Anarta Tradition. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. The sites from the North Gujarat showed evidences for the existence of Mesolithic/Microliths using community. The dates obtained from the charred otoliths of Datrana IV also go back to 7th millennium BC (Ajithprasad: Personal Communication). Ratanpura and Rangpur. the dated samples are 268    . Ratanpura (IAR 1984-85). Large number of stone tools having microlithic characters is discovered from the Chalcolithic levels of many sites and there still exists confusion regarding the authors of the microliths occurring in the Chalcolithic level (Ajithprasad 2004). In the excavated sites like Loteshwar. Micaceous Red Ware. The dates from both the sites clearly establish the existence of Microliths using community in North Gujarat from the first half of Holocene. Apart from this. the earliest evidence for the human occupation (in Holocene period) in North Gujarat is available from the Mesolithic level of Loteshwar where the calibrated dates for this period is in the 2 sigma range of 7446-5476 BC (Patel 2008). Lustrous Red Ware. Late Sorath Harappan.

the validity of the presence of gap should be addressed with caution. many sites in South Gujarat showed the independent existence of Mesolithic/microliths using communities. 1971). the sub-region never experienced cultural vacuum in between 7000-1400 BC. Bhagatrav (IAR 1957-58).  Results    randomly selected from different trenches and not systematically collected from regular intervals from trench/trenches. At the same time. Malvan (Allchin and Joshi 1995). Dhatva (Mehta et al. Mehgam (IAR 1957-58). Nagal (IAR 1961-62). there is a clear gap present in between Chalcolithic/Mesolithic and Early Historic period and even between Early Historic period and Early Medieval or Late Medieval. The excavated sites in the region include Andhi (IAR 1961-62). some of the 269    . In the absence of series of dates from the site. The absence of visible variation in the stone tool production technique of both the periods suggests the continuation of the tradition. Telod (IAR 1957-58) and Warthan (IAR 1961-62). An observation of the Mesolithic-Chalcolithic chronological synopsis (fig. Jokha (Mehta et al. The presence of these voids may be due to many reasons as this chronological synopsis is prepared based only on excavated Chalcolithic or Chalcolithic affiliated Mesolithic sites (as the scope of this thesis is limited to Chalcolithic and affiliated cultures). The reasons for the absence of independent Mesolithic level preceding the Chalcolithic period may be due to the variation in the preference in habitation area by these two communities. South Gujarat Nine sites among the nineteen reported Chalcolithic sites were excavated in South Gujarat. 4. None of these excavated sites revealed evidences for the independent existence of Mesolithic/microliths using community or Pre Urban Harappans. While considering the excavated Chalcolithic/Mesolithic sites. 1975). At the same time. A holistic study by incorporating the available data on the cultural history of different periods in the North Gujarat will surely fill the cultural gap in the sub-region.1) of the North Gujarat shows that.

But in many sites. The study of the dates from other excavated Early Historic sites along with these Chalcolithic sites and literary evidences may fill this gap. 2011) and Surkotada (Possehl 1997) appear to have been occupied little later for habitation.2). Nagal and Warthan suggests the continuation of Chalcolithic cultures/traditions in South Gujarat even up to 900 BC (fig. Dholavira (Bisht 2000). Kotada Bhadli II (Shirvalkar: Personal Communication). Shikarpur (IAR 1989-90) and Surkotada (Joshi 1990). As per the c14 dates of Malvan and relative dates from Andhi. Kachchh Among the sixty two Chalcolithic sites reported from Kachchh. 2560 BC) followed by Mehgam and Telod (ca. Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. Khirsara (Jam 2010).e.    Results  excavated sites showed evidences for the relationship between both the groups in the form of Microliths in Chalcolithic level. 2011). where the Pre Urban Harappan occupation goes back to ca. Reserved Slip Ware. Jokha. Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. The earliest dated Chalcolithic site of South Gujarat is Bhagatrav (ca. The Chalcolithic vestiges of South Gujarat was represented by Classical Harappan. Lustrous Red Ware. A cultural gap of approximately 400 years is observable in between the end of the Chalcolithic period and the beginning of the Early Historic periods in this region. Late Sorath Harappan. In comparison to Dholavira. 4. 4. The evidence for the earliest settlers of the Kachchh region is from Dholavira. At the same time. the sites together show a cultural continuity to the Early Medieval period. other reported Pre Urban Harappan settlements in Kachchh. These sites stratigraphically have not shown any evidence for the existence of Mesolithic/Microliths using communities prior to the Chalcolithic occupation (fig. 2200 BC). i. Sorath Harappan. All the excavated sites in Kachchh have 270    . 3200 BC. Juni Kuran (Pramanik 2003-04). microliths were reported from Chalcolithic context. nine are excavated in various degrees and they are Desalpur (IAR 1963-64). Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware. Black and Red Ware.3). Pabumath (IAR 197778).

2003. Jaidak (Pithad I and II) (Ajithprasad 2008. Bokhira (Gaur et al. Bet Dwarka (Gaur et al. Sen 2009).    Results  evidences for the existence of both Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan artefacts. Dwarka (IAR 1979-80). Lakhabawal (IAR 1955-56). Babarkot (Possehl 1994).e. 1980). 1996). Valabhi (Nesdi) (Mehta 1984) and Vallabhipur (Heras 1938). Evidence for the continuation of habitation from Early Historic to Medieval period is also present in one site.3). Three of the excavated sites revealed Early Historic habitation in them after a gap of a millennium or more.1. 1985). 2006). In all the sites. approximately up to 1700 BC while at Surkotada it ended by 1900 BC. Saurashtra Among the four hundred and eighty two Chalcolithic sites reported from Saurashtra only twenty eight are excavated in various levels and they are Amra (IAR 1955-56). The excavated site at Kotada Bhadli showed the prominence of Sorath Harappan artefacts (Shirvalakar: personal Communication) and these evidences disprove Possehl’s (1992) proposition of Classical Harappan nature of the sites in Kachchh. 1971). Chalcolithic occupation continued up to the Post Urban Harappan period i. Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985).4. The sequential data from explored and excavated sites of other periods may narrow the chronological break between Post Urban Harappan and Early Historic period. Khanpur (Chitalwala and Thomas 1978). 4. 2004). Moti Dharai (IAR 1957-58). Among these. Adkot (IAR 1957-58). Kanewal (I and II) (Mehta et al. Machiala Mota (Rao 1963). the 271    . Nageshwar (Hegde et al. In all the excavated sites except Surkotada. Bhan et al. four sites have evidence for the existence of Microliths using communities prior to the Chalcolithic occupation (figs. Kanasutaria (Rao 1963). Taraghada (IAR 1978-79). Rojdi (Possehl and Raval 1989). 2005). 1990). Kuntasi (Dhavalikar et al. Kanjetar (Rao 1963).4. Somnath (Nanavati et al. 4. Lothal (Rao 1979. Randaliyo (IAR 1958-59). Padri (Shinde and Kar 1992).4.2 and 4. Bagasra (Sonawane et al. Oriyo Timbo (Rissman and Chitalwala 1995). Pithadia (IAR 195758).

there is a hiatus of approximately 500 years. Two different phases of Urban Harappan period is visible in this region. 1900-1400 BC.e. At Gujarat. Two Pre Urban Harappan sites. By using chronological data from excavated sites of other periods. one phase dominated by sites having artefacts of Classical Harappan (2600-2200 BC) and other by the sites having dominance of Sorath Harappan artefacts (2200-1900 BC). At Padri. calibrated c14 date of Somnath is equivalent or little earlier than the Mesolithic levels at Jaidak. Kanasutaria. Early Historic to Early Medieval and from Early Medieval to Late Medieval. the gap in between the Post Urban Harappan and Early Historic period can be filled. Chronological Synopsis of Gujarat (Mesolithic Onwards) From the discussion on chronological sequence of sub-regions of Gujarat. a cultural continuation from Pre Urban to Urban Harappan period is observable. Somnath and Padri. it is apparent that Chalcolithic cultures in Gujarat were preceded by the Mesolithic culture. Pre Urban Harappan level at Padri is the earliest and chronologically more than 500 years older than the Mesolithic levels of other excavated sites in Saurashtra. while at Somnath there is the presence of a gap of 300 years. In majority of the sites.    Results  Mesolithic/Microlithic level is approximately dated to 3rd millennium BC. The evidence for the next phase of human occupation comes from Dwarka where floors of houses and black on red pottery were approximately dated to 900-500 BC. Among this. the beginning of Mesolithic period in Gujarat can be traced back to the late 8th millennium BC/ first half of the Holocene (Patel 2008). As per the AMS dates from Loteshwar. From this period continuous occupation of Saurashtra can be observed i. Kanewal and Oriyo Timbo. are present at Saurashtra. Urban Harappan period was followed by the Post Urban Harappan period which ranges from ca. like in many 272    . The date of the aceramic Mesolithic phase from Loteshwar is earlier or contemporary with the aceramic Neolithic levels of Mehrgarh and earlier than the Mesolithic period of Bagor (Patel 2008). After this period.

certain sites showed cultural continuation from Pre Urban Harappan to Post Urban Harappan periods. Lustrous Red Ware sites occur in all sub-regions and they can be dated between 1900-1400 BC. 3750 BC) in North Gujarat followed by Padri (c. the Chalcolithic cultures/traditions were followed by cultures of Early Historic or Medieval periods with clear/proposed gaps of certain periods in different sub-regions. the dates of many Mesolithic/Microliths yielding sites continue to the beginning of Early Historic period (Misra 1996). These dates suggest that. the date of Post Urban Harappan period represented by Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware goes even up to c. But none of the Chalcolithic sites in the South Gujarat is dated earlier than 2600 BC. Dates of few other sites in Kachchh. Few sites showed the existence of Pre Urban or Urban or Post Urban Harappan periods only. it continued in South Gujarat for almost 500 years. In many of the excavated sites. 21 revealed evidences for its existence during the Pre Urban Harappan period. development and decline of the first complex urban society (Patel 2008). 3700 BC) in Saurashtra. 1900-1700 BC (Post Urban Harappan period). 546 for the Urban Harappan period and 429 during the Post Urban Harappan period. Thus. in the similar fashion a large number Mesolithic sites located in different parts of Gujarat are contemporary with all the major transformations that took place in the region including the origin. Among these. The reasons for the initial preference of arid and 273    . while few sites had any two of them together. 900 BC.    Results  other parts of the Indian subcontinent. North Gujarat and Saurashtra. Large number of sites from all the sub-regions can be broadly dated between c. North Gujarat and Saurashtra are also in the range of 3200-2600/2500 BC. 2600-1900 BC (Urban Harappan period) and c. even after the extinction of Post Urban Harappans at Kachchh. The earliest dated Chalcolithic site in Gujarat is Loteshwar (c. But in the explored sites it is almost impossible to know the presence of any cultural gap or continuation of cultures. At South Gujarat. While considering all the Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat.

religious or political reasons.    Results  semi-arid North Gujarat instead of the fertile South Gujarat by the Mesolithic and Chalcolithic communities and the establishment of large number of settlements in Saurashtra region in Urban Harappan period need proper understanding. Chalcolithic and Early Historic and Early Historic and Medieval periods. 274    . economic. The gap appears in certain places in different sub-regions may be due to the movement of people from one place to other near or far place due to social. The combined chronological analysis of the excavated Chalcolithic sites from different sub-regions shows that there was no cultural vacuum in Gujarat’s recent 10000 years’ human history. gaps can be observed in between Mesolithic and Chalcolithic. The reasons may be the ecological preferences of the people in relation with habitation and economy. In different Sub-regions of Gujarat.

    Results  Figure 4.1: Chronological Synopsis of North Gujarat 275    .

2: Chronological Synopsis of South Gujarat 276    .    Results  Figure 4.

3: Chronological Synopsis of Kachchh 277    .    Results  Figure 4.

1 Chronological Synopsis of Saurashtra 278    .    Results  Figure 4.4.

    Results  Figure 4.4.2 Chronological Synopsis of Saurashtra 279    .

    Results  Figure 4.3 Chronological Synopsis of Saurashtra 280    .4.

RSW. Rao 1963. Bhan 1989 IAR 1957-58. 1999 IAR 1994-95 IAR 1993-94. BRW IAR 1955-56. Possehl 1980. Rao 1963. LRW. LRW. POUH 4 Bhagatrav Bharuch South Gujarat 21° 29' 00" N 72° 42' 00" E UHCS. POUH 5. 1984. MW. MRW. POUH Rao 1963. POUH Mehta and Chaudhary 1975. FS. POUH 3 Atkot/Adkot Rajkot Saurashtra 22° 00' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E UHCS.  Results    Table 4. No. PUHSRP. BRW AT.2: Excavated Chalcolithic Sites in Gujarat Dated Through Relative Techniques Sl. BRW. UHCS. POUH 6 Desalpur/Gunthali Kachchh Kachchh 23° 37' 00" N 69° 08' 00" E UHCS. Rao 1963 . 1994-95 IAR 1994-95 281    . 1999. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. LRW. 1999. Site District Sub-Region Latitude Longitude Remarks References 1 Amra Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 16' 00" N 69° 56' 00" E UHCS. RSW. AT. 1984 IAR 1957-58. Possehl 1980 7 Dhatva Surat South Gujarat 21° 09' 00" N 72° 46' 00" E BRW.1 Datrana II Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 07' 10" E 5. Joshi et al. MRW. BRW.2 Datrana IV/Hadka Walo Khetar 5. POUH PUH.3 Datrana V Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 00" N 71° 06' 00" E Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 46' 15" N 71° 07' 00" E UHCS. Bhan 1986 IAR 1961-62 2 Andhi Surat South Gujarat 21° 23' 00" N 72° 47' 00" E BRW. PPA.

LRW. Rao 1963. POUH 13. 1999 Chitalwala and Thomas 1978 282    . MW. Kesari Singh no Timbo Kheda Saurashtra 22° 28' 00" N 72° 30' 00" E 13. POUH UHCS. 1999. 1980 IAR 1956-57.  Results    8 Dwarka Jamnagar Saurashtra 22o 13' 00" N 69o 00' 00" E LRW. POUH 14 Kanjetar Amreli Saurashtra 20° 45' 00" N 70° 40' 00" E UHCS. POUH 11 Juni Kuran Kachchh Kachchh 23° 27' 00" N 69° 47' 00" E UHCS. RSW. MRW. Mehta et al. Sai no Tekro Kheda Saurashtra 22° 27' 00" N 72° 30' 00" E UHCS. FS IAR 1966-67. Momin 1979. Mehta and Chaudhary 1971 Pramanik 2003-04 12 Kanasutaria Ahmedabad Saurashtra 22° 47' 00" N 72° 16' 00" E BRW. 1977-78. LRW. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al.2 Kanewal. 1974-75. POUH IAR 1979-80 9 Ghachiya Wado/Gachi no Thumdo/Santhli II 10 Jokha Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 54' 00" N 71° 29' 00" E PUH. BRW. 1977-78. PUHSRP Majumdar 1999 Surat South Gujarat 21° 17' 00" N 73° 00' 00" E JW. 1984 IAR 1972-73. Possehl 1980. Momin 1979 IAR 1972-73. LRW.1 Kanewal. POUH 15 Khanpur Rajkot Saurashtra 22o 44' 00" N 70o 41' 30" E UHCS IAR 1954-55. Rao 1963. 1974-75.

LRW. Bhan 1989 Rao 1963. RSW. Joshi et al. 1984 Majumdar 1999 IAR 1957-58. PUHSRP Bharuch South Gujarat 21° 42' 00" N 72° 45' 00" E UHCS. BRW BRW. 1999. 1999. POUH 20 Madhvya no Timbo/Mathutra I 21 Mehgam/Megham Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 44' 00" N 71° 05' 00" E PUH. BRW. LRW. Rao 1963. Rao 1963. AT. RSW. Joshi et al.  Results    16 Khirsara/ Gadhwaliwadi Kachchh Kachchh 23° 30' 00" N 69° 08' 00" E UHCS. PW. 1984 IAR 1955-56. FS 17 Kotada Bhadli II Kachchh Kachchh 23° 22' 00" N 69° 26' 00" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. POUH 19 Machiala Mota Amreli Saurashtra 21° 41' 00" N 71° 14' 00" E UHCS. 1984 IAR 1965-66. JW IAR 1976-77. Joshi et al. 1984. IAR 1978-79. UHCS. 1984 IAR 1957-58 Majumdar 1999 IAR 1961-62 283    . Possehl 1999. POUH 22 Moti Dharai Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21o 58' 00" N 71o 57' 00" E UHCS 23 Moti Pipli/Shakatri Timbo Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 49' 00" N 71° 32' 00" E 24 Nagal Bharuch South Gujarat 21o 34' 00" N 72o 53 ' 00" E PUH. FS 18 Lakhabawal Jamnagar Saurashtra 22° 24' 00" N 70° 00' 00" E UHCS. 1999. PUHSRP. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. Joshi et al.

POUH 31 Telod Bharuch South Gujarat 21o 42' 00" N 72o 46' 00" E UHCS 32 Valabhi/Nesdi Bhavnagar Saurashtra 21o 53' 00" N 71o 55' 00" E UHCS. POUH 27 Ran-daliyo/Randal Dadwa 28 Rangpur Rajkot Saurashtra 21o 48' 00" N 71o 03' 00" E UHCS. UHCS. IAR 1983-84 Rao 1963. Mehta 1984 Jairath 1986 34 Warthan Surat South Gujarat 21° 22' 00" N 72° 51' 00" E BRW. 1999. 1984 IAR 1986-87 284    . BRW. IAR 1958-59. PW. POUH Surendranag ar North Gujarat 22° 23 56" N 71° 55' 19" E 29 Shikarpur Kachchh Kachchh 23° 07' 00" N 70° 35' 00" E 30 Taraghada Rajkot Saurashtra 21° 44' 00" N 70° 26' 00" E UHCS. POUH UHCS. Possehl 1980. POUH IAR 1977-78. 1999. MRW. FS. Joshi et al. RSW. UHCS. POUH Mehta 1982. Rao 1963 IAR 1979-80. LRW. LRW. 1984 IAR 1957-58. Bhan 1994 IAR 1958-59. 1984 IAR 1957-58 26 Pithadia/Pitaria Rajkot Saurashtra 21o 46' 00" N 70º 40' 00" E UHCS.  Results    25 Pabumath Kachchh Kachchh 23° 37' 00" N 70° 31' 40" E UHCS. Possehl 1980. BRW. POUH IAR 1961-62 35 Zekhada/Jekhda/ Amasari no Tekro Banaskantha North Gujarat 23° 51' 00" N 71° 28' 00" E AT. LRW 33 Valabhipur Bhavnagar Saurashtra 22° 41' 15" N 71° 38' 31" E UHCS. POUH AT. RSW. Joshi et al. RSW. 1999. Joshi et al. Possehl 1980. BRW.

2147) 1983 2 ∑ cal BC 2556 (2192. 2365) 2198 2 ∑ cal BC 2837 (2450.  Results    Table 4. 1997. 2063) 1942 BETA-43246 II 3700±60 BP 1860±60 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2179 (2120. 2500) 2197 WIS-2232 II/III 3900±105 BP 2065±110 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2551 (2450.3: Radiocarbon Dates from Babarkot (Source: Possehl 1994a. 2147) 1827 WIS_2235 II 3730±60 BP 1890±60 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2197 (2135. 1997. 2042) 1905 BETA-43245 II 3660±70 BP 1820±70 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2135 (2026. 2500) 2405 Cultural Dated Association Material SH Charcoal SH Charcoal SH Charcoal SH Charcoal SH Charcoal SH Charcoal SH Charcoal SH Charcoal SH Charcoal SH Charcoal 2 ∑ cal BC 2888 (2563. 2157. 2446. 2446. 2372. 1985) 1924 2 ∑ cal BC 2201 (2026. 2084. 2063) 1989 2 ∑ cal BC 2290 (2135. 2071. 2157. 2071. 1985) 1784 PRL-1490 I/II 3233±165 BP 1380±170 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 1683 (1512) 1315 2 ∑ cal BC 1888 (1512) 1047 PRL-1486 I/II 2300±125 BP 420± 130 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 472 (385) 194 2 ∑ cal BC 779 (385) 40 PRL-1493 ? 3980±? BP 2150±? BC ? 285    . Herman 1997) Sample Number PRL-1492 Phase II 5568 BP 4030±120 BP 5730 BC Calib -3 2200±125 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2859 (2563. 2042) 1976 2 ∑ cal BC 2278 (2120. 1994b. 2372. 2084. 2365) 2038 PRL-1487 I/II 3850±110 BP 2015±115 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2464 (2289) 2137 2 ∑ cal BC 2582 (2289) 1972 WIS-2234 II 3775±120 BP 1940±125 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2399 (2192. 2524. 2401. 2524. 2401.

5: Radiocarbon and Thermo-luminescence Dates from Bet Dwarka (Source: Gaur et al. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Sample No.9 o/oo -24. Phase Measured Radio 13C/12C Ratio Sigma Calibration Cultural Association Dated Carbon Age Beta – 217982 I 3920±40 BP Material -24.8 o/oo -28.2 o/oo Cal BC 2550 to 2540 Urban/Classical Harappan and Charcoal (Cal BP 4500 to 4480) and Anarta Cal BC 2490 to 2300 (Cal BP 4440 to 4250) Beta – 217983 Beta – 217984 Beta – 217985 II III IV 3910±40 BP 3920±40 BP 3880±40 BP -25.  Results    Table 4. 2005) Sl. Depth in cm Layer Year in BP C14 Date Calibrated Date 1 BDK -I BDK –I/Charcoal/2001/20 70 4 2010 3600±90 4070-3730 2 BDK -II BDK –II/Shell/2001/21 240 8 1998 1940±80 1990-1820 3 BDK -II BDK –II/Shell/2001/22 275 10 1996 2000±80 2040-1870 4 BDK -III BDK –III/Charcoal/2001/23 70 4 2005 2200±100 2340-2060 286    .4: Radiocarbon Dates from Bagasra (Source: Chase 2007. Site NIO Sample Nos. No.4 o/oo Cal BC 2480 to 2280 Urban/Classical Harappan and Charcoal (Cal BP 4430 to 4230) Anarta Cal BC 2490 to 2290 Urban/Classical Harappan. (Cal BP 4440 to 4240) Sorath Harappan and Anarta Cal BC 2430 to 2140 Post-Urban Sorath Harappan (Cal BP 4380 to 4090) (Late Sorath Harappan) Charcoal Charcoal Table 4.

Khuda Dost site W-2882 1000±170 1060±180 8. Site Lab Ref. No. Material Dated C/UC Ratio 13 C Age Calendar Age (2 Calendar Years (2 Years BP Sigma Range) Sigma Range) 14 Sample ID BDK-2-L BDK-II Charcoal -24. BDK-VI W-2878 2300±200 2430±210 4. Uncorrected TL Dates Corrected for Fading 1.6% 1859+60 1925-1620 AD 25-AD 328 BDK-2-L BDK-2-T BDK-II Charcoal -25. BDK-H W-2883 1270±380 1370±410 9.8 %» 1980 ±40 2000-1860 50 BC-AD 100 BDK-2-T Thermo-luminescence Dates SI. BDK-I W-2881* 740±50 890±60 7. BDK-VI W-2876 3260±470 3380±490 2. BDK-I W-2879 1380±150 1440±160 5. BDK-I W-2884 970±120 1060±130 287    . BDK-I W-2880 1960±160 2140±170 6.  Results    5 BDK -III BDK -III/Charcoal/2001/24 225 9 2009 2590±100 2780-2500 6 BDK -III BDK -III/Shell/2001/25 220 9 1997 2000±80 2040-1870 7 BDK -VI BDK -VI/Shell/2001/26 50 2 2000 3140±100 3470-3260 8 BDK -VI BDK -VI/Shell/2001/27 20 1 1993 3470±80 3830-3640 AMS Dates Sample ID Trench No. BDK-I W-2877 2460±330 2790±370 3.

4 3427±670 1716±530 Table 4.04 8.92±0. CU/TL Dates 1. no.16 7.23±0.59±0.56±0.58 3517±407 1754±261 3.27+0. 1993-94. Possehl 1994) Sample Number PRL-1505 Phase 5568 BP 5730 BC 4270±90 BP 2450±95 BC Calib -3 1∑ cal BC 2922 (2888) 2703 Cultural Association Dated Material Pre Urban Harappan Charcoal Post Urban Harappan Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 3092 (2888) 2610 PRL-1502 3130±120 BP 1275±125 BC 1∑ cal BC 1516 (1405) 1227 2∑ cal BC 1674 (1405) 1033 PRL-1711 3910±90 BP _ _ Urban Harappan Charcoal PRL-1712 Modern _ _ Modern Charcoal PRL-1713 3100±90 BP _ _ Post Urban Harappan Charcoal 288    . BDK-II (L-ll) 1.88±1.1 6. BDK-II (L-6) 1.26±0.6: Radiocarbon Dates from Dholavira (Source: IAR 1991-92. BDK-I Potsherd W-2571 860±130 TL Dates from PRL SI.49±0. BDK-I Shell BS-1898 2040±80 2. Site Material Lab ref.13 2.1 1.90±0.5 0.  Results    Surface Samples c14/TL Date SI. BDK-II (L-2) 0. BDK-I Shell BS-1899 1910±80 3. No.41 2761 ±300 3093±367 2.63 3183±649 2375±523 4. Sample No.14 1.11 5.87±0.54±0.17±0. BDK-II (L-9)* 1. Q (min) I (min) ED (Gy) Q + I Total Dose (D(uGyla) Age (yrs) 1.

  Results    PRL-1715 4230±90 BP _ _ Pre Urban Harappan Charcoal PRL-1716 3400±90 BP _ _ Post Urban Harappan Charcoal PRL-1718 3440±90 BP _ _ Post Urban Harappan Charcoal PRL-1719 4390±90 BP _ _ Pre Urban Harappan Charcoal PRL-1502 3220±120 BP _ _ Post Urban Harappan Charcoal PRL-1505 4400±90 BP _ _ Pre Urban Harappan Charcoal Table 4. C14 Date Calibrated Calibrated Date Sample BSIP (Yrs BP) Date (BP) (BC/AD) Cultural Deposit 1 Y-30 930 19 BS-2619 4190±80 4838-4573 2888-2623 BC KMR I 2 R-21 466 7 BS-2627 3870±100 4344-4262 2470-2149 BC KMR II B from 289    . Phase Measured Radio Carbon Age 13C/12C Ratio Beta – 217986 IIA 3670±50 BP -25. 2011) No Trench Depth Layer Lab Ref.9 o/oo Sigma Calibration Cultural Association Cal BC 2200 to 1910 (Cal Sorath Harappan BP 4150 to 3860) Cal BC 1950 to 1750 (Cal Late Sorath Harappan BP 3900 to 3700) Dated Material Charcoal Charcoal Table 4.7: Radiocarbon Dates from Pithad/Jaidak (Source: Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Sample No.8: Radiocarbon Dates from Kanmer (Source: Kharakwal et al.2 o/oo Beta – 217987 IIB 3530±40 BP -24. No.

8%) 317 AD (66.0%) 265 AD 351 AD 273 AD (58.4%) 383 AD 3 Central 7/-/KMR III PLD- Trench 13117 -23.4%) 335 AD 379 AD 290    .24±0.  Results    3 HH-30 280 3 BS-2628 3610±90 4080-3755 2130-1785 BC KMR II A 4 GG-31 224 2 BS-2692 810±90 726-722 1224-1239 AD KMR V 5 S-21 350-380 6 BS-2618 1250±80 1277-1062 673-888 AD KMR IV Conventional Conventional (cm)/Cultur Radiocarbon Radiocarbon al Period Age (not Age (rounded) No Trench Layer/Dept PLD No.22 1708±17 1710±15 395 AD 263 AD (14. σ13C (0/00) Calibrated Age 1σ range 2σ range rounded) 1 Central 3-5/-/KMR PLD- Trench V 13115 -25.4%) 257 AD (28.18 1708±16 1710±15 263 AD (14.0%) 278 AD 301 AD 330 AD (53.7%) 277 AD 301 AD 330 AD (53.0%) 242 AD (93.6%) 317 AD (66.43±0.7%) 383 AD 2 Central 3-5/-/KMR PLD- Trench V 13116 -22.6%) 257 AD (29.18 1739±17 1740±15 395 AD 255 AD (10.24±0.2%) 369 AD (2.

14 3701±18 3700±20 2135 BC (14.1%) 2348 BC 8 NE 6/363/KMR PLD- Trench/ III 14748 -25.0%) 2119 BC 2184 BC 2096 BC (53.12 3895±18 3895±20 2459 BC (42.1%) 2057 BC (60.25 3782±26 3780±25 2301 BC 2278 BC (22.0%) 2351 BC 5 Central 8/-/KMR PLD- Trench IIB 13120 -24.3%) 2142 BC (94.1%) 1980 BC 7 Central 11/-/KMR PLD- Trench IIA 13122 -24.4%) 2040 BC 6 Central 8/-/KMR PLD- Trench IIB 13121 -24.4%) 2454 BC 2345 BC 2419 BC (13.  4 Results    Central 8/-/KMR PLD- Trench IIB 13119 -24.0%) 2133 BC (35.2%) 2406 BC 2377 BC (22.3%) 2466 BC (88.31±0.82±0.15±0.9%) 2188 BC (1.7%) 2292 BC (95.9%) 2324 BC (7.2%) 2095 BC 2083 BC 2041 BC (27.08±0.12 3931±18 3930±20 2474 BC (33.2%) 2016 BC 1960 BC 1996 BC (15.10±0.0%) 2479 BC (95.3%) 2401 BC 2335 BC 2382 BC (25.4%) 2251 BC 2137 BC 291    .13 3661±19 3660±20 2031 BC 2121 BC (26.

9%) 2571 BC (56.28 3751±27 3750±25 2204 BC (62.  Results    AA17 2229 BC (6.2%) 2534 BC 2513 BC 2494 BC (30.24±0.21 3764±24 3770±25 2271 BC (8.6%) 2195 BC 2176 BC (25.6%) 2279 BC (7.3%) 2504 BC (39.2%) 2472 BC 2466 BC 292    .5%) 2041 BC 10 SE Trench/ 3/385/KMR PLD- FF29 14750 III -25.7%) 2259 BC 2133 BC 2206 BC (60.6%) 2230 BC (1.50±0.2%) 2134 BC 2250 BC 2077 BC (5.76±0.2%) 2079 BC (2.9%) 2145 BC 9 SE Trench/ 3/385/KMR PLD- FF29 14749 III -25.0%) 2287 BC (92.0%) 2221 BC 2211 BC (13.13 3984±24 3985±25 2061 BC 2564 BC (37.2%) 2121 BC 2095 BC (18.5%) 2064 BC 2220 BC 2211 BC (68.7%) 2141 BC 11 Central 12/972/KM PLD- Trench/ RI 14751 Z30 -22.

8%) Q28 2346 BC 15 West 12/820/KM PLD- Trench/ R IIA 14755 Q28 -26.2%) 2464 BC (90.4%) 2420 BC 2281 BC 2406 BC (15.8%) 2141 BC (89.2%) Z30 2404 BC 2341 BC 2379 BC (20.29 3896±25 3895±25 1977 BC 2462 BC (42.2%) 2084 BC 2011 BC 2058 BC (23.  12 Results    Central 10/904/KM PLD- Trench/ R IIA 14752 -24.53±0.4%) 2398 BC 2299 BC 2384 BC (25.4%) 2467 BC (95.07±0.1%) 2291 BC 2212 BC 293    .9%) 2377 BC 2231 BC 2350 BC (36.92±0.2%) 2030 BC 14 West 11/800/KM PLD- Trench/ R IIA 14754 -25.5%) 2250 BC (3.2%) 2349 BC 13 SE Trench/ 4/458/KMR PLD- EE30 14753 IIB -24.13 3935±24 3935±25 2476 BC (35.4%) 2491 BC (92.14 3866±25 3865±25 2455 BC (16.2%) 2437 BC 2536 BC 2421 BC (12.26±0.5%) 2219 BC (1.4%) 2001 BC (6.6%) 2560 BC (3.24 3682±24 3680±25 2132 BC (44.

7%) A28 2196 BC 2172 BC (6.2%) 2337 BC (2.18 3892±24 3890±25 2459 BC (42.4%) 2391 BC 2298 BC 2385 BC (26.41±0.2%) 2205 BC 2323 BC 2308 BC (86.9%) 2402 BC 2335 BC 2382 BC (25.  16 Results    Central 12/891/KM PLD- Trench/ RI 14756 -25.0%) 2465 BC (94.45±0.4%) 2324 BC (7.1%) 2466 BC (95.9%) 2419 BC 2286 BC 2406 BC (17.5%) 2146 BC 18 West 13/845/KM PLD- Trench/ R IIA 14758 -21.29±0.20 3873±24 3875±25 2455 BC (19.1%) Q28 2346 BC 19 West 11/809/KM PLD- Trench/ R IIA 14759 Q28 -25.9%) 2296 BC 17 Central 9/788/KMR PLD- Trench/A IIA 14757 -11.8%) 2468 BC (87.5%) Z28 2377 BC 2243 BC 2350 BC (31.3%) 2247 BC (0.22 3809±23 3810±25 2286 BC (68.5%) 2348 BC 2301 BC 294    .14 3898±22 3900±20 2462 BC (42.25±0.

7%) AA28 2377 BC 2351 BC (30. 2080.8%) A28 2146 BC 2206 BC Table 4. 1981) Period BP BC 1780 Harappan I: Urban Charcoal (Sorath I: Urban Charcoal (Sorath 295    .2%) 2466 BC (95.68±0. 2045) Period BP BC 1884 Harappan 2∑ cal BC 2563 (2128.5%) 2344 BC (90.9: Radiocarbon Dates from Kuntasi (Source: Dhavalikar et al.5%) 2298 BC 21 10/803 West PLD- -25. PRL1370 PRL 1371 F1 7 3820±170 1870±165 1 ∑ cal BC 2328 (2128.4%) 2288 BC 2419 BC 2406 BC (17.4%) 2342 BC 2292 BC Q28 22 12/924 Central PLD- -24.6%) 2196 BC 2267 BC 2260 BC (49.  Results    20 8/711/IIB Central PLD- -22.15 3875±23 3875±25 14760 Trench/ 2455 BC (20. 2003.20 3814±24 3815±25 14762 Trench/A 2288 BC (18. Herman 1997) Sample Trench Layer J5 12 5568 BP 5730 BC Calib -3 Cultural Association Dated Material No.33±0.0%) 2464 BC (95. 1996. 2080.17 3886±27 3885±25 14761 Trench/ 2457 BC (68.22±0.7%) 2172 BC (4. 2045) 1680 Harappan) 3650±140 1810±145 1 ∑ cal BC 2197 (2019. Possehl 1994.

2333) 1987 PRL-TL-S11 (A) _ 18. 2384) Period 2356 I: Harappan Urban Charcoal (Sorath Harappan) Table 4. 2258.300 BC _ Sand Dune Sand (TL) PRL-TL-S11 _ 6650 BC _ Sand Dune Sand (TL) PRL-TL-S11 _ 3200 BC _ Sand Dune Sand (TL) Table 4. 1981) 1674 BS 567 _ _ _ 2035±95 BC Harappan) 1 ∑ cal BC 2451 (2433.  Results    2∑ cal BC 2457 (2019. 2389. Pit 3 Charred Bone 3800±50 2451 2143 2044 296    .10: Radiocarbon and Thermo-luminescence Dates from Langhnaj (Source: Possehl 1994) Sample No. 5568 BP 5730 BC Calib -3 Cultural Dated Material Association TF-744 3875±105 BP 2040±110 BC 1∑ cal BC 2468 (2390. 2392.11: Radiocarbon Dates from Loteshwar (Source: Patel 2008. 2203 -1 ∑ -2 ∑ 5568 half life CAMS-55905 Chalcolithic. Period and Context Material Determination: +2 ∑ +1 ∑ Intercepts 2299 2270. 2225. 2003. Trench I. 2389. 2333) 2145 Microliths Bone Inorganic Fraction (c14) 2∑ cal BC 2589 (2390. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994) Lab No.

Trench I. Layer Charred Bone 5835±110 4945 4797 4711. Lothal A.12: Radiocarbon Dates from Lothal (Source: Possehl 1994) Sample No. 96-100 cm PRL-1567 7084 Microlithic. Trench I. Trench I. Layer 2. Lothal A. 7139. 2418. 130 cm Table 4. 7156. TF-136 TF-22 TF-27 5568 BP 5730 BC Calib -3 3915±130 BP 2080±135 BC 1∑ cal BC 2570 (2454. Lothal Dated Material A. 2407) 1982 Urban Harappan 1∑ cal BC 2463 (2287) 2136 Period IIIB. Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2577 (2285) 1952 Urban Harappan 3845±110 BP 3840±110 BP 2010±115 BC 2005±115 BC Cultural Association IA. Trench I. 3662 3535 3384 CAMS-55898 Microlithic. 7096. 60-70 cm CAMS-55902 3 (lower). Pit 2 Charred Bone 4850±50 3755 3700 3644 3538 3520 CAMS-55903 Chalcolithic. Trench I. Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2580 (2287) 1968 Urban Harappan 1∑ cal BC 2462 (2285) 2061 Period IIIB. Layer Charred Bone 7210±40 6204 6155 6059. Trench I. Trench I. Charcoal 297    .  Results    CAMS-55904 Chalcolithic. 2418. 5558 5516 5477 Microlithic. Pit 1 Charred Bone 4890±50 3782 3706 3657 3641 3538 PRL-1564 Chalcolithic. 4695 4550 4415 3 (Base). 2407) 2149 Period 2∑ cal BC 2867 (2454. 7079 7061 2 (top) 20-60 cm CAMS-35362 Microlithic. 5589. 6040. 6030 6015 5991 Charred Bone 6630±60 5657 5618 5609. Pit 2 Charcoal 4334±110 3345 3307 2916 2782 2666 PRL-1565 Chalcolithic. Pit 4 Charcoal 4907±110 3955 3906 3686. Trench I. 3684. Layer Charred Bone 8170±50 7326 7291 7177.

Post Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2455 (2019. 2003. Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2464 (2137) 1785 Urban Harappan 1∑ cal BC 2273 (2124. Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2582 (2281) 1924 Urban Harappan 1∑ cal BC 2289 (2137) 1972 Period IVA. Lothal A. 5568 BP TF-1084 2675±90 BP 5730 BC Calib -3 805±95 BC 1∑ cal BC 904 (816) 793 Cultural Association Post Urban Harappan Dated Material Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 1002 (816) 550 Table 4. Lothal B. 1981) 1677 Urban Harappan 1∑ cal BC 1879 (1685) 1522 Period IIA.13: Radiocarbon Date from Malvan (Source: Allchin and Joshi 1995. 2003. Herman 1997) Sample No. 2043) 1773 Urban Harappan 1∑ cal BC 2195 (2019. 1981) 1783 Period VA. Lothal A. Possehl 1994. 2082. Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2464 (2137) 1785 Urban Harappan 1∑ cal BC 2289 (2137) 1972 Period IIA. Post Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2454 (2124.62)-1870 Urban Harappan Charcoal 298    . 2043) 1935 Period VA. Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2023 (1685) 1416 Urban Harappan Table 4. Lothal A. Lothal A. Trench Layer Depth 5730 BC OXCAL v2-18: 1∑ Cultural Association Dated material BM-2611 IA 7 180 cm 1695±60 BC 1980-(0. 2082.  Results    TF-26 3830±120 BP TF-29 1995±125 BC 3740±110 BP TF-133 1900±115 BC 3740±110 BP TF-23 1900±115 BC 3705±105 BP TF-19 1865±110 BC 3650±130 BP TF-135 1810±140 BC 3405±125 BP 1555±130 BC 1∑ cal BC 2462 (2281) 2045 Period IIIB. Lothal B.14: Radiocarbon Dates from Nageshwar (Source: Herman 1997) Sample No.

2741.  Results    1850-(0. Period and Context Material A-4555 Urban Harappan. 2726. Period I 2726.15: Radiocarbon Date from Nagwada (Source: Patel 2008. 2741. 2812. 2812. 2697) 2207 299    . 2043 -1 ∑ -2 ∑ 1969 1836 Table 4.00)-2140 BC Urban Harappan Charcoal Table 4. 2082.38)-1770 BC BM-2610 IA 6 146 cm 1955±60 BC 2340-(1. 2697) 2472 Microliths Charcoal Charcoal 2 ∑ cal BC 3298 (2862. PRL-1425 PRL-888/9 5568 BP 5010±170 BP 4720±160 BP 5730 BC 3210±175 BC 2910±165 BC Calib -3 Cultural Association 1 ∑ cal BC 3977 (3787) 3641 Period II 2∑ cal BC 4226 (3787) 3376 Post Urban Harappan (LRW) _ Period I Dated Material Charcoal Charcoal Microlithic PRL-1426 PRL-886 4250±160 BP 4160±170 BP 2425±165 BC 2335±175 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 3033 (2884) 2611 Period II 2 ∑ cal BC 3346 (2884) 2457 Post Urban Harappan (LRW) 1 ∑ cal BC 2915 (2862. Layer 2 Charcoal Determination: 5568 half life 3700±80 +2 ∑ 2337 +1 ∑ 2199 Intercepts 2129.16: Radiocarbon Dates from Oriyo Timbo (Source: Possehl 1994) Sample No. Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994) Lab No.

17: Radiocarbon Dates from Padri (Source: Possehl 1994) Sample No. 2225. PRL 1787 5568 BP 5730 BC 4820±100 BP 3015±105 BC Calib -3 1∑ cal BC 3699 (3636) 3387 2∑ cal BC 3792 (3636) 3363 PRL 1785 4390±90 BP 2570±95 BC 1∑ cal BC 3260 (3022. 2985. 2225.  Results    PRL-876 PRL-1411 4080±160 BP 3820±90 BP 2250±165 BC 1985±95 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2882 (2586) 2409 Period I 2 ∑ cal BC 3029 (2586) 2142 Microliths 1 ∑ cal BC 2453 (2277. 2928) 2905 2∑ cal BC 3347 (3022. 2207) 1976 PRL-1424 PRL-1427 3750±130 BP 3240±110 BP 1910±135 BC 1385±115 BC 1 ∑ cal BC 2393 (2140) 1954 Period II Charcoal 2 ∑ cal BC 2553 (2140) 1771 Post Urban Harappan (LRW) 1 ∑ cal BC 1626 (1513) 1405 Period II 2 ∑ cal BC 1746 (1513) 1262 Post Urban Harappan (LRW) Charcoal Table 4. 2985. 2207) Period II 2060 Post Urban Harappan Charcoal Charcoal 2 ∑ cal BC 2489 (2277. 2928) 2784 Cultural Association Pre Urban Harappan: Dated Material Charcoal Padri Ware Pre Urban Harappan: Charcoal Padri Ware 300    .

2493) 2321 2∑ cal BC 2907 (2553. 2543.64)-1950 BC (Lustrous Red Ware) Table 4.  Results    PRL 1536 4010±145 BP 2180±150 BC 1∑ cal BC 2861 (2553. 1997.18: Radiocarbon Dates from Ratanpura (Source: Herman 1997) Sample No. 5568 BP BETA-61767 3570±60 BP 5730 BC 1730+/-60 BC Calib -3 Cultural Association 1∑ cal BC 1973 (1892) 1780 Rojdi C.36)-2070 BC Post Urban Harappan Charcoal 2050 –(0. 1985) 1887 2∑ cal BC 2317 (2026. 1985) 1745 Urban Harappan: Charcoal SorathHarappan Pre Urban Harappan: Charcoal Padri Ware Pre Urban Harappan: Charcoal Padri Ware Table 4. Trench Layer BM-2615 Mound IV Pit 1 Depth 5730 BC OXCAL v2-18: 1∑ Cultural Association Dated material 70 cm 1800±50 BC 2130 –(0. 1997.19: Radiocarbon Dates from Rojdi (Source: Possehl 1994) Sample No. Post Urban 2∑ cal BC 2114 (1892) 1742 Harappan (Late Sorath Dated Material Charcoal Harappan) 301    . 2543. 2493) 2048 PRL 1786 3740±100 BP 1900±105 BC 1∑ cal BC 2285 (2137) 1976 2∑ cal BC 2460 (2137) 1881 PRL 1784 3660±100 BP 1820±105 BC 1∑ cal BC 2179 (2026.

2543. 46 L. 46 L. 1818. Rojdi C. Urban 2670) 2504 Harappan Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2924 (2859. 2815. Harappan) Charcoal 1785)1682 PRL-1281 3520±110 BP 1680+/-115 BC Rojdi B. 2543. 1836. 2530. 1836. Harappan Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2882 (2558. 2493) 2363 2∑ cal BC 2880 (2553. 46 L. 2497) 2200 PRL-1087 4010±110 BP 2180±115 BC 1∑ cal BC 2850 (2553. 1818. 45 K. 2670) 2457 PRL-1085 4020±110 BP 2190±115 BC 1∑ cal BC 2853 (2558. 78J. 1800. 2672. Harappan Charcoal Rojdi A. H Charcoal 1∑ cal BC 790 (399) 181 Rojdi C. 1818. 2815. 1785) 1527 PRL-1282 3470±140 BP 2360+/-210 BC 1∑ cal BC 1944 (1748) 1612 2∑ cal BC 2140 (1748) 1435 PRL-1081 2360±210 BP 480±215 BC Harappan) PRL-1091 4150±110 BP 2325±115 BC 1∑ cal BC 2886 (2859. 1800. Harappan Charcoal Rojdi B. 1800. 45 K. 1836. 1836. 2672. 2693. 2530. Rojdi A. Post Urban 1785) 1745 Harappan (Late Sorath 2∑ cal BC 2013 (1875. Post Urban Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 911 (399) Cal AD 76 Harappan (Late Sorath 1∑ cal BC 1973 (1875. 2497) 2405 Rojdi A. 1818. Harappan Charcoal Rojdi A. 1800. 2693.  Results    BETA-61768 3520±60 BP 1635+/-60 BC 1∑ cal BC 1914 (1875. 2493) 2196 PRL-1283 3980±100 BP 2140±105 BC 1∑ cal BC 2547 (2468) 2337 302    . 45 K. 1785) 1686 2∑ cal BC 2138 (1875.

Phase B. 46 L. 2∑ cal BC 2197 (1926) 1679 Harappan Charcoal 303    . 76 L. Harappan Charcoal Rojdi A. 45 K. 2333) 1974 PRL-1089 3870±120 BP 2035±125 BC 1∑ cal BC 2474 (2328) 2140 2∑ cal BC 2837 (2328) 1972 TF-200 PRL-1284 3810±110 BP 3810±100 BP 1975±115 BC 1980±105 BC 2∑ cal BC 2553 (2272. 46 L. 2204) 1924 Harappan 1∑ cal BC 2453 (2272. 2160. 2258. 2084. 2409) 2041 PRL-1083 3875±120 BP 2040±125 BC 1∑ cal BC 2481 (2390. 2412. 2258. 45 K. 2042) 1884 Rojdi C. Harappan Charcoal Rojdi B. 2409) 2203 Rojdi A. 2145) 1789 PRL-1285 3740±140 BP 1900±145 BC 1∑ cal BC 2393 (2137) 1935 2∑ cal BC 2558 (2137) 1745 PRL-1084 3700±150 BP 1860±155 BC Harappan) TF-199 3590±100 BP 1750±105 BC 1∑ cal BC 2112 (1926) 1772 Period I. 2204) 1942 PRL-1088 3770±120 BP 1935±125 BC 1∑ cal BC 2397 (2190. 2145) 1981 2∑ cal BC 2553 (2190. Unknown 2∑ cal BC 2563 (2272.  Results    2∑ cal BC 2869 (2468) 2148 PRL-1093 3920±110 BP 2090±115 BC 1∑ cal BC 2563 (2455. 2389. 2333) 2141 2∑ cal BC 2844 (2390. 2258. Harappan Charcoal 1∑ cal BC 2455 (2272. 2160. 2042) 1683 Harappan (Late Sorath 2∑ cal BC 2857 (2455. Harappan Charcoal Rojdi B. 45 K. 2084. 2412. Harappan Charcoal Rojdi A. 76 L. 2389. Harappan Charcoal 1∑ cal BC 2289 (2120. 2204) 2045 Rojdi A. Post Urban Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2489 (2120. Phase B. 2204) 2041 Period I. 2258.

TF-1287 Dated Material 4280±105 BP 2460±110 BC 1∑ cal BC 3019 (2890) 2701 I. Lustrous Red Ware Charcoal II. Prabhas Ware Charcoal II.  Results    Table 4.500+690.-555 BC _ 304    . Pre-Prabhas Assemblage Charcoal III. 1332. 1329) 1124 2∑ cal BC 1734 (1392.825+670.-540 BP 19. 1329) 910 PRL-30 20. Lustrous Red Ware Charcoal III. 1332. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage Shell I. Lustrous Red Ware Charcoal Middle Palaeolithic Shell 2∑ cal BC 3293 (2890) 2581 PRL-90 4240±110 BP 2415±115 BC 1∑ cal BC 2920 (2881) 2625 2∑ cal BC 3095 (2881) 2496 PRL-91 3860±165 BP 2025±170 BC 1∑ cal BC 2560 (2315) 2040 2∑ cal BC 2871 (2315) 1789 PRL-92 3830±95 BP 1995±100 BC 1∑ cal BC 2456 (2281) 2136 2∑ cal BC 2558 (2281) 1976 TF-1286 3595±90 BP 1755±95 BC 1∑ cal BC 2037 (1932) 1778 2∑ cal BC 2192 (1932) 1687 TF-1284 3465±95 BP 1620±100 BC 1∑ cal BC 1888 (1747) 1674 2∑ cal BC 2023 (1747) 1521 PRL-20 3340±105 BP 1490±110 BC 1∑ cal BC 1741 (1619) 1512 2∑ cal BC 1885 (1619) 1404 PRL-19 3100±160 BP 1245±165 BC 1∑ cal BC 1518 (1392.20: Radiocarbon Dates from Somnath/Prabhas Patan (Source: Possehl 1994) Sample 5568 BP 5730 BC Calib -3 Cultural Association No. Prabhas Ware Charcoal III. Prabhas Ware Charcoal II.

2632. 2818. Urban Harappan Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2273 (1957) 1698 305    . 2348) 2041 TF-1301 3840+/-130 BP 2005+/-135 BC 1∑ cal BC 2466 (2285) 2045 2∑ cal BC 2615 (2285) 1909 TF-1310 3810+/-95 BP 1975+/-100 BC 1∑ cal BC 2452 (2272. Urban Harappan Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2279 (1975) 1741 TF-1311 3625+/-90 BP 1785+/-95 BC 1∑ cal BC 2131 (1970) 1828 IC. 2688. Upper Level Charcoal IB Charcoal Charcoal 2632. Cultural Dated Association Material IA. Urban Harappan Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2271 (1970) 1741 TF-1294 3620+/-95 BP 1780+/-100 BC 1∑ cal BC 2131 (1957) 1787 IC. 2148) 1923 TF-1304/9 3645+/-90 BP 1805+/-100 BC - IA TF-1297 3635+/-95 BP 1795+/-100 BC 1∑ cal BC 2135 (1975) 1881 IC. 2818. Early Level Charcoal IA Charcoal IA. 2155. 2688. 2629) 2493 2∑ cal BC 3029 (2856. 2204) 1951 TF-1295 3780+/-95 BP 1945+/-100 BC 1∑ cal BC 2391 (2193. 2258. 2379. 2665. 2690. 2155. 2690. Mid Level Charcoal IA.21: Radiocarbon Dates from Surkotada (Source: Possehl 1994) Sample 5568 BP 5730 BC Calib -3 No. 2258. 2204) 2046 2∑ cal BC 2489 (2272. 2629) 2337 TF-1305 3890+/-95 BP 2055+/-100 BC 1∑ cal BC 2469 (2397. 2348) 2198 2∑ cal BC 2587 (2397. 2379. 2665. PRL-85 4140+/-130 BP 2315+/-135 BC 1∑ cal BC 2888 (2856.  Results    Table 4. 2148) 2036 2∑ cal BC 2466 (2193.

Urban Harappan Charcoal 2∑ cal BC 2132 (1872.00)-2030 BC Urban/Post URban Harappan BS-751 IB ? ? ? 1470+/-105 BC 1740-(1. 1840.45)-2070 Cultural Association Urban Harappan 2050-(0. 15 cm 8070±190 8130 7270 8360-7880 2429 BKR-T3. Depth Age of the Sample Calib Age Reservoir Correction Calibrated Age 2423 BKR-T1. 1840.00)-1510 BC Urban/Post URban Harappan BM-2612 IC B 3 35 1810+/-50 BC 2190-(1.22: Radiocarbon Dates from Vagad (Source: Herman 1997) Lab Number BM-2614 Period IA Trench C Layer 5 Depth 80 5730 BC OCCAL v2-18: 1∑ 3650+/-50 BP 2140-(0. 70 cm 9480±150 8680 9790 9930-9440 306    . 2006) Lab Number Sample Number. 1808.03)-2160 Urban Harappan 2140-(0. 25-47 cm 4790±100 4520 3990 4800-4300 2453 BKR-T4.00)-2030 BC Post Urban Harappan Table 4. 1781) 1684 IC.  Results    TF-1307 3510+/-105 BP 1665+/-110 BC 1∑ cal BC 1948 (1872.55)-1960 BC BS-752 IA ? ? ? 1780+/-105 BC 2190 –(0.97)-1880 BC BM-2613 IB C 4 60 3720+/-50 BP 2200-(1. 1811. 1811. 1808. 1781) 1527 Table 4.23: Radiocarbon Dates from Bokhira (Source: Gaur et al. 30 cm 2150±110 1290 1350 1490-1130 2444 BKR-T1.

‘Glazed’ and ‘Unglazed’ Reserved Slip Ware were also reported from the site in small quantities. Total number of ceramics analysed from the Chalcolithic level of Loteshwar for the present study is 2564 (more details in Appendix 3). Apart from this Black and Red Ware. Archaeological Context Archaeological mound at Loteshwar Village known as Khari no Timbo (4.5. 38. Fine Red Ware. Among the 2564 sherds. no uniformity in the classification of wares. Sonawane and Ajithprasad (1994). 4. Ajithprasad and Sonawane (1993). a detailed macroscopic analysis of the entire ceramics from the site was conducted to understand different features of Anarta ceramics. Coarse Red Ware. no standardised technique was used to record the colour and texture and no attempt was made to conduct a detailed typological analysis of the ceramics. Harappan Red Ware. Burnished Red Ware and Burnished Black/Grey Ware (Figs. Patel (1992).10 to 4.7) was excavated in 1990-91 by the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. they grouped them into a new category and called it as ceramics of Anarta tradition. The excavations in four trenches at the site revealed two cultural periods – aceramic Mesolithic and Chalcolithic.10% 307    . 48.6 and 4. Hence. 1995). these studies immensely contributed to understand the Anarta regional Chalcolithic tradition they are not free from lacunas.33% are reported from Trench I.    Results  Section II ANARTA TRADITION: EVIDENCE FROM LOTESHWAR Studies on the ceramics from Loteshwar on various levels were carried out by Mahida (1992. Ajithprasad (2002). The drawbacks of the previous studies are. Though. colour of pottery and variation in surface treatment and in the light of other evidences from North Gujarat region. Ajithprasad and Sonawane (1993) classified the ceramics from Loteshwar based on refinement of clay.24) (Ajithprasad 2002). 4. Bhan (1994). These ceramics include Gritty Red Ware. Yadav (2005) and Shirvalkar (2008).

50% from Trench IV and 2. 15.76%. Vessel Parts Out of the 2564 pot sherds.23% stems. rain and wind and human activities may be another reason for the same. dish/bowl.69% sherds (Chart 4. 2 and 3 and pits 1.    Results  from Trench II.81% from surface (Chart 4. Long exposure (earliest date of Chalcolithic occupation at the site is 3700 BC) (Patel 2008) to natural agencies like sun. 0.40% from B. lid/dish. The probable reason for large amount of ceramics in Trenches I and II is due to the thicker habitation deposit as Trench I was laid in the central portion of the mound. sub-square A was represented by 5.19). Figs 48 and 49).22). In trench IV. 4 and 5 (Chart 4. Diagnostic ceramics include 0.86% of the total ceramics are from sub-square A and 1.02% are diagnostic and 42.26% from Trench III. In Trench I of the total 48.29% ceramics came from sub-square A and 33.81% of the total sherds and sub-square B by 2. 2. In Trench III. Nondiagnostic ceramics from the site comprises of 34.20).33%. the Anarta ceramics are meagre in nature dominated by Mesolithic artefacts. Subs-quare IIA revealed 16. Size of Potsherds Maximum size of the sherds from Loteshwar ranges in between 1 cm to 16 cm and majority of them are very small in size (Chart 4.77% rims. which dug little outside the approximate boundary of Chalcolithic occupation.03% from sub-square B. In these trenches the ceramics belong to layers 1. 2.21.98% are nondiagnostic ones. 0.98% bases and 0.32% 308    .34% of the total ceramics and IIB accounted for 21. At Trench III.04% complete vessel. 55. The probable reasons for the breakage of sherds into very small size may be the deficiencies in making technique of the ceramics or contents in the clay. pot/bowl. 57. It must also be admitted that even ware identification was fairly difficult as the sherds were small in size and also due to the transformations during its burial. bowl/basin and dish/basin. 3. The small size of sherds created difficulty in identifying the shape of the vessels and in such cases the vessel type is recorded as pot/basin. 8.

24). pots formed prominent vessel shape followed by open mouthed vessels like bowls and basins.69%) are of small pots.59% belong to pot. bowl/basins and dish/basins respectively (Chart 4.66% neck and shoulder portions (Chart 4. 0.80% of bowls.35% to pot/bowl. 0. dishes.25). 10. 0. Among the 880 body sherds. 0. 0. In the 222 neck and shoulder portions 85. The only complete vessel present in the collection is a pot.08%. 0. 0. pot/bowls. 9.89% of pot/basin. 68. Stem portions of 6 dish on stands are also present. bowls.25% to pot/basin and 1.90% to bowl. 3.08%. medium and large.20% are of pots.39% of pot/bowl. basins. 1. lids. 2. The analysis shows that diagnostic sherds represent the major collection of ceramics and rims are the most common vessel part.87% of basins. 202 (24. According to this classification system among the 818 pot rims. 309    .66%. At Loteshwar.21%. 68% to dish on stands and 4% to pot/basin.30% are of pots.49%.07% each of dish on stand and lid.11% of lid.57% of bowl/basin and 0. 83.04%. 0.27% of basins.19% of dishes. dish/bowl. 2. 24.16%.08% sherds are of pots. 0. Out of the 25 bases 28% belong to pots.20% and 0. lid/dishes. 15. Thus the analysis shows that among the total collection.36%) are of medium pots and 65 (7.91% to basin. 2. 0.97%. 1. 0. 9. Diameter of Vessel Parts Diameter of the rims of pots varied from 5 to 27 cm and based on this parameter. 0.23% of dish/basin.09%. the pots were classified into small. 14. 57. 13-20 cm as medium pots and 21-27 cm as large pots (Chart 4. 551 (67.63% of pot/basin.07% of dish/bowl and 0.62% of bowls.23).95%) are of big pots.    Results  body sherds and 8. Vessel Shapes Among the 1430 rims.28% of lid/dish. pot/basins. 0.94%. dish on stands.45% of dish on stands. The rim diameter of the vessels ranging from 5-12 cm were considered as small pots. 0.

The rim diameter of the vessels ranging from 5 to 10 cm were considered as small bowls.29).27). If all the rims are of pots it will fall under the 310    . The rim diameter was the parameter used to classify the basins into small.65% are of medium dishes and 52. 3. According to this classification system among the 227 basin rims.13% are of small bowls. 59.94% are of big dishes. The 9 rims which may fall under the category of pot/basin are in the range of 2126 cm in diameter (Chart 4. 55. One of the rims from the site cannot be clearly defined as to belonging to a dish or bowl.    Results  Diameter of the rims of basins ranges between 21 to 42 cm. medium and large ones.28). medium and large ones. 18 to 22 cm as medium dishes and 23 to 26 cm as large dishes (Chart 4. Diameter of the bowl rims varies from 5 to 20 cm and based on rim diameter the bowls were divided into small. it would fall under medium category. Diameter of the only one dish on stand rim recovered from the site is 22 cm and it can be considered as belonging to a medium sized dish on stand.96% are of medium bowls and 40. According to this classification system among the 352 bowl rims.41% are of small dishes. 17. The rim diameter of the vessels in the range of 21-27 cm were considered as small basins. Diameter of the rims of dishes ranges from 13 to 26 cm and based on the variation in diameter the dishes were classified into small.17% are of big basins. 28-34 cm as medium basins and 35-42 cm as large basins (Chart 4. medium and large ones.03% are of small basins.91% are of big bowls. 34.26). According to this classification system among the 17 rims of dishes 29. one lid rim in the collection from the site measures 11 cm in diameter and it can be classified under small lids. 11 to 15 cm as medium bowls and 16 to 20 cm as large bowls (Chart 4.80% are of medium basins and 6. Diameter of the rim is 14 cm and if it was a dish it would fall under small category and if a bowl. The rim diameter of the vessels ranging from 13 to16 cm were considered as small dishes. Similarly.

311    . The 17 dish on stand bases from the site are in the range of 12 to 29 cm in diameter.30).31). Manufacturing Technique None of the cermics from Loteshwar reveal any evidence for the use of fast wheel. the five sherds ranging from 4 to 6 cm diameter may represent the small/medium types and 2 sherds of 9 cm diameter represents the medium/big sized dish on stands (Chart 4. If all the sherds belong to lids or dishes they may come under small lid or small dish category. The base diameter of the vessels ranging from 12 to 17 cm incorporates small dish on stands.94% are of small dish on stands. 18 to 23 cm medium dish on stands and 24 to 29 cm large dish on stands (Chart 4.65% of big dish on stands. Only one complete vessel was recovered from the site and the diameter of the rim of the pot is 7 cm.29% of medium sized dish on stands and 17.28% are of medium pots and 7.9 cm in diameter. It falls under the category of small pots and thus the total number of diagnostic pots from the site is 819 of which 24. The four sherds which may fall under lid/dish category are in the range of 10 to 15 cm in diameter. 35. Another base of a Pot/Basin measured 13 cm and if it is of basin it will fall under small or medium sized one or it belongs to a pot of medium or large size. According to this classification system among the 17 dish on stand bases and 1 rim.79% are of small pots. The vessels from the site appears to be made by hand or using multiple techniques. 52. which measured 9 cm and it may fall under medium or big size pots. 67. Though it is difficult to assess the size of the dish on stands from the diameter of its stem.94 are of big pots. The six dish on stand stems analysed from the site falls in the range of 4 .    Results  category of big pots and if they belong to basins they can be categorized as small basins. Out of the 7 pot bases. diameter was measurable for only one.

312    .35). Carinations and Wide Shallow Groove Like Depressions Carinations are present in vessels shapes like pots.    Results  The possibilities of the use of very slow wheel or turn table cannot be ruled out as well (Chart 4. Some of the broken sherds from the site were reworked and probably used as pottery discs. Some of the vessels like pots have luting marks and it suggests the possibility of the production of parts of the vessels like body and rim seperately and joining them in leather hard condition by beating and paddling. While considering the striations on the rim. marks of scraping. These blunt carinated basins and sharp carinated bowls are distinctive features of Anarta tradition. All the pots having mat surface have wide shallow groove like depression on the joining portion of the rim and shoulder and none of the other vessels have the same (Chart 4. Some incisions are also present on the external and internal surfaces of vessels.32). incisions and grinding marks (Charts 4. The irregularities present on both internal and external surfaces may be the indications of hand making or beating and paddling. In the basins most of the carinations are blunt in nature while in bowls majority have sharp carinations. Scraping marks are also visible in many sherds and these marks are very clear on some of the mat surfaced pots from the site. basins.34). dishes. Very irregular striations are present on both the surfaces of all sherds from the site.33 and 4. they are more regular and may have been made using turn table/slow wheel. Beating and paddling marks are also present on almost all vessels from the site except the lids. bowls. beating/paddling marks. It is indicated by the griding marks present on its sides.35). dish on stands and lid/dish (Chart 4. Indicators of Manufacturing/Finishing Technique Indicators of making technique present on the external and internal surfaces of ceramics from the site include very irregular striations.

Very few sherds from the site have soapy and powdery surface feel and it indicates that not many ceramics from the site is weathered or disintegrated and they still maintain original features. In case of narrow mouthed vessels like pots. On the external surface. maximum amount of burnish is on pots followed by bowls and basins. 313    . soapy and powdery (Charts 4.    Results  Slip Majority of the vessels from the site have slip on both the surfaces (Charts 4. the slip is applied only on the rim. Burnish/Polish Burnish/polish is present on both the surfaces of many of the vessels from the site (Charts 4.36 and 4.39). on the internal surface. the presence of slip is unknown as both the surfaces are eroded. The ‘unglazed’ variety may be the proto type of the ‘glazed’ variety having advanced production technology. On the internal surface. on the internal surface the burnish is mainly confined to the rim portion while on basins it is present on the entire internal surface. Unslipped ceramics are also present and a good number of vessels from the site is devoid of internal slip. smooth. The large amount of sherds having a smooth feel on the external surface in comparison to the internal surface indicates the deliberate polishing/smoothening of external surface. Both glazed and unglazed variety of Reserved Slip Ware sherds are present at the site. Surface Feel The external and internal surface feel of the ceramics from Loteshwar can be divided into rough.37).37). Majority of the ceramics from the site have smooth external surface while majority of the internal surface is rough in nature. In some sherds. maximum amount of burnish is visible on pots followed by basins.36 and 4. In many of the pots. In few sherds bichrome slip is present on the external surface and absent on the internal surface of the vessels.38 and 4.

non-geometric. The geometric designs include single or multiple thick and thin vertical and horizontal bands. crazing and spalling. the decorations on the internal surface is mainly confined to the rim.45 and 4. rim. neck. shoulder. followed by bowls and basins. On the external surface of various vessels.44). wind and water (Chart 4. the decorations are present on various parts like brim. shoulder and body (Charts 4. black. white or black background or directly over the slip. On the external surface. net patterns. The prefiring incised decorations include wedge shaped incisions and vertical strokes. base and stem while on the internal surface it is limited to rim.40 and 4. body. panels of intersecting vertical and horizontal bands or combinations of many of these patterns. white and reddish black and in many a times these paintings were applied over a cream. 314    . maximum amount of decorations are present on pots.41).    Results  Decoration Decorations on the ceramics from the site include painted designs and prefiring incisions (Charts 4.42). neck. The natural designs are chiefly represented by single or multiple vertical or horizontal wavy lines. In case of pots. squares and circles. painted designs are subjected to peeling. The colours commonly used for paintings are red.46). The non-geometric designs include latticed circles. Texture Texture of all the ceramics from the site is recorded using Jawan Sand Paper Chart. On very few sherds. Few leaves and plant decorations represent the floral designs while very few animal like decorations are also present. slanting lines. faunal and natural designs while on internal surface it is geometric and natural designs only (Charts 4. Almost all the painted decorations on the ceramics are abraded and faded probably due to long exposure to natural agencies like sun. floral. These decorations are mainly present on the external surface while on the internal surface it occurs in limited quantities. The decorations on the external surface include geometric.43 and 4. criss cross designs. diamond shape decoration.

Condition of Core The sawing of the side of the ceramics clearly revealed the features of the core. core. one side of all the ceramics were sawed using pottery cutting machine. coarse. prominent external and internal surface colour is pale red followed by light yellowish brown. red. internal surface. In majority of the vessels. the ceramics from the site can be divided into three basic categories i. While considering the external and internal slip. Colour of the core of the vessels are gray followed by dark gray and yellowish red. pots and dish on stands have relatively more deoxidized core. medium and fine (Chart 4. external paint and internal paint of the ceramics from the site were recorded using Munsell soil colour chart (1954). Dark reddish gray is the major colour present on the vessels while white painted designs are also present on the vessels. Different colours of the ceramics from the site are the variants of black. Colour of Ceramics The colour of the external slip. In the coarse ceramics.49 to 4. pink.    Results  For clear identification of texture of the section. The reasons for the deoxidization of core may be the deficiencies in heating or presence of certain minerals in the raw material. white and brown (Charts 4. As per the sand paper chart. In few vessels.59). yellow. most of them have mat surface. Based on the texture. majority of them are of pale red followed by weak red. external surface.47). Cores of the many of the sherds also showed pores in them probably due to the loss of sand grains. internal slip.48). gray. Majority of the ceramics from the site have oxidized core and very few have deoxidized core (Chart 4. two slips or two painted decorations are present. While considering the differences in ratio of deoxidization and oxidization in the cores of various vessel types. majority of the vessels from the site are of medium texture followed by fine and coarse varieties. 315    .e.

uneven.63 and 4. while on internal surface stains and slip/paint drops are absent (Charts 4. basins. dishes and dish on stands have uneven external surface. postfiring curvy incisions and vertical straight and slanting strokes. shoulder and body parts of the sherds can be divided into geometric and non-geometric.61 and 4.60). Cracks are also noticed in very few sherds from the site. stains and slip/paint drops. Calcium encrustation is also visible on both the surfaces of majority of pot sherds. These marks present on brim. The absence of script is the noteworthy feature of the site.62). Surface Condition The present condition of various sherds inferred from external and internal surfaces can be divided into four namely even. Marks on Ceramics Various marks present on external surface of the ceramics from Loteshwar include soot mark/smoke clouding. Soot marks are present on both the surfaces of vessel shapes like pots. horizontal lines.64). Soot marks/smoke clouding on some other vessels may be due to the 316    . finger marks. the intentional production of Black and Red Ware vessels. abraded and calcium encrusted (Charts 4. Both the surfaces of majority of the vessels are eroded and abraded in various degrees probably due to cultural and natural transformations. The presence of sootmarks on certain sherds is due to the production technology i. Majority of the pots and bowls have even external surface while basins. bowl and dish on stand from Loteshwar (Chart 4.e. scratches.    Results  Graffiti Prefiring and postfiring graffiti marks are present on the external and internal surfaces of few pots. The surface condition of ceramics from the site varies on the external and internal surface according to vessel shapes. bowls and dish on stands. basins. The marks include prefiring deep scratches/strokes. The internal surfaces of majority of pots. basins and bowls are even while on dish on stands and dishes uneven surfaces are more common.

clay paste preparation or inclusions with in the raw material. grog and white particles in the sherds may be due to deliberate addition in clay or it was naturally present in the raw material.67). These may have occured accidently during the manufacturing stage or indicates the carelessness of the potter. Chain/rib like projection is visible on few of 317    .66). conchoidal and laminated (Chart 4. Finger impressions are present on external and internal surfaces of very few sherds and it may be an indication of hand making technique adopted.    Results  deficiencies in firing technique or conditions with in the kiln. Scratches are visible on both the surfaces of majority of the vessels and it is the probable result of cultural and natural trasnformations for which the sherds are subjected to. The irregular fractures may be due to the deficiencies in firing technique. Among these irregular fractures are visible on majority of the sherds and few sherds have smooth fracture. Inclusions and Impurities Small sand particles are present on all the vessels from the site while few have big sand particles too. The presence of sand particles. Other Features Very few of the sherds from the site showed the presence of nail and cord impressions on the external surface. smooth. Crushed potsherds/grog is also visible in the core of very few pot and basin sherds from the site. laminated and conchidal breakages.65). The presence of smoke clouding probably due to cooking activities cannot be ruled out as well.e. Organic/inorganic white particles are also present in a large number of vessels and few of them appears to be crushed shells (Chart 4. irregular. Fracture The fractures of ceramics from Loteshwar are of four types i. Mica is also visible on the external and internal surfaces and core of all the sherds from the site (Chart 4. Some stains and slip/paint drops are also present on the external surface of very few vessels.

50 to 2.27).    Results  the pots belonging to Black and Red Ware. tools of copper.26 and 4. shell bangles. 2011).50 to 2. bone and stone. 4. Yadav 2005). manufacturing wastes and animal bones. Other Finds Loteshwar is noted for the presence of a large number of stone blades (fig. Ornaments Ornaments collected from the Chalcolithic level of the site is represented by beads of steatite. 4. Few shell bangles of thick and thin variety and beads of terracotta were also reported from the site. Madella et al. shell (including dentallium and bivalve). micro steatite beads.25). The reexcavation of the site in 2009 also yielded few pits of more than 6m3 in volume with Anarta ceramics. 318    . household objects like grinding stones and hammer stones. carnelian and faience (figs. Few of the sherds from the site were reworked and probably used as toy/play objects is indicated by the grinding marks visible on the sides and surfaces (Chart 4. clay lumps with reed impressions. terracotta objects including a figurine. Structural Remains No structural remains were unearthed from the excavations at Loteshwar except a few clay lumps indicating the probable existence of wattle and daub structures (Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994). Other noteworthy features of the ceramics from the site are absence of perforated and corrugated vessels. charred wood and animal bones (Madella et al.00 m in diameter and 0. Apart from this few pits of varying sizes ranging from 0. Various other artefacts recovered from the Chalcolithic levels of the site include ornaments of shell and stone. organic objects like shells and bones and various terracotta objects.68). 2010.00 m in depth were unearthed from the site (Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994.

The shapes of these pinched cakes (one. trapezes and borers are also present. 2010) closely resembles the terracotta female figurine from Nagwada termed as mother goddess figurine (Ajithprasad and Madella: Personal Communication). Figurines and other Terracotta Objects One terracotta animal figurine recoverd from the excavations of 1990-91 at the site appears to be a pig (fig. Another figurine collected from the excavations of 2009 (Madella et al. Tools Stone tools recovered from the Chalcolithic phase of the site include blades. nails and probably a small fragment of broken knife (?) were also unearthed from the Chalcolithic level. 319    .    Results  Household Objects The house hold objects like sandstone grinding stones/palette stones and hammer stones were unearthed from the Chalcolithic levels of the site. apart from these kind of tools triangles. Few bone points including shouldered variety were also recovered from the mesolithic and Chalcolithic levels. The presence of grinding stones and hammer stones indicate the existence of food grain processing at the site. Few corroded copper wires. Few red and yellow ochre crayons collected from the site belong to Mesolithic level. 4.30). lunates and points of chert. terracotta pellets/mini balls and pinched cakes/mushtikas (figs. backed blades. The Mesolithic level at the site also yielded similar kind of grinding stones. pottery rings. two or four pinches) varies and it includes lumps with side pinch. chalcedony and agate. In the Mesolithic phase. fluted cores. blade blanks. Other terracotta antiquities from the site include perforated and nonperforated pottery discs. flat oval lumps and circular lumps with series of incised crescentic marks. A large amount of debitage indicating stone blade production were also recovered during the excavations.29 and 4. Geometric micro-blade tools recovered from both the Chalcolithic level may have been used for some household activities.28). 4.

Bos primigenius (wild cattle).    Results  Burials The excavations revealed two human burials and one of these was in an extended articulate position (Chalcolithic) while the second burial (Mesolithic) found at the western side of the mound was in crouched position (IAR 1991-92. Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai. Antilope cervicapra (black buck). 320    . The Chalcolithic burial found at Loteshwar (fig. Chronology Based on calibrated conventional and AMS radio carbon dates from charred bone pieces. 4. Bubalus arnee (wild water buffalo) and Lepus sp. Gazella bennetti (chinkara. (hare) while domestic animals from the site include Ovis aries (domestic sheep) and Bos indicus (zebu) (Patel 2009). Floral remains from the site is represented by Coix lachryma-jobi seeds probably used as beads (Ajithprasad: Personal Communication). Axis porcinus (hog deer).31) unassociated with any burial goods appears to be the earliest burial known in the Chalcolithic period in Gujarat (Ajithprasad 2009). Mesolithic period of Loteshwar can be dated in between 7500-4500 BC and Chalcolithic period between 3700-1900 BC (Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994. gazelle). Ajithprasad 2009). Patel 2008). Patel (2008. Axis axis (chital deer). 2009) also suggests a gap in between the Mesolithic and Chalcolithic phases of the site. Organic Remains Both wild and domestic animal remains are reported from Loteshwar. The wild animal remains reported from Loteshwar are of Equus hemionus (khur). Fish and turtle bones are also collected from the site. blue bull). Observations This section of the thesis dealt with the analysis of all Anarta ceramics and other artefacts collected from Chalcolithic levels of Loteshwar in 1990-1991 field season.

fish and turtle. Black and Red Ware and Resrved Slip Ware.00 50. Majority of the vessels are hand or turn table made and many of them are slipped and few are burnished on both the surfaces. lids and dish on stands.19: Trench wise Distribution of Ceramics at Loteshwar 321    .00 0. Many of the sherds from the site are broken into small fragments and due to this reason it is very difficult to differentiate some sherds into specific categories like pot. 2009. dish.00 30. Blunt carinated basins and sharp carinated bowls are one of the features of this tradition. They were aware of the concept of beautification as indicated by the shell bangles.00 20. The availability of copper wires and nails from the site indicates the use of copper tools. broken tools and cores.50 2.10 2. many scholars consider the site as the seasonal habitation/camp site of the pastoral nomads (Bhan 1994.26 8. dishes. Gray/Black Ware. The vessel shapes identified at the site include pots. The grinding stones. bowl and lid. 2009). Corrugated and perforated vessels are completely absent in the ceramics from the site. basins. terracotta. They modified animal bones into points and probably used some of them as tools for various purposes.00 Percentage of Sherds Trench I Trench II Trench III Trench IV Surface 48. The settlers of the site produced and used a large amount of stone tools which is indicated by the wastes. 2011.00 40. palette stones and hammer stones from the site show the food processing practiced at the site. basin. Patel 2008. steatite and semiprecious stone beads. Due to the absence of structures and flimsy deposit.33 38. The prefiring incised and painted decorations are present on both external and internal surfaces.81 Chart 4.  Results    Four basic wares are present at the site namely Red Ware.00 10. 60. They exploited meat of both wild and domesticated animals.

81 Chart 4.20: Sub-square wise Distribution of Ceramics in Trenches at Loteshwar 322    .86 1.00 Percentage of Sherds IA IB IIA IIB IIIA IIIB IVA IVB Surface 15.  Results    35.40 5.00 10.00 0.00 5.29 33.69 2.76 0.00 15.00 20.00 30.03 16.00 25.34 21.81 2.

00 0.16 0.00 Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Dump Pit 1 Pit 2 Pit 3 Pit 4 Pit 5 IA 2.08 IB 2.20 8.35 0.57 1.27 2.04 0.23 0.00 2.00 8.40 0.71 2.31 IIIA 0.12 IVA 2.78 0.31 0.12 0.00 10.25 0.16 1.  Results    12.00 4.37 6.04 IIB 4.04 IIIB 0.20 0.51 IVB 1.21: Layer wise Distribution of Ceramics in Various Trenches at Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 323    .30 0.90 3.84 3.03 8.78 2.35 2.56 6.16 0.16 0.35 0.12 0.73 3.08 10.47 0.07 0.00 6.12 5.13 0.81 Chart 4.93 1.47 0.04 Surface 2.07 0.65 1.68 0.62 Surface 0.62 0.73 0.04 IIA 5.

31 0.08 0.99 6 6.04 0.41 1.99 7 7.111.00 0.73 24.99 9 9.99 3 3.00 5.12 0.90 0.110.08 0.99 13 13.00 15.22: Maximum Size of Vessel Parts from Loteshwar in Cm 324    .8 6.17.13.99 4 4.99 8 8.18.54 7.99 14 14.00 20.113.39 0.21 0.13 14.16.19.02 2.00 10.9 4.27 0.4 2.99 15.99 Percentage of Sherds 4.08 0.00 1.99 11 11.99 5 5.47 21.39 0.114.11.1.40 4.00 25.04 Chart 4.99 2 2.1.08 0.15.62 0.12.12.99 12.14.66 1.20 0.99 10 10.  Results    30.15.68 0.

  Results    60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage of Sherds Rim Base Neck and Shoulder Complete Vessel Body Stem 55.77 0.32 0.98 8.23 Chart 4.23: Diagnostic and Nondiagnostic Vessel Parts from Loteshwar 325    .04 34.66 0.

49 14.00 60.08 Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl 3.00 70.04 Lid/Dish 0.24: Various Vessel Forms from Loteshwar 326    .00 0.16 Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basin Dish/Basin 0.08 0.00 50.00 10.00 20.  Results    80.20 0.09 0.66 1.00 Percentage Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid 68.94 0.21 10.00 40.98 0.00 30.08 Chart 4.

00 2.49 2.00 Pot Rims 5-12 cm (Small) 13-20 cm (Medium) 21-27 cm (Big) 7.23 3.00 10.00 0.00 20.00 Basin Rims 21-27 cm (Small) 28-34 cm (Medium) 35-52 cm (Big) 5.00 1.00 7.00 5.00 2.88 21.00 5.00 1.55 Chart 4.27: Classification of Bowls from Loteshwar Based on Diameter (Expressed in Percentage) 327    .00 Bowl Rims 5-10 cm (Small) 11-15 cm (Medium) 16-20 cm (Big) 0.00 8.00 4.62 Chart 4.00 3.43 7.00 0.00 3.00 6.00 0.26: Classification of Basins from Loteshwar Based on Diameter (Expressed in Percentage) 9.00 15.54 Chart 4.68 5.00 4.08 0.00 5.25: Classification of Pots from Loteshwar Based on Diameter (Expressed in Percentage) 6.  Results    25.

30: Classification of Dish on Stands from Loteshwar Based on Diameter (Expressed in Percentage) 328    .28: Classification of Dishes from Loteshwar Based on Diameter (Expressed in Percentage) 0.25 0.00 21 cm 22 cm 23 cm 24 cm 25 cm 26 cm 0.08 0.15 0.35 0.04 0.04 0.10 0.08 0.40 0.08 0.29: Diameter of Rims of Pot/Basin from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 0.23 0.20 0.05 0.40 0.10 0.04 Pot/Basin Rim Chart 4.25 0.35 0.20 0.00 13-17 cm (Small) 18-22 cm (Medium) 23-26 cm (Big) 0.12 Chart 4.35 0.05 0.02 0.35 Dish Rims Chart 4.30 0.08 0.06 0.15 0.  Results    0.30 0.12 0.00 Dish on Stand Bases 12-17 cm (Small) 18-23 cm (Medium) 24-29 cm (Big) 0.10 0.04 0.20 0.

08 0.04 0.00 10.04 0.00 30.08 Chart 4.06 0.08 Hand/Slow Wheel (Rim 8.00 60.08 3.08 0.2110.00 50.00 20.00 Hand/Slow Wheel Dis Pot/ Dis Lid/ Pot/ Bow Dis Basi Bow Dis h on Pot Lid Basi h/B Dis Bow l/Ba h/Ba n l h Stan n owl h l sin sin d 68.07 0.66 1.00 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.00 Dish on Stand Stems 4 cm 5 cm 6 cm 9 cm 0.03 0.09 0.00 70.00 40.32: Manufacturing Technique of Vessels from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 329    .31: Diameter of Stems of Dish on Stands from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 80.2 0.98 0.02 0.94 0.  Results    0.11 Luted) Chart 4.09 0.04 0.16 0.01 0.4914.

96 Incision 0.00 20.04 Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish 1.41 13.08 3.51 0.04 Pot/Bowl 0.98 0.08 0.04 0.16 Striation 67.04 Scraping 6.00 0.46 7.20 0.39 5.08 0.  Results    80.33: Indicators of Manufacturing/Finishing Technique on External Surface (Expressed in Percentage) 330    .00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Beating/Paddling 28.00 10.12 0.51 0.31 1.04 0.47 10.08 0.00 70.24 0.94 0.44 0.02 0.00 50.16 0.00 40.04 Chart 4.35 0.04 Grinding 0.04 0.20 0.00 60.05 0.39 Bowl/Basi Dish/Basi n n 0.00 30.

47 0.08 3.39 0.23 0.20 0.00 50.04 Bowl/Basi Dish/Basi Dish/Bow Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl n n l 0.34: Indicators of Manufacturing Technique on Internal Surface (Expressed in Percentage) 331    .04 Striation 67.00 0.22 13.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Pot/Basin Beating/Paddling 24.00 60.04 0.04 0.04 Grinding 0.85 Incision 0.04 0.08 0.08 Chart 4.16 0.66 1.00 40.04 0.00 20.42 0.05 0.04 0.65 4.08 0.00 70.98 0.99 5.  Results    80.94 0.31 0.04 1.00 10.47 10.00 30.33 Scraping 0.

11 Chart 4.00 6.00 8.08 7.04 Wide Groove Like Depression 8.67 0.  Results    10.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid/Dish Carination 0.00 4.00 0.16 0.35: Carinations and Wide Grooves on Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 332    .00 2.18 6.23 0.

99 0.32 0.2 1.51 0.08 Bichrome 0.03 Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish 3.  Results    70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Slip 66.17 14 0.94 0.04 0.94 0.13 Chart 4.04 Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basi Dish/Basin n 0.2 0.08 Burnish/Polish 13.04 0.04 0.92 1.09 0.36: External Surface Treatment of Vessels from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 333    .08 Unslip/Unknown 1.08 0.16 0.12 0.29 2.22 10.66 1.04 0.

00 0.00 50.16 1.08 0.04 0.00 30.  Results    60.92 10.37: Internal Surface Treatment of Vessels from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 334    .05 0.00 10.00 40.43 0.08 Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basi Dish/Basin n 0.78 0.04 0.04 0.29 0.08 Unslip/Unknown 18.31 Burnish/Polish 1.78 0.08 0.39 Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish 2.08 Chart 4.00 20.37 0.06 13.58 0.16 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Slip 49.39 0.69 0.93 0.16 0.

90 0.00 10.58 0.43 0.04 0.55 Lid/Dish 0.23 0.16 0.08 3.87 7.  Results    60.04 Lid Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Rough 16.50 0.43 0.16 Smooth 51.04 Powdery 0.38: External Surface Feel of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 335    .26 3.00 50.20 0.08 Chart 4.04 Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basin Dish/Basin 0.00 0.00 20.06 11.00 40.43 2.93 Soapy 0.00 30.

63 0.04 Powdery 0.20 0.12 0.04 1.23 0.39: Internal Surface Feel of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 336    .04 0.66 0.00 35.44 Smooth 40.00 40.63 3.66 0.27 0.43 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Rough 27.00 15.00 5.04 2.45 0.85 3.00 10.86 10.54 Soapy 0.00 0.24 6.43 0.00 25.00 30.08 Chart 4.  Results    45.00 20.08 Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl 0.04 Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basin Dish/Basin 0.

12 0.50 1.04 Chart 4.31 0.50 0.04 0.04 1.87 0.  Results    30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Painting 26.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish on Stand Lid Painting 1.12 0.82 0.40: Type of External Decoration on Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 1.86 0.04 0.04 0.9 Dish Bowl Dish/ Pot/B Lid/D Pot/B on Lid /Basi Basin asin ish owl Stand n 2.51 Chart 4.72 0.37 0.04 0.41: Type of Internal Decoration on Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 337    .04 Pre-firing Incision 0.04 Pot/Bas Lid/Dis Dish/B in h asin 0.04 Pre-firing Incision 0.46 0.51 0.00 0.

00 10.00 5.00 25.29 2.82 0.04 1.00 15.08 Spalling 0.00 Abrasion and Fading Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Pot/Basin Lid/Dish 27.08 0.08 0.08 0.42: Condition of Preservation of Painting on Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 338    .26 1.00 0.00 20.77 0.08 Chart 4.99 0.04 Peeling Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basin Dish/Basin 0.35 0.04 Crazing 0.  Results    30.

04 Nature 2.82 2.04 Non-geometric 6.08 0.08 Chart 4.  Results    30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Pot/Basin Lid/Dish Geometric 25.31 0.039 Floral 0.04 0.039 1.04 0.75 0.79 0.16 0.73 0.3 0.78 0.04 0.27 Faunal 0.37 0.43: Decorative Pattern on the External Surface of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 339    .04 0.08 0.195 0.2 0.27 0.43 Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basin Dish/Basin 0.078 0.04 0.

8 0.6 0.04 0.04 Chart 4.  Results    1.4 0.04 0.8 1.44: Decorative Pattern on the Internal Surface of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 340    .6 0.6 1.2 0 Geometric Natural Pot Basin Bowl Dish on Stand Lid Pot/Basin Lid/Dish 1.4 1.47 0.98 0.04 0.04 Dish/Basin 0.37 0.2 1 0.

04 1.59 0.08 Stem 0.86 Shoulder Dish Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basin Dish/Basin 0.04 0.27 0.04 0.27 0.23 0.08 Body 20.2 Neck 3.  Results    25 20 15 10 5 0 Dish on Stand Lid 1.77 0.16 0.04 0.62 1.04 Pot Basin Bowl Rim 2.08 0.27 0.54 0.16 0.45: Position of Decoration on the External Surface of Ceramics (Expressed in Percentage) 341    .04 0.08 5.74 0.04 0.04 0.23 0.13 0.04 Base 0.87 0.04 Brim 0.83 0.08 0.83 0.04 0.04 0.12 Chart 4.

46: Position of Decoration on the Internal Surface of Ceramics (Expressed in Percentage) 342    .04 0.04 Chart 4.08 Shoulder 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.4 0.16 0.08 Body 0.6 0.33 0.4 1.51 0.  Results    1.8 0.94 0.2 1 0.35 0.23 Pot/Basin Lid/Dish Dish/Basin 0.2 0 Pot Basin Bowl Dish on Stand Lid Rim 1.039 Neck 0.

04 0.04 0.33 0.39 Fine 26.4 4.55 0.12 0.12 0.04 0.44 2.08 Chart 4.91 7.45 0.  Results    35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Dish on Stand Pot Basin Bowl Dish Coarse 8.47: Texture of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 343    .74 1.39 0.7 Lid Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basin Dish/Basin 0.04 Medium 32.3 0.08 1.39 0.23 0.16 0.87 4.42 0.84 5.93 0.

  Results    60.00 0.08 Deoxidizing 12.04 0.85 12.00 40.00 0.50 0.95 0.51 0.20 0.00 50.08 0.13 0.34 8.00 0.67 0.48: Condition of the Core of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 344    .64 1.00 Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basin Dish/Basin Chart 4.12 0.16 0.89 0.87 1.47 0.00 10.00 30.16 0.27 0.04 3.04 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Oxidizing 55.00 20.

Core.3 0.0 0.6 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Pots from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 345    .00 5.3 0.0 6.3 7.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 24.9 1.5 0. 21.0 0.4 0.0 1.1 8.1 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.7 0.0 Lig Lig Lig ht Red Red Red Red Stro Pin Pin Oliv ht ht Yell Pale Pale Lig Pin kish kish Pale Red Oliv dish dish dish dish ng e Red Yell Oliv owi Nil ht Blac Bro Gra Yell Bro Yell k Gra Wh Red dish e ow e Red sh k wn y ow wn y ite ow Bro Bro Bro wn wn wn 3. 0.0 3.49: Surface.9 2.00 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.3 2.6 Dar Dar Lig Lig k k Dus Gra ht ht Gra Red ky y Bro Gra yish dish Red wn y Bro Gra wn y 0.0 1.7 2.9 0.2 0.9 0.3 2.7 3.8 0.00 15.0 0.00 30.0 0.00 40.0 0.  Results    45.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.4 2.3 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.0 5. 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.00 25. 0.5 0. 0.1 4.9 2.0 0.0 Chart 4.2 1.5 0.0 0.6 0.1 20.00 10.0 2.2 5.00 20.8 2.1 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.6 21.0 0.1 0.3 2.3 2.6 1.0 0.0 0. 0.6 40.0 0.3 1. 0.0 Internal Paint 1.0 3.0 6.4 Internal Surface 0. Ver y Dar k Gra y Yell Ver Ver Yell owi y y We Wh Yell owi sh Dus Pale ak sh ite ow Bro ky Bro Red Red wn Red wn 2.0 0.6 8.0 0.2 0.1 0.2 2.6 13.3 0.0 0.1 External Slip 0.6 0.1 12.0 0.2 0.2 10.8 0.4 0.1 0.5 2.8 2.00 35.4 0.2 0.1 2.6 10.5 0.0 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.0 0.7 0. 0.0 0.8 2.4 0.4 2.0 0.1 0.4 External Paint 0.6 0.0 0.2 1.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 1.2 1.5 Internal Slip 0.0 0.2 4.0 0.1 0. 0.0 2.3 14.6 24.00 Bro wni Blac Bro sh k wn Yell ow Dar k Bro wn Dar k Gra y External Surface 0. 0.7 0.3 26.0 0. Core 0.0 6.6 2.0 0.8 0.4 0.1 1.6 0.0 0.

3 0.2 0.2 1.3 0.3 0. Core.0 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.4 0.2 1.2 0.1 0.3 0.0 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Basins from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 346    .0 0.2 0.3 3.2 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.5 3 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Internal surface 1.1 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.4 3.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.4 0.0 0.50: Surface.1 1.1 0.6 0.0 Core Internal Paint 0.8 0.2 Internal Slip 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.5 0.5 3.2 External Paint 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.1 1.2 0.0 0.  Results    4.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 External Slip 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.3 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.5 0 Lig Dar Lig Dar Ver Red Pin Pin Red ht k Red Yell ht Bro Red Ver k Stro Yell Lig Pal y Dar Dar dis kis kis dis Red Red dis Pal Lig owi Yell wni dis y Red We Dus owi ht k Gra k Bro ng Pin Wh Yell e Bla Dar h h h ky h dis dis sh owi sh h Dus dis ak Red h e ht wn Bro k ite sh Gra ow Oli ck k Gra y Bro Yell Wh Gra Bro h h Gra Red Red Bro sh Yell Bla ky h Red Red wn Red y ve y wn Gra ow ite y wn Bro Bro y wn Bro ow ck Red Gra y wn wn wn y External Surface 1.0 0.5 3.0 0.0 0.6 3.9 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.5 4 3.0 Chart 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 1.0 0.5 2 1.2 0.5 1 0.

04 0.07 0.04 Gray 0.04 0.04 0.  Results    0.04 Light Red 0.04 0.08 Chart 4.09 0.05 0. Core.04 Dark Gray 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Dishes/Basins from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 347    .04 0.04 Red 0.02 0.51: Surface.03 0.01 0 External Surface Internal Surface Core External Slip Internal Slip Dark Reddish Grey Weak Red 0.06 0.08 0.08 External Paint Internal Paint 0.

04 0.08 Internal Slip 0.08 Chart 4.  Results    0.04 0.14 0.12 0.04 External Surface External Slip 0. Core.04 0.04 0.08 Core 0.1 0.04 External Paint Black Very dark Gray Red 0.04 0.12 0.08 Internal Surface 0.08 0.04 0.04 Light Reddish Pinkish gray Brown 0.08 0.08 0.02 0 Dark Reddish gray Weak red Dark Gray Pale Red 0.06 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Bowls/Basins from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 348    .04 0.04 0.52: Surface.04 0.

08 0.05 0.08 0.04 Gray Yellowish Red 0.02 0.03 0.04 Chart 4.04 Internal Slip 0.04 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Lids/Dishes from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 349    .53: Surface. Core.04 0.04 0.04 External Slip 0.07 0.09 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.04 Internal Paint 0.04 Core 0.04 External Paint 0.  Results    0.04 Internal Surface 0.04 0.01 0 Dark Reddish Gray Red Pale Red Light Red Reddish Brown Dark Gray External Surface 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.

08 0.04 0.10 0.08 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.27 0. Core.08 0.08 0.12 0.70 0.27 0.16 0.08 0.08 0.31 Internal Surface 0.00 Dark Gray Dark Reddish Gray Gray Light Red Light Reddish Pale Red Brown Pink Red Reddish Reddish Gray Yellow External Surface 0.08 0.16 0.08 0.04 0.04 External Paint 0.27 0.60 0.08 Core 0.04 0.08 0.70 0.30 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.27 0.16 0.12 0.04 Chart 4.04 0.04 White Yellowis h Red 0.54: Surface.08 0.40 0.08 0.04 0.08 0.  Results    0.08 0.04 0.08 External Slip 0.08 0.50 0.80 0.04 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Pots/Bowls from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 350    .20 Internal Slip 0.20 0.04 Very Dark Gray Weak Red 0.16 0.04 0.20 0.

27 Internal Slip 0.76 0.55: Surface.08 0.08 0.23 0.  Results    2.04 0.35 0.16 0.04 1.08 Internal Surface 0.12 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.80 0.08 0.90 1.16 0.83 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.12 External Painting 1.04 1.04 0.43 0.40 1.08 0.04 0.08 0.20 1.35 0.04 0.66 1.23 1.80 1.04 0.16 0.04 0.23 0.23 0.00 1.23 0.39 0.39 0.08 0.40 0.04 0.16 0.60 1.12 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.39 1.04 0.20 Core 0.09 0.04 0.04 0.68 0. Core.04 External Slip 0.04 0.60 0.20 0.05 0.00 Dark Dusky Dark Dark Gray Reddis Red Brown Gray h Gray Light Light Light Light Reddis Yello Pale Light Olive wish Red h Red Gray Brown Brown Brown Pinkis Pink h Gray Reddis Yello Very Pinkis Reddis Reddis Weak Reddis h White wish Pale h h Red h Red h Gray Yello Red Brown White Black Brown w External Surface 0.04 0.08 0.20 0.33 0.23 0.04 0.16 0.79 Internal Painting 0.08 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Pots/Basins from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 351    .08 0.23 0.04 Chart 4.47 0.08 0.55 0.04 0.16 0.04 0.

12 0.04 0.4 0.  Results    0.27 0.04 Internal Slip External Paint 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.45 0.04 0.25 0.3 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.08 0.20 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.12 0.20 0.2 0.04 0.05 0 Dark Reddis Weak Reddis h Gray Red h Gray Red Pale Red Dark Gray Light Reddis Light Yellow Pinkis Reddis Light h Gray Red ish Red h Gray Gray h Brown Brown Very Reddis Dark Yellow h Pink Grayis ish Yellow h Brown Brown External Surface 0.08 0.04 0. Core.27 0.04 0.12 0.35 0.27 0.39 0.08 0.08 0.04 Core 0.12 0.16 External Slip 0.16 0.04 Internal Surface 0.5 0.08 0.04 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Dish on Stands from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 352    .1 0.04 0.56: Surface.04 Chart 4.15 0.08 0.27 0.08 0.20 0.04 0.08 0.16 Internal Paint 0.04 0.47 0.04 0.16 0.08 0.

04 0.27 0.04 0.04 External Painting 0.04 0.08 External Slip 0.04 0.35 0.15 0.05 0 Brown Dark Dark Gray Reddish Gray Gray Light Light Red Reddish Brown Pale Red Pink Pinkish Gray Yellowish Reddish Weak Red Red Gray External Surface 0.08 0.04 0. Core.08 Internal Surface 0.25 0.  Results    0.04 0.20 0.04 0.23 0.12 Internal Slip 0.04 0.3 0.04 0.1 0.2 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.12 Core 0.08 0.04 0.08 0.57: Surface.04 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.04 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Dishes from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 353    .23 0.31 0.08 Chart 4.12 0.04 0.

Core.04 Dish/Bowl Gray 0.  Results    0.05 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.04 Lid Light Reddish Brown 0.04 Internal Paint 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.58: Surface.04 0.04 External Slip Internal Slip 0.04 0.04 Lid Gray 0.04 Lid Dark Reddish Gray 0.04 Lid Reddish Gray Dish/Bowl Pale Red External Paint 0.04 0.04 0.00 External Surface Internal Surface Core Lid Pale Red 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Lids and Dishes/Bowls from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 354    .02 0.04 Chart 4.04 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.

50 2.04 0.23 0.27 0.08 0.39 0.08 0.04 0.51 0.16 0.59 0.12 0.04 External Slip 0.20 0.90 0.11 0.37 0.51 4.61 0.04 0.50 0.27 0.47 2.20 0.12 0.51 4.08 0.47 0.08 2.00 0.59: Surface.47 2.20 0.04 0.12 0.47 0.12 0.04 0.08 0.35 0.62 Internal Slip 0.12 1.82 0.35 0.04 Internal Surface Ligh Very Yell t Dark Very Dusk owis Yell Ligh Yell Bro Gray Blac Dusk h owis t y y ow wn ish k Bro h Gray Red Bro Red wn Bro wn wn Bro Redd Very Stro Pale wnis ish Pale ng Whi Yell h Yell Bro Bro te ow Yell ow wn wn ow 0.56 0.50 1.08 Core 0.08 0.72 0.79 0.98 0.04 0.04 0.43 0.70 0.16 0.55 0.08 0.27 0.20 0.00 4.50 3.38 Internal Painting 0.59 4.05 0.25 3.31 0.16 0.04 0.04 0.08 2.04 0.16 1.04 Chart 4.08 0.39 2.35 0.00 Ligh Redd t Yell Dark Redd Pink Ligh Very Redd Wea Dark ish Redd owis Dark Pale Redd ish Gray t Dark ish k Red ish Pink Bro Bro ish h ish Blac Gray Red Red Gray Gray Red wn Gray wn Bro Red Gray k wn External Surface 0.04 0.55 0.31 0.39 2.59 External Painting 2.00 0.04 0.04 0.11 0.00 3.16 0.90 0.54 0.04 0.62 0.  Results    5.04 0.04 0.74 0.70 0. Slip and Paint Colour of Bowls from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 355    .00 1.94 4.50 4.68 1.76 1.20 0.00 2.78 4.12 0.79 0.20 1.09 0.34 0.04 0.16 0.16 0. Core.31 0.04 0.12 0.04 0.50 0.04 0.

08 0.04 0.20 0.04 0.35 0.08 0.04 Chart 4.15 0.35 0.05 0.10 0.43 Basin Bowl Dish on Stand 0.12 0.20 0.04 0.30 0.08 0.00 Pot External Internal Prefiring Postfiring Geometric Non-Geometric 0.60: Graffiti on the Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 356    .45 0.  Results    0.04 0.20 0.25 0.40 0.35 0.50 0.04 0.

31 0.02 5.71 9.00 60.98 0.99 7.08 Calcium Encrusted 38.09 0.21 Eroded 62.84 0.20 0.50 6.19 4.23 0.04 2.16 0.94 0.04 Bowl/Basi Dish/Basi Dish/Bow Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl n n l 0.66 1.66 0.00 10.24 0.08 Chart 4.43 0.08 0.04 1.08 0.08 0.61: External Surface Condition of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 357    .08 0.59 13.04 0.70 0.00 40.00 30.34 7.00 0.77 Uneven 27.22 0.20 1.04 0.23 0.  Results    70.00 20.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Pot/Basin Even 41.16 0.12 0.91 0.49 8.46 0.04 0.04 3.71 0.39 0.00 50.

62: Internal Surface Condition of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 358    .9 7.08 0.53 5.74 0.66 1.23 0.56 0.04 0.  Results    70.12 0.93 9.00 10.00 0.00 40.02 8.26 0.08 Chart 4.16 Uneven 32.94 0.04 1.12 0.43 0.00 60.04 Eroded 58.01 0.68 4.39 0.95 0.00 30.00 Bowl/Basi Dish/Basi Dish/Bow Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl n n l Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Pot/Basin Even 35.56 4.2 Calcium Encrusted 42.58 2.04 0.62 9.78 0.039 2.30 0.51 0.43 0.16 0.68 0.98 0.63 12.51 0.52 0.31 0.00 20.04 0.04 0.00 50.16 0.078 3.00 0.

94 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Soot/Smoke Mark 5.08 0.04 Chart 4.  Results    70.04 0.08 Stains 0.00 10.43 Dish Dish on Stand Lid 0.00 20.09 0.42 1.26 Finger Mark 0.04 0.00 0.12 0.00 40.08 Pot/Basin Bowl/Basi Dish/Basi Dish/Bow Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl n n l 0.73 10.20 3.00 50.26 13.98 0.00 30.62 1.25 2.03 Scratch 63.08 0.16 0.00 60.04 0.04 Slip/Paint Drops 0.63: Various Marks on the External Surface of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 359    .

  Results    70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pot Basin Bowl 6.08 3.4 1.22 10.08 0.64: Various Marks on the Internal Surface of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 360    .08 Chart 4.04 0.98 0.2 0.68 Scratch 66.16 0.16 Pot/Bowl Bowl/Basi Dish/Basin n 0.1 13.17 1.62 1.57 Finger Marks 0.2 0.05 Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish 0.04 Soot/Smoke Mark Dish Dish on Stand Lid 0.94 0.12 0.

12 0.00 Pot Basin Conchoidal 0.07 0.00 30.00 50.04 Smooth 7.00 0.00 10.67 0.70 Bowl Dish Dish on Stand 2.71 Laminate 0.49 8.00 40.08 3.00 60.31 0.01 0.04 0.20 0.  Results    70.04 Chart 4.04 0.04 Irregular 60.54 0.08 0.65: Nature of the Fracture of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 361    .60 1.04 Pot/Bowl 0.86 Lid Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish 0.04 0.20 0.12 0.74 Bowl/Basi Dish/Basin n 0.00 20.23 12.

624 1.66: Presence of Inclusions and Impurities in the Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 362    .74 0.08 0.078 0.7 Grog 0.04 Organic/Inorganic White Particles 18.2 0.04 0.74 Dish Dish on Stand Lid 0.08 3.08 0.936 Bowl/Basi Dish/Basi n n 0.04 0.98 0.05 0.04 Chart 4.43 1.039 0.  Results    80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pot Basin Bowl Small Sand Particles 68.08 0.21 10.2 0.16 0.09 0.078 Pot/Basin Dish/Bowl Lid/Dish Pot/Bowl 0.08 Big Sand Particles 6.234 0.14 14.468 0.06 3.

00 70.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Presence of Mica 68.21 10.08 0.94 0.04 Pot/Basin 0.67: Presence of Mica Particles in the Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 0.3 0.04 Chart 4.09 0.04 0.55 0.00 40.Results    80.68: Various Features of Ceramics from Loteshwar (Expressed in Percentage) 363    .08 Chart 4.66 Dish on Stand Lid Pot/B Dish/ Lid/D Pot/B Bowl/ Dish/ asin Bowl ish owl Basin Basin 1.00 60.6 0.5 0.04 0.08 3.00 0.4 0.00 10.1 0 Reworked Pot Sherd Cord Impression Nail Impression Chain Ornamentation Pot 0.00 30.2 0.16 0.00 20.2 0.49 14.00 50.23 Basin 0.16 0.98 0.

5: General View of Archaeological Mound at Loteshwar (Courtesy: Ajithprasad) Figure 4.Results    Figure 4.6: Contour Map of Archaeological Mound at Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 364    .

2010) Figure 4.8: Plan of Chalcolithic Pits in Trench I. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 365    .7: Digital Elevation Model of Archaeological Mound at Loteshwar (Adapted: Madella et al.Results    Figure 4. Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.

9: Plan of Chalcolithic Pits in Trench II. Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.10: Gritty Red Ware Bowls from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.Results    Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 366    .

12: Gritty Red Ware Pots from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.11: Gritty Red Ware Bowls from Loteshwar (Adapted: Yadav 2005) Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.13: Gritty Red Ware Pots from Loteshwar (Adapted: Yadav 2005) 367    .Results    Figure 4.

14: Gritty Red Ware Basins from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.Results    Figure 4.15: Gritty Red Ware Basins from Loteshwar (Adapted: Yadav 2005) 368    . Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.

Results    Figure 4.16: Coarse Red Ware Pots with Mat Surface from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.17: Coarse Red Ware Pots with Mat Surface from Loteshwar (Adapted: Yadav 2005) 369    .

19: Burnished Red/Gray Ware.18: Fine Red Ware Vessels from Loteshwar (Adapted: Yadav 2005) Figure 4.Results    Figure 4. Reserved Slip Ware. Harappan Red Ware and Coarse Red/Gray Ware Vessels with Matt Surface from Loteshwar (Adapted: Yadav 2005) 370    . Black and Red Ware.

Results    Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.21: Painted. Incised and Reserved Slip Ware Sherds from Loteshwar (Adapted: Yadav 2005) 371    .20: Black and Red Ware Vessels from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.

23: Reserved Slip Ware and Incised Sherds from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.Results    Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 372    .22: Burnished Red and Gray Ware Sherds from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.

Results    Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 373    .24: Bichrome Painted Pots from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.25: Microliths from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.

Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 374    .26: Shell and Copper Objects from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.Results    Figure 4.27: Beads from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.

29: Pottery Discs. Beads and Rings from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Terracotta Pellets. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 375    .Results    Figure 4.28: Animal Figurine from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.

Results    Figure 4.31: Human Burial from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.30: Pinched Terracotta Cakes from Loteshwar (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 376    .

Shirvalkar (2008) reanalysed the ceramics from Padri to understand the process of indigenous development of cultures/traditions represented by ceramics. The ceramic type was termed by the excavators as Padri Ware (Shinde 1992). 1998). 4.32. 1992b. based on her observations emphasised the presence of two sets of ceramics representing Pre Urban Harappan and Urban Harappan periods at the site and disregarded the occurrence of Late Sorath Harappan ceramics representing Post Urban Harappan period. 1998) and Shinde and Kar (1992) briefly explained general characteristics of Padri Ware. Shinde and Kar (1992). Shinde (1992b) mentioned the presence of Post Urban Harappan period at the site and in a later publication (Shinde 1998). Due to the predominance of Padri Ware (nearly 95 percent) at Padri in the total collection of different ceramics from the site.33). Bhagat (2001) noticed the presence of ceramics which is similar to the Sorath Harappan from the earliest levels of the site and also identified certain similarities between Padri Ware and Anarta tradition of North Gujarat. Plain Handmade Ware and White Painted Ware (figs. 1992b. Shinde (1998) called the material remains from Padri as belonging to a distinct culture and termed it Padri Culture. 4. The analysis of the Padri Ware was carried out by different scholars like Shinde (1992a. Bhagat (2001). According to Shinde (1998) Padri Culture is characterised by Padri Ware (thick and thin variety). Shinde (1992a. Red Painted Ware.Results    PADRI CULTURE Introduction The archaeological excavations undertaken at Padri resulted in the discovery of a new regional Chalcolithic ceramic type. Shirvalkar (2008) based on the similarities of the ceramics from Padri and 377    . Bhagat (2001) and Shirvalkar (2008). Bhagat (2001) conducted a detailed study of the ceramics and identified various ceramic types based on surface treatment and decorative pattern. Pink Slipped Painted Ware. Bichrome Ware. there is no mention of the same. which continued from the Pre Urban Harappan period to the Post Urban Harappan period. White Lustrous Ware.

99%) (Chart 4.69). Buff Ware (1.70) and two complete vessels were also recovered. 4. Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan Cultures. Four types of ceramic wares were identified in the analysed sherds from the site and they are Red Ware (91.36) ceramics as Padri Ware. Hence. all the analysed ceramics belong to layers 11 to 7.  Results  Loteshwar with regards to shapes and decorations. Due to these drawbacks in previous studies. 378    . termed it as Padri/Anarta cultural complex. layers 6 to 4 represents the Urban Harappan period and layers 4 to 1 characterize the Early Historic period. Majority of the sherds (87. Size of Potsherds Maximum size of the analysed potsherds from the site varied from 1 cm to 21 cm (Chart 4. 4. a detailed typological analysis of various ceramics from the site was carried out by the researcher. there exist errors in the typological and chronological classification of ceramics. Gray Ware (5.15%) are in the size ranging between 2-8 cm.04%) and Black and Red Ware (1. 4. the layers 11 to 8 of Padri represent Pre Urban Harappan Padri Culture. All the available Chalcolithic ceramics from the site (654 nos. Shirvalkar (2008) considered the whole Chalcolithic ceramics from the site which includes not only Padri Ware but also Sorath Harappan (figs.35) and Late Sorath Harappan (fig.34.60%). Archaeological Context and Wares According to the excavator (Shinde 1998). Pune was analysed (more details in Appendix 4) and as per the contextual information available from the excavator. layer 7 corresponds to the transitional phase between preceding Pre Urban Harappan Padri Culture and succeeding Urban Harappan period. These ceramics include diagnostic.37%). decorated and big sherds and they are of Padri Ware. Most of the sherds are well preserved and due to this reason there was no difficulty in identifying the vessel shapes.) in the collection of Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute.

89%).89%).89%). Red Ware bowls represented 18.58%).91%). stems (0. bowls are in meagre quantities.46%) belong to Red Ware (Chart 4.04%) followed by Buff Ware (0. stems (0.84%) and Buff Ware (0.23%) followed by Gray Ware (4.72). body sherds (33. although. Basins represented 2. Lamps are present in Red Ware (0. dishes. Diameter of Vessels Diameter of different vessels parts from the site varies from 3 cm to 52 cm (Chart 4. Similarly.96%). Maximum amount of dishes are of Red Ware (4.31%). body sherds of Gray Ware.15%) are also seen.46%).89% are represented by rims.  Results  Vessel Parts Among the analysed sherds. Majority of the body sherds belong to Red Ware (33. lids and perforated jars were also found in Red Ware only. one is of Red Ware and another belongs to Gray Ware.31%) and stud handles (0. Vessel Types Different vessel types identified in the analysed ceramics are pots. stud handle bowls. The remaining vessels/vessel parts include bases (3.31%) and stud handles (0. perforated jars and lamps (Chart 4. dish on stands (0. basins. Among the two complete vessels collected from the site. Majority of the pots are of Red Ware (64.61%).36% of collection and in other wares.74) and Red Ware pot rims are in the range of 4 cm to 52 cm. 56. dish on stands.71 and 4. Black and Red and Buff Ware are also present in meagre quantities. Rim diameter of the Red Ware basins varies from 26 cm to 41 cm and base diameter varies from 3 379    .19%).28%).73). bowls.28%) while dishes made on Gray Ware (0. neck and shoulders (4.15%). 49. Among the rims (56.15%) and Gray Ware (0. Bases are absent in Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware.56% are of Red Ware followed by Gray Ware (4.19%).15%).6% of the total collection and all of it belongs to Red Ware. lids. complete vessels (0. Majority of bases also belong to Red Ware (3. Black and Red Ware (1. All the analysed neck and shoulders (4.

Red Ware perforated jar base measures 12 cm in diameter. The regular striations.08%). All the vessels from the site have striations on both the surfaces and they are of two types i. Black and Red Ware pot rims of the site has diameter ranging between 7 cm to 33 cm and only one bowl rim of the same measures 20 cm in diameter. regular and irregular striations. Diameter of Buff Ware pot rims ranges between 7 cm to 9 cm while the only one pot base is of 6 cm (Chart 4.except in the Buff Ware from the site. Manufacturing Technique and Indicators Techniques used for the production of ceramics at the site are hand making. uneven surface and beating/paddling and scraping marks. Diameter of the Gray Ware pot rims varies from 9 cm to 27 cm and bowls are in the range of 13 to 15 cm. Indicators of making technique present on the ceramics from the site include irregular and regular striations. slow wheel/turn table. beating/paddling marks and grinding marks (Chart 4.21%) and Black and Red Ware (1. Bowl rims of the ware are in the range of 13 to 18 cm. Gray Ware (3.  Results  cm to 18 cm.e.15% of Red Ware pots. Red Ware dish rims are in the range of 16 cm to 41 cm while dish bases are in the range of 5-12 cm. Thus the evidences suggest that all the vessels in Buff Ware are 380    . Rim of the only one Red Ware lid is 23 cm in diameter while the lamp rim is of 15 cm.75). Diameter of one Red Ware stud handle bowl is 15 cm and the diameter of a stud handle is 4 cm. Grinding marks which occured during the reworking of potsherd into pottery disc is also visible on the external surface of 0.76). Beating marks are present on both the surfaces of 29.51% of potsherds . Two of the stems from the site are very thin in nature with a diameter of 6 cm and 7 cm and another has 15cm diameter. Red Ware bowls from the site are in the range of 6 cm to 22 cm and majority are in the range of 13 cm to 17 cm. Only one dish rim of this ware measures 16 cm and one lamp rim is of 14 cm. very smooth and even surface are indicators of use of fast wheel while hand making is characterised by irregular striations.22%). fast wheel and multiple techniques.Red Ware (25.

15%) and lid (0. Corrugation and Carination Some vessels from the site showed the presence of carination or projected shoulder or corrugation (Chart 4. Internal surface of a few stems of Red Ware dish 381    .38% of dishes have carinations. In case of eight analysed perforated jars all have perforations at regular intervals and the number of perforations in them varied from two to fifty (as per the size of the sherd). It can be obsrved from the projection of clay on internal surface.e. Perforations Two types of vessels from the site i.15% of sherds each of the vessel type pot showed its presence. In Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware.76% of total collection). Corrugation is limited in Red Ware pots (0. Slip External slip is present on all vessels from the site and 99.15% of sherds each in Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware showed its presence.54% of vessels have internal slip (Chart 4. One of the Red Ware pots has two perforations on the neck.46%).15% of pots and 0. All perforations were done from external to internal in leather hard condition using some pointed instrument. In Red Ware. pots (0. Projected shoulder or a wide groove near the joining portion of neck and shoulder is present in all the wares. basins (0. Majority of the carinations are in the vessels of Red Ware and in this ware. 0.15%).15%). showed the presence of perforations. 0. 0.15% of bowls and 1.78).77). The presence of slip is unclear on the internal surface of a few Red Ware bowls (0. body and base of the vessels. Both the vessel types are Red Ware in nature and the pre-firing perforations are confined to the neck.15% of dishes and 0. perforated jars and pots (a few). one has one on the body and one has one on the base. another has five perforations on the body.  Results  exclusively made on fast wheel and it was not enlarged by beating/paddling technique.

3. the slip has lot of cracks and it may be due to the deficiencies in slip preparation or application on vessel. the internal slip is limited to the rim portion only. smooth and rough (Chart 4. The slip is applied on both the surfaces of Red Ware basins and the slip on the internal surface is rough compared to the external surface. The external surface of 83. The variation in the feel of both the surfaces show that external surface is polished intentionally or it is finer in nature. Few vessels have bichrome/two slips on them on the external and internal surfaces.76% have burnish on external and 13.09% has a rough feel.68% of pots have burnished external surfaces respectively and are however devoid of burnish on internal surface.31%) are unslipped.79% of sherds have a smooth surface while internal surface of 70. In certain vessel types like pots.61% have burnish on internal surface. Surface Feel Surface feel of the ceramics from the site can be divided into two i.42% of internal surface of the vessels are burnished (Chart 4. all the vessels burnished in the external have burnish/polish on internal surface too. internal surface of all sherds (4.15%) is unclear due to the eroded nature of surface.79).e. Among the Red Ware pots.42% of vessels and 19.03% of sherds have the smooth feel.1% of the sherds has a smooth feel and 23. 53.16% have rough external surface. Among the Red Ware pots. The internal surface of 41. Except dish on stand. 06% have smooth external surface and 11.  Results  on stands (0. 13.67% and 1. In case of Red Ware bowls.04% has burnish on external surface and none of them have burnish on the internal surface. In the case of Red Ware bowls and dish on stands. In many of the vessels.78). there is no change in the feel of both external and internal surfaces. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware. In Buff Ware. 44. In Red Ware dishes.28%) are smooth and very few 382    . 0. Burnish/Polish External surface of 69.31%. The presence of burnish/polish on a few sherds (0.

In the Red Ware basins.36% of the sherds have smooth external surface and 2.16% of vessels and internal surface of 14. 2.31%) and 0. Both the surfaces of the lid from the site is rough in nature.  Results  sherds (0. Both the external and internal surfaces of the bowls have smooth surface.43% of Red Ware pots have paintings on the external surface and 4.14% have the same on the internal surface .53% of sherds have smooth internal feel and 0. In the dishes. painted and incised designs (Chart 4. In the Black and Red Ware pots 1. In the bowls.e. 0.42% have decoration on the internal surface. 3. 1. both the surfaces of the lamp is smooth in nature.07% on the internal surface.15% have paintings on the internal surface. In Buff Ware pots. 43.31%) and 383    . Thus. the analysis show that the surface feel of the vessels from Padri have generally some relation with its function and making technique.53% of sherds (Chart 4.15% have rough external and internal feel.31% have rough internal surface feel. The maximum amount of incised decorations are on Gray Ware vessles (0.76% of the sherds and is present only on the external surface of Red Ware. The incised decortions are limited to 0.68% of sherds have smooth external surface feel and 0.61% of sherds have rough surface.28% have painted decorations on the internal surface.91% of the same have smooth internal surface.31% of sherds have smooth extenal and internal feel and 0. In the Gray Ware bowls. External and internal surfaces of bowls are smooth in nature.81). Painted decorations are present on the external surface of 61.38% have painted decorations on the external and 1. In Gray Ware pots. Perforated jars have major amount of painted designs on the external (0.93% have decoration on the external surface and 6. Type of Decoration Decorations on the sherds from Padri can be divided into two i.46%). In this ware. Buff Ware and Gray Ware vessels. 0.92% have smooth external surface whereas only 0.61%) have a rough feel on the external surface.15% have rough external feel where as 1. maximum paintings are on the external (0.80). In the dish on stands.29% have paintings on the external and 2. 11.

In basins. vertical lines and circles. All the lamps and lids from the site are devoid of painted designs. Pots of Buff Ware have paintings only on the external (0. 28. Among the various Red Ware sherds.08% have non-geometric designs on external surface (Chart 4. wavy lines and panels representing the combinations of horizontal.15% have painted designs on the internal surface of rim.87%) and rim (8. shoulder.76%) while bowls have paintings in equal quantity (0. fish. geometric (13%) and non-geometric (3.83). base and stud handle (Chart 4.e. rim. Decorative Pattern Painted decorations on the ceramics from Padri can be divided into two i. loops. shoulder. weapons and horn headed human figurine on different vessels from the site (Shinde 1991. the decorative pattern also can be divided into two i. The non-geometric decorations include slanting lines. Many of these paintings are faded and abraded (Chart 4. geometric. Among the analysed sherds.86). stem.82% have geometric designs and 23.31%) on both the surfaces. The geometric designs include horizontal bands. bowls and dishes majority have decorations on rim and on dish on stand it was on body. body. Thus the study shows that major concentration of the painted decorations are on the external surface of Red Ware sherds. On the external surface maximum amount of decorations are on Red Ware pots and on the internal it is on Red Ware bowls. 53. body.37). neck. In Buff Ware and Black and Red Ware.84).82). On the internal surface. slanting and wavy lines (fig. vertical.29% have decorations on the external surface of body followed by shoulder (8. neck. The Gray Ware and black and Red Ware pots are painted on external surface only. There are also writings about painted decorations of animals.85) and on the internal surface it is limited to the rim. external 384    . base and stud handle (Chart 4. Position of Decoration The decorations on the external surface are confined to different parts of vessels i.41%).06%) (Chart 4. 4.e.e. brim. and nongeometric.  Results  0. birds. 1998).

Colour of Ceramics The ceramic types identified at Padri are Red Ware. In basins majority of the sherds have decorations on the body followed by rim. In the Buff Ware.34%) followed by fine texture (37. basins. majority of the Red Ware pots have decoration on the rim followed by neck and base. all the sherds are deoxidized in nature.  Results  decoration is mainly on the body and shoulder while in Gray Ware it is primarly on shoulder. Texture The analysed sherds from the site can be divided into three categories namely fine. core of 39.88). The colours identified in the Red Ware ceramics using Munsell Chart are variants of red. medium and coarse (Chart 4. In the Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware.89 to 4.35%). dish on stands and lamps majority have deoxidized core and in case of dishes.31%) and coarse texture (5. pink. The predominant type was of medium texture (57. white and yellow (Charts 4. the dominant colour is 385    . the decorations are limited to rim portion only. majority have oxidized core and in bowls deoxidized cores are prominent. Buff Ware. Majority of the coarse ceramics are of Red Ware followed by Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware. In the Buff Ware pots.86% have deoxidized core (Chart 4.87). the oxidized core dominates. Condition of Core Among the analysed sherds. The predominance of deoxidized core may be an indication of the inadequacies in firing condition or it may indicate the presence certain minerals. gray. lids and perforated jars.94). On the internal surface. In the Red Ware pots.14% are oxidized in nature and 60. At the external and internal surface of Red Ware. majority are of fine texture followed by medium while in Red Ware. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware the prominent group is of medium texture followed by fine and coarse varieties. In the Buff Ware bowls. bowls. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware.

Graffiti Graffiti is present only on two wares at Padri i. In the Buff Ware. pink and black colours are identified (Chart 4. gray. Graffiti was done in two stages i. Red Ware and Buff Ware (fig. the major core colours are dark gray and gray. Majority of the sherds have dark reddish gray core and dark gray core is also present in good number. dark reddish gray and combination of light reddish brown and dark reddish gray were used. prefiring graffiti is present on the internal and external surface of one sherd. variants of red. The prominent external and internal slip colours are weak red and pale red respectively. they are on the pots. In the Red Ware pots. Major colour of external and internal slip is weak red. prefiring and postfiring (Chart 4. criss cross incisions. non-geometric and floral. 4. Majority of the incisions are confined to external surface while very few vessels also showed its presence on the internal surface.38). External and internal surfaces of majority of the sherds have dark gray and weak red colour while. pink and white (Chart 4. three leaves and roots. pink.  Results  pale red followed by light reddish brown.97). In case of slips. bowls and dishes. The Black and Red Ware at the site is represented by variants of gray. The major colour used for painting both the external and internal surfaces of Red Ware is dark reddish gray and sometimes two colours used for the same purpose. For painting. The geometric design include incised vertical lines and a broken square. The floral representation is of a plant having stem.e.96). the prominent colours are dark gray and gray respectively. All the graffiti can be divided into three groups namely geomeric. gray. red and yellow colours (Chart 4. very dark gray is the major colour followed by reddish gray.98).e. On the external and internal surfaces.95). The nongeometric graffiti include a rectangle divided into many rows. While considering the postfiring graffiti. 386    . the colours identified are variants of red. In the Gray Ware.

the analysis show that majority of the Gray Ware and almost half of the Black and Red Ware have uneven surfaces. diamond symbol and a star. Calcium encrustation is present on both the surfaces of Red Ware (39. The reasons for the soot marks may be the inadequacies in firing technique.46%). These marks may also occur due to the use of the vessels for cooking activites. 1. Most of the post firing graffiti may have been done using some pointed tool as suggested by sharp pointed incisions. Buff Ware (0. Among the analysed ceramics. Marks on Ceramics Various marks present on the ceramics from Padri are soot/smoke marks. Surface Condition The present condition of different sherds inferred from external and internal surface can be divided into four namely even.92 have uneven surfaces. In the Gray Ware both the internal and external of 1. Gray Ware (3.97% of sherds belonging to Red Ware have even and 24. maximum soot marks are present on pots. uneven. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware sherds and it is completely absent in Gray Ware potsherds. Thus.83% of sherds have even surface and 3. Soot marks/smoke clouding are present on both the surfaces of a number of Red Ware. abraded and calcium encrusted (Chart 4. In all the above mentioned wares. Both the surfaces of all sherds are eroded/abraded into various degree. It is also present in few basins and bowls of Red Ware. All the analysed sherds have scratch marks of different scales on both the surfaces and may indicate 387    .62% have uneven external and internal surfaces.21%) and Black and Red Ware (1.07% have even surfaces and 0.21% have uneven surface.15%) are uneven. External and internal surfaces of majority of Buff Ware are even (1. In the Black and Red Ware.  Results  slanting lines.99). 66.100).60%).22%) and very less number (0. the blackening of certain portions may be due to the intentional effort of the potter.53%). These irregularities may be the result of hand/slow wheel used production of ceramics or due to beating for largening the vessels. scratch marks and slip/paint drops (Chart 4. In case of Black and Red Ware.

impurity imprints and white particles may indicate the inadequacies in clay refining technique or deliberate addition by the potter. Inclusions and Impurities Visible inclusions or naturally present minerals/particles in the ceramics include mica.102). smooth and irregular (Chart 4.82% have irregular fracture. The good quality of Buff Ware may be due to the 388    . 36.Results    the wear and tear which may have occured during its use in Chalcolithic times or may have happened due to various cultural and natural transformations over the years. Impurity imprints are also visible in few sherds from the site. Among the total collection.85% of all wares except Buff Ware have white particles in it.48%. Impurity imprints are also present in few Red Ware pots. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware respectively. The irregular fracture may indicate the inadequacies in firing technique and clay refining.101). Majority of the Red Ware pots and bowls and all the pots of Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware have irregular breakages. only 20. 4.e. 0.82% is constituted by 72. dishes and Gray Ware basins. in Buff Ware major portion of pots and bowls and lamps of Red Ware and Gray Ware have smooth breakage. majority of sand particles are in pots and Buff Ware sherds are devoid of big sand particles. This may have occured accidently during the production of the vessel. Mica and small sand particles are present in all the sherds and 13. Buff Ware.89% and 1.99% of Red Ware. Fracture Fracture of the ceramics from Padri can be divided into two i. bowls. At the same time. Slip/paint drops are present on the internal surface of very few Red Ware pots and bowls from the site. This 79.18% have smooth fracture whereas 79.76% of cermics have big sand particles. In all wares. small and big sand particles and organic/inorganic white particles (Chart 4. sand particles.46%. Among the total vessels. The presence of mica.

fire places.5x12. 2. pits and lime kiln are noticed at various rooms of the structure. Other Features Both Red Ware and Black and Red Ware sherds (each 0.103). The cracks may be due to the use of very thick slip or the inadequacies in the preparation and application of slip on the vessel in leather hard stage. platform made out of potsherds. 389    . blades. in press).5m. A well prepared floor exposed in layer 6 is known as Structure 10 and it measures 10x4.2m in size.60% of the vessels belonging to Red Ware. The structure has some post holes in its sides. stone platforms. The rammed floor made out of brown silt appears to be plastered. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware may have used as cooking vessel as indicated by the smoke clouds on large area of the sherds. This structure having nine rectangular rooms is exposed partially in an area of 12.  Results  use of well refined clay for its production or from the use of clay from different source. The artefacts recovered from the structure include storage jars. Circular mud platform. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware sherds in the collection are very thin in nature while some very thick sherds are found in Red Ware and Black and Red Ware. The floor has not revealed any evidences for cooking activities and based on three jars recovered from the same it is interpreted as a storage place (Shinde et al. The slip on a few sherds of Red Ware. copper fish hooks and punch (?). few structures were identified in the Pre Urban Harappan and Urban Harappan levels. Structural Remains During the excavations at Padri. Few of the Red Ware.61%) from the site are reworked to make pottery discs and may have been used as play objects (Chart 4. Structure 14 unearthed from the layer 8 belonging to the Pre Urban Harappan period was constructed using a mixture of black clay and brown silt and mud bricks (IAR 1990-91). lithic debitage.67%) have cracks in it. Probably. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware vessels (3.

short blades of chert. Sus domesticus. Marine fish. Bandicota indica. Sus scrofa. Marine fish and Marine Gastropods (Joglekar 1996-1997). Canis familiaris. The blades and debitage recovered from the site may indicate the small scale production of stone blades and these blades may have been used for cutting purposes. Rattus rattus.07% respectively (Joglekar 19961997). Meretrix meretrix. Axis axis. Baubalus bubalis. Marine gastropod and Marine crabs were identified in the Urban Harappan level (Joglekar 1996-1997).74:7.91% and in Urban Harappan period it increased into 80. Capra/Ovis. Rattus rattus. The saddle quern and grinding stones indicate the food grain processing at the site while fish hooks indicate that the inhabitants of the site were engaged in fishing. the relative importance of domestic and wild animals was in the ratio of 14.64:0. 390    . Availability of copper show the knowhow of metals and beads and razor point towards the beautification of body.  Results  Other Artefacts Other artifacts recovered from the Pre Urban Harappan levels of the site include micro steatite beads (180 nos. Antilope cervicapra. Faunal remains reported from the Pre Urban Harappan levels of Padri are Bos indicus. Varanus bengalensis. globular carnelian bead. Tetracerus quadricornis. copper fish hooks. bead polisher. Canis lupus. marine and fresh water Bivalve. saddle quern and grinding stones (IAR 1995-96). The remains of Bos indicus. Capra/Ovis. copper razor. Boselaphus tragocamelus. Bubalus bubalis. During the Pre Urban Harappan period. Felis chaus. Herpestes edwardsi. Agaronia nebulosa. Organic Remains The plant remains in Padri are poorly preserved and floral remains recovered from the site include Coix lachryma-jobi seeds (IAR 1995-96) probably used as beads.). beads of semi-precious stones.

dishes. lids. Many of the vessles are slipped and burnished on both the surfaces. They were aware about the concept of beautification as indicated by the beads. bowls (with stud handles also). The settlers of the site produced small amount of stone tools which is indicated by the debitage and small blades reocvered from the site. The decorations are present on both the surfaces of the vessels and patterns include geometric and non-geometric designs. The grinding stones and saddle quern from the site show the food processing practices at the site. The vessel shapes identified in these wares are pots. Red Ware.e. The occurence of Urban Harappan (Sorath Harappan) and Post Urban Harappan (Late Sorath Harappan) ceramics along with Pre Urban Harappan pottery (Padri Ware which have similarities to ceramics of Anarta tradition) is the noteworthy feature of the site and it invokes a number of questions regarding the integrity of absolute dates from the site. The structural remains unearthed from various layers of the mound show continuous occupation of the settlement for a long time. The study also showed the presence of vessels of different sizes including miniature and big vessels. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware. Many of the ceramics have beating and paddling marks indicating probable hand making technique while slow wheel. Buff Ware. fast wheel and multiple techniques were also in vogue. dish on stands. The availability of fish hooks (Shinde and Thomas 1993) from the site indicate the use of copper tools. 391    .  Results  Observations This section of the thesis dealt with the analysis of ceramic and other material remains representing the “Padri culture” from the archaeological mound locally known as Kerala no Dhoro located at Padri Gohilini village of Bhavnagar district. The analysis showed the presence of four basic types of ceramic wares at the site i. basins. perforated jars and lamps. They exploited the meat of both wild and domesticated animals and fish.

37 5.99 Chart 4.Results    100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage Red Ware Buff Ware Gray Ware Black and Red Ware 91.6 1.69: Distribution of Different Wares at Padri 392    .04 1.

99 3-3.99 13.61 0.99 18.99 14.6 17.99 12.Results    30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1-1.99 Percentage of Sherds 2.31 0.99 19.99 20.70: Maximum Size of Potsherds from Padri 393    .99 4-4.4 6.99 6-6.99 7-7.99 11.13 10.61 0.99 16.31 0.99 9-9.99 2-2.6 2.46 0.99 0.76 1.45 21.59 2.15 0.88 4.99 5-5.15 Chart 4.55 26.99 8-8.38 0.99 17.6 1011121314161718192010.46 0.

31 0.46 Chart 4.3 4.Results    60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage Base Body Complete Vessel Neck and Shoulder Rim Stem Stud Handle 3.89 56.71: Different Vessel Parts from Padri 394    .89 0.19 33.96 0.

15 0.00 25.68 0.98 Buff Ware 0.00 0.53 4.00 10.15 0.46 16.82 Black and Red Ware 1.46 3.15 0.07 0.83 2.00 30.31 Base Body Rim Lid Perforated Lamp Jar 0.15 Chart 4.15 0.Results    35.31 0.15 0.22 1.00 15.52 0.15 0.00 5.15 29.15 0.46 0.46 0.38 1.00 Rim Neck Stud and Comp Body Rim Body Rim body Handl Rim Base Shoul lete e der Pot Red Ware 27.76 Base Body Stem Rim Dish on Stand 0.14 0.15 1.00 20.61 Gray Ware 3.89 Basin Bowl 0.15 0.15 Base Dish 0.31 0.72: Ware wise Division of Different Vessel Parts from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 395    .

15 0.46 Black and Red Ware 1.36 4.22 0.6 18.46 Gray Ware 4.Results 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid perforated Jar Lamp Red Ware 64.15 Buff Ware 0.28 0.15 Chart 4.61 0.28 0.91 0.84 0.73: Different Vessel Shapes from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 396    .15 1.15 0.23 2.

1 Lid Rim Perforated Jar Base 0.1 0.74: Diameter of Red Ware Vessels in Cm (Expressed in percentage) 397    .6 0.0 0.3 Basin Rim 0.3 0.5 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.9 1.4 0.5 2 1.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 Lamp Rim 0.1 0.1 0.3 Stem of Dish on Stand 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.9 1.9 3.0 0.0 2.8 1.5 3 2.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 1.7 2.3 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 Dish Rim Dish Base 0.4 0.Results 4.1 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 Chart 4.3 0.4 0.1 0.5 0 3 Pot Rim Pot Base 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 52 0.7 1.1 0.1 0.2 1.6 0.1 1.4 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.7 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.2 1.1 0.0 Bowl Rim Stud Handle/Bowl 8 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.0 4.1 3.3 2.5 4 3.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.

15 0.15 0.76 0.4 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.75: Diameter of Vessels Other than Red Ware (Expressed in percentage) 398    .7 0.1 0 6 Buff Ware Pot Rim Buff Ware Pot Base 7 8 9 0.Results 0.15 Buff Ware Bowl Rim Black and Red Ware Pot Rim 16 0.15 0.15 Chart 4.61 0.31 Gray Ware Bowl Rim 0.15 0.76 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 12 13 14 15 0.15 0.15 28 29 33 0.15 0.15 Gray Ware Dish Rim 18 19 20 21 22 27 0.46 0.5 0.2 0.9 0.31 0.15 0.15 0.31 0.15 Gray Ware Pot Rim 0.6 0.15 Gray Ware Lamp Rim Black and Red Ware Bowl Rim 17 0.31 0.15 0.3 0.15 0.15 0.8 0.

92 0.00 30.28 0.22 1.00 20.83 0.46 0.15 0.Results 70.15 4.46 0.38 7.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perfor ated Lamp Jar Red Ware External and Internal Beating/Paddling 14.31 0.15 0.15 1.07 0.00 0.22 External Grinding 0.00 50.15 Bowl Chart 4.15 1.22 2.15 0.60 18.15 1.35 4.00 40.15 0.75 0.28 0.00 60.95 Pot Bowl Pot Bowl Dish Lamp Pot Gray Ware Black and Red Ware 2.46 0.61 0.76 External and Internal Striation 64.00 10.76: Indicators of Ceramic Manufacturing Technique (Expressed in percentage) 399    .15 Buff Ware 0.

15 Red Ware Carination 0.Results 1.40 0.00 0.15 0.40 1.15 Chart 4.15 0.38 0.80 0.46 0.15 0. Carination and Projected Shoulder in the Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 400    .15 Corrugation 0.60 0.15 0.20 1.60 1.77: Presence of Corrugation.15 0.15 0.76 Pojected Shoulder 0.20 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Lid Pot Pot Gray Ware Black and Red Ware 1.

00 30.15 0.22 Pot Bowl Pot Buff Ware 0.20 4.00 10.28 0.28 0.68 0.00 50.15 1.31 1.00 20.60 18.75 Internal Burnish 64.15 Bowl Dish 0.00 40.15 0.35 4.15 0.83 0.15 Chart 4.46 0.15 1.31 0.68 13.76 2.00 0.22 0.46 4.68 13.28 0.83 0.22 0.15 0.61 2.92 0.46 0.67 0.00 60.92 0.28 0.46 0.46 4.31 3.15 0.31 0.78: Evidence of Surface Treatment of Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 401    .22 2.15 0.04 1.15 Internal Slip 2.60 18.46 0.15 1.15 1.15 Pot Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 0.15 1.31 Lamp 0.61 External Burnish 44.75 0.Results 70.31 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perfora Lamp ted Jar Red Ware External Slip 64.

15 0.16 0.13 1.61 0.Results 60.15 External Smooth 53.15 2.15 0.92 2.15 0.29 Internal Smooth 41.14 16.46 Internal Rough 23.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perfora Lamp ted Jar Red Ware External Rough 11.28 0.15 0.91 0.31 Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 0.06 0.00 50.07 0.15 Chart 4.46 Pot Bowl Pot Buff Ware 0.79: Surface Feel of Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 402    .53 0.46 Bowl Dish Lamp 0.15 1.15 4.92 Pot 0.15 1.29 0.15 0.46 0.31 0.31 0.06 3.00 0.00 10.15 1.67 0.61 0.92 1.31 1.07 0.00 20.15 3.09 0.15 0.46 2.38 0.15 0.00 30.68 0.15 0.36 0.00 40.06 2.68 16.15 0.

07 11.15 0.00 35.76 0.38 1.15 0.43 External Incision 0.31 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Perforated Jar Red Ware External Painting 43.00 0.31 Chart 4.46 Buff Ware 0.00 25.00 5.31 0.00 10.00 20.42 2.29 2.93 6.80: Types of Decoration on Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 403    .00 15.31 0.00 40.28 1.31 0.00 30.Results 50.14 Pot Bowl Pot Pot Gray Ware Black and Red Ware 0.15 Internal Painting 4.15 0.00 45.15 0.

15 Nil 19.00 45.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perforat Lamp ed Jar Red Ware Pot Bowl Pot Buff Ware External 43.15 0.31 0.00 10.31 0.00 5.07 6.15 0.53 0.61 0.31 0.15 3.Results 50.14 0.31 0.15 1.50 1.76 0.92 0.00 35.81: Presence of Decorations on Different Surfaces of Ceramics (Expressed in percentage) 404    .00 15.67 0.15 0.15 Chart 4.00 40.31 Bowl Dish Lamp Pot Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 0.00 30.43 1.15 0.61 5.46 0.31 Internal 4.57 0.38 11.28 1.15 0.42 2.00 0.00 20.07 0.93 2.29 0.00 25.

31 0.46 0.36 Pot Bowl Buff Ware 0.00 0.00 40.Results 50.99 12.00 15.00 25.31 Pot Pot Gray Ware Black and Red Ware 0.15 0.00 35.00 20.54 3.00 45.31 Chart 4.00 10.19 1.00 5.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Perforated Jar Red Ware Faded/Abraded 44.82: Condition of Paintings on Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 405    .76 0.00 30.

15 0.00 15.Results 40.65 0.16 1.31 0.00 0.83: Type of Decorations on External Surface of Potsherds (Expressed in percentage) 406    .61 0.00 20.99 0.76 Pot Bowl Buff Ware 0.15 Chart 4.38 10.76 0.00 25.60 Non-geometric 18.00 30.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Perforated Jar Red Ware Geometric 37.00 35.31 Pot Pot Gray Ware Black and Red Ware 0.92 1.31 0.00 5.00 10.24 2.46 0.15 0.

84: Type of Decorations on Internal Surface of Potsherds (Expressed in percentage) 407    .00 0.83 1.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Red Ware Geometric 4.61 0.00 1.00 4.00 3.07 Bowl Buff Ware 5.53 0.92 1.28 Non-geometric 0.31 0.00 2.00 5.20 1.31 Chart 4.Results 6.

29 0.15 Shoulder 8.31 Stem Base 1.00 10.38 Pot 0.31 2.31 0.76 0.15 Chart 4.15 0.33 Stud Handle Bowl Buff Ware 0.31 0.15 0.45 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Perforated Jar Red Ware Rim 8.15 0.15 0.00 20.31 0.52 0.00 5.00 0.07 Neck 5.46 0.15 Body 28.41 1.31 0.76 Brim 3.85: Position of Decorations on the External Surface of Ceramics (Expressed in percentage) 408    .15 0.15 Pot Pot Gray Ware Black and Red Ware 0.87 0.46 0.00 15.15 0.31 0.Results 30.92 1.05 0.53 9.00 25.31 0.

15 0.31 Red Ware Basin 0.15 0.31 Chart 4.28 Red Ware Dish 1.31 0.00 2.Results 4.61 Red Ware Bowl 4.22 Red Ware Dish on Stand Buff Ware Bowl 0.15 0.50 3.46 0.50 4.15 0.86: Position of Decorations on the Internal Surface of Ceramics (Expressed in percentage) 409    .50 2.50 1.00 0.29 0.46 2.00 1.00 3.00 Rim Neck Shoulder Body Base Stud Handle Internal Painting Red Ware Pot 2.15 0.31 0.75 0.50 0.46 0.

92 Bowl Dish Lamp 0.76 0.67 0.80 Medium 38.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perforat Lamp ed Jar Red Ware Fine 21.00 10.15 0.46 0.09 Coarse 4.00 0.31 Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 0.92 7.00 5.15 0.15 3.00 15.28 Bowl Pot Buff Ware 0.15 0.15 0.00 30.00 25.00 20.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 Pot 0.Results 45.31 Pot 0.31 Chart 4.15 0.69 1.00 40.15 1.00 35.46 4.15 0.38 0.87: Texture of Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 410    .41 0.46 0.53 10.

15 Chart 4.68 11.46 Pot Bowl Pot Buff Ware 0.00 5.83 0.46 0.76 0.92 0.88: Condition of the Core of Ceramics (Expressed in percentage) 411    .Results 40.15 0.15 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perforat Lamp ed Jar Red Ware Oxidized 26.60 0.15 Deoxidized 37.00 30.77 1.00 25.68 0.28 0.15 1.00 10.31 1.91 0.15 Bowl Dish Lamp Pot Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 0.92 6.00 15.00 35.46 0.00 0.00 20.31 4.15 0.57 2.

1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 We We We We ak ak Ver Red We ak ak Red y Ver Ver Yell and ak Red Red and Pale We y y Bro Lig Red and and Ver Wh owi ak Dus Pale ht and Pin Red y ite sh wn Red ky Bro Red Red Pale kish dish Dar and Red wn dish Red Gra Blac k Pale y k Gra Bro Red y wn 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.8 1. 1.1 0.7 0.1 Internal Slip 0.6 0.3 0.6 8.3 0.1 0.3 0.2 15.0 0. 2.6 1.7 0.1 2. 3.1 0. 0.9 8.7 33.1 0.6 2.1 0.1 0.1 Chart 4.5 0.7 5.1 0.9 0.6 5.1 9. 22.4 0.7 0.6 1.7 0.4 33.3 2.3 2.3 1.89: Colour of the Surface and Slip of Red Ware Pots Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 412    .2 0.0 11.5 0.5 0.1 5.6 0.1 0.2 3.1 External Slip 0.4 1.6 2.1 1.4 0.7 0.3 0.1 5. 0.2 0.6 1.1 0.1 2.1 0.4 1.1 3.Results 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Dus Dar ky k Dus Red Dar Red ky and k dish Red We Red Gra ak y Red External and Internal Surface Core Gra Pale y Lig Gra and Red ht and y Ver Lig Pin Red Pale Gra Lig and y ht k dish Red y Pale Dar Red ht Bro Gra Red k wn Gra y y Red Red Red Red dish dish Red Ver dish dish Gra and Red Blac Red Red Pin Pin Red y Gra Gra y Red dish k dish dish kish kish dish Dar y Red y Gra Wh Yell k dish Blac and Bro Gra and and and Gra k Dus wn y y ite ow Gra We Gra Wh ky y y ak y ite Red Red 0.8 10.2 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.9 5.1 0.

82 0.15 0.75 0.38 Internal Paint 3.31 0.15 0.00 20.15 3.76 2.15 0.00 0.76 4.92 0.31 0.31 0.43 0.00 15.46 0.00 5.46 0.15 0.21 0.15 0.31 0.15 0.15 0.53 0.90: Colour of the Decoration on Red Ware Pots Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 413    .15 0.15 Chart 4.46 0.15 0.31 0.15 0.00 Light Dark Dark Dark Redd Wea Redd Dark Redd Redd Redd Dark Pinki Redd Pale Dark Redd Dark Redd Redd ish Whit k ish Redd ish ish Redd ish Redd Dark Redd sh Dark ish Pink ish ish Blac Red Redd ish Redd e and Red Brow ish Gray Gray ish Brow ish Redd ish Pinki Whit Redd and Dark Redd Gray and ish Gray Blac ish Wea Redd Gray Gray k Pink and Whit Dark Gray and and Gray n Blac ish Gray Dark n sh e and ish Redd ish and Dark Pink k Gray and ish and and k and Gray and and Whit Dark Blac ish Gray Light Pinki e Redd and Dark Pinki and and k Gray and Redd Red Gray Pinki Redd Dark Gray Redd and Pink and and ish sh Dark Wea Redd sh Whit Redd and and Pinki e Redd k ish Gray and Redd ish Whit Whit Pale sh ish Redd Gray Whit Redd k ish Whit e ish Pink Pink sh ish Gray ish Gray Whit Brow ish Gray e e Red e ish Red Gray e Gray Gray Gray Brow n e Gray Gray n Pot External Paint 20.31 0.15 0.15 0.Results 25.46 1.00 10.61 1.9 0.

6 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.21 External and Internal Slip 0.00 2.00 6.15 0.53 3.63 Internal Paint 0.61 0.00 10.15 Chart 4.00 8.76 3.00 0.15 0.46 9.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.46 0.76 0.75 0.31 0.00 Red dish Bro wn Dark Dark Red Whi Ligh Dark Pink dish Red te Gray Dark Pink Very Red t Red and Very Red Pink Ligh Wea Ligh Very Dus and Gray dish and Red Pale Dark Red dish Dark ish Dus dish Whi Dark dish ish Gray Pink Red t k t Dark ky Dark and Gray Dark dish Red Gray dish Whi ky Blac te Gray Red Gray Gray Gray Red Red Gray Gray Red Red Pink and Red Bro Gray te Red k and dish dish ish Pink dish wn Pink Gray Gray Gray Whi te Bowl External and Internal Surface 0.76 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.Results 14.15 0.46 0.15 0.92 1.15 0.28 0.15 0.31 1.15 0.15 0.99 0.15 2.15 0.22 1.31 0.66 1.00 4.46 0.31 0.07 0.15 4.36 3.00 12.41 Core 0.52 8.15 0.76 1.15 5.76 11.46 0.07 0.92 0.91: Colour of the Red Ware Bowls from Padri Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 414    .31 External Paint 0.

00 0.50 3.50 0.21 0.61 0.15 0.15 0.15 3.99 0.15 0.46 0.00 Pale Red Pink Light Dark Pinkis Reddis Weak Reddis Pale Light Pale Weak Reddis Pink h h White Red Red Red Red Red h h Gray Gray Brown Gray Dish on Stand External and Internal Surface 0.15 0.46 0.50 1.38 0.15 Core External and Internal Slip 0.92: Colour of the Red Ware Dish and Dish on Stand Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 415    .46 2.92 0.60 Internal Paint 0.46 0.61 0.15 0.00 1.46 Dark Gray Gray 0.50 2.31 0.00 2.99 Chart 4.15 1.61 1.15 0.15 Dark Reddis Red h Gray Dish 0.15 0.61 External Paint 0.31 1.15 0.Results 3.31 0.

46 Core 0.15 0.15 External and Internal Slip External Paint Pale Red Lid 0.15 0.15 0.31 0.15 0.90 0.15 0.15 0.60 0.46 0.00 Light Red Light Reddish Reddish Pale Red Yellow Brown Dark Gray Gray Weak Red Red Weak Dark Red and Reddish Pink Gray Weak Red Perforated Jar External and Internal Surface 0.Results 1.15 0.10 0.40 0.50 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.92 0.15 0.30 0.20 0.80 0.93: Colour of the Red Ware Perforated Jar and Lid Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 416    .70 0.15 Chart 4.00 0.15 0.

38 Internal Paint 0.00 0.31 0.15 0.00 1.92 0.50 2.50 0.15 0.76 0.94: Colour of the Red Ware Basin and Lamp Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 417    .15 0.00 Dark Dark Reddish Gray Gray Gray Pink Red Light Reddish Brown Pale Red Reddish Reddish Dusky Brown Gray Red Weak Pinkish Red White Basin External and Internal Surface 0.15 Core 0.15 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.31 Gray Weak Red Lamp 0.50 1.15 External Paint 1.15 0.76 0.15 Chart 4.92 0.Results 2.15 2.46 0.61 External and Internal Slip 0.

46 0.15 0.Results 0.31 0.15 0.30 0. Dark sh Pale Gray Black sh Pink sh e Gray sh Red Red Brow Red sh y Red Stron Whit Dark Reddi Brow Dusk Gray Gray Gray n Gray g n e Brow sh y Red n Brow Brow n n Pot Bowl External and Internal Surface 0.15 0.15 Core 0.31 0.60 0.20 0.70 0.15 0.00 Reddi Reddi sh Reddi sh Reddi Dark Very Dark Black.15 External Paint 0.31 0.95: Colour of the Buff Ware Vessels Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 418    .15 0.15 0.50 0.15 0.15 External and Internal Slip 0.15 0. Reddi sh Reddi Pinki Whit Dark Reddi Weak Pale Weak Reddi Dusk sh Black.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Internal Paint 0. Pinki sh Black.40 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.31 Chart 4.15 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.61 0.

50 1.15 0.76 2.15 0.15 Core 0.31 0.15 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.15 0.31 0.31 0.50 0.92 0.15 0.31 0.15 Chart 4.92 1.15 0.31 0.76 0.15 0.61 0.00 1.15 0.61 0.15 0.38 0.50 2.15 Internal Slip 0.46 0.96: Colour of the Gray Ware Vessels Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 419    .00 0.Results 2.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 External Slip 0.15 0.61 0.46 0.15 0.46 0.46 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.31 0.15 0.31 0.15 0.92 0.00 Light Dark Reddi Dark Very Reddi Reddi Pinki Weak Pale Dark Gray sh Reddi sh Dark Gray sh sh Brow sh Red Red Gray and Gray Gray Brow Gray Black n Gray n Reddi Light sh Reddi Reddi Gray sh sh and Brow Black Very Dark n Gray Very Dark Gray and Red Light Reddi Reddi Very Weak sh sh Reddi Dusk Reddi Gray Very Red Brow sh Dark y Red and n and Gray sh Black and Dark Brow and Gray Gray Very Gray Dark Dark n Dusk Dark Gray Reddi y Red sh Gray Gray Pot Bowl Dish Lamp External and Internal Surface 0.46 0.29 0.15 External Painting 0.15 0.15 0.

15 1.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Chart 4.97: Colour of the Black and Red Ware Vessels Based on Munsell Soil Chart (Expressed in percentage) 420    .61 0.15 0.76 External Slip Internal Slip 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.00 Reddis Light h Very Yellow Reddis Brown Dark Weak Reddis Reddis Pale Pinkis Red Gray ish Dark h and Gray Red Red h Gray h Gray h Gray Red Brown Brown Dark Gray External and Internal Surface 0.46 0.15 0.38 Light Reddis h Very Brown Dark and Gray Very Dark Gray 0.46 0.40 1.80 0.15 0.20 1.15 Core 0.76 0.15 0.15 Reddis h Gray and Very Dark Gray Dark Weak Weak Reddis Weak Weak Red Red h Gray Red Red and and Light and and and Red Very Reddis Pinkis Reddis Dark Dark h h h Gray Gray Gray Black White 0.20 0.Results 1.60 1.60 0.15 0.00 0.15 0.40 0.15 0.15 0.15 External Painting 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.

15 0.20 0.Results 1.15 0.15 Buff Ware Bowl 0.15 0.20 1.60 0.00 Prefiring Graffiti Postfiring  Graffiti Geomteric Non‐geometric Floral Prefiring Graffiti External Red Ware Pot 0.31 Red Ware Dish 0.80 0.15 0.98: Features of Graffiti on Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 421    .40 0.15 0.15 Chart 4.60 1.15 0.92 Red Ware Bowl 0.15 0.15 1.46 Postfiring  Graffiti Non‐geometric Internal 0.46 0.38 0.00 0.40 1.

53 Chart 4.35 4.15 0.15 0.00 20.46 Bowl Dish Lamp 0.07 6.92 Eroded/Abraded 64.15 1.15 0.44 1.15 0.15 0.15 2.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perfora Lamp ted Jar Red Ware Pot Bowl Pot Buff Ware Even 48.15 1.00 30.00 60.Results 70.15 4.99: Surface Condition of Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 422    .53 0.76 0.60 18.46 0.15 2.26 1.46 0.15 Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 1.22 2.78 1.13 0.15 0.00 0.07 0.53 8.28 0.31 0.15 0.92 Calcium Encrustation 27.15 1.15 0.22 0.00 10.61 0.46 0.76 0.46 Uneven 15.31 0.00 50.60 0.15 0.73 0.46 0.75 0.15 0.00 40.15 0.53 11.28 0.06 1.61 0.62 4.68 Pot 1.83 0.

46 0.00 Pot External and Internal Soot/Smoke Mark 5.61 0.28 Internal Slip/Paint Drops 0.38 External and Internal Scratch Mark 64.22 0.00 20.Results 70.15 0.46 4.35 4.22 2.00 50.00 40.76 0.00 0.00 10.46 Pot Bowl Dish Lamp 1.00 60.60 18.28 Pot Bowl 0.61 Dish on Stand Lid Perfor ated Lamp Jar Pot Bowl 1.31 Chart 4.83 0.15 0.35 Basin Bowl Dish 0.22 0.00 30.15 0.15 1.15 1.100: Various Marks on Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 423    .92 0.

38 Irregular 51.61 3.Results 60.15 Chart 4.00 10.00 40.101: Condition of Fracture of Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 424    .31 0.91 Bowl Pot Buff Ware 0.00 0.67 1.68 2.15 1.28 0.00 0.00 20.31 0.83 0.22 1.15 4.00 30.15 Bowl Dish Lamp Pot Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 0.61 0.15 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perforat Lamp ed Jar Red Ware Smooth 13.00 50.46 0.61 Pot 0.31 0.99 14.92 0.15 0.

00 50.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perfor ated Lamp Jar Red Ware Mica and Small Sand Particles 64.31 0.15 0.00 60.46 0.61 1.83 0.46 0.31 1.00 30.46 2.31 0.45 5.15 1.29 0.15 0.15 1.22 0.00 20.61 0.92 0.15 0.60 18.72 0.07 Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 4.07 0.61 Big Sand Partciles 8.22 2.102: Inclusions in the Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 425    .35 4.15 1.28 0.Results 70.00 10.22 0.15 0.15 White Particles 26.00 0.61 0.15 0.28 Pot 0.46 Bowl Dish Lamp 0.76 0.22 Pot Bowl Pot Buff Ware 0.35 0.15 Chart 4.15 0.00 40.15 Impurity Imprints 1.

31 0.15 0.15 Red Ware Bowl 2.46 Very ThickSherd Reworked Potsherd 0.15 Red Ware Perforated Jar 0.15 Chart 4.15 Gray Ware Pot 0.5 2 1.92 Black and Red Ware Pot 0.07 0.103: Other Features of Ceramics from Padri (Expressed in percentage) 426    .46 0.61 0.5 0 Cracks in Slip Cooking Vessel Very Thin Sherd Red Ware Pot 1.5 1 0.29 Red Ware Dish 0.15 0.31 Red Ware Basin 0.15 0.Results 2.

Results Figure 4.32: Padri Ware Bowls from Padri (Adapted: Shirvalkar 2008) 427    .

Results Figure 4.33: Padri Ware Pots from Padri (Adapted: Shirvalkar 2008) 428    .

37: Painted Sherds of Padri Ware (Adapted: Shirvalkar 2008) 429    .Results Figure 4.

Results Figure 4.34: Sorath Harappan Bowls from Padri (Adapted: Shirvalkar 2008) 430    .

Results Figure 4.35: Sorath Harappan Vessels from Padri (Adapted: Shirvalkar 2008) 431    .

Results Figure 4.38: Sorath Harappan Sherds Having Graffiti from Padri (Adapted: Shirvalkar 2008) 432    .36: Late Sorath Harappan Vessels from Padri (Adapted: Shirvalkar 2008) Figure 4.

2010). all the studies showed light on different aspects of Pre-Prabhas assemblage.47) (Ajithprasad 2002. a group of pottery resembling the PrePrabhas type of Prabhas Patan/Somnath (fig. Fine Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware (fig. a detailed macroscopic analysis of the entire diagnostic Pre-Prabhas sherds (few big undiagnostic sherds also) and sketchy analysis of the whole un-diagnostic Pre-Prabhas pottery and other artefacts from the excavations of 1994 and 1995 from Datrana IV was conducted.Results PRE-PRABHAS ASSEMBLAGE FROM DATRANA IV Introduction A preliminary study of the Pre-Urban Harappan ceramics and associated artefacts from Datrana IV (Hadkawala Khetar) (IAR 1993-94.43) also yielded evidences for the Chalcolithic stone tool industry in the form of long blades of chalcedony and jasper made out of crested ridge technique. in order to understand the minute feature of the ceramics. the Anarta ceramics and Pre Urban Harappan Sindh related pottery.41). cores and manufacturing debris. Coarse Gray or Red Ware.e. 4.46 and 4. The potsherds from Datrana IV are fragile and have the tendency to break into small pieces probably due to the 433    . 4. Rohri chert blades. The site (fig. 4. 4. includes four different types i.40. beads of carnelian and drill bits were also recovered from the site (Ajithprasad 2002). Fine Red Ware with bright red slip and broadly corrugated exterior. 4. The PrePrabhas ceramics. 2008. Archaeological Context Total ceramics unearthed from the site are 3477 in number (more details in appendices 5 and 6) and are fragmentary in nature. This study (Ajithprasad 2002) identified the presence of three types of ceramics at the site namely. Therefore.39.42 and 4. 4. a small curved copper knife blade and a bronze punch point probably used for stone tool production. the abundant pottery type at the site.45. Though. 4. 1994-95) was conducted by Ajithprasad (2002).44. no one attempted to carry out a thorough typological analysis of these ceramics.

00 Red Ware Gray Ware Black and Red Ware Trench I 5. The sherds chosen for detailed study included diagnostic.00 45.00 0. probably due to the emergent manufacturing technique.51%. 75. Red Ware.21 Trench II 71.92 Chart 4. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware. Maximum size of the sherds varied from 1 to 14 cm (Chart 4. Gray Ware represented 6.55 2.87% of Red Ware.21% of Black and Red Ware are from Trench I (Chart 4.64 5.37% are from Trench II. 91. Three major categories of ceramics were identified at the site namely.Results inadequacies in manufacturing technique. decorated and big sherds.105).63% are from Trench I and rest of the ceramics i. Red Ware represented 77. 0. Among the analysed ceramics.00 60. 536 sherds from the site were subjected to detailed study.36% and Black and Red Ware represented 16.00 30.104).13%.87 0. Among the total analysed ceramics.55% of Gray Ware and 2.00 15. Among these. Sizes of more than 99% of ceramics in the total collection 434    .104: Trench wise Distribution of Various Wares at Datrana IV Size of Potsherds It is the most fragile Chalcolithic ceramic type reported till date in Gujarat. 8. 5.e.81 13. Majority of the sherds were very fragmentary in nature. All the small un-diagnostic sherds and few eroded big sherds were subjected to sketchy analysis as most of them were devoid of any noticeable features.

85% was body sherds.06 0.72%) and neck and shoulder (1.38%) and Gray Ware (5.14). the decrease in size of sherds showed an increase in the number of sherds. 2.99 11. Within the category of bases.99 cm.99 2.99 7.03 0. Base (1. While looking at the ratio of total number of sherds and maximum size of vessel parts.75%) and Gray Ware (0.66 5. Red Ware was the dominant variety (0.03 Chart 4.69%). The reason for the large amount of body sherds is the fragile nature of ceramics.99 6.32%) and Gray Ware (0. followed by rim (3.Results were in between 1 to 5 cm.18 0.45 0. Among the collection of 3.83% was of Black and Red Ware followed by Red Ware (0.99 5.105: Variation in the Size of Potsherds from Datrana IV Vessel Parts Among the total ceramics. 73.12%).99 3.27%) (Chart 4.99 Percentage 63.12 0.83%) followed by Black and Red Ware (0.99 10.99 4. 63.131.27%).03 0.16%). 0. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 12345678910.99 8. In the neck and shoulder (1.e.16% rims. The small size of the sherds created difficulty in identifying the shapes of many vessels.06 0.03 1.78% was Red Ware followed by Black and Red Ware (14.40%). In the body sherds (93.16% was of Red Ware followed by Black and Red Ware (.93 20.93% of ceramics were of very small size ranging from 1 to 1.99 13. 435    .99 9. 93.106). one can envision a direct relationship between the both i.85%).60%) and Gray Ware (.11.42 8.

83 0.00 40.03 Neck and Shoulder Body Base Black and Red Ware 0.46 Chart 4.106: Distribution of Vessel parts of Various Pre-Prabhas Wares at Datrana IV (Expressed in Percentage) 436    .14 0.83 1.00 0.12 Pot/Basin 71.03 Basin 0.64 Bowl 0.43 Dish 0.00 70.00 20.00 50.14 0.00 Rim Neck and Shoulder Body Base Rim Red Ware Pot 1.Results 80.92 0.82 5.37 0.12 0.32 0.00 30.63 0.96 Neck and Shoulder Body Base Rim Gray Ware 0.00 60.00 10.32 13.43 0.09 0.37 0.

82%).60%).25% body sherds 1. bowl (0.64%. The basins were represented by bases (0.96% are of Red Ware. 0.92% represents Black and Red Ware.37% and Black and Red Ware represented 0.83% was of Red Ware.56%) and pot/basin (90. 0.56 90.14% represented Gray Ware and 0.43% are of Red Ware followed by Black and Red Ware (0. 0. 0. While considering the 2.60 8.12%) of Red Ware. In case of 1.32% symbolised Black and Red Ware.60%) (Chart 4.46%) and Gray Ware (5. Pots were represented by rim (2. pot (8.63% represented Red Ware.60% of bowl rims.107: Distribution of Various Vessel Types at Datrana IV 437    .92% was of Black and Red Ware. 0. 100 80 60 40 20 0 Percentage Basin Dish Bowl Pot Pot/Basin 0.27% neck and shoulders of pots. Among the 0. Among the dish rims (0.61%).43%. The category of pot/basin includes all body sherds and it was represented by Red Ware (71. Black and Red Ware (13. Red Ware represented 1.44%).27%).12 0.60%). dish (0. 0. In the 3. Body (3.107).60 Chart 4.03%) respectively. Gray Ware represented 0.12% was characterized by Gray Ware and 0.37% belongs to Gray Ware and 0.Results Vessel Shapes The vessel types from the site include basin (0.12%).03%).44% of pot rims. In the case of bases (1.25%) and Base (1.32%).14%) and Gray Ware (0.12%).12%). Red Ware (0.12 0.09%) was the prominent variety followed by Black and Red Ware (0. neck and shoulder (1.

76%) in the collection belong to the group of small bowls.76 9.00 5.76 Chart 4.00 15.00 20.108: Diameter of Bases of Basins 25. Based on the rim diameter. All these bases appear to be of large sized basins. Diameter of the bowl rims varied from 7 cm to 16 cm.00 10. In the total collection.81 19.05 14.76 13 cm 14 cm 9. small bowls (7-12 cm) and large sized bowls (13-16 cm) (Chart 4.29 4.28% was constituted by small bowls of Black and Red Ware and 9.Results Diameter of Vessel Parts All the basins were represented by Red Ware bases and its diameter varied from 9 cm to 13 cm (Chart 4.52 23.52% represented large sized bowls.52 Gray Red 12 cm 16 cm 9.108).71).e.33%) and large rims (38.109: Diameter of the Rims of Bowls 438    . All the Gray Ware sherds (4.00 0. small rims (33. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Red Ware 9 cm 10 cm 12 cm 13 cm 25 25 25 25 Chart 4. Thus the analysis show that majority of the bowls in the collection are small in size.52 4.109). 14.00 Black and Red 7 cm 10 cm 4. i. Diameter of the rims of Red Ware bowls can be arranged under two groups i. the bowls can be divided into two groups.e.

30% while Gray Ware and Red Ware represented 1.e.18% represented large rims. followed by 8. The pot rims from the site can be divided into three groups i.35% of large rims. 25 20 15 10 5 0 12 cm 13 cm Black and Red Red 17 cm 25 25 25 25 Chart 4.111).89% are of small rims followed by 3.15% and 25% respectively. Diameter of the pot bases (1.e. Large bases of Black and Red Ware pot bases represented 14.89% are small Black and Red Ware rims. medium (12 cm to 17 cm) and Large (18 cm to 22 cm).95% represented medium rims and 1.Results Diameter of the rims of the dishes from the site varied from 12 cm to 17 cm (Chart 4. Among the 2.e.25% medium rims and 3.78% and 10.110). small (6 cm to 11 cm).54% of medium rims and 2.44% pot rims in the total ceramic collection 5. Small bases of pots belonging to Black and Red Ware represented 37.60%) varies from 6 to 16 cm and it can be divided into two groups i.71% respectively. dishes can be divided into two i. 32.110: Diameter of the Rims of Dishes (Expressed in Percentage) 439    .54% large rims of the same Ware. Based on the diameter of the rims. Small rims were represented by Red Ware ceramics and it comprised of 50% of the total dishes.48% while Gray Ware and Red Ware represented 7. small (12-13 cm) and large (17 cm).112). Diameter of pot rims varied from 6 cm to 22 cm (Chart 4. In the Gray Ware 5. The interesting feature about the site is the absence of very large vessels and miniature vessels.94% represented small rims. small (6-10 cm) and medium (11-16 cm) (Chart 4. 25% each in Black and Red Ware and Red Ware represented the large dishes. 32. In the Red Ware.

37% each on the external and 440    .14 10.37 1.71 7.78 7. 0.111: Diameter of the Bases of Pot (Expressed in Percentage) Manufacturing Technique None of the Pre-Prabhas cermics showed evidences for the use of fast wheel.14 5.114).57 7. At primafacie vessels from the site appears to be made by hand or using multiple techniques. 4.78 1.37 1. even sometimes with irregular striations.73% of sherds.37 7.1% of sherds and internal surface of 53.14 3.14 5.17% of ceramics.45%) surface of majority of the ceramics.113.78 3. The marks of pressing by hand or some blunt instrument is present in very few ceramics i.78 5. beating/paddling marks and pressing marks (Charts 4.37 1.00 4.55%) and internal (60.78 5.00 2. The possibilities of the use of very slow wheel or turn table can not be ruled out.57 7.00 0.e.00 6 cm 7 cm 8 cm 9 cm 10 cm 11 cm 12 cm 13 cm 14 cm 16 cm Black and Red 1.00 6.14 10. The irregularities present on both internal and external surfaces may be the indicators of hand making or beating and paddling.71 Gray Red 3.78 1. Indicators of Manufacturing/Finishing Technique Indicators of making technique present on the ceramics from the site include irregular striation.00 10.Results 12. Irregular striations are present on the external surface of 54.00 8. Beating marks are also present on the external (64.57 Chart 4.87% of sherds and internal surface of 3. The indicators of production technique is not visible on the external surface of 1.

00 Black and Red 6 cm 7 cm 8 cm 9 cm 1.18 1.53 1.18 1.18 1.24 14.18 10 cm 11.18 1.00 14.18 1.35 18 cm 20 cm 21 cm 22 cm 1.18 1.00 2.18 2.00 6.18 3.00 10.53 5.18 1.18 Chart 4.88 Gray Red 1.24 7.12 8.18 2.00 0.18 1.18 1.18 1.35 1.18 8.112: Diameter of the Pot Rims (Expressed in Percentage) 441    .53 1.18 2.35 3.06 2.35 1.00 8.00 12.76 11 cm 12 cm 13 cm 14 cm 15 cm 16 cm 17 cm 1.Results 16.00 4.18 2.18 1.35 3.

56 0.19 Body Base Rim Rim 4.19 3.56 0.19 0.90 3.19 Chart 4.19 0.75 1.83 0.00 Rim Rim Base Bowl Dish Neck and Body Rim Shoul der Pot Body Rim Base Pot/BasinBowl Pot Black and Red Irregular Striation 0.19 0.43 0.05 2.93 2.12 0.18 0.87 2.97 2.00 0.113: External Finishing Technique of Ceramics (Expressed in Percentage) 442    .92 8.85 8.56 14.56 0.Results 25.68 0.31 0.68 0.00 20.37 0.75 0.00 5.66 5.12 1.00 10.75 1.77 1.19 0.93 Beating 0.24 6.56 1.19 Base Neck and Body Rim Shoul der Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray Pressing Unclear Neck and Body Rim Shoul der Pot 0.66 21.43 0.19 2.00 15.36 4.61 1.87 0.19 0.37 Body 0.37 0.37 1.96 4.19 Pot/Basin Red 0.

19 0.19 0.19 1.19 0.37 0.19 3.05 2.75 1.92 5.68 5.19 0.75 0.37 1.37 0.56 0.37 0.19 1.87 0.75 2.68 0.87 Beating 0.00 15.92 8.49 0.19 0.68 0.00 0.58 1.56 0.31 1.78 2.97 2.96 4.00 20.56 0.68 0.19 0.56 1.56 0.29 21.00 5.00 10.99 4.93 0.18 0.43 0.114: Internal Finishing Technique of Ceramics (Expressed in Percentage) 443    .37 0.85 8.56 0.19 0.19 3.Results 25.12 0.19 Chart 4.19 1.56 14.00 Neck Neck Neck and and and Rim Body Rim Body Base Rim Rim Base Body Rim Body Rim Base Body Rim Rim Base Body Shoul Shoul Shoul der der der Bowl Dish Pot Pot/BasinBowl Black and Red Pot Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray Pot Pot/Basin Red Irregular Striation 0.24 1.83 Pressing Unclear 0.

The use of the wide mouthed vessels as water carrying vessels by the modern pastoral communities may be an 444    . Second type is the water carrying vessels (by tying string through the perforation) with 2 or 4 parallel holes in opposite sides along the neck or rim used by the nomadic communities like pastoralists. These perforations may have been done in leather hard condition as indicated by clay projection on the internal surface.03% is of Black and Red Ware pot. Diameter of the rims of one of the perforated pots (12 cm) indicates that they have broad mouths. As the sherds are fragmentary it is almost impossible to identify the number of perforations in them. in this case. The use of pointed tool is indicated by the narrowing nature of the perforation from external to internal surface. 0.Results internal surfaces. as the perforation is limited to the upper half of the body it cannot be used for stone bead drilling. These finished pre-firing perforations were done from external surface to internal surface using some pointed tool.06% of vessels have perforation in the joining portion of the rim and neck and another half have perforations on the shoulder portion. First type is the kind of pots used in association with stone bead drilling (to pour water to the perforation while drilling) and such vessels may have only one perforation. Perforation Only 0. 0.06 is of Red Ware pot and 0. The very irregular striations may be the indicators of slow wheel/turn table production of the ceramics or may be the marks occured during the application of slip. Among these perforated vessels. The beating and pressing marks probably indicate the enlargening of the walls of the vessels or production by hand or multiple techniques excluding fast wheel.12% of potsherds from the site have one perforation each in it. In the Chalcolithic context such kind of perforations can be expected in vessels used for three different functions. In all the sherds perforation is limited to the upper half of the body.03% is of Red Ware Pot/Basin. Though. 0.

1. Carination is also present in 0. 0.20% of Gray Ware pots and 0.03 0.03% belonging to Red Ware and 0. 0. Carination is present in limited quantity of pots and basins from the site. 0.03 0. In the total collection.20 0.06 0. In the Black and Red Ware (16.03% sherds belonging to Red Ware pot/basins.35 Pot Pot Gray 0. The third type similar to the second type of vessels may have used for storage purposes by hanging them from ceiling or wall.14%).40 0. Corrugation and Carination Corrugation and carination is present in all the wares from the site in limited quantities (Chart 4.115).03 Bowl Pot/Basin Black and Red 0.75% of Black and Red Ware pots have corrugated external surface.Results indication of the bygone tradition.03% belonging to Black and Red Ware showed corrugated surface.86% belonging to Red Ware and 0.40% of Red Ware pots. At the site.115: Presence of Corrugation and Carination in Vessels (Expressed in Percentage) Slip External slip is present on 93.98 Chart 4.98% belonging to Black and Red Ware have corrugated surface.116). 445    .75% potsherds from Datrana IV and its presence is not clear on 6.03 0. In the pot/basin category 0.25% of sherds (Chart 4. In case of bowls. 0.03% belonging to Red Ware basins and 0.03 0.35% belonging to Red Ware pots.06% belonging to Black and Red Ware pots have carination on external surface.20 0. 0.75 0.00 Pot Bowl Basin Pot/Basin Red Corrugation 0.03% belonging to Gray Ware pots and 0.86 0.80 0.40 Carination 0. Bowls were devoid of the same and in basins only Red Ware has carination.

68 13.31 Internal Burnish 41.68 0.20 4.15 0.31 3.46 0.00 Pot Basin Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Lid Perfora Lamp ted Jar Red Ware External Slip 64.60 18.00 10.00 0.83 0.67 0.31 0.22 2.28 0.15 1.28 0.28 1.15 1.46 4.15 Bowl Dish Lamp 0.61 External Burnish 44.15 1.75 Pot Bowl Pot Buff Ware 0.31 0.31 0.92 Pot 0.15 1.61 2.76 2.15 0.83 0.28 0.15 1.67 0.04 1.31 3.00 40.15 0.28 0.Results 70.46 0.46 0.15 0.00 60.15 1.15 0.00 20.92 0.00 30.75 0.22 0.22 0.31 0.116: External Finishing Technique of Ceramics (Expressed in Percentage) 446    .35 4.22 2.46 4.00 50.15 Chart 4.60 18.68 0.15 Internal Slip 64.15 Bowl Black and Red Ware Gray Ware 0.46 0.68 13.

03 0.38 0.55 0.00 40.06 0.46 0.23 0.03 Rim Pot Black and Red Burnish Neck and Body Should er Body Base Rim Rim Pot/Basin Basin Bowl Dish Base 0.87 Chart 4.00 50.08 0.09 0.00 20.52 1.32 66.32 5.20 9.49 0.55 1.117: Internal Finishing Technique of Ceramics (Expressed in Percentage) 447    .32 0.45 0.00 60.00 0.03 0.37 Neck and Body Should er Body Pot/Basin Red 0.81 0.06 0.38 0.43 0.26 0.00 0.12 0.26 0.15 0.12 0.03 Rim Pot Gray 0.09 0.12 0.00 10.00 Rim Rim Bowl Dish Base Neck and Body Should er Rim Pot Body Rim Base Pot/Basin Bowl Slip 0.Results 70.12 3.09 0.43 0.00 30.40 1.32 0.03 Unslipped/Unknown 0.29 0.09 0.23 4.20 9.37 0.23 0.23 0.

117). 5. 76.16% of sherds.36%). it is easy to apply the slip on the internal surface and this feature may have prompted the potters to apply slip on internal surface. 35.36%).01% of sherds (Chart 4. The analysis showed that majority of the vessels have slip on external surface compared to internal surface. In the internal surface 84.12% is represented with external slip and 1.24% is devoid of the slip.49% have no slip on it.27% have rough surface. In the Gray Ware 4.5%).Results external slip is present on 5.119) indicate the deliberate 448    .73% of sherds are smooth and 46.07% of sherds have smooth feel and 64.64% have the same on the internal surface (Chart 4. Being wide mouthed vessels. Surface Feel Among the 536 sherds subjected to detailed analysis. The noteworthy feature is the complete absence of burnish on Red Ware sherds. On the internal surface.40% and internal surface of 11. It shows that a large number of vessels were slipped on both the surfaces and very few were slipped exclusively on the external surface.93% of sherds have rough feel.52% have the same on the internal surface. Majority of the Red Ware (70. Among the Black and Red Ware sherds 10.13% is devoid of it. In the Gray Ware (6.116) and 10. The highest percentage of sherds having a smooth feel on the external surface (Chart 4.44% is devoid of the same.99% of sherds have slip on it and slip is absent in 15.57% have burnish/polish on external surface (Chart 4. 0. In the Gray Ware (6. In the Black and Red Ware (16.57% is devoid of the same.64% have slip on the internal and 5.118) compared to the internal surface (Chart 4. In some vessels the slip was completely absent on both the surfaces. 12.12% of sherds and 3.117).39% is unslipped or the presence of slip on them is not clear. In the Red Ware (77.14%).06% of sherds have slip on external surface and 1.83% have burnish on the external and 0. Burnish/Polish Burnishing/polishing is done on external surface of 13. external surface of 53.23% have slip while 2.12%) is represented with slip and 7.

97 0 0.Results 18.37 Rim Rim Neck and Rim Body Base Body Shoul der Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray Pot Pot/Basin Red 0.00 8.12 0.37 1.19 0.19 2.00 2.118: External Feel of Various Wares (Expressed in Percentage) 449    .12 5.04 15.24 5.68 0.19 3.68 8.37 2.37 0.00 10.17 1.56 1.00 Rim Rim Neck and Rim Body Rim Base Body Shoul der Bowl Dish Pot Neck and Rim Body Base Base Body Shoul der Pot/BasinBowl Pot Black and Red Rough 0.12 1.96 0.80 0.53 3.12 0.12 0.93 1.00 14.37 1.00 16.31 0.00 4.19 1.36 2.05 6.49 Chart 4.56 1.56 Smooth 0.16 2.00 6.17 5.05 6.60 7.31 0.65 0 2.37 1.05 3.00 12.00 0.56 0.

75 0.19 0.12 1.17 1.05 0.19 0.12 0.56 0.19 1.37 2.43 0.56 1.00 4.56 1.00 6.61 2.19 0.54 1.00 Rim Rim Neck and Rim Body Rim Base Body Shoul der Bowl Dish Pot Neck and Rim Body Base Base Body Shoul der Pot/BasinBowl Pot Black and Red Rough 0.00 12.37 0.26 0.80 3.49 4.19 Rim Rim Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray 0 2.31 5.19 1.19 2.68 0.Results 18.67 0.37 0.61 9.04 7.00 2.66 Neck and Rim Body Base Body Shoul der Pot Pot/Basin Red 0 0.00 0.46 Chart 4.00 14.00 16.75 Smooth 0.49 3.31 10.60 15.00 10.00 8.10 5.68 0.93 1.119: Internal Feel of Various Wares (Expressed in Percentage) 450    .75 2.51 4.

19 0.12 0.37 0.60 0.56 0.09 Chart 4.01 0.37 0.06 1.37 0.00 Base Body Base Neck and Body Shoul der Pot Pot/Basin Black and Red Incision 0.85 0.06 Impression 0.19 Pot/Basin 0.03 0.09 0.Results 1.19 0.00 0.20 0.69 0.120: Decorations on Various Wares (Expressed in Percentage) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Neck Neck and and Rim Body Rim Body Base Body Rim Base Body Shou Shou lder lder PotPot/Basin Black and Red Ware Geometric Non-geometric Geometric and Nongeometric Bowl Pot Gray Ware 0.09 0.19 3.19 0.80 0.19 4.37 0.14 0.19 0.03 Body 0.14 0.03 0.56 0.19 0.20 1.19 0.75 Red Ware 1.121: Type of Decorations on Vessels (Expressed in Percentage) 451    .06 0.40 0.92 Chart 4.03 Rim Neck and Body Shoul der Rim Pot Pot Gray Red 0.

4.03 0.2 0 Brim Rim Neck Shoulder Body Black and Red Ware Pot 0.09 Gray Ware Bowl 0.4 0.122: Position of Decorations on Various Wares (Expressed in Percentage) 452    . The decorations can be divided into three groups i. All the wares from the site have decorations and they are confined to the external surface.98 0.03 0. 1.48) which show similarities to the ceramics from the mesolithic levels at Bagor (figs.24% have impressed decorations (Chart 4. 2.03 Gray Ware Pot Red Ware Pot Red Ware Pot/Basin Base 0. 4. majority of the sherds have rough internal surface feel compared to the smooth external surface feel. Another important feature of the ceramics are complete absence of painted decorations.14 0. body and base (Chart 4. shoulder. Decoration Among the 2477 sherds analysed. 2002). The incised decorations are present on bowls. imressions in a row (by finger or broad blunt insrument) and combination of geometric and non-geometric designs (Chart 4.8 0.03 0. In the pot/basin variety. neck. pots and post/basins. basins.09 0.50) (Shinde et al.e.06 0.2 1 0. geometric desings (horizontal and vertical bands).49 and 4.06 Black and Red Ware Pot/Basin 0.6 0. rim.Results polishing/ smoothening of external surface. Majority of the decorations are present on Red Ware pots followed by Red Ware pots/basins.03 Chart 4. non-geometirc desigss (herring-bone design. slanting vertical and horizontal strokes.31% of sherds have prefiring incised and 0. The decorations are present on brim.121). The smoothening of the surface due to continuous human handling cannot be ruled out as well.09 0.69 0.122).120 and fig.

35.e. While among the undiagnostic shapes majority of the sherds are of coarse texture followed by medium texture. In the pots.04% and 4.81 31.126).00 Fine Medium Coarse Red Ware 32.64% Black and Red Ware was of fine texture.Results Texture The texture of the ceramics can be divided into three broad categories i. In the Gray Ware. In this group. Majority of the Red Ware bowls and dishes are of medium texture followed by finer ones.20% was of coarse texture. Gray Ware was represented by 0. coarse sherds formed the main group (Chart 4. 32. 13. fine pottery was the predominant item and in all vessel types i.70% Red Ware have fine texture.81% have medium texture and 31.00% have coarse texture.64 1.00 15.29% was of medium texture and 0.49%. While in the Black and Red Ware.20 Gray Ware 0.00 5. medium and coarse texture respectively. major group was of fine pottery followed by the medium ceramics (Chart 4. Similarly.124).83 Chart 4.00 30. Among the pots.00 25. In the total collection of ceramics. 14.00 0.00 20. bowls were of fine texture.125). Among the Red Ware sherds.70 13.123) based on the sand paper chart (see Chapter 3). dishes and pots. fine.29 0.04 4.e.00 Black and Red Ware 14. medium and coarse (Chart 4. bowls.49 1. 1.83% potsherds of fine. 1. the main group was of fine texture followed by coarse pottery. there was no major difference in the ratio of fine and coarse varieties (Chart 4.00 10. medium texture formed major group followed by fine group.123: Texture Variation in Various Wares (Expressed in Percentage) 453    .

35 0.00 0.124: Texture Variation in Red Ware Vessel Types (Expressed in Percentage) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Body Rim Body Rim Bowl Dish 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.43 12.06 0.Results 40.20 30.51 Medium 0.03 0.78 0.03 0 0.06 0.03 0.17 0.46 1.03 0.06 0.12 0.69 Pot Pot/Basin Chart 4.66 0.29 0.29 0.45 Coarse Base Neck and Shoulder Rim Pot Pot/Basin Chart 4.125: Texture Variation in Black and Red Ware Vessel Types (Expressed in Percentage) 454    .20 Medium 0.43 30.01 10.09 0.06 0.09 0.00 20.00 0.00 30.81 Fine 0.37 0.06 0.23 0.00 Base Neck and Shoulde r Body Rim Body Base Rim Rim Basin Bowl Dish Coarse 0.00 0.00 10.69 0.06 0 0.61 Fine 0.00 0.26 1.

03 4.97% is represented with oxidized core and 52.12 0. The 455    .89% of the sherds have deoxidized core indicating the deficiencies in firing technique (Chart 4.49 0. external surface.03 0. It indicates that Red Ware ceramics were produced in better firing condition.126: Texture Variation in Gray Ware Vessel Types (Expressed in Percentage) Condition of Core Among the total collection. Among the Red Ware. At the same time.Results 5 4 3 2 1 0 Rim Base Neck and Shoulder Body Bowl Rim Pot Body Pot/Basin Coarse 0 0.23 0.72 Medium 0 0.12% of sherds and 15. oxidized core is present only on 0.e.06 0 0. clay. Among the Black and Red Ware vessels. All the Gray Ware (6.99% is devoid of the same.35%) sherds from the site have deoxidized core.12 0. 25.03 0.12 Fine Chart 4. internal surface and core of ceramics from the site were recorded using Munsell colour chart. internal slip.26 0.03 0. Colour of Ceramics The colour of the external slip. Blackening of the core may also occur due to the presence of certain mineral contents in the raw material i.03 0. The dark core of the Black and Red Ware is the result of the deoxidizing condition created within the kiln. 24. the Gray Ware appears to be the byproduct of Black and Red Ware production.127).11% of sherds have oxidized core and 74.57% of ceramics have deoxidized core.06 0.06 0.

12 0.12 0.03 0.37 5.93 Deoxidized Core 0.52 1.72 1.03 0.03 Pot Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray 0.127: Condition of the Core of Ceramics (Expressed in Percentage) 456    .03 Pot Pot/Basin Red 0.81 0.40 0.37 0.Results 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Neck Neck Neck and and and Rim Body Rim Body Base Rim Rim Base Body Rim Body Rim Base Body Rim Rim Base Body Shoul Shoul Shoul der der der Bowl Dish Pot Pot/BasinBowl Black and Red Oxidized Core 0.03 0.35 0.89 Chart 4.12 0.14 0.43 13.47 47.32 0.12 0.60 0.17 23.09 0.06 0.29 0.43 0.86 0.03 0.14 0.

128). gray. light brownish gray. dark gray and light gay in internal. Different colours identified in Red Ware sherds are the variants of black.Results various colours noticed in the Gray Ware ceramics are variants of black. dark reddish gray. red. light yellowish brown. dark reddish brown. reddish brown. reddish yellow. pinkish gray. very pale brown. pale red. red. The prominent core colour is gray. very dark gray and weak red (Chart 4. brownish yellow. dark gray. Prominet surface colour is gray followed by very dark gray and reddish brown. gray. The major colour of the external surface is pale red followed by light reddish brown and weak red. very dark gray. reddish gray. pale brown. light reddish brown. dark reddish gray. dark red. reddish gray. The colours noticed in the Black and Red Ware ceramics are the variants of black. pinkish gray. very pale brown and weak red (Chart 4. dark reddish gray. The most common slip colour was gray followed by light gray and light reddish brown in external and light reddish brown. grayish brown. light gray. weak red and white (Chart 4. light red. brown. pale red.130). The most common external slip colour is weak red followed by gray and pale red. pink. very dusky red. Whereas. very dark gray. reddish brown. light reddish brown and pale red in equal quantity. light gray. reddish gray. light red. The prominent colour of the internal surface is gray followed by weak red and dark gray. The prominent core colour is very dark gray followed by gray. dark reddish brown. reddish yellow. Majority of Gray Ware ceramics have very dark gray core and very less number have black core. In the external surface reddish brown is the common colour and other prominent 457    . light reddish brown. very dusky red. pale red. dark gray. dusky red. pink.129). light brownish gray. dark brown. light gray. the major colour of the internal slip is very dark gray followed by weak red and gray. pinkish gray. dark gray. light brownish gray. gray. The prominet colour on the external surface is reddish brown followed by light red. reddish brown. pink. light reddish brown.

19 2.19 0.68 2.19 0.128: Colour of Gray Ware Potsherds Based on Munsell Chart (Expressed in Percentage) 458    .24 Unslipp Very Reddis Reddis ed/Unk Dark h h Gray nown Gray Brown Weak Red 0.5 1 0.19 0.75 0.19 0.75 0.56 1.56 Internal 0.43 External Slip 0.93 0.56 0.37 1.37 0.12 0.5 2 1.75 Chart 4.36 0.61 0.19 Black Core 0.93 0.19 0.56 0.93 0.19 1.31 0.19 2.05 0.19 0.12 0.56 0.37 0.31 1.19 3.93 0.19 0.19 0.19 2.56 0.05 Internal Slip 0.5 3 2.93 0.56 0.37 0.5 0 Light Dark Dark Light Light Reddis Pale Dark Reddis Reddis Gray Browni Gray h Brown Gray h h Gray sh Gray Brown Brown Pale Red Pinkish Pink Gray External 0.75 0.19 0.19 1.Results 4 3.19 0.37 0.19 0.19 2.

19 0.31 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.75 0.37 2.12 0.37 6.5 3.02 0.19 1.72 7.19 0.48 0.19 0.75 0.37 0.56 0.19 0.19 0.43 0.19 0.99 0.19 0.19 0.19 2.19 0.19 0.19 0.43 0.87 Ligh Ligh t Unsl t Very Very Red Red Wea ippe Very Pink Red Yell Whi Dusk Pale dish Pale dish Red k dish owis d/Un Dark Pink ish Red te Red dish y Bro Yell Bro Red kno Gray Gray Gray h Red wn ow wn Bro Bro wn wn wn 0.37 8.31 11.19 5.56 0.17 0.9 Internal Slip 0.56 0.19 8.19 0.19 0.19 1.80 17.37 Internal Core 0.19 0.19 0.19 2.19 0.96 20.72 0.19 0.56 3.19 1.19 Chart 4.56 0.9 0.61 0.19 0.19 0.54 0.75 4.78 0.19 0.87 6.19 13.Results 25 20 15 10 5 0 Ligh Bro Dark t Dark Dusk Ligh Ligh wnis Red Red Bro Blac Dark Dark y Gray t t h dish wnis k Gray Red dish Red Gray Red Yell Bro Gray h ow wn Gray External 0.37 6.37 External Slip 0.19 0.37 0.129: Colour of Black and Red Ware Potsherds Based on Munsell Chart (Expressed in Percentage) 459    .37 0.37 2.3 0.28 2.19 1.34 0.37 1.37 0.

49 2.19 18.19 7.99 2.75 1.130: Colour of Red Ware Potsherds Based on Munsell Chart (Expressed in Percentage) 460    .87 0.1 External Slip Internal Slip 0.56 0.80 2.56 1.19 0.49 2.24 Internal 0.19 0.87 0.68 0.33 0.19 0.84 0.56 1.1 0.93 1.93 0.37 1.19 26.4 0.19 2.05 0.75 0.75 1.12 0.37 4.43 0.87 0.21 7.93 0.2 0.37 1.12 1.80 1.19 2.31 0.40 8.1 1.19 0.40 8.19 0.37 1.31 21.40 2.84 2.6 0.21 8.87 Core 0.37 9.22 0.49 19.37 0.56 1.19 8.37 0.31 0.85 0.37 0.56 0.1 Chart 4.31 20.43 5.37 33.19 8.99 0.99 0.37 2.49 2.93 1.56 0.19 1.37 0.37 11.80 5.56 1.Results 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Light Very Redd Unsli Redd Dark Grayi Light Redd Very Very Redd Pinki Dark Pale Wea ish pped/ ish Pale Dark Redd sh Brow Light Light Brow Dark Dusk ish Pink sh Red ish Brow Gray Black Red Gray ish n Brow k Red Yello Unkn Brow Brow nish Gray Red Brow Gray y Red Gray Gray n n w own n Gray n Gray n External 0.31 0.19 1.56 0.37 0.60 0.

28% and 22. uneven.95% of Black and Red Ware have even.Results colours are light red. 7.72%.56% of graffiti while Black and Red Ware has 0. abraded and calcium encrusted external surface. abraded and calcium encrusted surfaces. probably indicating hand making.61%. On the internal.65 % and 5. light reddish brown and pale red. While considering the elaborately analysed 536 sherds. All the wares show that the majority of the potsherds have uneven surfaces. The marks can be divided into geometric and non-geometric. abraded and calcium encrusted external surface respectively.20%.87%. Surface Condition The present condition of different sherds inferred from external and internal surface can be divided into four namely even. abraded and calcium encrusted internal surfaces were represented by 2.04% of Gray Ware have even. 60.70% and 35. 6. abraded and calcium encrusted (Charts 4. These 461    . Graffiti Graffiti is present on 0. beating and paddling or probable use of slow wheel/turn table.06%. 2. 47. 59. 12. Red Ware has 0.20%).131 and 4. rest were similar to the external.43%.132). But on the internal surface even.65% and 5. 32. At the same time. The prominent colours of the external and internal slip are weak red followed by pale red. 5. 25.01%. The prefiring and postfiring graffiti are present on body sherds and rim.22%. Prefiring graffiti on the rim of a Red Ware pot resembles a wavy line. uneven. uneven. The post firing graffities are deep scrathces in nature. But on the internal surface except those with calcium encrustations (22. abraded and calcium encrusted external surfaces.74% of sherds from the site. uneven. 47.41% of sherds.56%.18% of graffiti.01% of sherds have even. uneven.45% of sherds have even.04%. Majority of the ceramics have calcium/salt encrustation on both surfaces indicating the condition of the soil in which the artefacts are preserved. 7. 5. In the Red Ware 13. uneven.07% and 36.

72 6.43 0.19 0.00 Rim Rim Base Bowl Dish Neck and Body Rim Shoul der Pot Body Rim Base Pot/BasinBowl Pot Black and Red Even 0.19 1.63 23.75 0.00 10.41 10.22 6.00 0.19 0.56 1.93 2.56 1.97 22.75 1.00 5.19 4.73 1.56 3.75 2.131: External Surface Condition of the Potsherds (Expressed in Percentage) 462    .93 0.66 0.55 0.05 4.93 0.00 20.19 0.10 3.80 0.00 Uneven 1.31 0.00 0.43 7.39 Calcium Encrusted 0.75 0.93 0.49 0.93 14.37 0.43 0.19 3.60 1.41 5.68 0.05 2.73 8.10 12.37 0.68 0.69 5.00 0.75 0.93 1.12 0.97 2.12 0.Results 25.29 5.75 0.16 Abraded 0.80 14.92 11.68 0.37 3.24 0.01 5.92 2.13 0.19 0.75 0.75 Neck and Body Rim Shoul der Body Base Rim Rim Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray 1.37 0.93 Chart 4.19 5.56 1.00 15.49 0.87 2.19 Base Neck and Body Rim Shoul der Pot Body Pot/Basin Red 0.77 3.19 0.84 0.19 4.87 0.75 1.37 2.36 5.56 4.31 2.

75 1.13 Calcium Encrusted 0.18 0.93 2.00 15.33 3.19 0.93 0.93 0.34 Chart 4.56 0.05 1.00 Neck Neck Neck and and and Rim Rim Base Body Rim Body Rim Base Body Rim Body Base Rim Rim Base Body Rim Body Shoul Shoul Shoul der der der Bowl Dish Pot Black and Red Pot/BasinBowl Pot Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray Pot Pot/Basin Red Even 0.61 0.68 14.05 0.97 2.31 0.48 3.93 0.68 0.37 3.93 3.56 0.01 5.19 5.31 1.41 10.29 5.93 0.Results 25.17 9.68 8.10 12.19 4.37 0.19 0.43 0.56 1.49 0.39 Abraded 0.73 5.12 0.22 7.80 0.19 0.93 0.00 0.56 1.75 2.73 11.75 2.19 0.93 2.00 10.80 14.36 1.37 0.37 0.93 0.56 4.43 0.37 3.78 22.85 0.00 20.19 0.68 4.41 2.36 1.75 0.00 4.69 5.56 1.28 6.63 23.75 2.05 2.75 Uneven 0.49 0.75 0.56 1.19 0.19 0.00 5.87 0.21 0.37 1.19 0.41 5.00 0.132: Internal Surface Condition of the Potsherds (Expressed in Percentage) 463    .

19 5.56 4.37 1.19 5.93 0.19 0.41 5.93 1.43 0.93 0.80 14.10 12.93 0.80 Internal Scratches 0.75 0.19 0.93 2.41 5.05 0.00 15.13 0.Results 25.56 0.37 2.19 0.97 2.05 2.41 10.80 14.93 0.19 External Soot Mark/Smoke Clouding 5.05 Neck and Rim Should er Pot Black and Red External Scratches Body Body Base Rim Rim Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray 2.12 4.133: Different Marks on the Ceramics (Expressed in Percentage) 464    .93 0.80 14.93 2.10 12.19 0.12 0.63 23.43 0.43 0.75 2.97 2.00 20.19 Base Body Neck and Rim Should er Pot Body Pot/Basin Red 0.37 0.00 0.69 5.93 0.75 0.19 0.43 0.75 2.37 1.37 1.93 0.56 2.75 0.93 0.05 2.75 0.19 0.19 0.80 Internal Soot Mark/Smoke Clouding 0.97 0.75 0.00 5.41 5.13 0.19 0.75 2.93 0.12 0.69 5.93 0.63 23.41 10.31 Chart 4.19 0.00 Rim Rim Bowl Dish Base Body Neck and Rim Should er Pot Body Rim Base Pot/BasinBowl 0.00 10.75 2.

37 0.75 0.93 0.75 2.68 2.93 0.93 0.05 14.92 11.75 Neck and Rim Body Base Body Shoul der 2.19 0.26 22.75 5.04 10.04 1.37 5.24 0.93 2.95 Chart 4.37 0.61 0.Results 25 20 15 10 5 0 Rim Rim Neck and Rim Body Rim Base Body Shoul der Bowl Dish Pot Neck and Rim Body Base Base Body Shoul der Pot/BasinBowl Pot Black and Red Smooth Irregular 0.19 0.56 0.93 0.19 3.134: Features of the Fracture of Potsherds (Expressed in Percentage) 465    .37 0.55 0.37 0.04 5.05 Pot Pot/Basin Red 0.37 0.19 0.19 Rim Rim Pot/BasinBasin Bowl Dish Gray 0.19 0.

The irregular breakages of the sherds also indicate the inadequate firing condition prevailed in the kiln or deficiencies in the clay paste preparation. 0.24% of sherds of Black and Red Ware.45% of vessels and 38. Gray Ware has soot mark/smoke clouding on 3.78% of sherds have smooth breakage.12% and internal surface have 32. The possiblity of occurence of these scratches due to natural transformations cannot be ruled out as well.133).Results calcium/salt in the soil may have also led to the disintegration of the ceramics at the site. Red Ware vessels also show controlled heating by the potter to attain oxidized surfaces.56% and 2. 466    .98%.36% on both the surfaces and Red Ware has soot mark/smoke clouding on 5.38%. 7.29%. 94.22% of sherds have rough breakage and only 5.134). These scratches may have occured due to the day to day use of the vessels. 2. All the ceramics from the site have some small scratches on both the surfaces (Chart 4.99% on the internal surface of vessels (Chart 4. The high concentration of smoke clouding/soot mark in Black and Red Ware may be the result of deliberate attempt and it shows controlled heating by the potter for attaining deoxidized surface. Marks on Ceramics Smoke clouding is present on the external surface of 10. Among the total analysed sherds. Black and Red Ware sherds have maximum amount of soot mark/smoke clouding. Fracture The fracture of the ceramics from the site can be divided into two broad groups i. smooth and irregular (Chart 4.09% and 57.97% on external surface and 3.e. Among the 536 sherds analysed.e. external surface have 1. i. There are smoke clouding in more than half of the vessels of Gray Ware and the same is very less in Red Ware.133). Gray Ware and Red Ware have irregular breakages.84% of Black and Red Ware. Gray Ware and Red Ware have smooth breakage while 29.36% on internal surface.

49 2.17 0.19 0.37 0.00 Base Body Neck and Shoulder Pot Body Base Pot/Basin Body Pot Black and Red Big Sand Particles 0.Results 3.37 0.19 0.37 0.19 0.19 0.50 1.19 0.37 Chart 4.50 3.37 Rim Pot Gray 1.19 White Particles 0.37 2.43 0.24 3.56 0.56 0.00 0.00 1.87 Neck and Shoulder Body Pot/Basin Red 0.135: Presence of Inclusions and Impurities in Potsherds (Expressed in Percentage) 467    .50 2.75 0.37 0.75 2.19 Impurity Imprints 0.19 Rim Body Base Pot/Basin Basin Base Body 0.56 0.50 0.93 2.93 1.24 0.00 2.43 0.37 0.

50 1.136: Other features of the Potsherds (Expressed in Percentage) 468    .12 Rim Pot Grey 1.19 0.37 0.00 0.19 0.00 1.19 0.36 2.19 0.00 Rim Base Bowl Body Pot Body Base Pot/Basin Cracks on Surface Pottery Disc/Reworked Sherd 0.50 2.00 2.49 0.12 3.19 0.19 Chart 4.56 1.19 0.12 Neck and Body Shoulde r Body Pot/Basin Red 0.19 Rim Pot Black and Red Pores in Core Body Base Rim Basin Bowl Base 0.50 3.56 1.19 1.93 0.56 0.05 0.Results 4.19 0.50 0.00 3.

19% are of Black and Red Ware. The probabilities of the presence of sand. Other Features Among the 536 sherds. Cracks are also present in 1. Among the total assemblage. 4. shell and mica in the clay cannot be ruled out as well. had big sand particles. 4. probably showing its disintegration due to less amount of clay in it. 12. Other Artefacts The excavations at Datrana has not revealed any structural remains but the site is remarkable for the presence of large amount stone blades.135). Among this 0.82% had white particles and 0.51. 10. This perforation may be a design or indicating the reuse of the fragment as a pendent or riveting of the broken bangle. All the potsherds also showed the presence of mica in it. tools of copper. Ornaments Four shell bangle fragments are recovered from the site and one of them has a perforation near to the breakage.136). 25% had varieties of sand inclusions in it. The sand and white particles present in the sherds may be included deliberately.56% of sherds are reworked and probably used as pottery discs (Chart 4. The impurity imprints may be indicating the drawbacks in clay refining techniques or it may be the result of deliberate addition.93% had impurity imprints (Chart 4. Various other artefacts recovered from the Chalcolithic levels of Datrana include ornaments of shell and stone.62%. Of these 13. 0. household objects like grinding stones and hammer stones and organic objects like shells and fish otoliths.38% are of Red Ware and 0. manufacturing wastes and animal bones (fig.Results Inclusions and Impurities All the analysed ceramics from the site showed the presence of small sand particles. In the total collection.52.53). bone and stone.87% of sherds from site.69% have pores in its core and it is due to the loss of grains. The 469    . 4.

The chalcedony and carnelian drill-bits (fig. carnelian and shells including dentalium (?) were also unearthed and some of them were broken (fig. Eleven Rohri chert blade fragments recovered from the upper levels of the Chalcolithic habitation can be associated with the Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type ceramic using community. Stone tools made from locally available chert.) and agate hammer stone (1 no. 4. Bead roughouts of agate. chalcedony. The presence of grinding stones indicate the existence of food grain processing at the site. Large quantities of crested ridge blades. The beads were drilled from both the surfaces and the perforations and surfaces of majority of them are not polished.55) collected from the site can be divided into two types i.54). 4. carnelian.Results minimal amount of shell debitage collected from the site indicate very small scale production of shell objects at the site. Tools Three copper objects were recovered from the site and they include a complete bronze punch point. a corroded broken punch point (fig. chert and chalcedony were also collected from the site. The Mesolithic level at the site also yielded similar kind of grinding stones.) were also unearthed from the Chalcolithic levels of the site.56) and fragment of a knife blade. backed and 470    . agate and carnelian were collected from the site. The battering marks present on the hammer stone may be indicating the use of the same for household activities or in the context of stone tool production. The site also yielded five bone points and the probable use of the same for blade production cannot be ruled out. cylindrical and foliated. The unique punch points are appears to be used by the Chalcolithic stone knappers to produce the crested ridge blades. The site appears to be one of the major stone tool manufacturing settlements of the Pre Urban Harappan times. Finished disc and tubular beads of amazonite.e. Household Objects The house hold objects like sandstone grinding stones (7 nos. Rohri chert. jasper. 4. The disc beads appears to be made from platform rejuvenation pieces.

Due to this reason it is very difficult to differentiate some sherds into specific categories like pot or basin. core trimming flakes. pots and pots/basins. bowls.e. The study showed complete absence of miniature and big vessels. triangles. lunates. dishes. truncated blades. fluted cores. crested ridge cores. points. pen knife blades. trapezes. It is the only Chalcolithic ceramic type in Gujarat which lacks painted decorations. Red Ware. utilized flakes. burins. The analysis showed the presence of three types of ceramic wares at the site i. blade blanks. Observations This section of the thesis deals with the analysis of all Pre-Prabhas ceramics and other artefacts collected from Chalcolithic levels of two trenches through the excavations at Datrana IV in 1993-94 and 1994-95. The decorations are limited only to the external surface and they are incised or impressed in nature. sheep/goat. The Gray Ware sherds in the site are more closer to the Black and Red Ware and probably due the lacunas in the manufacturing techniques turned into Gray Ware instead of Black and Red Ware. side and end scrapers. antlers and teeth were collected and they are of the animals like cattle.Results blunted blades. ribbon blades. borers. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware and shapes identified in the same are basins. Organic Remains Some charred and uncharred otoliths or earstones (hard calcium concentration formed within the inner ear of bony fish which varies according to the species and size of fish) (Ajithprasad 2004) and fish vertebrae were collected from the site. lithic debitage and nodules collected from the site bears testimony to the same. The vessels are hand made and many of them are slipped and burnished on both the surfaces. antelope and pig (IAR 1993-94). Large quantity of split animal bones. 471    . The noteworthy feature of the ceramics are the complete absence of painted designs on them. Majority of the ceramics are highly weathered and easily breaks into small fragments. retouched blades. Broad corrugation was present on many of the vessels in all wares and few of the vessels have carinations also.

Due to the absence of structures and flimsy deposit. The introduction of crested ridge blade technique may be the result of their relations with the Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region. They exploited meat of both wild and domesticated animals and fish. broken tools and cores. many scholars consider the site as the seasonal habitation/camp site of the pastoral nomads (Bhan 1994). Figure 4. The stone bead production was also in existence at the site. The inhabitants of the site probably modified animal bones and used some of them as tools for different purposes.Results At the site. They were aware about the concept of beautification as indicated by the shell bangles and beads. the Pre-Prabhas ceramics are found along with Anarta ceramics. The settlers of the site produced large amount of stone tools and it is indicated by the wastes.39 : General View of Archaeological Mound at Prabhas Patan/Somnath (Courtesy: Ajithprasad) 472    . But the evidences suggests large scale stone tool production at the site and an economy not entirely dependant on pastoral activities. The availability of copper from the site indicates the use of copper tools. The grinding stones and palette stones from the site show the food processing practices of the inhabitants. PreUrban Harappan Sindh Type pottery and Rohri chert blades and it indicates the cultural contacts between various regional Chalcolithic traditions and Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region.

40 : Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Prabhas Patan/Somnath (Adapted: Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) Figure 4.41 : Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Prabhas Patan/Somnath (Adapted: Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992) 473    .Results Figure 4.

43 : Features of Artefact Concentration at Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.42 : General View of Archaeological Mound at Datrana IV (Courtesy: Ajithprasad) Figure 4.Results Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 474    .

45 : Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.Results Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 475    .44 : Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Datrana IV (Adapted: Ajithprasad 2002) Figure 4.

Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 476    .47 : Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.46: Pre Prabhas Ceramics from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.Results Figure 4.

Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.48 : Incised and Corrugated Ceramics from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.Results Figure 4.49 : Incised Ceramics from Bagor (Courtesy: Shinde et al. 2004) 477    .

50 : Incised Ceramics from Bagor (Courtesy: Shinde et al.Results Figure 4. 2004) Figure 4.51 : Stone Artefacts from Datrana IV (Adapted: IAR 1993-94) 478    .

53 : Chalcedony Blades from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.52 : Stone Artefacts (Cores) from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.Results Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 479    .

Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Figure 4.56 : Copper Punch Point from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 480    .55 : Carnelian Beads. Bead Roughouts and Drills from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.Results Figure 4.54 : Carnelian Beads and Bead Roughouts from Datrana IV (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.

emphasized on Micaceous Red Ware and analysed the materials using both petrological and conventional methods. Therefore. distinct from its associated wares. no one attempted to carry out a detailed typological analysis of these ceramics. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware at the site which showed affinities to the pottery from Rangpur IIA-IIB. 1999) and Herman and Krishnan (1994). 4. a detailed macroscopic analysis of the entire Micaceous Red Ware and sketchy analysis of the whole ceramics from the site was conducted to understand different features of the ceramics from Vagad. Krishnan and Hegde (1988). She (1994) also mentions about the presence of 117 Micaceous Red Ware sherds (98 diagnostic and 19 undiagnostic sherds) in the collection. Sonawane and Mehta (1985) identified the presence of Harappan Red Ware. The Maharaja Sayajirao 481    . Lothal B. especially the regional Chalcolithic tradition (more details in appendices 7 and 8). Archaeological Context and Wares Total number of pottery from Vagad now available in the collection of the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. total number of excavated ceramics from Vagad is 1188 nos. Though all the above mentioned studies showed light on different aspects of Micaceous Red Ware. Petrological studies of various Wares from Vagad by Herman and Krishnan (1994) proved a technological identity for Micaceous Red Ware. Rojdi IA-B and Surkotada IC. including 1121 diagnostic and 67 undiagnostic sherds (Table 4. Buff Ware. except Sonawane and Mehta (1985). Chocolate Slipped Ware.59). All these studies. Micaceous Red Ware (4. Dimri (1994.58) in various degrees were carried out by Sonawane and Mehta (1985).24).Results MICACEOUS RED WARE FROM VAGAD Studies on the ceramics from Vagad (figs. Krishnan (1986). Thus Micaceous Red Ware contributed 9. an exception being Dimri (1994) where the site Vagad is studied as one unit of analysis.57 and 4. According to Dimri (1994).85% in the total collection from Vagad.

pit.71 25. 263 (25. 37 (3.24: Excavated Ceramics from Vagad (Courtesy Dimri 1994: 28) Ceramic Types Diagnostic Un-diagnostic Total Number of Sherds sherds Sherds Red Ware 781 28 809 Micaceous Red Ware 98 19 117 Buff Ware 61 20 81 131 0 131 Coarse Red Ware 21 0 21 Coarse Gray Ware 29 0 29 1121 67 1188 Coarse Black and Red Ware Total University of Baroda. is 1045.44 3.Results Table 4.54%).71%).14%) were obtained from pits and surface (Chart 4.73%). 245 (23.88 Chart 4.53%) and 51 (4. 342 (32. 91(8. Out of the 117 Micaceous Red Ware sherds only 14 are available.54%) sherds belong to Period IB and 593 (57.53 4. 3.137). 4.88%) were acquired respectively from layers 1.137: Layer wise Distribution of Ceramics from Vagad 482    . 16 (1. No sherds were reported from Period IA.32%) sherds are from Period IC. 2. Out of the 1045 sherds.44%). 409 (39. pit 3 and surface.17 23. Among the 1045 sherds. 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage of Sherds Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 8.17%). 37 (3.54 Pit Pit 3 Surface 32.73 1.

29 0.29 Chart 4.00 30.1 0.19 0.19 0.97 Gray 0.00 15.46% (799no) of the total ceramics.139: Layer wise Distribution of Various Ceramics Wares from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 483    .138). pits and surface include Black and Red Ware.21 2.29% (118 no) of ceramics from the site were of Buff Ware.00 20.38 Buff 1. 11.00 Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Pit Pit 3 Surface Red 4. Micaceous Red Ware and Red Ware.34% (14 no) of total collection and Gray Ware symbolized 1.8 1.19 0.06 28. Micaceous Red Ware denoted 1.46 Percentage of Sherds Chart 4.139).76 11.58 4.19 0.38 2.15 1.00 25.19 Micaceous Red 0.29 1.2 0. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Black and Red Buff Gray Micaceous Red Red 9.00 5.Results Various ceramics attained from different layers.15% (12 no) of ceramics (Chart 4.76% (102 no) of ceramics from the site were characterized by Black and Red Ware.10 0.38 0.51 17.24 3.92 Black and Red 2.48 0.29 0.24 3. Distribution of these ceramics varied in different layers and pits (Chart 4. Red Ware is the predominant category and represented 76. Buff Ware.48 0.97 0. Gray Ware.34 76.1 0.138: Various Ceramics Wares from Vagad   35.00 10.16 2.31 17.00 0.61 3. 9.

Ribbed lines or 484    .96 0. shoulder. Some of the vessels have burnished surface.68 Gray 0.83 Stem Handle 2.10 0. 3 complete jars.67 9.11 0. body. 1 complete pot stand.13 2. basin/frying pan. perforated jar and pot (Chart 4.29 0. lid.10 Micaceous Red 0.00 10. Colour of the slip of these vessels varied from red.29 0.10 Red 60.38 0.140: Vessel Parts of Various Wares from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) Red Ware is the predominant category at the site and various shapes of this ceramic group include basin.10 0. dish.10 3. bottle.19 Chart 1. dish on stand. The texture of these ceramics varied from fine to medium and coarse.141). Five of the sherds are deformed and it might have happened during firing. 2 shoulders. goblet.96 0.00 60. rim. Few of the vessels were painted using black. Graffiti and incisions are present in some vessels.00 30. 2 complete pots. chocolate and red colour. 70. 42 bases. In the almost complete bowl stud handle is broken.00 50. 1 almost complete bowl.00 40. There is great variation in the quantity of different wares and vessel parts (Chart 4. jar. 134 body parts.140).29 0. stem and handle. base.00 Black and Red Rim Body Shoulder 9.10 Base Complete Buff 8.19 0.00 20.00 0. This is an indirect indication for the production of ceramics within the site. 22 stems and 1 handle.Results Total ceramics from the site comprised of 837 rim sherds. lamp. bowl.47 0. Vessel parts of this ware in the collection include complete jar and pot. buff and chocolate.

141: Red Ware Sherds and Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 485    .38 1.00 35.50 Complete Stem Handle 1.00 15.00 Basin Bottle Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Goblet Jar Lamp Lid Perforate d Jar Pot 0.13 0.13 30.50 0.88 0.13 Shoulder 0.Results 40.25 3.75 0.25 0.25 0.13 0.13 8.00 5.00 0.13 2.00 25.00 10.13 0.13 Base 0.00 4.00 20.13 Body 0.13 0.13 Chart 4.29 5.00 30.13 0.80 0.89 Perforate Pottery d Pottery Disc Disc Red Rim 1.25 0.13 36.38 1.

00 10.00 Bowl Dish Dish on Stand Jar Pot Pot Stand Pottery Disc Perforat ed Pottery Disc 10.98 6.142: Buff Ware Sherds from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 486    .00 35.85 38. toy cart wheels or gaming pieces.85 0. Fourteen reworked body sherds/pottery discs are also there in the collection. Ribbed line or corrugation is present in one vessel. Colour of the slip of these vessels varied from buff.Results corrugations are also present in some vessels. dish. jar pot and pot stand (Chart 4.42 3. Incisions are present in four vessels.00 25. dish on stand.24 0.93 Buff Rim Body Base Complete 25. Few of the vessels were painted using chocolate.00 0. The texture of these ceramics varied from fine to medium and coarse. majority of them were of pots. Among them. 45.78 1. Buff Ware.85 0.85 Chart 4. red and chocolate. 2 have perforations and they were probably used as spindle whorls. Among the 118 sherds and vessels. Among them seven have perforations and they were probably used as spindle whorls or toy cart wheels.17 5.69 0.00 5.00 20.39 4. next dominant category at the site is also available in shapes like bowl. black and red colour. Nineteen reworked body sherds/pottery discs are also there in the collection.00 40.00 15.00 30.142).

98 Shoulder 0. Black and Red Ware consists of the shapes like bowl. One sherd each of this category is painted with black and red colour respectively and internal surface of three bowls were painted with white colour. All the sherds in this category are coarse in nature.00 70. These vessels are also coarse in nature.   100.00 10.00 30. followed by bowl and dish (Chart 4.00 0. Two colours 487    .98 91. dish and pot.14%).98 1. Twenty seven sherds of pots in this group have ribs or corrugation and five sherds have incisions on them.143).00 80.00 90.92 0.00 50. Pot is the dominant category (93.00 Bowl Dish Pot Pottery Disc Black and Red Rim 3.144).96 Chart 4.Results Next category.00 60.18 Body 0. Two reworked sherds/pottery discs were also noticed in this ware and they were probably made from the broken sherds of pots. Colour of its slip is red and all the vessels are burnished. 1 is of complete jar and 7 represents pots (Chart 4.00 40.00 20.143: Black and Red Ware Sherds from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) Gray Ware vessels were very less in number at the site. Among the twelve sherds and vessels in the collection 2 each are of bowl and dish.

4 were of bowl without handle (convex sided with simple rim).33 8.00 10.00 Bowl Dish Jar Pot Gray Rim 16. 488    .00 Body Complete 8.148). All these ceramics were obtained from layers 1.67 16. 1 of dish (beaded rim). 60. Two sherds of pots have ribs or corrugation and one sherd have incised decoration. F and Surface and maximum number of sherds are recovered from trench A (Chart 4.146). Among the 14 sherds.00 50.Results of slips are noticed in this vessel group that is Gray and red and surface of five sherds are burnished.67 50.33 Chart 4. C.00 40.00 20. 3. None of the sherds in the collection are painted. 4 of pot (1 flaring feature less and 3 unknown) 5 of stud handle bowl (convex sided with simple rim) (Chart 4. pit and surface and its main concentration is in layer 3 and followed by pit in trench F (Chart 4.00 30.144: Gray Ware Sherds from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) Micaceous Red Ware represents the second smallest group of ceramics at Vagad.147 and 4.00 0. The entire collection of Micaceous Red Ware from Vagad is from trenches A. One stud handled bowl is almost complete with broken handle. 2.145).

14 7.14 7.00 14.00 10.145: Micaceous Red Ware Sherds from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 16.14 7.14 7.14 28.14 7.14 f1 Trench F 7.00 10.Results 30.00 20.00 5.14 Body 7.00 6.14 Chart 4.00 Bowl Dish Pot Stud Handled Bowl 7.43 Complete 7.14 Chart 4.00 12.00 0.00 0.00 a1 a2 a3 Trench A Rim 7.00 8.00 25.14 c1 Trench C 7.57 7.146: Trench and Sub-square wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware (Expressed in Percentage) 489    .00 2.14 Body 21.14 Complete f2 Surface 7.29 7.14 Rim with Stud 7.00 4.14 14.00 15.57 Micaceous Red Rim 28.

14 7.00 0.14 14.14 7.14 14.43 7.14 7.00 2.14 21.00 6.00 4.00 8.14 7.14 Chart 4.00 Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Trench A Rim 7.29 Body Layer 2 Pit Trench C Trench F Surface 7.14 14.29 Dish 7.14 Chart 4.14 7.00 10.00 14.147: Layer wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware Vessel Parts at Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Trench A 14.00 12.14 7.29 7.29 Bowl 14.148: Layer wise Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware Vessel Shapes at Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 490    .29 Rim with Stud 7.Results 16.29 Complete 7.14 Pit Trench C Trench F Pot Stud Handled Bowl Layer 2 Surface 14.

99 15.14 7.00 14.29 7.14 14.00 0.14 14.00 4.00 12.Results Size of Potsherds Maximum size of the sherds varied from 4 cm to 16 cm and minimum size ranged from 3 to 12 cm (Chart 4.149: Size Ratio of the Micaceous Red Ware Sherds from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) Diameter of Vessels Diameter of the vessels varied from 8 to 30 cm and diameter of 3 sherds are unknown as they are undiagnostic sherds (Chart 4.99 5-5. Both simple bowl and stud handled bowls are standardized ceramics with diameter difference of 1 cm in each category.00 6.14 14. Diameter of the rim of the pot is 8 cm and it can be classified under the category of small pots. Diameter of the simple bowls varied from 13 to 14 cm and they can be categorized under medium bowls.00 2.14 7.00 4-4.99 7-7. Diameter of the rim of the dish is 30 cm and it can be grouped under large dishes.99 6-6.150).29 14.99 9-9.99 7.29 7. 491    . As the sherds were of big size it was easy to identify their shapes without any speculation or doubt.00 8.14 Chart 4.149).99 14. 16.29 1012141510.99 8-8.99 12. Breakage of the sherds into big size might be an indication of the quality of the ceramics that is its raw materials and manufacturing techniques.99 Maximun Size 7.00 10. Diameter of stud handled bowls varied from 14 to 15 cm and they can also consider as medium bowls.

The round bottomed vessels might be the result of slow wheel and beating/paddling.57 7. The possibilities of multiple techniques of production can also be postulated from the evidences. All the 492    .00 25. While looking at the ceramics it is very difficult to predict the making technique.14 Chart 4.14 14 cm 15 cm Stud Handled Bowl 28. In case of the stud handled bowl. Surface Treatment.00 20.00 5. None of the vessels retain regular striation marks indicative of wheel making.43 13 cm 14 cm 30 cm Bowl Bowl Dish 7. the bowl and stud were made separately and luted by pinching and drawing of the clay.14% of the simple bowls have blunt carination and rest of them are devoid of carination.150: Diameter of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad Manufacturing Technique and Indicators.14 21. Surface Feel and Surface Condition Making technique of the ceramics from Vagad can’t be pin pointed and the vessels might have made by hand/slow wheel or multiple techniques.43 7. The possibilities of the use of fast wheel also cannot be ruled out as well.00 10.00 8 cm Unkno wn Pot Percentage of Sherds 7.00 0.00 15.Results 30. Both the surfaces of all vessels have thick slip and well burnished. Among the sherds. Texture of all sherds was fine and sand particles were very less with one of the sherds having 1 or 2 sand particles of medium texture.14 21. The evidences for the use of moulds are also absent. 7. All the vessels from the site showed probable marks of beating/paddling and very irregular and faint striations in some parts of external and internal surfaces. Texture.

57 28.14 Stud Handled Bowl 7.151: Surface Condition of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) Type of Decoration.57 28.Results vessels have smooth feel in both external and internal surfaces. non-geometric designs like slanting lines.29 28. body.57 35. squares. The decorations present on the vessels include geometric designs like horizontal bands.57 28.153). These decorations are present on rim. shoulder.57 28.14 7.151). Some paintings in all the vessels are abraded/eroded and faded probably due to long term exposure to nature.57 14.14 7. vertical strokes and mesh/fish net decorations and designs of nature like intersecting wavy lines (Chart 4.14 7.57 28. 50% of bowls have paintings on external and internal surface and 50% of vessels have paintings only on external surface (Chart 4.71 28.57% of vessels (Chart 4. 493    .57 28. base and stud of the vessels in various degrees (Chart 4.71 28.29 28.152). 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Salt Salt Even Uneven Eroded Encrust Even Uneven Eroded Encrust ed ed External Internal Pot 28. External and internal surfaces of one stud handled bowl are even and rest of the vessel are uneven.57 28. some portions of both the surfaces are eroded and some amount of salt encrustation is present on 78.57 7.14 7.154).14 Dish 7.14 7. brim. Decorative Pattern and Position of Decoration All the vessels have decorative paintings on them.57 14.57 Bowl 28.14 Chart 4.57 28.57 35. In all sherds. parallelograms.

14 7.153: Type of Design in Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 494    .Results 40.14 21.00 0.00 35.00 10.00 35.14 7.00 15.00 5.152: Presence of Decoration in Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 40.57 Bowl 21.71 Dish 7.71 7.14 Chart 4.00 Only External External and Internal Decorative Painting Pot 28.43 7.00 30.00 25.00 30.00 Geometric NonGeometric Nature External Painting Pot 28.00 0.14 Chart 4.43 35.14 Geometric Nature Internal Painting 7.00 10.00 5.71 Dish 7.57 Stud Handled Bowl 35.14 Stud Handled Bowl 35.57 Bowl 28.00 15.00 20.14 7.00 20.00 25.

light red and gray (Chart 4.71 Dish 7.00 25. weak red.00 30.57 7.14 7. Core colours of the sherds are pale red.14 Stud Handle Bowl 35.00 20.00 5. external and internal slip and external and internal painting were recorded.156). 495    .14 7.155).14 Base 28. reddish gray and gray (Chart 4. light reddish brown. External surface colour of the vessels were variants of red that is weak red. Colours of the external paintings were dark reddish gray and very dark gray (Chart 4.00 15.14 7. light red.Results 40.00 35. All sherds showed variants of red colour and some showed occurrence of Gray colour also.43 7.57 35. reddish gray and gray were the colours of internal slip (Chart 4.158). pale red.14 Bowl 28.00 10.57 7. pale red. weak red.14 Chart 4.14 7. These colour variations might be due to the changes in firing condition or use of the raw material from different sources. two edges of the core (external and internal surface).157).159). Colour of the internal surface of vessels is weak red.00 Rim Shoul Body Brim Stud der Rim Body Brim Stud Pot 21.00 0. pale red and light reddish brown are the various external slip colours (Chart 4. Red.71 28. weak red. pale red and light red (Chart 4.154: Position of Design in Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) Colour of Ceramics Colour of core. Red.160).

155: External Surface Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 R 5/3 Weak Red 10 R 5/3 Weak Red 10 R 5/4 Weak Red 10 R 6/2 Pale Red 10 R 6/3 Pale Red 10 R 6/6 Light Red 2.14 Chart 4.14 7.14 7.57 7.14 7.14 7. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 R 5/3 10 R 5/4 10 R 6/2 Weak Red Weak Red Pale Red 10 R 6/3 Pale Red 10 R 6/4 10 R 6/6 Pale Red Light Red External Surface Pot 7.57 7.14 7.161).14 Chart 4.14 Dish 7.14 Internal Surface Pot Bowl Stud Handled Bowl 7.Results Internal paintings were of very dark gray and 50% of them were devoid of paintings (Chart 4.43 7.14 Dish 7.14 21.14 Bowl 21.14 28.43 Stud Handled Bowl 28.5 YR 5/0 Gray 5 YR 5/1 Gray 7.156: Internal Surface Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 496    .14 7.

29 7.14 Chart 4.00 25.00 20.14 Bowl Stud Handled Bowl 7.00 5.14 14.00 5 YR 5/1 Gray 2.158: External Slip Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 497    .Results 30.14 7.29 7.14 14.14 Dish 7.00 5.5 YR 5/0 Gray 10 R 6/3 10 R 5/3 10 R 6/2 10 R 5/1 10 R 6/6 Pale Weak Pale Reddish Light Red Red Red Gray Red Core Pot 7.43 Stud Handled Bowl 28.43 7.14 21.00 15.157: Core Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 25.00 10.14 Dish 7.14 Bowl 21.00 2.57 7.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 0.14 14.14 Chart 4.14 7.5 YR 10 R 5/6 Light Pale Pale Weak Weak 5/6 Red Red Reddish Red Red Red Red Brown External Slip Pot 7.00 15.29 7.5 YR 6/4 10 R 6/3 10 R 6/4 10 R 5/3 10 R 5/4 2.

43 7.00 0.00 20.00 10.00 25.00 10 R 3/1 Dark Reddish Gray 2.00 15.14 Chart 4.57 Stud Handled Bowl 35.14 Stud Handled Bowl 7.14 21.Results 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 R 10 R 5/3 5/4 Weak Weak Red Red 10 R 10 R 10 R 6/1 6/3 5/6 Reddis Pale Red h Gray Red 2.29 7.5 YR 6/4 10 R 5 YR 2.14 Bowl 28.00 5.43 Dish 7.5 YR 3/0 Very Dark Gray External Paint Pot 21.14 14.14 7.14 7.5 YR Light 6/4 6/1 5/6 Reddis Pale Gray Red h Red Brown Internal Slip Pot 7.71 Dish 7.00 35.14 7.14 7.159: Internal Slip Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 40.14 Bowl 7.160: External Paint Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 498    .14 Chart 4.00 30.

14 21.00 5.162: Condition of the Core of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 499    . Deoxidized cores are only present in the category of pots. The reason for the deoxidized core might be the lacuna in firing condition.162).57 Bowl 7.Results 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2.14 28.00 30.00 25.14 Stud Handled Bowl 35.161: Internal Paint Colour of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expessed in Percentage) Condition of Core Both oxidized and deoxidized cores are present in the Micaceous Red Ware ceramics from Vagad (Chart 4.5 YR 3/0 Very Dark Gray Absent Internal Paint Pot 28. The contents in the raw material can be another reason.00 Pot Bowl Stud Handled Bowl Dish Oxidized 7.00 20.14 Deoxidized 21.00 10.00 35.71 7.00 0.43 Chart 4.00 15. 40.57 35.71 Dish 7.43 Chart 4.

some of them were smooth and others were irregular (Chart 4. 500    .29 21. This might be indicative of the firing condition prevailed in the kiln. All the sherds of pots have irregular breakages. The possibilities of the occurrence of scratches during excavation and the following procedures also can’t be ruled out.57 Bowl 21. contents in the raw material and exposure to natural agents.164).14 Stud Handled Bowl 14.Results Fracture The nature of the breakages of sherds varied.164). Smoke clouding occurs during cooking. Irregular breakages might be the result of limitations in making technique. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Smooth Irregular Fracture/Breakage Pot 28. The smooth breakage can be considered as an indicator of good firing technique.163: Fracture/Breakage of Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) Marks on Ceramics Soot mark/smoke clouding or kiss mark is present in some sherds from the site (Chart 4.43 7. These scratches might be the result of the use of the vessels for various purposes or cleaning.14 Chart 4.43 Dish 7. They might also occur after the breakage of the vessels as they were exposed to cultural and natural transformations for a long time.163). There are number of scratch marks on all sherds from the site (Chart 4.

Indian gazelle.Results 40.57 28. nilgai.00 5.14 7. black buck.57% stud handled bowls) of sherds from Vagad.57 28.14 Chart 4. Faunal Remains Detailed analysis of the animal remains from Vagad is not carried out. mole rat and various shells (Sonawane and Mehta 1985).00 10. Mica pieces are small in size and are sparsely distributed in all parts of the sherds.164: Various Marks on Micaceous Red Ware Vessels from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) Inclusions and Impurities Particles of mica are visible in all the sherds from the site.00 30.00 25. dog. spotted deer.57 7.71 35. They might be the particles of crushed shell or some other organic inclusions. sambar. buffalo.14 Dish Scratch Mark Internal 28.14 Bowl Stud Handled Bowl 7.14 28. wild pig. sheep.00 20. Most of the 501    .00 15.43% pots and 28.57 35. Herman and Krishnan (1994) observed the absence of vegetable inclusions in the analysed samples from Vagad.71 7. Some white particles were observed in 50% (21.00 35.00 Soot/Smoke Mark Scratch Mark Soot/Smoke Mark External Pot 7. goat. Various bones of animals identified from all trenches of the site include those of cow. Small sand particles are also visible in all sherds.00 0.

Faience Nine tubular faience beads were unearthed from Vagad (Chart 4. These might be the indication of very small scale copper melting at the site. 7 beads belong to phase IC and rest of the 2 are from phase IB. flora and fauna. Bangles with chevron motifs were exclusively made out of Turbinella pyrum. The presence of these shell objects in the site doesn’t mean that it was a manufacturing centre. The site also did not yield any evidence for the production of faience objects. Other Artefacts Apart from the ceramics. one each are from trench A and B and both of them belong to phase IC of the site. artifacts of shell.) recovered from the site includes beads and bangles. Among them 2 are from trench A. Copper Objects Very little copper objects were unearthed from the site and their shapes are unidentifiable due to its fragmentary nature. All these seeds correspond to the structural phase IC of the site. 1 from trench B.166). faience. Among the three seeds 1 is from trench A and 2 are from trench F. 502    . One caurie shell also recovered from the site (Chart 4. metal. stone and terracotta were unearthed from the site. 4 from trench C and 2 belong to trench F. The shell objects (26 nos. Two slag/vitrified objects and one crucible fragment were also unearthed from the site. The inhabitants or local merchants might have brought the same from other sites or produced by the moving craftsmen or produced as a part time activity by some inhabitants in the site for their own use.Results bones from the site bear chopping/cut marks by some sharp instrument and few bones were also charred (Sonawane and Mehta 1985).165). Among the two copper objects.No floral remains were reported from the site except some coix lachryma-jobi seeds. Turbinella pyrum and dentalium are two kinds of shells used as the raw material for the production of beads.

165: Trench and Phase wise Distribution of Shell and Shell Objects at Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 503    .85 Chart 4.85 7.23 Shell (Caurie) IA 7.69 11.85 3.92 Bangle Fragment (Turbinella pyrum) 19.Results 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 IA IB IC Trench A Bead (Turbinella pyrum) 3.69 3.85 3.69 Bead (Dentallium) 26.85 IB IC Trench B IA IB IC Trench C IA IB IC Trench F 7.54 3.

The fine grained elliptical weight got from the surface of the site is weighing 32. pestles/mullers. pellets/sling balls. No waste products are reported from the site and it might be due to the discrepancies in the data collection method of that time or production of stone artifacts was not carried out at the site. chalcedony.00 IB IC Trench A IC IB Trench B IC Trench C IC Trench F Faience Objects Bead 11. chert.11 33.11 11. Various raw materials used at the site were sandstone. The availability of lapis lazuli at the site indicates the procurement of goods traded from far distances. toy cart wheels.00 5.00 15. lapis lazuli.167). scrapers and flakes (Chart 4. If the bead is of lapis lazuli. perforated and imperforated discs.00 20. weights.22 Chart 4.11 11. it might be very costlier item as the only known source for the same till date is Badakshan in Afghanistan.Results 35.530 gms (Sonawane and Mehta 1985). 504    .00 10. carnelian.166: Trench and Phase wise Distribution of Faience Objects at Vagad (Expressed in Percentage)   Stone Objects Forty seven stone objects were recovered from the site. blades. jasper and rhyolite. Terracotta Objects Total 60 terracotta objects were recovered from Vagad and they include spindle whorls.11 11.00 30. one flake and very few numbers of stone artifacts from the site clearly shows that the inhabitants perhaps not practiced production of stone objects or they made only very less number of stone objects. agate. Artifacts from the site include beads and bead roughouts.00 0.00 25. saddle querns. weights. ear studs.33 22. One bead rough out.

This also indirectly gives evidences for the use or presence of bullock carts. Hearths of ‘U’ shape and ‘X’ shape were also discovered at the site.45 to. Four circular clay lined fire pits constructed within a slightly raised mud platforms on the floor level of period IA is described as fire altars/Yajna-Vedikas used for ritualistic purposes (Sonawane and Mehta 1985.Results lamp. tablet and unidentified objects (Chart 4. Structural Remains Six circular huts were excavated from the site and 2 of them belong to Period IA. 1 to Period IB and 3 to Period IC. Presence of central post holes and holes in the perimeter of the huts also indicate the shape of the super structure. Sonawane 2005). It also indirectly gives evidences for the practice of agriculture. These fire pits with saggering bases and diameter ranging from 1. Imperforated discs might have been used as gaming pieces.4 meters might be pottery kilns. The presence of spindle whorls. Post holes were also present in the floors and it indicates the presence of superstructures.168). All these pits contained ash and they were plastered with cow dung paste mixed with clay. Few of the pulley shaped ear ornaments (probably spindle whorls) with central holes are also painted. gathering of plant products or the practice of pastoralism during Integration Era.8 m. 505    . The floors of the huts were made of rammed clay mixed with kankar and silt. Perforated discs and disc bearing the marks of attempted perforation indicate the reuse of the broken objects in economically viable way by the inhabitants of the site.580 gms.5 m to 5. Diameter of these huts varied from 2.3. Weight is cubical in shape and weighing 26. The handmade terracotta lamp is a small one. One of the unidentified objects might be a broken horn of the bull figurine. The toy cart wheels and broken horn of bull clearly indicate the importance given to child care at the site. 1. perforated discs and discs with attempted perforation might be indicative of spinning of cotton or hair of goat and sheep. Clay lumps with reed impressions indicate the use of plastered walls. Some storage jars were found buried underneath the floors. 1 and .

13 IB Trench B 2.26 2.13 2.26 4.77 2.26 Core Scraper 4.13 IC IC Trench C 2.13 8.13 2.13 Flake 2.167: Stone Objects from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 506    .13 Bead Roughout Saddle Quern Blade Scraper 2.51 8.13 Chart 4.51 4.13 12.13 2.Results 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Carne Chalc Sandst Rhyol Sandst Chalc Lapis Sandst Carne Sandst Chalc Sandst Chert Chert Agate Chert Jasper Chert Agate Chert one edony lazuli one lian one edony one lian edony one ite IB IC IC Trench A Bead 2.13 2.26 2.38 2.51 Pellet/Sling Ball 4.13 2.13 6.13 Muller/Pestle 8.13 4.13 Trench F 2.26 Weight 2.

67 1.00 6.67 Imperforated Disc 8.67 Lamp 1.33 1.00 8.67 1.67 Chart 4.33 16.67 3.Results 18.33 3.00 4.00 16.33 1.33 Scraper 1.00 12.00 14.33 Tablet 1.00 0.33 1.168: Terracotta Objects from Vagad (Expressed in Percentage) 507    .00 IB IC Trench A Perforated Disc IB Trench B IC Trench C IC IC Trench F Unknown 3.33 6.67 1.67 6.33 1.67 3.00 10.67 Wheel 3.67 Unidentified Object 3.67 Weight 1.67 3.00 2.67 Disc with Attempted Perforation 3.33 10.67 IC 1.67 Spindle Whorl 1.00 Ear Stud 3.

But the reanalysis of the ceramics showed that all the Micaceous Red Ware in the collection of The Maharaja Sayajirao University from Vagad belong to layer 3. Triangular terracotta cakes were completely absent at the site and the weights were also different from the Classical Harappan types and showed affinity to Rangpur and Rojdi. Red Ware is the predominant pottery type followed by Buff Ware. Micaceous Red Ware from Vagad is dated to the second half of Integration Era (2300-2000 BC) and there is no mention of the same in Localization Era. 508    . All the availableMicaceous Red Ware from the site belongs to Localization Era. a number of potsherds bearing graffiti were unearthed from the site. none of them revealed evidences for Harappan script/letter. Micaceous Red Ware and Gray Ware. Observations At the rural (village) Chalcolithic site at Vagad locally known as Kedio Timbo (450m N-S x 300m E-W x 2m height).Results Chronology Based on five radio carbon dates. Black and Red Ware. Though. All the blades recovered from the site were produced from locally available raw materials like chert and chalcedony. Layer 3 of the site belong to structural phase IC and c14 dates of the same is between 1900-1500 BC. Other ceramics from the site show strong similarities with the pottery of Rangpur IIA – IIB (Rao 1963). the site can be dated from second half of the Integration Era to the end of the Localization Era (2200-1500 BC). situated on the right bank of Bhadar river in Dhandhuka taluka of Ahmedabad district. In the earlier study (Herman and Krishnan 1994). the regional Chalcolithic tradition of Gujarat along with very few classical Harappan artifacts like shell bangles having chevron motifs and lapis lazuli beads. Lothal B (Rao 1985). At the site. Rojdi IA-IB and Surkotada IC (Joshi 1976). the ceramics and other artifacts including pulley shaped ear studs/spindle whorls show close affinity to Sorath Harappan culture.

The bangles and beads are the evidences for beautification of the body. Imporforated discs were probably used as hopscotches or for playing seven tiles commonly known as pittu.    Results  Availability of comparatively large number of perforated discs and spindle whorls (simple and pulley shaped) probably indicate the spinning of cotton or wool by the inhabitants of the site. Attempted perforations in discs shows that. Micaceous Red Ware tradition. as rural community. they were produced at the site from the broken pot sherds. integrated with the Harappans (Classical and Sorath) and continued their pottery making tradition till the withering away of the Harappan culture some where in the second half of second millennium BC. perofrated discs and spindle whorls are major group of artifact at Jaidak/Pithad. 509    . It also indicate the maximum utilization of available resources by the Harappans as the production of discs from broken sherds are more profitable than the production of new discs/spindle whorls from clay. Micaceous Red Ware ceramics can distinguish from other pottery types. The fire pits/yajna vedikas from the site might be the pottery kilns rather than ritual fire altars. Saddle querns and pestle stone also throw light on food processing at site rather than industrial activities. all the Micaceous Red Ware from the site belong to Localization Era. If they are the pottery kilns. typologically. The inhabitants of the site might have practiced agriculture. Though. no other artifacts cant be put under this tradition. it indicates the craft activities carried out at the site by the inhabitants. a Sorath Harappan site in Saurashtra. Toy cart wheels and broken horn of bull figurine indicate the the use of play objects and importance given to child care. Like Vagad. This indicates that the inhabitants of the site came into contact with the Micaceous Red Ware tradition in later period. It also indirectly suggest the knowledge of the transporting vehicles like bullock cart. which originated atleast in the very beginning of Integration Era in the Bhal region. As per the analysed material.

59 : Micaceous Red Ware from Vagad (Courtesy: Department of Archaeology.58 : General View of the Disturbed Archaeological Mound at Vagad Fig. 4. 4.57 : General View of the Archaeological Mound at Vagad Fig. 4.    Results  Fig. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) 510    .

Map 4. 33 sites (Table 4. Padri. Early Historic (3) and Late Medieval (24). 511    . type site of regional Chalcolithic ceramic type.    Results  Section III ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION AROUND PADRI.. Datravad/Dantred and Talli. Hamirpara.21.25. Lilivav. 10 villages of Palitana taluka and 2 villages of Bhavnagar taluka. to understand the nature of the sites and the changes in selection of the area for habitation during different periods by the Chalcolithic community and the variation in size of the settlements.e. Sakhavadar/Nehda. Major objectives of the exploration were to identify the distribution of Padri Ware and other regional chalcolithic traditions/cultures like Sorath Harappan (Possehl and Herman 1990. BHAVNAGAR DISTRICT Introduction Archaeological exploration conducted by the researcher in March-April 2007. sites of the Urban and Post Urban Harappan periods are disccussed in detail. 15 villages of Ghogha taluka. Padri Ware (Shinde and Kar 1992. The explored area covered 119 villages of Talaja taluka. Khandera. Sultanpur/Sartanpur II. Vejodhari. During the course of exploration. namely.22) were identified and the artifacts from these newly explored and revisited sites were divided into different cultural periods namely Urban Harappan/Sorath Harappan (11). As the investigations in this thesis is limited to Chalcolithic period. 1998) and the earliest dated Chalcolithic site in Saurashtra. Post Urban Harappan/Late Sorath Harappan (9). Possehl 1992) in and around Padri. 1992b. Shinde 1992a. Bhalar. Sultanpur/Sartanpur I. Borla. focused in an area of twenty five kilometer radius around Padri. Total number of the explored/revisited Chalcolithic sites are 12 in number and all of them are located in Talaja taluka i. 4.

LSH. 12’ E SH. 50’ N 72° 03. 01’ E SH 11 Datravad Datravad Talaja 21° 24. 99’ N 71° 58. LSH 12 Talli Talli Talaja 21° 10. 16’ E EH. 37’ N 72° 06. LSH. 06’ E LSH 7 Sultanpur II Sultanpur/Sartanpur Talaja 21° 18. LSH 13 Talaja Talaja Talaja 21° 21. 17’ E SH 3 Sakhavadar (Nehda) Sakhavadar Talaja 21° 17. LSH. 63’ E SH. 58’ N 71° 57. 73’ E SH. 65’ E SH. 35’ E SH. CBRW. 27’ E LM 512    . CBRW. 44’ N 72° 04. LM 9 Borla Borla Talaja 21° 24. LSH. 19’ E SH. CBRW 10 Bhalar Bhalar Talaja 21° 24. 57’ E LM 16 Meda (Memda) Meda/Memda Palitana 21° 26. LSH. 96’ E EH. LM 8 Hamirpara Hamirpara Talaja 21° 29. 22’ N 72° 03. 59’ N 72° 05. 75’ N 72° 10. 46’ N 72° 02.  Results    Table 4. 09’ E SH. 26’ N 71° 01. LM 4 Vejodhari Vejodhari Talaja 21° 12. 55’ N 72° 02. No. 85’ E SH 6 Sultanpur I Sultanpur/Sartanpur Talaja 21° 18. CBRW 5 Khandera Khandera Talaja 21° 17. Site Village Taluka Latitude Longitude Cultural Affiliation 1 Padri Padri Gohilini Talaja 21° 20.25: Newly Explored and Revisited Sites in and around Padri Sl. 96’ N 72° 03. LM 14 Junagam (Royal) Royal Talaja 21° 22. EH 2 Lilivav Lilivav Talaja 21° 20. LSH. 14’ N 72° 00. 10’ N 71° 59. 43’ E SH. LM 15 Pithalpur Pithalpur Ghogha 21° 30. 78’ N 72° 03. 72’ N 72° 05.

  Results    17 Vadlavali Meladimam no Timbo Thakadgad/Chopda Talaja 21° 20. 80’ N 72° 07. 51’ E LM 20 Mahadevpara (Timbo) II Madhvada Talaja 21° 24. 53’ E LM 25 Bhulsar (Fulsar) Bhulsar Talaja 21° 16. 33’ E LM 24 Ramnath Mandir no Timbo Kukad Talaja 21° 29. 46’ E LM 26 Junagam Madhuvan Talaja 21° 10. 90’ E LM 32 Bharoli Bharoli Talaja 21° 31. 80’ E LM 19 Bharapara Bharapara Talaja 21° 23. 77’ E LM 28 Bhungar Bhungar Talaja 21° 15. 87’ N 71° 59. 75’ N 71° 03. 00’ N 72° 03. 60’ N 72° 10. 22’ N 72° 00. 73’ E LM 23 Paniyali Paniyali Talaja 21° 29. 41’ N 72° 08. 31’ E LM 22 Jasapara Jasapara Talaja 21° 27. 54’ N 72° 04. 61’ E LM 31 Nesvad Nesvad Talaja 21° 29. LM: Late Medieval   513    . 73’ N 71° 59. 42’ E LM 27 Jhanchmer Jhanchmer Talaja 21° 11. 05’ N 72° 02. 55’ N 72° 06. 97’ N 71° 59. 72’ N 72° 12. 97’ E LM 21 Sivabhai no Timbo Piparla Talaja 21° 22. 11’ E LM 33 Moti Mandvani Moti Mandvani Talaja 21° 28. 57’ E LM SH: Sorath Harappan. EH: Early Historic. LSH: Late Sorath Harappan. 64’ N 72° 01. 09’ E LM 29 Timana I Timana Talaja 21° 25. 22’ E LM 30 Timana II Timana Talaja 21° 25. 58’ N 72° 09. CBRW: Chalcolithic Black and Red Ware. 76’ E LM 18 Madhvada I Madhvada Talaja 21° 22. 48’ N 72° 11. 98’ N 72° 07.

    Results    Map 4. General Map 514    .21: All the Newly Explored/Revisited Sites In and Around Padri.

22: All the Newly Explored/Revisited Sites In and Around Padri. Urban Harappan artifacts were found associated with Post Urban Harappan/Late Sorath Harappan artifacts. Detailed Map The Urban Harappan/Sorath Harappan sites in the explored area (Map 4.    Results  Map 4. In the sites except Lilivav. Lilivav. Khandera. Bhalar. Based on the available c14 dates 515    . Hamirpara. Borla. Datravad/Dantred and Talli. Khandera and Bhalar. Sultanpur/Sartanpur II.23) are Padri. Vejodhari. Sakhavadar/Nehda.

Map 4.23: Newly Explored/Revisited Sorath Harappan Sites In and Around Padri The Post Urban Harappan/Late Sorath Harappan sites in the explored area (Map 4. Sakhavadar/Nehda. Sultanpur/Sartanpur I. 516    .  Results    and relative chronology suggested for similar kind of artifacts yielding sites from other parts of Saurashtra. all the Urban Harappan/Sorath Harappan sites can be roughly dated in between 2600-1900 BC.24) are Padri. Vejodhari.

Hamirpara.24: Newly Explored/Revisited Late Sorath Harappan Sites In and Padri 517    . Map 4.    Results  Sultanpur/Sartanpur II. Based on the available c14 dates and relative chronology suggested for similar kind of artifacts yielding sites from other parts of Saurashtra. Post Urban Harappan artifacts were found associated with Urban Harappan/Sorath Harappan artifacts. all the Post Urban Harappan/Late Sorath Harappan sites can be roughly dated between 1900-1600 BC or little later. Borla. Datravad/Dantred and Talli. In the sites except Sultanpur/Sartanpur I.

    Results  Padri (21° 20. Shinde and Thomas 1993. Shinde and Kar 1992. Padri Ware is a hand/slow wheel made coarse ceramic having thick red slip with black paintings. The excavator interprets the site as a salt manufacturing center of the Chalcolithic period which flourished between mid fourth millennium BC to 2nd millennium BC (Shinde 1998). 4. 1992a. a large pond located south of the site is the nearest water source. Paul and Shinde 1998-1999). The site was subjected to excavation by the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute. 72° 06. the Chalcolithic mound at Padri Gohilini (Padari Guhelini) village in Talaja taluka of Bhavnagar district is locally known as Kerala no Dhoro (fig. 1998. At present. The site located approximately 2 km south of the modern village can be approached by a small lane. stud handle bowls. Other ceramic types occuring in the Pre Urban Harappan level at Padri are Coarse Red/Gray Ware. Another feature of the site is the availability of the so called Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan ceramics from the Pre Urban Harappan period (?) dating back to mid fourth millennium BC. Late Sorath Harappan and Early Historic artifacts. globular pots. Shirvalkar 2008). Shinde 1991. Pune from 1990 to 1995. dish on stands and perforated jars (Bhagat 2001.14 ha i. Early Historic phase at the site was represented by ceramic types including Red Polished Ware. The site also revealed mud brick/mud pressed structure of Pre Urban Harappan level. Bichrome Ware. basins. The excavations at the site provided ample evidences for the existence of Pre Urban Harappan and Urban Harappan Padri Ware (a regional Chalcolithic ceramic type). 2006. 1998. The important vessel shapes are bowls with straight/incurved/convex sides. White Lustrous Ware. many portions of the site is highly disturbed by removal of soil for 518    . 1992b.e. Pink Slipped Ware.60). 65’ E) Padri. Plain Handmade Ware and Red Painted Ware (Shinde 1992a. 340 m (EW) x 210m (NS) x 3. 37’ N. Tarsara talavadi. The archaeological site is located in a small depression of a slightly elevated sand dune and measures 7.2m (maximum deposit). Sorath Harappan.

Decorations on the ceramics can be classified into three 519    . rough and smooth.e. A few of the sherds from the site have decorations on them and they are mainly painted designs and a few of them have pre-firing incised designs too. grinding stones. spindle whorl. These sherds represents vessel shapes like pots. 4. In a few vessels. Buff Ware and Black and Red Ware and the vessel parts collected from the site include rims. bowls. large amounts of ceramics including in situ broken jars (fig.61) and many portions of the site now lie below the ground level. perforated potsherds. the majority of the sherds being of fine texture. All the sherds from Padri have slip on external surface and certain vessels like pots are unslipped on the internal surface. cut columella portions of the T.    Results  construction purposes (fig. The texture of ceramic assemblage from the site can be divided into three categories namely coarse. All the vessels from the site are either hand made or wheel made or made using multiple techniques. 4.62). The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Padri Gohilini was represented by sherds of Red Ware. neck. medium and fine. No structural remains are visible in the exposed surface. Surfaces of a few vessels are burnished and surface feel of sherds from the site can be divided into two categories i. The colour of the archaeological sediment/soil of the site is light brown/gray. Two of the bowls from the site have slight carination. Sherds have even or uneven. pestle stones and few stones probably of structures were found scattered. animal bones. Due to the constant removal of soil from the site. pyrum shells. Rim diameter of various vessels varied from 3 to 36 cm. brim. eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. A few uncovered excavated trenches are also visible at the site. Many of the vessels are devoid of any decorations. the internal slip is only applied in rim portion. bases. Less disturbed places are thickly vegetated by Acacia Sp. shoulder and body. body sherds and stems. The decorations are confined to rim. dishes and dish on stands. perforated jars. basins. The designs are mainly confined to external surface and a few sherds have decorations in internal surface too. Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading.

63) (more details in Appendix 9). Contrary to the earlier dates. Most of the vessels from the site retain regular striations. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and a few have deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions in kilns. the finds from the surface of the site can be roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC. A number of cracks are present in some sherds and it indicates the delicate nature of the pottery. All the ceramics have mica particles.60: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Mound at Padri Gohilini 520    . A few of the sherds from Padri have impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. One of the vessels from the site has lot of smoke clouding in it and appears to be a cooking vessel. B and C levels (fig. non-geometric (net like decoration) and naturalistic (wavy pattern). The ceramics can be chronologically divided into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan phases and all the vessels are Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan in nature assignable to Rangpur IIA. A few of the sherds have finger marks and scratches on the surfaces. Many of the vessels have stains of external paint or slip on internal surface. small sand particles and big sand particles. Several sherds have irregular breakages and a few have smooth breakages. IIB and IIC and Rojdi A. Figure 4.    Results  namely geometric (horizontal and vertical lines). 4.

61: Exposed Section Showing Bones. Stones and Ceramics at Padri Gohilini Figure 4.    Results  Figure 4.62: Surface Showing Broken in situ Pot at Padri Gohilini 521    .

one grinding stone. Pottery collected from the site can be divided into two groups i. Pot sherds have even or uneven. The mound disturbed by agricultural activities is roughly square in shape and does not retain any structural remains. basins. i. coarse. in the internal surface. dish on stands and perforated jars. Few of the vessels from the site have carination. dishes.    Results  Lilivav (21° 20. two shell bangle pieces. The site located 2 km northeast of the modern village can be approached by a small lane. Ceramics are represented by rims. It measures 120x110x0.e.e. Cord impressed pottery is also present in the 522    .64). Regular striations are present in almost all sherds and a few have beating/paddling marks and finger marks. Perforated jars showed finished pre-firing perforations in whole body. A small number of the sherds are unslipped and some have slip only on external surface. Texturally. eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. 4.65). smooth and rough and smooth surfaced sherds represented the maximum. the ceramics from Lilivav falls under three broad categories. body sherds and stems of various vessel shapes like pots. 17’ E) The archaeological site at Lilivav in Talaja taluka is locally known as Rakhodi Timbo (Shirvalkar 2008) or Mevabhai no Vadi (fig. Bichrome slip is also present in some vessels. three broken pottery discs. medium and fine mostly dominated by fine variety. animal bones. The surface feel of the sherds falls under two categories viz. Certain vessels have burnished/polished surface. River Kshetrunji is located 1km northeast of the site and sea is in 4 km south. bases. teeth and antlers. The archaeological remains collected from the site include ceramics (fig. Diameter of various vessels varied from 4 to 44 cm. 72° 03. 4. 50’ N. bowls.32 ha) and have both Chalcolithic and Medieval artifacts. The soil cover/archaeological sediments of the site and surroundings are black cotton in nature. Some vessels retain slip on both the surfaces and in vessel types like pots.75m (1. slip confines to rim only. Red Ware (dominant variety) and Buff Ware. All the vessels were produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques.

Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and a few have deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions. Decoration on the vessels falls under two categories i. In the vessels. geometric (horizontal and vertical bands) and nongeometric (curvy lines) designs. 4.64: Chalcolithic Site at Lilivav. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded and a few are spreaded. shoulder. While considering the breakages of sherds. neck.66) (more details in Appendix 9). Kuntasi and Rojdi (fig. a few are decorated on internal surface and some have decorations on both the surfaces. All the vessels from the site showed similarities to Urban Harappan (Sorath Harappan) ceramics from sites like Rangpur.    Results  collection. it can be roughly dated between c. Some of the vessels have soot marks. base and stem. scratches on both the surfaces and few have drops of the slip/paint on internal surface only. Based on ceramics and other artifacts from the site. small and big sand particles. Figure 4. Mica. impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are present in many of the vessels. General View 523    .e. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration. designs are confined to rim. body. Some vessels have painted decoration on external surface. most of them have irregular breakages and a small number with smooth breakages are also present. 2600-1900 BC. Lothal A.

neck and shoulder fragments. dishes. basins.5 ha) is devoid of any structural remains and has good quantity of ceramics scattered on its surface.67) is located 2 km southwest of present village. 46’ N. The Chalcolithic settlement measuring 150x100x0. 73’ E) The archaeological mound at Sakhavadar/Phulsar (Shirvalkar 2008.65: Concentration of Ceramic Scatter in the Chalcolithic Site at Lilivav Sakhavadar (21° 17. Paul and Shinde 1998-1999) locally known as Ranabhai Pachabhai no Khetar/Nehda (fig. 72° 02. A Hanuman temple is located in the middle of the archaeological mound which got destroyed by the agricultural activities. bowls. 4. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments of the site is dark gray and brown. bases. Vessel parts collected from the site like rims. A pond located 50m southeast of the mound is the nearest water source. dish on stands and 524    .    Results  Figure 4.75m (1. Pots. body sherds and stems can be divided into two broad groups namely Red Ware (dominant group) and Buff Ware. The site is located at a distance of 4 KM north from the sea.

uneven. coarse. i. Some of the vessels from the site have slip only on the external surface.    Results  perforated jars represented the vessel shapes of the site. medium and fine and majority of them have fine texture. the ceramics from the site falls under three broad categories. Some vessels have bichrome/ two slips on them. Large number of ceramics from the site have smooth surface feel while a few have rough feel. A few of the vessels like bowls and dishes have slips on both the surfaces. Some 525    . Texturally. Some vessels have burnished/polished surface. All the vessels are produced by hand and wheel or using a combination of multiple techniques. Few vessels from the site have carination. Perforated jars showed finished pre-firing perforations in whole body.67: Chalcolithic Site at Sakhavadar.e. General View pottery is also present in the collection. A few vessels have scratches on both the surfaces and some have drops of the slip/paint on internal surface only. abraded and calcium encrusted surfaces. Cord impressed Figure 4. Regular striations are present on all vessels and a few of them have finger marks. Diameter of various vessels from the site varied from 5 to 61 cm. The sherds have even.

12 ha). the site also yielded one terracotta polisher.    Results  vessels have painted decoration on external surface. The sea is approximately 3 KM southeast of the settlement. One of the ceramic from the site has cord impression on it. The Chalcolithic ceramics from the site is comparable to Lothal A and B. 526    .68) (more details in Appendix 9). one pestle stone was discovered from the site. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and few have deoxidized core. neck. body. 72° 00. Many of the sherds have irregular breakages and very few have smooth breakages. 2600-1600 BC. Kuntasi I and II and Surkotada IB and IC (fig. small and big sand particles. 12’ E) The archaeological site at Vejodhari is locally known as Haribhai no Khetar (fig. grinding stones. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration. 14’ N. Apart from different ceramic types. The Chalcolithic artifacts at the site is Sorath and Late Sorath Harappan in nature and relatively datable to c. pottery discs of both perforated and nonperforated variety. Rangpur IIA. Decoration on the vessels falls under three categories i. designs are confined to rim. 4. base and stem. shoulder.e. The site currently under agriculture is disturbed and the soil cover/archaeological sediment at the site is gray/brown in colour. geometric (horizontal and vertical bands). IIB and IIC. non-geometric (curvy lines) and faunal designs.50m (0. In the vessels. Apart from the ceramics. B and C. Vejodhari (21° 12. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded and a few are spreaded. Size of the small site is 40x30x0. Post Urban Harappan (Late Sorath Harappan: Rangpur IIC) and Late Medieval (one sherd) periods. a few are decorated on internal surface and some have decorations on both the surfaces. impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are also visible in the sherds. A small stream flowing northeast of the mound and a pond located 100m west of the site are the nearest water sources. shell debitage and animal bones.69). Mica. The vessels from the site can be classified into Urban Harappan (Sorath Harappan: Rangpur IIA and IIB). Rojdi A. 4.

Texturally. General View Pot sherds collected from the site can be divided into three groups i. Diameter of the different vessels varied from 4 to 42 cm. Large number of ceramics from the site have rough surface feel while few have smooth feel. Red Ware. Striations are present on all vessels and a few of them have soot marks and scratches on both the surfaces. The ceramics are produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques. In some vessels like pots. A few of the vessels like bowls and dishes have slips on both the surfaces. Some of the vessels from the site have slip only on external surface. internal slip is restricted only to the rim. abraded and calcium encrusted surfaces.    Results  Figure 4. the ceramics from the site falls under three broad categories. i. Buff Ware and Black and Red Ware. basins. bases.e. A few vessels have painted decoration on external surface and a few are decorated on internal surface. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration and very few have 527    .e. The sherds have even. coarse. Some of the vessels have sharp and slight carinations. body sherds and stems and they represented pots. uneven.69: Chalcolithic Site at Vejodhari. Vessel parts in the collection include rims. dishes and dish on stands. medium and fine and majority of them have medium and fine texture.

Pot sherds collected from the site can be divided into two groups i. 4. The vessels are produced using hand and wheel or a 528    . bowls. impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are also visible in the sherds. 72° 03. The sea is at a distance of 2 km south from the site. geometric (horizontal bands) designs. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded and a few are spreaded. Decoration on the vessels falls under only one category i.e. bases. 22’ N. one broken grinding stone and animal tooth. 4. Red Ware (dominant group) and Buff Ware.e.70) (more details in Appendix 9). Rojdi B and C and Kuntasi I and II (fig. The mound measuring 300x200x1m (6 ha) is rectangular in shape. Purushothambhai Gafurbhai no Khetar and Bahadurbha no Khetar (fig. neck and body. the Sorath and Late Sorath Harappan site belonging to Urban and Post Urban Harappan periods can be dated to c. Some of the vessels have slight carinations. One of the sherds showed the presence of grog in its core. body sherds and stems and they represented pots.    Results  incised designs on them.71). small and big sand particles. the site revealed four broken pottery discs. dishes and dish on stands. Diameter of the different vessels varied from 11 to 42 cm. basins. Vessel parts in the collection include rims. 2600-1600 BC. Khandera/Sakhavadar (21° 17. All the pot sherds from the site have irregular breakages. In the vessels. Five small nalas in the southeast and western sides of the mound are the nearest water sources. No structural remains are visible at the site destroyed by agricultural activities. Apart from ceramics. 85’ E) Chalcolithic site at Khandera (border of Khandera and Sakhavadar villages) comprises of three agricultural plots locally known as Hanuman Dada no Mandir na Jagya. Mica. Based on the artifacts. The site can be approached from Khandera village by an unpaved line running 500m north of the site. designs are confined to rim. The ceramics from the site is comparable to the pottery from Rangpur IIB and IIC. Majority of the vessels have deoxidized core and a few have oxidized core.

internal slip is restricted only to the rim.    Results  Figure 4. Large number of ceramics from the site have smooth surface feel while few have rough feel. A few vessels have painted decoration on external surface. some are decorated on internal surface and a few have decorations on both the surfaces. General View combination of multiple techniques.e. The sherds have even. Two sherds from the site have wide and deep scratches from ploughshare. i. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded and a few appear to have spread. uneven. Texturally. In some vessels like pots. medium and fine and majority of them have fine texture. 529    . the ceramics from the site falls under three broad categories. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration.e. probably caused by agricultural activites. coarse. geometric (horizontal and vertical bands) designs. Striations are present on all vessels and few of them have finger marks and scratches on both the surfaces.71: Chalcolithic Site at Khandera/Sakhavadar. Some of the vessels from the site have slip only on external surface. Decoration on the vessels falls under only one category i. abraded and calcium encrusted surfaces. A few of the vessels like bowls and dishes have slips on both the surfaces. In the vessels.

Mica. 06’ E) One of the Chalcolithic sites at Sultanpur/Sartanpur is locally known as Sukhabhai Rahabhai no Khetar (fig. Surkotada IB and Kuntasi I (fig. 4. The small site measuring 50x50x. Figure 4. Rangpur IIA and IIB. Majority of the pot sherds from the site have irregular breakages and a few have smooth breakage. Kshetrunji river which flows 2 km south of the site is the nearest water source. 59’ N. The Chalcolithic ceramics from the site is comparable to the pottery from Lothal A. neck and body. brim. Based on the artifacts. impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are also visible in the sherds. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediment at the site is brown in colour. Sultanpur/Sartanpur I (21° 18. 72° 05.73: Chalcolithic Site at Sultanpur/Sartanpur I. Rojdi A and Rojdi B. small and big sand particles.25 ha) is almost completely destroyed due to the intensive agricultural activities.50m (0. diagnostic ones are very less in number.    Results  designs are confined to rim. Though few Chalcolithic ceramics were collected from the site.73).72) (more details in Appendix 9). 2600-1900 BC. the Sorath Harappan artifacts of the Urban Harappan period from the site can be dated to c. General View 530    . Most of the vessels have oxidized core and only a few have deoxidized core. 4.

72° 05. designs are confined to rim and brim.e. 1997) termed as Sultanpur II is locally known as Bhupatbhai Tribhuvanbhai no Khetar (fig. 19’ E) Another archaeological site at Sultanpur/Sartanpur (Paul et al. Decoration on the vessels falls under the category of geometric (horizontal) designs. Diameter of the vessels varied from 25 to 28 cm. 1900-1600 BC. Vessel parts in the collection include rims and bases and they represented pots and basins. 4. the Late Sorath Harappan artifacts of the Post Urban Harappan period from the site can be dated to c. The sherds have even.    Results  Pot sherds collected from the site can be divided into two groups i. abraded and calcium encrusted surfaces.50m (0. coarse and medium. Sultanpur/Sartanpur II (21° 18. The soil/archaeological sediment of the site and surroundings are brown in colour. the ceramics from the site falls under two broad categories. i. Texturally. The mound highly disturbed due to agricultural activities measures 80x60x0. The vessels are produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques. Rojdi C and Kuntasi I and II (fig. Some of the vessels from the site have slip only on the external surface. uneven. Red Ware (dominant group) and Buff Ware. The site can be approached from a narrow unpaved lane from the village. Regular striations are present on all sherds. internal slip is restricted only to the rim. All the pot sherds from the site have irregular breakages. The ceramics from the site is comparable to the pottery from Rangpur IIC. In the vessel. Small amount 531    .48 ha) and the distribution of artifacts at the site is very less in number. In vessels like pots. Mica.74). Most of the vessels have deoxidized core and only few have oxidized core.70) (more details in Appendix 9). impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are also visible in the sherds. One vessel from Sultanpur I has painted decoration on external surface which is faded and abraded.e. 72’ N. Majority of ceramics from the site have rough surface feel while few have smooth feel. small and big sand particles. Based on the artifacts. 4. The site is located 1 km southwest of Kshetrunji river and 1 km south of sea.

Red Ware (dominant variety). Large number of ceramics from the site have rough surface feel while a few have smooth feel. basins. i. Figure 4. bowls.e. The ceramics are produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques. medium and fine and majority of them have fine texture followed by medium texture. Buff Ware and Gray Ware. body sherds and stems and they represented pots. abraded and calcium encrusted surfaces. The sherds have even. pottery discs. Vessel parts in the collection include rims. Texturally. shell bangle pieces. Diameter of various vessels varied from 12 to 36 cm. lithic debitage. General View Ceramics collected from the site can be divided into three groups i. coarse. Striations are present on all vessels and a few of them have scratches on both the 532    .    Results  of ceramics and cut shell pieces are sparsely scattered in the mound and no structural remains are evident at the site. the ceramics from the site falls under three broad categories. Apart from ceramics. animal bones and one Medieval Glazed ceramic were also collected from the site. Some of the vessels have sharp and slight carinations. shell bangle manufacturing wastes. uneven.74: Chalcolithic Site at Sultanpur/Sartanpur II. lids dishes and dish on stands.e.

Based on the artifacts. A pond located in the northwestern side of the mound is the nearest water source.    Results  surfaces. The site can be approached by a small lane from the village. geometric (horizontal bands) designs. Decoration on the vessels falls under only one category i.50 m (0. designs are confined to rim. small and big sand particles. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration and very few have incised designs on them. One of the potsherds from the site has a blister on the surface and it indicates the problems during heating. In the vessels. Chain like ornamentation is present on external surface of two potsherds. Rangpur IIB and IIC. Mica. 4. One of the potsherds from the site has cord impression on it.90 ha) has moderate distribution of ceramics.70) (more details in Appendix 9). 4. A few vessels have painted decoration on external surface and a few are decorated on internal surface. the Sorath and Late Sorath Harappan site belong to Urban and Post Urban Harappan periods can be dated to c. Rojdi B and C and Kuntasi I and II (fig. Some of the vessels from the site have slip only on external surface. 72° 03. impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are also visible in the sherds. internal slip is restricted only to the rim.e. All the pot sherds from the site have irregular breakages. Hamirpara (21° 29. No structural remains are present at the site and potsherds collected from the site 533    . Majority of the vessels have deoxidized core and a few have oxidized core. A few of the vessels like bowls and dishes have slips on both the surfaces. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded and a few appears to have spread. 63’ E) The archaeological site at Hamirpara is locally known as Ramjibhai Basubhai and Sitarbhai Basubhai Kharak Patel no Khetar (fig. 78’ N. 2600-1600 BC. In some vessels like pots. The site measuring 100x90x0.75). brim and body. The site is highly disturbed due to agricultural activities. beating/paddling marks and soot marks. The soil/archaeological sediments at the site is dark brown in colour. The Chalcolithic ceramics from the site is comparable to the pottery from Lothal B.

bases. The surface feel of the sherds falls under two categories viz.e.75: Chalcolithic Site at Hamirpara. the ceramics falls under three broad categories. coarse. Regular striations are present in almost all sherds and a few have beating/paddling marks and finger marks.    Results  are Chalcolithic and Late Medieval in nature. A few of the vessels from the site have slight carination. Texturally. bowls. dishes and dish on stands. Two pottery discs were also collected during the exploration. Figure 4. General View Pottery collected from the site can be divided into three groups i.e. Diameter of various vessels varied from 5 to 40 cm. Ceramics are represented by rims. smooth and rough and smooth surfaced sherds represented the maximum. Red Ware (dominant variety). basins. medium and fine and majority of them have fine texture followed by medium. i. All the vessels were produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques. 534    . body sherds and stems of various vessel shapes like pots. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware.

The site measuring 175x150x0. Some vessels have painted decorations on external surface and a few have painted decorations on internal surface.76) (more details in Appendix 9). Pot sherds have even or uneven. Some vessels retain slip on both the surfaces and in certain vessel types like pots. 2600-1600 BC. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration. Lothal. 72° 03. Based on ceramics and other artifacts from the site. Borla (21° 24. neck. 4. impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are present in many of the vessels. 96’ N.75m (2. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and a few have deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions. While considering the breakages of sherds. it can be roughly dated between c. In the vessels. slip is confined to the rim portion only on the internal surface.77). Decoration on the vessels falls under the category of geometric (horizontal and vertical bands) designs. All the potsherds from the Chalcolithic period of the site showed similarities to Urban Harappan (Sorath Harappan) and Post Urban Harappan (Late Sorath Harappan) ceramics from sites like Rangpur. body and base. designs are confined to rim.    Results  Some of the vessels have soot marks and scratches on both the surfaces. 4. Colour of the soil/archaeological sediment at the site is dark brown. The site located approximately 1km northwest of the modern village can be approached through two small lanes running in the east and north sides of the mound. most of them have an irregular breakage and a small number with smooth breakage is also seen. Mica. A pond located 100m east of the mound is the nearest water source. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded and a few appears to have spread.625 ha) is rough circular in shape. 09’ E) The Chalcolithic site at Borla is locally known as Bhavanbhai Gagjibhai Bhandari no Khetar/Hanumandheri (fig. Kuntasi and Rojdi (fig. small and big sand particles. eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. The site disturbed due to agricultural activities did not reveal 535    . A small number of the sherds are unslipped and some have slip only on external surface.

Buff Ware. Diameter of various vessels varied from 4 to 43 cm.e. the ceramics from the site falls under three broad categories. Ceramics are represented by rims. Figure 4.77: Chalcolithic Site at Borla. A few of the vessels from the site have slight and sharp carination. body sherds and stems of various vessel shapes like pots. Apart from Chalcolithic ceramics. Red Ware (dominant variety). three pottery discs and one terracotta ear stud/spindle whorl were collected from the site. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware. Texturally. basins. medium and fine and majority of them have fine texture. Regular striations are present in almost all sherds and a few have beating/paddling marks 536    . All the vessels were produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques. dishes. General View Pottery collected from the site can be divided into four groups i. i. The surface feel of the sherds falls under two categories viz. Perforated jars showed finished pre-firing perforations in whole body.e. lids and perforated jars. coarse. bowls. bases. dish on stands. smooth and rough and smooth surfaced sherds represented the maximum.    Results  any structural remains.

most of them have irregular breakage and a small number with smooth breakage is also present. Pot sherds have even or uneven. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded and a few appears to have spread. body and base. Bhalar (21° 24. impurity imprints. neck. white organic/inorganic inclusions and grog are present in many of the vessels. 4. IIB and IIC). Lothal (A and B). brim. Some of the vessels have smoke clouding in various parts and they looks like cooking vessels. Some of the vessels have soot marks and scratches on both the surfaces and a few have drops of the slip/paint on internal surface only. Based on ceramics and other artifacts from the site. slip confines to rim only. Some vessels retain slip on both the surfaces and in vessel types like pots. 1997) is locally known as Santubha Jawan Singh no Khetar (fig.    Results  and finger marks. Mica. The circular archaeological mound highly 537    . 44’ N. Pre-firing Incised designs are also present in both the surfaces of a few sherds. Certain vessels have burnished/polished surface. small and big sand particles. 2600-1600 BC. Some vessels have painted decoration on external surface and some have decorations on both the surfaces. 72° 04. Kuntasi (I and II) and Rojdi (A. All the vessels from the site showed similarities to Urban Harappan (Sorath Harappan) and Post Urban Harappan (Late Sorath Harappan) ceramics from various phases of sites like Rangpur (IIA. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and a few have deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions. designs are confined to rim. In the vessels. 01’ E) Archaeological mound at Bhalar (Paul et al. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration. in the internal surface. non-geometric (curvy lines) and floral designs. Decoration on the vessels falls under three categories i.e.79). B and C) (more details in Appendix 9). geometric (horizontal and vertical bands). eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. it can be roughly dated between c. While considering the breakages of sherds. shoulder. Bichrome slip is also present in some vessels. A small number of the sherds are unslipped and some have slip only on external surface.

e.e. basins. Diameter of different vessels varied from 7 to 43 cm. Ceramics were moderately distributed all over the mound which yielded few grinding stones and shell debitage. uneven. The sherds have even. i. The ceramics are produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques. Striations are present on all vessels and a 538    . Vessel parts in the collection include rims. Texturally.    Results  disturbed due to agricultural activities is located 3 km south of the modern village. shoulders. General View All the pot sherds collected from the site belong to one group i.25 ha) in size. coarse. Figure 4. medium and fine and majority of them have coarse and medium texture. Some of the vessels have sharp and slight carination. Large number of ceramics from the site have rough surface feel while a few have smooth and powdery feel. abraded and calcium encrusted surfaces. No structural remains are seen on the surface of the mound measuring 150x150x1m (2.79: Chalcolithic Site at Bhalar. dishes and dish on stands. necks. Red Ware. the ceramics from the site falls under three broad categories. bases and body sherds and they represents pots.

10’ N. In some vessels like pots. Apart from ceramics. impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are also visible in the sherds. Decorations on the vessels comprise of geometric (horizontal bands) designs. 71° 59.81) is located near the Khodiyar Mata Temple (IAR 1960-61). In the vessels. the Sorath Harappan site belonging to Urban Harappan period can be dated to c. 4. Datravad/Dantred (21° 24. Mica. Majority of the vessels have deoxidized core and a few have oxidized core. finger marks. two 539    . 1997) locally known as Kalyanbhai Raghurambhai Pandya no Khetar (fig. internal slip is restricted only to the rim. shoulder and body.50m (1. Many of the pot sherds from the site have irregular breakages and very few have smooth breakages. Rojdi B and Kuntasi I (more details in Appendix 9). One of the sherds showed presence of a blister on external surface probably indicating heating defects. The mound highly disturbed due to agricultural activities measures 110x100x. no structures are visible in the surface.    Results  few of them have beating/paddling marks. Some of the vessels from the site have slip only on the external surface. Though. Based on the artifacts. 35’ E) The archaeological mound at Datravad/Dantred (Paul et al. A few of the vessels like bowls and dishes have slip on both the surfaces. brim. neck. Limited number of vessels from the site has burnished/polished surface. Colour of the soil/archaeological sediment of the mound is dark brown. A few vessels have painted decoration on external surface and a large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration. The site located 1 km south east of the modern village can be approached by a small lane running along western side of the mound. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded. The Chalcolithic ceramics from the site is comparable to the pottery from Rangpur IIB. soot marks and scratches on the surfaces. 2600-1900 BC. some sandstone blocks are scattered over the mound.1 ha) in size. small and big sand particles. One of the vessels having a lot of soot marks probably served as a cooking vessel. designs are confined to rim.

eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. neck.e. Regular striations are present in almost all sherds and a few have beating/paddling marks and finger marks. i. The surface feel of the sherds falls under two categories viz. A small number of the sherds have slip only on external surface. All the vessels were produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques. Diameter of various vessels varied from 4 to 42 cm. Some vessels retain slip 540    . bases. basins. medium and fine and majority of them have fine texture followed by medium texture. one broken animal figurine. one grinding stone and an animal tooth were collected from the site.81: Chalcolithic Site at Datravad/Dantred. Red Ware (dominant variety) and Buff Ware.    Results  broken pottery discs. shoulder and body sherds of various vessel shapes like pots. Ceramics are represented by rims. General View Pottery collected from the site can be divided into two groups i. Texturally. smooth and rough. Smooth surfaced sherds represented the maximum. Figure 4. Pot sherds have even or uneven. dishes and dish on stands. A few of the vessels from the site have carination. bowls. the ceramics from Dantravad falls under three broad categories.e. coarse.

99’ N. 71° 58. Surkotada (IA. most of them have irregular breakage and a small number with smooth breakage are also present. it can be roughly dated between c. slip is confined to rim only. Colour of the 541    . The site situated roughly 1 km west of the modern village can be approached by the road connecting Talli and Dad. 2600-1600 BC. Talli (21° 10. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and a few have deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions. A few vessels from the site have pre firing incised and appliqué designs on the surface. Bichrome slip is also present in some vessels. All the vessels from the site showed similarities to Urban (Sorath Harappan) and Post Urban (Late Sorath Harappan) Harappan ceramics of Rangpur (IIA. Based on ceramics and other artifacts from the site. a few are decorated on internal surface and some have decorations on both the surfaces. Certain vessels have burnished/polished surface. designs are confined to rim. 4. In the vessels. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration. Lothal (IA and IB). 43’ E) The archaeological site at Talli is locally known as Hasubhai Lakhabhai Chawda no Khetar (fig. and scratches on both the surfaces and a few have drops of the slip/paint on internal surface only. IIB and IIC). B and C) (fig. Some vessels have painted decoration on external surface. Decoration on the vessels falls under three categories i. One of the sherds from the site has a deep and broad groove like scratch on its surface and it might be the ploughshare marks which occurred during agricultural activities. in the internal surface. (Kuntasi I and II).82) (more details in Appendix 9). impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are present in many of the vessels. While considering the breakages of sherds.e. non-geometric (curvy lines) and designs representing nature (wavy line). Some of the vessels have soot marks. brim and neck. small and big sand particles. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded and a few appears to have spread.    Results  on both the surfaces and in certain vessel types like pots. geometric (horizontal and vertical bands).83). IB and IC) and Rojdi (A. Mica. 4.

The site measuring 125x125x0. Talli 542    . General View Figure 4.57 ha) cm yielded Chalcolithic ceramics and pottery discs.84).84: The Piled Up Structural Remains. The site is highly disturbed due to agricultural activities. All the structural remains earlier present in the site were destroyed and the loose stones from the structures were kept together in one side of the mound (fig. 4.50 (1. Figure 4.    Results  soil/archaeological sediment at the site is light grayish brown.83: Chalcolithic Mound at Talli.

In the vessels. Majority of the paintings are faded and abraded.e. lids and lamps. bowls. non-geometric (curvy lines) and designs representing nature (wavy lines).e. dish on stands. the ceramics from Lilivav falls under three broad categories. bases. slip is confined to the rim on the internal surface. base and stem. Diameter of various vessels varied from 6 to 60 cm. A few of the vessels from the site have slight carination. brim. smooth and rough and smooth surfaced sherds represented the maximum. all of them have irregular breakages. Decoration on the vessels falls under three categories i.    Results  All sherds collected from the site belong to one group i. The surface feel of the sherds falls under two categories viz. A small number of the sherds are unslipped and some have slip only on external surface. dishes. and scratches on both the surfaces and a few have drops of the slip/paint on internal surface only. Certain vessels have burnished/polished surface. eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. Mica. All the vessels were produced using hand and wheel or a combination of multiple techniques. Regular striations are present in almost all sherds and a few have finger marks. basins. i. Ceramics are represented by rims. All the vessels from the site showed similarities to Urban (Sorath Harappan) and Post Urban (Late Sorath Harappan) ceramics from Rangpur IIA. Some vessels retain slip on both the surfaces and in certain vessel types like pots. Some vessels have painted decoration on external surface. body. Some of the vessels have soot marks. shoulder.e. neck. Texturally. coarse. Pot sherds have even or uneven. While considering the breakages of sherds. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and a few have deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions. A large number of sherds from the site are devoid of any decoration. medium and fine and majority of them have fine texture followed by medium texture. small and big sand particles. a few are decorated on internal surface and some have decorations on both the surfaces. designs are confined to rim. body sherds and stems of various vessel shapes like pots. IIB 543    . impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions are present in many of the vessels. geometric (horizontal and vertical bands). Red Ware.

Hamirpara. 4. in all other sites. the previous researchers failed to identify the Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan characters of artifacts and they described the sites as Pre Urban Harappan and Urban Harappan (reported as Early and Mature Harappan respectively). Paul et al. Except at Padri.    Results  and IIC. Padri Ware from all other explored sites are relatively dated to Pre Urban Harappan Phase. Lilivav (Shirvalkar 2008). Sakhavadar (Shirvalkar 2008). 1997) were reported by various scholars and among them Padri is the only excavated site. The results of the exploration of the 544    . The sites like Datravad/Dantred (IAR 1960-61. Sultanpur I. earlier reported as Bandi Rohil (Paul et al. Apart from this. Padri (Shinde 1992a. Except Lilivav and Sakhavadar. 1997) and Bhalar (Paul et al. 2600-1600 BC. In the previous reports. it yielded Early Historic and Late Medieval ceramics only. Observations Among the twelve Chalcolithic sites explained in this section. Padri Ware was also reported along with Urban Harappan ceramics. six are newly discovered by the researcher and they are Vejodhari. Kuntasi I and II and Rojdi A. there is no mention of other Pre Urban Harappan artifacts collected from these sites. 1997). Borla and Talli. during the excavations at Padri. none of the previously explored sites except Padri can be dated prior to 2600 BC. Royal. The reasons for such problems might be many including the cultural and natural transformation of the sites. 1992b). it can be roughly dated between c. Other artifacts collected from these sites along with the Padri Ware are of Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan period. during the explorations carried out by the researcher not a single site showed the presence of Padri Ware or other Pre Urban Harappan artifacts. Khandera. Lothal B. 1997) has not revealed any Pre Urban or Urban Harappan artefacts.85) (more details in Appendix 9). Although all the previously discovered settlements were mentioned as Padri Ware yielding sites in the earlier reports. Sultanpur II (Paul et al. B and C phases (fig. Based on ceramics and other artifacts from the site. Based on all the available evidence.

Animal bones from the sites might be the wastes of meat consumption and could belong to either hunted animals or domesticated animals. removal of soil and construction works. Rojdi B and Kuntasi I) or Late Sorath Harappan (Rangpur IIC. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware collected from the study area. Pre Urban Harappan Phase (3600-2600 BC). The size of the sites in the area in 545    .    Results  researcher show that all these sites either belong to Sorath Harappan (Rangpur IIB. If the spinning activity was in vogue it indirectly throws light on the probability of cotton cultivation or goat/sheep domestication in the area. Only site which showed clear evidences for the existence of Chalcolithic stone structures was Talli. Grinding stones and pestle stones collected from various sites probably indicate food grain processing. 3600-1600 BC or little later instead of c. Urban Harappan Phase (2600-1900 BC) and Post Urban Harappan Phase (19001600 BC). Perforated pottery discs and spindle whorls/ear studs (?) might be the indicators of spinning activities conducted at the area. manual clearance of the sites by removal of ceramics and faunal remains also aggravates the loss of archaeological data. The availability of shell bangles and shell debitage from the study area point towards the use of shell bangles as ornament and small scale shell bangle production at the area. Due to the extension of agricultural activities. Various ceramic types like Red Ware. its manufacturing technique and decorative patterns clearly indicate the technological knowhow and aesthetic sense of the Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan people. now all the structures at the site are completely destroyed. the chronology of the Chalcolithic phase in Talaja taluka can be fixed as c. Rojdi C and Kuntasi II) or both the periods. All sites including Padri are highly disturbed due to agricultural activities. The use of tractors and JCB for leveling of land and agricultural operations. 3600-1900 i. The role of natural agencies like water cannot be ruled out as well.e. Buff Ware. Based on the relative date of artefacts from the explored sites and radio carbon dates from various levels of Padri.

169: Variation in the Size of Sites in the Study Area 4 3 2 1 0 Kha Sak Vejo Sult Sult Ha Padr Bhal Borl Datr Liliv nder hav Talli dhar anp anp mir i ar a avad av a adar i ur I ur II para maximum Deposit in Meter 0.63 6 7.170: Variation in the Probable Maximum Deposit of Sites in the Study Area 546    .75 1 3.75 0.  Results    and around Padri varies from 0.5 1 0.12 ha to 7.169) and the probable maximum cultural deposit of the sites ranges from 0.14 Chart 4.12 0.170).32 1. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Sakh Sulta Sulta Ham Datr Liliv Bhal Khan Vejo avad Talli npur npur irpar Borla Padri avad av ar dera dhari ar I II a Site Size in Hectare 0.2 Chart 4. Many a times.25 2.5 0.48 0.25 0.5 1.5 0.1 1.5 0.9 1.2 m (Chart 4. the distribution of the artifacts do not truly represent the exact size of settlements as the modern land leveling techniques leads to the spread of artifacts of a particular site into nearby areas/fields.75 0.5 0.5 0. The area of the sites is calculated based on the distribution of artifacts.5 m to 3.14 ha (Chart 4.57 2.

Figure 4. Above all.    Results  Distribution of all the explored Chalcolithic sites is restricted to close proximities of water bodies and on fertile black cotton soil (Kalimatti) in contrast to Medieval sites located on sandy red soil locally known as Goradumatti. technology of production and decorative element indicates the existence of unifying bond probably in the form of controlling authority.63: Ceramics of Different Periods from Padri Gohilini Figure 4. the contrasting results of different explorations in the study area show that systematic surveys can produce more authentic information regarding the distribution of sites and its nature.66: Ceramics of Different Periods from Lilivav 547    . This similarity in the selection of habitation area and uniformity in material culture in its form. exchange of raw materials or finished products and exchange of ideas.

72: Ceramics of Different Periods from Khandera 548    .68: Ceramics of Different Periods from Sakhavadar Figure 4.    Results  Figure 4.70: Ceramics of Different Periods Sultanpur I. Sultanpur II and Vejodhari Figure 4.

76: Ceramics of Different Periods from Hamirpara Figure 4.78: Ceramics of Different Periods from Borla Figure 4.    Results  Figure 4. Ceramics of Different Periods from Bhalar 549    .80.

85.    Results  Figure 4.82. Ceramics of Different Periods from Datravad Figure 4. Ceramics of Different Periods from Talli 550    .

Rojka. As the scope of this thesis is limited to Chalcolithic period. 8 villages of Khambhat taluka and 15 villages of Tarapur taluka in Anand district.25 and 4. Kharad II and Kotadiya in Dhandhuka 551    . Major objectives of the exploration were to identify the distribution of Micaceous Red Ware and other regional Chalcolithic traditions/cultures like Sorath Harappan. Late Sorath Harappan (11). Late Sorath Harappan and Lustrous Red Ware) periods are discussed. Lustrous Red Ware (2) Early Historic (1) and Late Medieval (14). Kharad I. Micaceous Red Ware (8). 56 villages of Dholka taluka and 2 villages of Bavla taluka in Ahmedabad district. only cultural remains from the sites of the Urban (Classical Harappan.171) were identified and the artifacts from these newly explored and revisited sites were divided into representative cultures/traditions namely Classical Harappan/Sorath Harappan (13). led to an exploration within an area of twenty five kilometer radius around Lothal. an excavated Urban Harappan settlement and one of the earliest dated Micaceous Red Ware yielding sites in the Bhal region. 19 sites (Table 4. The explored area covered 47 villages of Dhandhuka taluka. Padana. changes in selection of the area in different periods for settlement and the variation in the size of the settlements. Chart 4. The explored/revisited Chalcolithic sites are 13 in number and they are Balgamada. Map 4.26. Sorath Harappan and Micaceous Red Ware) and Post Urban Harappan (Micaceous Red Ware. During the course of exploration. AHMEDABAD DISTRICT Introduction Archaeological reconnaissance carried out by the researcher in May-June 2007.    Results  ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION AROUND LOTHAL. 17 villages of Limbdi taluka in Surendranagar district.26. Lustrous Red Ware and Classical Harappan artifacts in and around Lothal to understand the nature of the sites.

7’ E SH. 35. LM 5 Kharad II Kharad Dhandhuka Ahmedabad 22° 19. SH. LRW. 00. 16. Khetar (Timbo) 3 Kediya Timbo LM Padana Dhandhuka Ahmedabad 22° 20.2’ E SH.9’ E SH. LSH. LSH.3’ N 71° 58. LSH.0’ E SH. LM 7 Lothal Saragwala Dholka Ahmedabad 22° 31.7’ E SH. LSH.6’ N 71° 59.4’ N 72° 00. LM Dhandhuka Ahmedabad 22° 20. 18. 10.8’ N 71° 56.7’ N 71° 59. 37. LSH. LSH. 05. 51. MRW.1’ E CH. No. 29. 92. 53. LM 4 Kharad I Kharad Dhandhuka Ahmedabad 22° 19. LSH.  Results    Table 4.4’ N 72° 02. MRW 6 Kotadiya Kotadiya Dhandhuka Ahmedabad 22° 20.26: Newly Explored and Revisited Sites in and around Lothal Sl. MRW. 50. 10.4’ E SH. MRW. 83. BRW 554    . EH. MRW. Site Village Taluka 1 Govind Parekh no Khetar Balgamada 2 Jasabhai Bachubhai no Rojka District Latitude Longitude Chronology Dhandhuka Ahmedabad 22° 17.2’ N 72° 14.

LSH. 79.2’ E SH 14 Ramalpar Rupgadh Dholka Ahmedabad 22° 38.3’ N 72° 17.7’ N 71° 55. 32.4’ E LM 15 Taliya Kadipur Dholka Ahmedabad 22° 39. BRW: Black and Red Ware.8’ N 72° 23.8’ E LM 16 Sarodi Mata no Timbo Dugari Tarapur Anand 22° 33.0’ E SH. 97. Tekaro 12 Rangpur LM Rangpur Limbdi Surendranagar 22° 24. LM: Late Medieval 555    . 69.6’ N 72° 24. LRW 13 Talavadi Jalampar Limbdi Surendranagar 22° 35. 74. MRW 10 Vadgam II Vadgam Khambhat Anand 22° 29. 28. 07. 10.0’ N 71° 58. MRW.5’ E LM CH: Classical Harappan.1’ N 72° 04. LSH.2’ N 71° 56.8’ E LM 18 Dangro Mota Tharadiya Limbdi Surendranagar 22° 32. 60. 27.4’ N 72° 03.8’ E SH. 94. 63.9’ N 72° 27. MRW: Micaceous Red Ware.7’ N 72° 28. SH: Sorath Harappan. LSH. LM 9 Vadgam I Vadgam Khambhat Anand 22° 20. 10. 59. 18.3’ E SH. 90. EH: Early Historic. 83.6’ E SH. LRW: Lustrous Red Ware. BRW. 06. 85.4’ E LM 17 Vankar no Khetar Pasegam Tarapur Anand 22° 32. LSH: Late Sorath Harappan. BRW.2’ E SH. 02. LM 11 Pampadia Hanumanji no Panasina Limbdi Surendranagar 22° 30. LSH. 34.  8 Results    Manubhai no Khetar Koth Dholka Ahmedabad 22° 37. MRW. 04.8’ E LM 19 Devpura Devpura Limbdi Surendranagar 22° 32. 89.3’ N 72° 20. 51.2’ N 72° 25.

General Map 556    .    Results  Map 4.25: All the Newly Explored/Revisited Sites In and Around Lothal.

171: Cultural Affiliation of Newly Explored/Revisitied Sites Around Lothal 557    . Detailed Map CH & SH LSH MRW BRW LRW EH LM Ahmedabad 8 8 6 1 1 1 8 Anand 2 1 1 1 0 0 3 Surendranagar 3 2 1 1 1 0 3 Chart 4.26: All the Newly Explored/Revisited Sites around Lothal.  Results    Map 4.

At Rangpur and Kotadiya.    Results  taluka.27: Newly Explored/Revisited Classical/Sorath Harappan Sites around Lothal 558    . Urban Harappan artifacts were found associated with Post Urban Harappan/Late Sorath Harappan cultural relics. Vadgam II and Panasina showed the presence of Black and Red Ware along with the Sorath Harappan artifacts. Except at Balgamada. Sorath Harappan artifacts were collected along with Lustrous Red Ware. Lothal and Koth in Dholka taluka. All the Chalcolithic sites in the explored area (Map 4. Based on the available c14 dates and relative chronology suggested for similar kind of artifacts yielding sites from other parts of Gujarat. all the explored/revisited Urban Harappan/Sorath Harappan sites can be roughly dated in between 2600-1900 BC. Panasina and Jalampar. Rangpur and Jalampar in Limbdi taluka. In the sites except Vadgam II and Jalampar. Vadgam II. Map 4. Lothal. Rojka. Vadgam I and Vadgam II in Khambhat taluka and Panasina. Sorath Harappan artifacts were found associated with Micaceous Red Ware.27) revealed Sorath/Urban Harappan artefacts.

Panasina and Rangpur. Vadgam I. From all these sites.28) are Balgamada. Based on the available c14 dates and relative chronology suggested for similar kind of artifacts yielding sites from other parts of Saurashtra. Map 4.28: Newly Explored/Revisited Late Sorath Harappan Sites around Lothal 559    . Kharad I. Rojka. the Late Sorath Harappan ceramics were represented by Lustrous Red Ware. Lothal. At Lothal. Except at Balgamada.    Results  The Post Urban Harappan/Late Sorath Harappan sites in the explored area (Map 4. Kotadiya. Black and Red Ware was also found along with them. Padana. Koth. Late Sorath Harappan artifacts were found associated with Micaceous Red Ware. At Kotadiya and Rangpur. Late Sorath Harappan artefacts were collected along with Sorath Harappan cultural relics. Kharad II. Rojka and Panasina. Vadgam II and Panasiana. the Post Urban Harappan/ LateSorath Harappan sites can be roughly dated in between 1900-1400 BC.

30) and in both the sites it was found along with Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan artefacts and Micaceous Red Ware.29: Newly Explored/Revisited Micaceous Red Ware Sites around Lothal Lustrous Red Ware was only reported from Kotadiya and Rangpur (Map 4. Vadgam I and Rangpur. all 560    . Koth. all the ceramics of this tradition can be roughly dated in between 2600-1600 BC or little later. Lothal. Based on the available c14 dates and relative chronology suggested for Micaceous Red Ware yielding sites in Gujarat.    Results  The Micaceous Red Ware sites in the explored area (Map 4. Map 4. None of the sites showed its independent existence and they were found associated with Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan artefacts.29) are Padana. Kharad II. Kotadiya. Kharad I. Based on the available c14 dates and relative chronology suggested for Lustrous Red Ware yielding sites in Gujarat.

The excavations at the site led to the recovery of Classical Harappan. 1962: 14-30. 1979. 285x230x6. 4.5m (maximum deposit) revealed a citadel. the so called dockyard (fig. it is interpreted as an urban settlement.2’ N. architectural elements and other artifacts recovered from the site. 1965: 30-37. ware houses and a well. The excavations at the site (fig.e. 1900-1400 BC. Map 4.55 ha i. 1973. a lower town. the Harappan settlement at Saragwala village in Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district was excavated between 1955-1962 by Archaeological Survey of India (Rao 1956: 82-89. 37.1’ E) Lothal. 92. Based on its location.    Results  the ceramics of this local tradition can be roughly dated in between c. 1985). Sorath Harappan 561    .86) measuring 6.87). 4.30: Newly Explored/Revisited Lustrous Red Ware Sites around Lothal Lothal (22° 31. 72° 14.

slag/vitrified clay. Different artifacts collected from the surface of the site during the exploration include various ceramics. Many places of the site are vegetated by Acacia Sp. broken pottery disc. At present. Majority of the structural remains visible on the surface are reconstructions probably carried out as part of conservation works. pinched cakes. Figure 4. the protected site opened for tourists is comparatively well preserved. shell bead.    Results  and Late Sorath Harappan artifacts and Micaceous Red Ware (regional Chalcolithic ceramic type).86: Chalcolithic Settlement at Lothal (adapted: Google Earth 2007) 562    . The colour of the archaeological sediment/soil is brown/dark gray. unidentified copper object and lithic debitage. triangular terracotta cakes.

00 Percentage Black and Red Buff Gray Micaceous Red Red 3.00 20.89 9. neck and shoulders and body sherds.43 79. These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots.00 60. 563    .172) and the vessel parts collected from the site include rims.172: Distribution of Various Wares at Lothal The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Lothal was represented by sherds of Red Ware. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware (Chart 4.77 5.  Results    Figure 4.00 40. bases.25 Chart 4. General View 80.87: The So Called Dockyard at Lothal. Micaceous Red Ware.66 1. Buff Ware.00 0.

 

 

Results 

basins, bowls, perforated jars, dishes, dish on stands and lids. Rim diameter of
various vessels varied from 6 to 41 cm. One of the dishes from the site has slight
carination. All the vessels from the site are made using hand and wheel or
multiple techniques. Some bases retain the string cut marks on the external
surface. Perforated jars showed finished pre-firing perforations on the body.
Though the texture of ceramic assemblage from the site can be divided into three
categories namely coarse, medium and fine; most of the sherds are of fine texture.
Most of the sherds from Lothal have slip on external surface and certain vessel
types like pots are unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessels, the surface
treatment is unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal surface.
Some vessels have bichrome/ two slips on them. In a few vessels, the internal slip
is restricted to the rim portion. Surfaces of many vessels are burnished and surface
feel of sherds from the site can be divided into two categories i.e. rough and
smooth. Majority of the vessels have a smooth surface. Sherds have even or
uneven, eroded/abraded and calcium/salt/algae encrusted surfaces. A few of the
sherds from the site have painted decorations on them. The designs are mainly
confined to the external surface and only a few sherds have decorations on both
the surfaces. The decorations are confined to rim, brim, neck, shoulder and body.
Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading. Decorations on
the ceramics can be classified into three namely geometric (horizontal and vertical
lines), non-geometric (‘V’ like symbol) and representation of nature (wavy
pattern). Most of the vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the
sherds have finger marks, beating/paddling marks and scratches on the surfaces. In
some vessels, the finishing technique is unclear. One of the sherds has a deep
scratch (probably graffiti) on its brim. Many of the vessels have stains of external
paint or slip on internal surface. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and few
have deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions in kiln. Several sherds have
irregular breakages and few have smooth breakages. All the ceramics have mica
particles, small sand particles and big sand particles. A few of the sherds from
564 

 

 

 

Results 

Lothal have impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions in them.
One of the sherds from the site is green in colour. The green colour may be due to
overheating or slight vitrification of surfaces. The ceramics can be chronologically
divided into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan and the vessels are
Classical Harappan, Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan and Micaceous Red
Ware in nature assignable to Rangpur IIA, IIB and IIC phases (fig. 4.88) (more
details in Appendix 10). As per the earlier c14 dates and relative dates, the finds
from the surface of the site can be roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC.

Vadgam I (22° 20. 51.6’ N, 72° 24. 79.2’ E)
One of the archaeological mounds at Vadgam locally known as Chandubhai
Akhubhai no Timbo (fig. 4.89) is located 2 km southeast of present village. A pond
located west of the mound is the nearest water source and the site is located 1 km
southeast of the site. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments of the site

Figure 4.89: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site, Vadgam I
565 

 

 

Results 

 

are dark gray and brown. The Chalcolithic site was first reported by J. P. Joshi of
the Archaeological Survey of India in 1964-65 (IAR 1964-65: 10-11). The site was
re-reported in 1972-73 and 1974-75 by M. K. Momin of The Maharaja Sayajirao
University of Baroda (IAR 1972-73: 10; IAR 1974-75: 13). The highly disturbed
Chalcolithic settlement measuring 400x400x1m (16 ha) is devoid of any structural
remains and has good quantity of ceramics scattered on its surface. Apart from
various ceramics, broken pottery disc, terracotta balls, cut shell columella and a
broken antler were collected from the site.

100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00
Percentage

Gray

Micaceous Red

Red

1.47

5.88

92.65

Chart 4.173: Distribution of Various Wares at Vadgam I
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Vadgam I was represented by sherds of
Red Ware (dominant group), Micaceous Red Ware and Gray Ware (Chart 4.173)
and the vessel parts collected from the site include rims, bases, neck and shoulders,
body sherds and stems. These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, basins,
bowls, dishes and dish on stands. Rim diameter of various vessels varied from 8 to
43 cm. One of the dishes from the site has slight carination. All the vessels from
the site are made using hand and wheel or multiple techniques. One of the stems
566 

 

 

 

Results 

of dish on stands has looting marks on its surface. Though the texture of ceramic
assemblage from the site can be divided into two categories namely coarse and
fine; most of the sherds are of fine texture. Most of the sherds from the site have
slip on external surface and certain vessel types like pots are unslipped on the
internal surface. In certain vessels, the surface treatment is unknown due to the
eroded nature of the external or internal surface. In a few vessels like pots, the
internal slip is only applied on rim portion. Surfaces of many vessels are burnished
and surface feel of sherds from the site can be divided into two categories i.e.
rough and smooth. Majority of the vessels have a smooth surface. Sherds have
even or uneven, eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. A few of the
sherds from the site have decorations on them and they are mainly painted designs
and a few have incised decorations. The designs are mainly confined to external
surface and few sherds have decorations only on the internal and some have on
both the surfaces. The decorations are confined to rim, brim, neck, shoulder, body
and stem. Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading.
Majority of the vessels are devoid of any decorations. Decorations on the ceramics
can be classified into three namely geometric (horizontal lines, vertical lines and
triangles), non-geometric (net like pattern) and representation of nature (wavy
pattern). One of the sherds from the site has mat impressions on its external
surface. Most of the vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the
sherds have finger marks, beating/paddling marks and scratches on the surfaces. In
some vessels, the finishing technique is unclear. A few of the vessels have soot
marks on the surfaces and some of them might be cooking vessels. Majority of the
vessels have deoxidized core and few have oxidized core indicating the firing
conditions in kiln. Several sherds have irregular breakages and few have smooth
breakages. All the ceramics have mica particles, small sand particles and big sand
particles. Few of the sherds from Lothal have impurity imprints and white
organic/inorganic inclusions in them. The ceramics can be chronologically divided
into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan and the vessels are Sorath
567 

 

 

 

Results 

Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan and Micaceous Red Ware in nature assignable to
Rangpur IIA, IIB and IIC phases (fig. 4.90) (more details in Appendix 10). As per
the c14 dates for similar kind of materials from nearby sites and relative dates, the
finds from the surface of the site can be roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC.

Vadgam II (22° 29. 90.2’ N, 72° 25. 94.0’ E)
The newly discovered archaeological mound at Vadgam locally known as
Jambamobat Singh Rahulbhai and Harendra Singh Bhai no Khetar and Bharatbhai
Gulab Singh Gohil no Khetar (fig. 4.91) is highly disturbed due to agricultural
activities and is located 1.5 km north of present village. The river Sabarmati
flowing 1 km north of the site is the nearest water source. The colour of the
soil/archaeological sediments of the site are grayish brown in colour. The
Chalcolithic settlement measuring 150x150x1m (2.25 ha) is devoid of any
structural remains and has sparse distribution of ceramics. Majority of the
ceramics in the site is Late Medieval in nature and glazed pot sherds are present in
the collection. Apart from various ceramics, broken pottery discs, a terracotta ear
stud/spindle whorl, sandstone muller and broken grinding stone were collected
from the site.

Figure 4.91: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site, Vadgam II
568 

 

 

Results 

 

100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00
Percentage

Black and Red

Red

16.67

83.33

Chart 4.174: Distribution of Various Wares at Vadgam II
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Vadgam II was represented by sherds of
Red Ware (dominant group), and Black and Red Ware (Chart 4.174) and the vessel
parts collected from the site include rims, bases, shoulders and body sherds. These
sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, basins, bowls, lids, dishes and dish on
stands. Rim diameter of various vessels varied from 12 to 48 cm. One of the bowls
from the site has slight carination. All the vessels from the site are made using
hand and wheel or multiple techniques. Though the texture of ceramic assemblage
from the site can be divided into three categories namely coarse, medium and fine;
most of the sherds are of medium texture followed by the fine texture. Most of the
sherds from the site have slip on external surface and certain vessels like pots are
unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessel types, the surface treatment is
unknown due to the eroded nature of the external or internal surface. In few
vessels like pots, the internal slip is applied on rim portion only. Surfaces of many
vessels are burnished and surface feel of sherds from the site can be divided into
two categories i.e. rough and smooth. Majority of the vessels have smooth surface
feel. Sherds have even or uneven, eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted
surfaces. All sherds, except one was devoid of any decorations. The sherd has
569 

 

 

 

Results 

incised decoration on its external surface and it can be classified into two namely
geometric (horizontal strokes) and non-geometric (curvy lines). Most of the
vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the sherds have finger
marks, beating/paddling marks and scratches on the surfaces. In some vessels, the
finishing technique is unclear. A few of the vessels have soot marks on the surfaces
and some of them might be cooking vessels. Majority of the vessels have
deoxidized core and a few have oxidized core indicating the firing conditions in
kiln. Several sherds have irregular breakages and few have smooth breakages. All
the ceramics have mica particles, small sand particles and big sand particles. Few
of the sherds from the site have impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic
inclusions in them. The Chalcolithic ceramics can be chronologically classified
under Urban Harappan phase i.e. Sorath Harappan assignable to Rangpur IIA and
IIB phases (more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14 dates for similar kind of
materials from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds from surface of the site can
be roughly dated between 2600-1900 BC.

Jalampar (22° 35. 34.4’ N, 72° 03. 85.2’ E)
Archaeological site in the abandoned village at Jalampar locally known as Talavadi
(fig. 4.92) is highly disturbed due to the construction of a pond, agricultural
activities and water logging. Ghanasyampur, the nearest village is located 3 km
east of the site. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments of the site are dark
brown. The site is sparsely vegetated by Acacia Sp. The newly discovered
Chalcolithic settlement measuring 80x50x0.50m (0.40 ha) is devoid of any
structural remains and has very sparse distribution of ceramics only. The ceramics
collected from the site is Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan in nature.
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Jalampar was represented by sherds of Red
Ware and the vessel parts collected from the site include rims, base, shoulders, and
body sherds and stud handles. These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, dish,
stud handle bowl and dish on stand (Chart 4.175). Rim diameter of various vessels
570 

 

 

Results 

 

Figure 4.92: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at Jalampar

30
20
10
0

Rim

Shoulder

Body

Pot

12.5

25

25

Dish

12.5

Dish on Stand
Stud Handle Bowl

Base

Stud Handle

12.5
12.5

Chart 4.175: Distribution of Various Red Ware Vessel Parts at Jalampar
varied from 14 to 38 cm. All the vessels from the site are made using hand and
wheel or multiple techniques. Though the texture of ceramic assemblage from the
site can be divided into three categories namely coarse, medium and fine; most of
the sherds are of fine texture followed by medium texture. Many of the sherds
from the site have slip on external surface and certain vessel types like pots are
unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessels, the surface treatment is
571 

 

 

 

Results 

unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal surface. Surface feel of
sherds from the site can be divided into two categories i.e. rough and smooth.
Majority of the vessels have rough surface feel. Sherds have even or uneven,
eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. Two of the sherds from the
site have decorations in the form of painted designs and a few carry incised
decorations. The designs are confined to brim and external surface of a body sherd.
The painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading. Majority of the vessels
are devoid of any decorations. Decorations on the ceramics can be classified into
two namely geometric (horizontal lines) and representation of nature (wavy
pattern). Most of the vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the
sherds have finger marks, beating/paddling marks, soot marks and scratches on the
surfaces. Majority of the vessels have deoxidized core and a few have oxidized core
indicating the firing conditions in kiln. Several sherds have irregular breakages
and one sherd has a smooth breakage. All the ceramics have mica particles, small
sand particles and big sand particles. A few of the sherds from Jalampar have
impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. The ceramics
can be chronologically placed into Urban Harappan phase and the vessels are
Sorath Harappan in nature assignable to Rangpur IIA and IIB phases (fig. 4.93)
(more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14 dates for similar kind of materials
from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds from the surface of the site can be
roughly dated between 2600-1900 BC.

Koth (22° 37. 60.3’ N, 72° 17. 83.3’ E)
The archaeological site at Koth locally known as Manubhai Ramjibhai Khambi no
Khetar (fig. 4.94) is highly disturbed due to agricultural activities and is located 0.5
km southwest of present village. A pond located on the northwest side of the site
is the nearest water source. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments of the
site are light grayish brown. The site was first reported by S. R. Rao of
Archaeological Survey of India (Rao 1963: 181 and 206, Rao 1979: 699). The

572 

 

 

Results 

 

Chalcolithic settlement measuring 100x100x0.5m (1 ha) is devoid of any structural
remains and has sparse distribution of other artifacts. Majority of the ceramics are
undaignostic in nature and Late Medieval ceramics are also present. Apart from
various ceramics, broken perforated pottery disc and four broken terracotta balls
were collected from the site.

Figure 4.94: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at Koth

100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00
Percentage

Red

Micaceous Red

83.33

16.67

Chart 4.176: Distribution of Various Wares at Koth
573 

 

 

 

Results 

The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Koth was represented by sherds of Red
Ware (dominant group) and Micaceous Red Ware (Chart 4.176) and the vessel
parts collected from the site include rims, neck and shoulder and body sherds.
These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, basin, lid, dish and dish on stand.
Rim diameter of various vessels varied from 21 to 41 cm. All the vessels from the
site are made using hand and wheel or multiple techniques. Though the texture of
ceramic assemblage from the site can be divided into three categories namely
coarse, medium and fine; most of the sherds are of medium texture followed by a
fine texture. Most of the sherds from the site have slip on external surface and
certain vessel types like pots are unslipped on the internal surface. In certain
vessels, the surface treatment is unknown due to the eroded nature of the external
or internal surface. In a few vessels like pots, the internal slip is applied on the rim
portion only. Surfaces of many vessels are burnished and surface feel of sherds
from the site can be divided into two categories i.e. rough and smooth. Majority of
the vessels have a rough surface. Sherds have even or uneven, eroded/abraded and
calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. All sherds, except one was devoid of any
decorations. The sherd has painted decoration on external surface and it can be
classified under geometric (horizontal strokes) designs. Most of the vessels from
the site retain regular striations. Scrap marks are present on the internal surface of
one sherd. A few of the sherds have scratches on the surfaces. One of the vessels
has stains of external slip on internal surface. In some vessels, the finishing
technique is unclear. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and few have
deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions in kiln. Half of the sherds in the
collection have irregular breakages. All the ceramics have mica particles, small
sand particles and big sand particles. A few of the sherds from the site have
impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. In the earlier
reports (Rao 1963), the ceramics from the site is divided into two phases namely
Rangpur IIA and IIB (fig. 4.93). But the ceramics collected during the present
exploration can be chronologically classified under Urban Harappan (Sorath
574 

 

 

 

Results 

Harappan) and Post Urban Harappan (Late Sorath Harappan) phases assignable to
Rangpur IIA, IIB and IIC phases (more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14
dates for similar kind of materials from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds
from surface of the site can be roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC.

Rojka (22° 20. 83.4’ N, 72° 02. 18.0’ E)
Archaeological site at Rojka locally known as Jasabhai Bachubhai no
Khetar/Timbo (fig. 4.95) is highly disturbed due to agricultural activities and is
located 1 km west of present village. A pond located on the south side of the site is
the nearest water source. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments of the
site are dark brown. The present site appears to be a different one or the extension
of the previously reported site named Rojasar. The site Rojasar was reported in
1999 by Kiran Dimri of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. The
Chalcolithic settlement measuring 100x100x0.75m (1 ha) is devoid of any
structural remains and artifacts except ceramics. Majority of the Chalcolithic
ceramics are undiagnostic in nature. The site is also interesting for the presence of
Early Historic ceramics like Red Polished Ware and Late Medieval ceramics.

Figure 4.95: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at Rojka
575 

 

 

Results 

 

35.00
30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00

Pot

Bowl

Basin

Lamp

Dish on Stand

Rim

33.33

28.57

9.52

4.76

0

Body

14.29

0

0

0

0

Base

4.76

0

0

0

0

Stem

0

0

0

0

4.76

Chart 4.177: Distribution of Various Red Ware Potsherds at Rojka
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Rojka was represented by sherds of Red
Ware and the vessel parts collected from the site include rims, base, body sherds
and stems (Chart 4.177). These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, basin,
bowl, lamp and dish on stand. Rim diameter of various vessels varied from 13 to 41
cm. Two of the bowls from the site have slight carination. All the vessels from the
site are made using hand and wheel or multiple techniques. Though the texture of
ceramic assemblage from the site can be divided into three categories namely
coarse, medium and fine; most of the sherds are of fine texture followed by coarse
texture. Most of the sherds from the site have slip on external and internal surfaces
and certain vessel types like pots are however unslipped on the internal surface. In
a few vessels, the internal slip is only applied on rim portion. Surface feel of sherds
from the site can be divided into two categories i.e. rough and smooth. Majority of
the vessels have smooth surface feel. Sherds have even or uneven, eroded/abraded
and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. A few of the sherds from the site have
decorations in the form of painted designs and a few have incised decorations. The
designs are mainly confined to the external surface and only one sherd has
decoration on internal surface. The decorations are confined to rim, brim, neck,
shoulder and body. Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and
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fading. Majority of the vessels are devoid of any decorations. Decorations on the
ceramics can be classified into two namely geometric (horizontal lines) and nongeometric (nail/shell impressions). All of the vessels from the site retain regular
striations. A few of the sherds have scratches on the surfaces. Majority of the
vessels have oxidized core and few have deoxidized core indicating the firing
conditions in kiln. Several sherds have irregular breakages and very few have
smooth breakages. All the ceramics have mica particles, small sand particles and
big sand particles. A few of the sherds from the site have impurity imprints and
white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. The ceramics can be chronologically
divided into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan and the vessels are Sorath
Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan in nature assignable to Rangpur IIB and IIC,
Rojdi B and C phases and Kuntasi I and II periods (fig. 4.96) (more details in
Appendix 10). As per the radio carbon dates for similar kind of materials from
nearby sites and relative dates, the finds from surface of the site can be roughly
dated between 2600-1600 BC.

Panasina (22° 30. 74.0’ N, 71° 58. 02.6’ E)
Archaeological site at Panasina locally known as Jhampadia UkaBhai NanuBhai no
Khetar/Pampadia Hanumanji no Tekro (fig. 97) is highly disturbed due to
agricultural activities, land leveling, soil removal and construction of a temple.
The site is located half a km south of present village. Two ponds located in south
and west side respectively are the nearest water sources. The colour of the
soil/archaeological sediments of the site are grayish brown. The Chalcolithic site
was first reported by S. R. Rao of the Archaeological Survey of India (Rao 1963:
185). The Chalcolithic and Late Medieval settlement measuring 150x100x1.5m
(1.5 ha) is devoid of any structural remains and has moderate distribution of other
artifacts. Apart from ceramics of both the periods; pottery disc and perforated
pottery disc/spindle whorl, clay balls, grinding stones and unidentified copper
object were collected from the site.

577 

 

 

Results 

 

Figure 4. 97: General View of the Disturbed Archaeological Site at Panasina

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
Percentage

Black and Red

Buff

Red

2.27

13.64

84.09

Chart 4.178: Distribution of Various Wares at Panasina
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Panasina was represented by sherds of Red
Ware (dominant group), Buff Ware and Black and Red Ware (Chart 4.178) and the
vessel parts collected from the site include rims, body sherds, base and stud
handle. These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, basin, bowls, stud handle
bowls, dishes, dish on stands and perforated jars. Rim diameter of various vessels
578 

 

 

 

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varied from 8 to 56 cm. One of the dishes from the site has sharp carination. All
the vessels from the site are made using hand and wheel or multiple techniques.
Though the texture of ceramic assemblage from the site can be divided into three
categories namely coarse, medium and fine; most of the sherds are of fine texture.
Most of the sherds from the site have slip on external surface and certain vessels
like pots are unslipped on the internal surface. In a few vessel types like pots, the
internal slip is applied on the rim portion only. In certain vessels, the surface
treatment is unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal surface.
Some vessels have bichrome/two slips on them. Surfaces of many vessels are
burnished and surface feel of sherds from the site can be divided into two
categories i.e. rough and smooth. Majority of the vessels have smooth surface feel.
Sherds have even or uneven, eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces.
A few of the sherds from the site have painted decorations on them. The designs
are mainly confined to external surface and one sherd has decorations only on the
internal and some have on both the surfaces. The decorations are confined to rim,
brim, neck, shoulder, body and stud handle. Many of the painted designs are
subjected to abrasion and fading. Majority of the vessels are devoid of any
decorations. Decorations on the ceramics can be classified into two namely
geometric (horizontal lines, vertical lines) and non-geometric (criss cross pattern)
designs. Most of the vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the
sherds have scratches on the surfaces. In some vessels, the finishing technique is
unclear. Majority of the vessels have deoxidized core and a few have oxidized core
indicating the firing conditions in kiln. Several sherds have irregular breakages
and few have smooth breakages. All the ceramics have mica particles, small sand
particles and big sand particles. A few of the sherds from the site have impurity
imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. The ceramics can be
chronologically divided into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan and the
vessels are Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan in nature assignable to
Rangpur IIB and IIC, Rojdi B and C phases and Kuntasi I and II periods (fig. 4.98)
579 

 

 

 

Results 

(more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14 dates for similar kind of materials
from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds from surface of the site can be
roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC.

Padana (22° 20. 10.8’ N, 71° 56. 53.2’ E)
Archaeological site in the village land at Padana locally known as Kediya Timbo
(fig. 4.99) is disturbed in some portions due to the removal of Acacia Sp. and
agricultural activities. Village is located 2 km southwest of the site. Matava talav
located in the east side of the mound is the nearest water source. The colour of the
soil/archaeological sediments of the site are dark brown. The site is vegetated by
Acacia Sp. and thorny plants. The site was earlier reported as Kedio no Timbo in
Aniyali village by Krishnan and Dimri (IAR 1995-1996: 7) of The Maharaja
Sayajirao University of Baroda (IAR 1995-1996: 7). The Chalcolithic settlement
measuring 300x150x2.5m (4.5 ha) is devoid of any structural remains. The site
revealed Micaceous Red Ware, Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan, and Late
Medeival artifacts. Apart from ceramics, three broken pottery discs and two
complete discs were collected from the site.

Figure 4.99: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at Padana
580 

 

 

Results 

 

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
Percentage

Micaceous Red

Buff

Red

2.04

4.08

93.88

Chart 4.179: Distribution of Various Wares at Padana
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Padana was represented by sherds of Red
Ware (dominant group), Buff Ware and Micaceous Red Ware (Chart 4.179) and
the vessel parts collected from the site include rims, bases and body sherds. These
sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, basins, bowls, stud handle bowl, dishes,
dish on stands and lids. Rim diameter of various vessels varied from 8 to 39 cm.
Three of the bowls from the site have slight carination. All the vessels from the
site are made using hand and wheel or multiple techniques. The ceramic
assemblage from the site is essentially of fine texture. Most of the sherds from the
site have slip on external and internal surfaces and certain vessel types like pots
are however unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessels, the surface
treatment is unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal surface. In
a few vessels like pots, the internal slip is applied on the rim portion only. One
vessel has bichrome/two slips on it. Surfaces of many vessels are burnished and
surface feel of sherds from the site can be divided into two categories i.e. rough
and smooth. Majority of the vessels have smooth surface feel. Sherds have even or
uneven, eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. A few of the sherds
from the site have decorations on them and they are mainly painted designs and
one has incised decoration. The designs are mainly confined to the external
581 

 

 

 

Results 

surface and a few sherds have decorations only on the internal and some have on
both the surfaces. The decorations are confined to rim, brim, neck, body and base.
Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading. Decorations on
the ceramics are essentially geometric (horizontal lines and triangles) in nature.
Most of the vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the sherds have
finger marks and scratches on the surfaces. In some vessels, the finishing
technique is unclear. A few of the vessels have soot marks on the surfaces and
some of them might have been used as cooking vessels. Majority of the vessels
have oxidized core and a few have deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions
in kiln. Several sherds have irregular breakages and very few have smooth
breakages. All the ceramics have mica particles, small sand particles and big sand
particles. A few of the sherds from the site have impurity imprints and white
organic/inorganic inclusions in them. The ceramics can be chronologically divided
into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan and the vessels are Sorath
Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan and Micaceous Red Ware in nature assignable to
Rangpur IIB and IIC, Rojdi B and C phases and Kuntasi I and II periods (fig. 4.100)
(more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14 dates for similar kind of materials
from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds from surface of the site can be
roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC.

Balgamada (22° 17. 00.3’ N, 71° 58. 35.9’ E)
Archaeological site in the Balgamada village locally known as Govindbhai Parekh
no Khetar and Babubhai Nagjibhai no Khetar (fig. 4.101) is highly disturbed due to
the construction of a road and agricultural activities. The site is located 1 km
southeast of the village and Kharvi talav located on the southeast side of the
mound is the nearest water source. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments
of the site are dark brown in colour. The site appears to be different from the Late
Sorath Harappan settlement Lakhadungri reported in Bhalgamada village by Kiran
Dimri of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in 1999 (Dimri 1999). The

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Results 

 

Chalcolithic settlement measuring 400x400x2m (16 ha) is devoid of any structural
remains and has moderate distribution of ceramics. The ceramics collected from
the site are Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan and Late Medieval in nature.
Apart from ceramics, three pottery discs and two flakes of chert were also
collected from the site.

Figure 4.101: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at Balgamada

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
Percentage

Buff

Red

7.69

92.31

Chart 4.180: Distribution of Various Wares at Balgamada
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Results 

The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Balgamada was represented by sherds of
Red Ware (dominant group) and Buff Ware (Chart 4.180) and the vessel parts
collected from the site include rims, bases and body sherds. These sherds represent
vessel shapes like pots, basins, bowls, dishes and dish on stands. Rim diameter of
various vessels varied from 10 to 44 cm. All the vessels from the site are made
using hand and wheel or multiple techniques. Though the texture of ceramic
assemblage from the site can be divided into two categories namely medium and
fine; most of the sherds are of fine texture. Most of the sherds from the site have
slip on the external and internal surfaces, a few vessels types like pots are however
unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessels, the surface treatment is
unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal surface. In a few vessel
types like pots, the internal slip is only applied on rim portion. One vessel has
bichrome/two slips on it. Surfaces of many vessels are burnished and surface feel
of sherds from the site can be divided into two categories i.e. rough and smooth.
Majority of the vessels have smooth surface feel. Sherds have even or uneven,
eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. A few of the sherds from the
site have painted decorations on them. The designs are mainly confined to
external surface and a few sherds have decorations only on internal and some have
on both the surfaces. The decorations are confined to rim, brim, neck, shoulder
and body. Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading.
Decorations on the ceramics can be classified into two namely geometric
(horizontal lines, vertical lines and triangles) and non-geometric (slanting strokes).
Most of the vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the sherds have
finger marks and scratches on the surfaces. In some vessels, the finishing
technique is unclear. One of the vessels has stains of external slip on external
surface. A few of the vessels have soot marks on both the surfaces and some of
them might have been used as cooking vessels. Majority of the vessels have
deoxidized core and a few have oxidized core indicating the firing conditions in
kiln. Both the surfaces of one potsherd are vitrified probably due to overheating.
584 

 

 

 

Results 

Several sherds have irregular breakages and few have smooth breakages. All the
ceramics have mica particles, small sand particles and big sand particles. A few of
the sherds from the site have impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic
inclusions in them. The ceramics can be chronologically divided into Urban
Harappan and Post Urban Harappan phases and the vessels are Sorath Harappan,
Late Sorath Harappan and Micaceous Red Ware in nature assignable to Rangpur
IIB and IIC phases (fig. 4.102) (more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14 dates
for similar kind of materials from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds from
surface of the site can be roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC.

Kharad I (22° 19. 10.4’ N, 72° 00. 50.4’ E)
One of the archaeological sites in the Kharad village locally known as Devabhai
Kimbha no Timbo and Chintubhai Haribhai no Timbo (fig. 4.103) is highly
disturbed due to agricultural activities. The village is located 1.5 km southeast of
the site. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments of the site are dark brown
in colour. While comparing the location details and name of the owner of the
land, the site appears to be a new one and different from that reported in 1995-

Figure 4.103: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site: Kharad I
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Results 

 

1996 by Krishnan and Kiran Dimri in Kharad village (IAR 1995-1996: 9). The
Chalcolithic settlement measuring 150x150x1m (2.25 ha) is devoid of any
structural remains and has moderate distribution of ceramics. Apart from the
Classical Harappan, Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan and Late Medieval
artefacts, one pottery disc, one spindle whorl/perforated pottery disc, one shell
bangle fragment and cut columella were collected from the site.

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
Percentage

Buff

Red

Micaceous Red

6.35

90.48

3.17

Chart 4.181: Distribution of Various Wares at Kharad I
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Kharad I was represented by sherds of Red
Ware (dominant group), Micaceous Red Ware and Buff Ware (Chart 4.181) and
the vessel parts collected from the site include rims, base, body sherds and stems.
These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, basins, bowls, dishes, dish on stands
and perforated jar. Rim diameter of various vessels varied from 7 to 45 cm. One
sherd each belonging to the vessel shapes pots and bowls from the site has
carination. All the vessels from the site are made using hand and wheel or
multiple techniques. Perforated jars showed finished pre-firing perforations along
the whole body. Though the texture of ceramic assemblage from the site can be
divided into three categories namely coarse, medium and fine; most of the sherds
are of fine texture followed by very few sherds of medium texture. Most of the
sherds from the site have slip on external and internal surfaces, certain vessel types
like pots are however unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessels, the
surface treatment is unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal
586 

 

 

 

Results 

surface. In a few vessel shapes like pots, the internal slip is only applied on rim
portion. Surfaces of many vessels are burnished and surface feel of sherds from the
site can be divided into three categories i.e. rough, smooth and powdery (only one
sherd). Majority of the vessels have smooth surface feel. Sherds have even or
uneven, eroded/abraded and calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. A few of the sherds
from the site have painted decorations on them. The designs are mainly confined
to external surface and a few sherds have decorations only on the internal and
some have on both the surfaces. The decorations are confined to rim, neck,
shoulder, body and stem. Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion
and fading. Majority of the vessels are devoid of any decorations. Decorations on
the ceramics can be classified into two namely geometric (horizontal lines, vertical
lines and triangles) and representation of nature (wavy pattern). Most of the
vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the sherds have finger
marks, beating/paddling marks and scratches on the surfaces. In some vessels, the
finishing technique is unclear. Slip drops are present on the internal surface of
three of the vessels from the site. A few of the vessels have soot marks/smoke
clouding on both the surfaces and some of them might have been used as cooking
vessels. More than half of the vessels have oxidized core and few have deoxidized
core indicating the firing conditions in kiln. Several sherds have irregular
breakages and a few have smooth breakages. All the ceramics have mica particles,
small sand particles and big sand particles. A few of the sherds have impurity
imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. Two sherds have incised
strokes/graffiti on brim and one of them is pre-firing in nature and the other is of
post firing. The ceramics can be chronologically divided into Urban Harappan and
Post Urban Harappan and the vessels are Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan
and Micaceous Red Ware in nature assignable to Rangpur IIA, IIB and IIC phases
(fig. 4.104) (more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14 dates for similar kind of
materials from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds from surface of the site can
be roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC.
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Results 

Kharad II (22° 19. 16.7’ N, 71° 59. 29.7’ E)
Another archaeological site in Kharad village locally known as Jagdish Singh
Dadubhai and Vikram Singh Purnabhai no Khetar/Timbo (fig. 4.105) is disturbed
in some portions due to the agricultural activities. The central portion of the
mound is almost intact as it is untapped for agricultural activities. The site is
sparsely vegetated by Acacia Sp. and thorny bushes. Kharad village is located 3 km
south east of the site. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments of the site are
dark brown and ashy gray. The site was first reported in 1995-1996 by Krishnan
and Dimri (IAR 1995-96: 9; Dimri 1999). The Chalcolithic settlement measuring
450x450x2m (20.25 ha) is devoid of any structural remains and has moderate
distribution of ceramics. The ceramics collected from the site are Classical
Harappan, Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan and Micaceous Red Ware in
nature.

Figure 4.105: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site: Kharad II
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Results 

 

100.000
80.000
60.000
40.000
20.000
0.000
Percentage

Black and Red

Buff

Micaceous Red

Red

1.075

5.376

6.452

87.097

Chart 4.182: Distribution of Various Wares at Kharad II
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Kharad II was represented by sherds of
Red Ware (dominant group), Micaceous Red Ware, Buff Wae and Black and Red
Ware (Chart 4.182) and the vessel parts collected from the site include rims, bases,
body sherds, stem and stud handle. These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots,
basins, bowls, stud handle bowl, lamp, dishes and dish on stands. Rim diameter of
various vessels varied from 10 to 43 cm. A few of the vessels from the site have
slight or sharp carination. All the vessels from the site are made using hand and
wheel or multiple techniques. Perforated jars showed finished pre-firing
perforations along the whole body. Though the texture of ceramic assemblage
from the site can be divided into two categories namely coarse and fine; most of
the sherds are of fine texture. Most of the sherds from the site have slip on
external and internal surfaces, certain vessel shapes like pots are however
unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessels, the surface treatment is
unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal surface. In a few vessel
shapes like pots, the internal slip is applied on the rim portion only. Surfaces of
many vessels are burnished and surface feel of sherds from the site can be divided
into two categories i.e. rough and smooth. Majority of the vessels have smooth
surface feel. Sherds have even or uneven, eroded/abraded and calcium/salt
encrusted surfaces. A few of the sherds from the site have painted decorations on

589 

 

 

 

Results 

them. The designs are mainly confined to the external surface and a few sherds
have decorations only on the internal surface and some have on both the surfaces.
The decorations are confined to rim, brim, neck, shoulder, body and base. Many of
the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading. Majority of the vessels are
devoid of any decorations. Decorations on the ceramics can be classified into three
namely geometric (horizontal lines, vertical lines and triangles), non-geometric
(slanting strokes) and representation of nature (wavy pattern). Most of the vessels
from the site retain regular striations. A few of the sherds have finger marks,
beating/paddling marks and scratches on the surfaces. In some vessels, the
finishing technique is unclear. Slip drops and paint drops are present on the
internal surface of six vessels from the site. A few of the vessels have soot marks
on both the surfaces and some of them might have been used as cooking vessels.
One of the bowls from the site has four post-firing slight incisions/graffiti on its
external surface. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and a few have
deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions in kiln. Several sherds have
irregular breakages and a few have smooth breakages. All the ceramics have mica
particles, small sand particles and big sand particles. A few of the sherds have
impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. The ceramics
can be chronologically divided into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan
and the vessels are Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan and Micaceous Red
Ware in nature assignable to Rangpur IIA, IIB and IIC and Rojdi A, B and C (fig.
4.106) (more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14 dates for similar kind of
materials from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds from surface of the site can
be roughly dated between 2600-1600 BC.

Kotadiya (22° 20. 05.6’ N, 71° 59. 51.7’ E)
The archaeological site in the border of the villages Kotadiya/Kotariya and Kharad
locally known as Kumar Pal Singh Baldev Singh no Khetar and Kanjibhai no
Khetar (fig. 4.107) is highly disturbed due to agricultural activities and a small lane

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Results 

is running over the mound. Kotadiya, nearest village is located 2 km northeast of
the site. The colour of the soil/archaeological sediments of the site are dark brown.
The site was first reported as Pingi no Timbo I by Krishnan and Dimri (IAR 199596: 9; Dimri 1999). The Chalcolithic settlement measuring 400x400x1.50m (16 ha)
is devoid of any structural remains and has moderate distribution of Ceramics of
Classical Harappan, Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan, Micaceous Red
Ware, Lustrous Red Ware and Late Medieval Cultures/traditions. Apart from
ceramics, two pottery discs (one broken and one complete), one perforated pottery
disc/spindle whorl, one polisher/skin rubber of terracotta, one shell bangle
fragment and a flake of chert were collected from the site.

Figure 4.107: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at Kotadiya
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Kotadiya was represented by sherds of Red
Ware (dominant group), Micaceous Red Ware, Buff Ware and Lustrous Red Ware
(Chart 4.183) and the vessel parts collected from the site include rims, bases, neck
and shoulders, body sherds, stud handles and stems. These sherds represent vessel
shapes like pots, basins, bowls, stud handle bowls, dishes, dish on stands, lid and
perforated jar. Rim diameter of various vessels varied from 7 to 43 cm. One basin
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Results
80

60

40

20

0
Percentage

Buff

Lustrous Red

Micaceous Red

Red

6.98

2.33

17.44

73.25

Chart 4.183: Distribution of Various Wares at Kotadiya
and dish each from the site has slight carination. All the vessels from the site are
made using hand and wheel or multiple techniques. Perforated jars showed
finished pre-firing perforations in whole body. Though the texture of ceramic
assemblage from the site can be divided into two categories namely coarse and
fine; most of the sherds are of fine texture. Most of the sherds from the site have
slip on external and internal surfaces, certain vessel shapes like pots however are
unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessels, the surface treatment is
unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal surface. In a few vessel
shapes like pots, the internal slip is applied on the rim portion only. Surfaces of
many vessels are burnished and surface feel of sherds from the site can be divided
into two categories i.e. rough and smooth. Majority of the vessels have smooth
surface feel. Sherds have even or uneven, eroded/abraded and calcium/salt
encrusted surfaces. A few of the sherds from the site have painted decorations on
them. The designs are mainly confined to the external surface and a few sherds
have decorations only on the internal surface and some have on both the surfaces.
The decorations are confined to rim, brim, shoulder, body, stud handle and stem.
Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading. Decorations on
the ceramics can be classified into three namely geometric (horizontal lines,
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Results 

vertical lines and triangles), non-geometric (crisscross pattern, slanting and curvy
decorations) and representation of nature (wavy pattern). Most of the vessels from
the site retain regular striations. A few of the sherds have finger marks,
beating/paddling marks and scratches on the surfaces. In some vessels, the
finishing technique is unclear. A few of the vessels have soot marks/smoke
clouding on both the surfaces and some of them might have been used as cooking
vessels. One of the bowls from the site has 1 post-firing incision/graffiti on its
external surface. Majority of the vessels have oxidized core and a few have
deoxidized core indicating the firing conditions in the kiln. Several sherds have
irregular breakages and a few have smooth breakages. All the ceramics have mica
particles, small sand particles and big sand particles. A few of the sherds have
impurity imprints and white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. The ceramics
can be chronologically divided into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan
and the vessels are Classical, Sorath and Late Sorath Harappan, Micaceous Red
Ware and Lustrous Red Ware in nature assignable to Rangpur IIA, IIB, IIC, III and
Rojdi A, B and C phases (fig. 4.108) (more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14
dates for similar kind of materials from nearby sites and relative dates, the finds
from surface of the site can be roughly dated between 2600-1400 BC or little later.

Rangpur (22° 24. 10.7’ N, 71° 55. 69.8’ E)
Excavated archaeological site in the Rangpur village in Limbdi taluka (Vats 1935:
34-38; Ghurye 1939: 3-12; Dikshit 1950: 3-55; Rao 1963: 1-207) is highly disturbed
due to the construction of a large number of houses, shops, road, waste dumping,
soil removal for construction activities, agricultural practices and river action. The
modern Rangpur village is located over the mound. The colour of the
soil/archaeological sediments of the site are dark brown and light brown. A pond
located in the north side of the mound and Badar flows through the south side of
the mound are the nearest water sources. Many parts of the mound is thickly
vegetated by Acacia Sp. The Chalcolithic settlement (figs. 4.109 and 4.110)

593 

 

 

 

Results 

measuring approximately 300x200x6.5m (6 ha) did not reveal any structures on
the surface and has moderate distribution of ceramics. The ceramics collected from
the site is Classical Harappan, Sorath Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan, Micaceous
Red Ware and Lustrous Red Ware in nature. Apart from the ceramics, broken
piece of a shell and a hubbed wheel were collected from the site.

Figure 4.109: General View of Disturbed Archaeological Site at Rangpur
(Photo Courtesy: Gregg Jamison)

Figure 4.110: General View of Present Village Located over Rangpur Mound
(Photo Courtesy: Randall William Law II)
594 

 

 

Results 

 

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
Percentage

Micaceous Red

Lustrous Red

Red

3.53

5.88

90.59

Chart 4.184: Distribution of Various Wares at Rangpur
The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of Rangpur was represented by sherds of Red
Ware (dominant group), Micaceous Red Ware and Lustrous Red Ware (Chart
4.184) and the vessel parts collected from the site include rims, bases, shoulders
and stems. These sherds represent vessel shapes like pots, basins, bowls, dishes and
dish on stands. Rim diameter of the vessels varied from 6 to 55 cm. Few of the
vessels from the site have slight and sharp carination. All the vessels from the site
are made using hand and wheel or multiple techniques. One of the larger pots
from the site appears to be made of coiling technique and other has looting marks.
Though the texture of ceramic assemblage from the site can be divided into three
categories namely coarse, medium and fine; most of the sherds are of fine texture.
Most of the sherds from the site have slip on external and internal surfaces. In a
few vessels like pots, the internal slip is applied to the rim portion only. A few
sherds of pots are however unslipped on the internal surface. In certain vessels,
the surface treatment is unknown due to the eroded nature of external or internal
surface. Surfaces of many vessels are burnished and surface feel of sherds from the
site can be divided into two categories i.e. rough and smooth. Majority of the
vessels have smooth surface feel. Sherds have even or uneven, eroded/abraded and
calcium/salt encrusted surfaces. A few of the sherds from the site have decorations
595 

 

 

 

Results 

on them mainly in the form of painted designs. Pre-firing incised decorations were
noticed on a few sherds. The designs are mainly confined to the external surface
and a few sherds have decorations only on the internal surface and some have on
both the surfaces. The decorations are confined to rim, brim, neck, shoulder, body
and stem. Many of the painted designs are subjected to abrasion and fading.
Majority of the vessels are devoid of any decorations. Decorations on the ceramics
can be classified into three namely geometric (horizontal lines, vertical lines and
triangles) and non-geometric (criss ross design, net like pattern and comb teeth
pattern). Most of the vessels from the site retain regular striations. A few of the
sherds have scratches on the surfaces. In some vessels, the finishing technique is
unclear. A few of the vessels have soot marks/smoke clouding on both the surfaces
and some might have been used as cooking vessels. More than half of the vessels
have oxidized core and others have deoxidized core indicating the firing
conditions in kiln. Several sherds have irregular breakages and very few have
smooth breakages. All the ceramics have mica particles, small sand particles and
big sand particles. A few of the sherds from Rangpur have impurity imprints and
white organic/inorganic inclusions in them. The ceramics can be chronologically
divided into Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan and the vessels are Sorath
Harappan, Late Sorath Harappan, Micaceous Red Ware and Lustrous Red Ware in
nature assignable to previously suggested seriation i.e. Rangpur IIA, IIB, IIC and
III (fig. 4.111) (more details in Appendix 10). As per the c14 dates for similar kind
of materials from nearby sites and Rangpur phase sequence suggested by Rao
(1963), the finds from surface of the site can be roughly dated between 2600-1400
BC or little later.

Observations
Among the thirteen Chalcolithic sites highlighted in this section, five sites are
newly reported by the researcher and they are Vadgam II, Jalampar, Rojka (?),
Balgamada (?) and Kharad I (?). The sites like Lothal (Rao 1973, 1979, 1985),

596 

 

 

Results 

 

Vadgam I (IAR 1964-65, 1972-73, 1974-75), Koth (Rao 1963), Panasina (Rao 1963),
Padana (IAR 1995-96; Dimri 1999); Kharad II (IAR 1995-96; Dimri 1999),
Kotadiya (IAR 1995-96; Dimri 1999) and Rangpur (Vats 1935; Ghurye 1939;
Dikshit 1950; Rao 1963) were reported by various scholars and among them
Rangpur and Lothal are subjected to excavations earlier.

20
16
12
8
4
0
Padana Kharad I Rangpur

Vadgam Kharad
I
II

Lothal

Koth

Kotadiya

9.43

16.67

17.44

Name of Sites
Percentage

2.04

3.17

3.53

5.88

6.452

Chart 4.185: Distribution of Micaceous Red Ware in Different Sites in the Study
Area
All the Chalcolithic sites in the study area yielded Sorath Harappan artifacts while
eleven among them showed the presence of Late Sorath Harappan. Limited
amount of ceramics from the six explored sites are similar to the Classical
Harappan pottery. Eight sites in the area around Lothal yielded Micaceous Red
Ware and only two sites yielded Lustrous Red Ware. The results of the ceramic
analysis show that Micaceous Red Ware was not a dominant Ware (Chart 4.185)
in any of the sites in the study area. Based on the relative dates of the artefacts
from the explored sites and radio carbon dates from various levels of Lothal and
Rangpur, the chronology of the Chalcolithic phase in the area around Lothal can
be tentatively fixed as c. 2600-1600 BC or little later divisible into two phases;
Urban Harappan Phase (2600-1900 BC) and Post Urban Harappan Phase (19001400 BC).
Almost all sites except the protected area of the site Lothal are highly disturbed
due to agricultural activities, soil removal and construction works. The use of
597 

 

 

Results 

 

tractors and JCB for land leveling and agricultural works, manual clearance of the
sites by removing the ceramics and bone pieces also aggravates the loss of rich
cultural heritage/cultural relics. The role of natural agencies like water cannot be
ruled out as well. The size of the sites in the area in and around Lothal varies from
0.4 ha to 20.2 ha (Chart 4.186) and the probable maximum deposit of the sites
differs from 0.5 ha to 6.5 ha (Chart 4.187). The sizes are calculated based on the
concentration of artifacts. Many a times, the distribution of the artifacts does not
represent the exact size of settlements as the modern land leveling techniques
causes the spread of artifacts of a particular site into nearby areas/fields.

21
14
7
0

Jala
Pan Vad
Vad Balg
Kha
Kot Rojk
Kha Pada Ran Loth
Kota
mpa
asin gam
gam ama
rad
h
a
rad I na gpur al
diya
r
a
II
I
da
II
Site Name

Site Size in Hectare 0.4

1

1

1.5 2.25 2.25 4.5

6

6.55 16

16

16 20.2

Chart 4.186: Variation in the Size of Sites in the Study Area

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Ran
Vad Kha Vad Pan Kot Bal Kha
Jala
Lot
Pad
Kot Roj
gpu
gam rad gam asin adiy gam rad
mpa
hal
ana
h ka
r
II I
I
a
a ada II
r
Site Name

Maximum Deposit in Meter 0.5 0.5 0.75 1

1

1

1.5 1.5

2

2

2.5 6.5 6.5

Chart 4.187: Variation in the Probable Maximum Deposit of Sites in the Study
Area
598 

 

The hubbed wheel from the site Rangpur is an example of terracotta toys used by the Chalcolithic community for child care (Elke 2006). The availability of shell bangles. Micaceous Red Ware and Lustrous Red Ware collected from the study area. procurement of finished products or raw materials from different places or small scale shell bangle and bead production in the study area.    Results  None of the explored sites other than the excavated sites showed the presence of structures. Grinding stones and pestle stones collected from various sites probably indicate food grain processing. Above all. The availability of copper though in small amounts. from Lothal and Panasina reveals the knowledge of metal processing techniques and use of metal objects. It also indirectly indicates the existence of wheeled vehicles like bullock cart. Limited amount of animal bones recovered from the sites might be the wastes of meat consumption. If the spinning activity was in vogue it indirectly throw light on the probabilities of cotton cultivation or goat/sheep domestication in the area. Sorath Harappans. the contrasting results of different explorations in the study area show that systematic surveys can produce more authentic information regarding the distribution of sites and its nature. Distribution of all the explored Chalcolithic sites is restricted to close proximities of water bodies and on fertile black cotton soil of different shades of brown or gray (kalimatti). their manufacturing technique and decorative patterns clearly indicate the technological knowhow and aesthetic sense of the Classical Harappans. Various ceramic types like Red Ware. Buff Ware. Gray Ware. Perforated pottery discs and spindle whorls/ear studs (?) are indicators of possible spinning activities carried out at the area. beads and shell debitage from the study area point towards the use of shell bangles and beads as ornaments. Black and Red Ware. Late Sorath Harappans and Micaceous Red Ware using people. 599    .

90: Ceramics of Various Periods from Vadgam II Fig.93: Ceramics of Various Periods from Jalampar Talavadi and Koth 600    .88: Ceramics of Various Periods from Lothal Fig. 4. 4. 4.    Results  Fig.

4.96.    Results  Fig. 4. Ceramics of Various Periods from Rojka Fig. Ceramics of Various Periods from Panasina 601    .98.

    Results  Fig. 4.102. Ceramics of Various Periods from Balgamada 602    . 4.100: Ceramics of Various Periods from Padana Fig.

104: Ceramics of Various periods from Kharad I Figure 4.106: Ceramics of Various periods from Kharad II Figure 4.108: Ceramics of Various periods from Kotadiya 603    .    Results  Figure 4.

    Results  Figure 4.111: Ceramics of Various periods from Rangpur 604    .

3700-900 BC. General outline of the important observations made from the discussion and significant results of the present work along with future scope for further research are also enumerated under conclusion.Chapter – V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION A lot of us would like to move mountains. Padri Ware and Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan datable between c. In other words. it may be proposed as all the above traditions represent various phases of Harappan culture in Gujarat. Therefore. Other ceramic types such as Micaceous Red Ware. identifying regional elements and defining Chalcolithic cultures/traditions. convex sided bowls and concave sided bowls while they are not present in the typology of Classical Harappans. Regional Cultures/Traditions in Gujarat The archaeological researches till date have brought various regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions and the ceramic types in Gujarat under three chronological phases viz. some confining 605    . The regional cultures/traditions of Pre-Urban Harappan Phase are primarily marked by the Anarta Ceramic Tradition. include stud handled bowls. In various sites they were found associated with Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type pottery. Pre Urban Harappan. Black and Red Ware and Reserved Slip Ware. Padri Ware and Prabhas Ware have a distribution over cultural periods. (Anonymous) Introduction This chapter discusses the data put forth in the previous chapters with an aim to resolve the objectives of research mentioned in the introductory chapter. this chapter deals with fixing of chronology and regional stratigraphy. ceramics of Anarta tradition. Sorath Harappan Ceramics. But few of us are willing to practice on small hills. which show a regional typology.

Ajithprasad 2002. In many sites. But there are no clear cut evidences to support either the indigenous or outside origin theories. various regional traditions/cultures that were found together or found in association with Classical Harappan artefacts are Black and Red Ware and Reserved Slip Ware. Post Urban Harappan Phase was marked by small quantities of Micaceous Red Ware. In few sites of Gujarat. Due to certain similarities in vessel types or decorative patterns. Mesolithic period which precedes the Chalcolithic period is dated between 7000 BC to 3500 BC. few researchers discussed the similarities they shared with other contemporary cultures (Shinde 1998. ceramics of the Sorath Harappan and Prabhas Ware may be considered as the ceramic traditions of the Chacolithic Gujarat during Urban Harappan Period of which Classical Harappan also forms a part. Shinde 2010). a few researchers connected them with the cultures/traditions found outside Gujarat (Bhan 2010. Shirvalkar 2008) and some researchers proposed the concept of indigenous origin and changes over time (Shirvalkar 2008). Padri Ware. Certain sites showed the independent existence of microliths using people. The Mesolithic/Microliths yielding sites in Gujarat are more than 700 in number and many of the sites in Gujarat were found not suitable to explain the linear model of cultural change. In some sites. In this phase Malwa Ware and Jorwe Ware are also available in limited quantities from a few sites. Late Sorath Harappan Culture and Lustrous Red Ware. The earliest probable agricultural or food processing people of Gujarat may have been the Mesolithic/Microliths using communities. Microliths are found associated with 606    .Discussion and Conclusion   to contemporary Harappan while others spread through various stages of Chalcolithic development in Gujarat. Origin of Regional Cultures/Traditions There are different views among the scholars working in Gujarat regarding the origin of Pre Urban Harappan regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions of Gujarat. Ceramics of Anarta tradition. Micaceous Red Ware.

This reveals the differences in technological knowhow of Pre Urban Sindh Harappans and Regional cultures/traditions in Gujarat.Discussion and Conclusion   various phases of Harappan culture and a few sites showed the presence of Microliths even in the Early Historic period. Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type ceramics collected from various parts of Gujarat were made using fast wheel. At Loteshwar. Sites like Loteshwar. from the available data one can infer that introduction of crested guided ridge blade technique in Gujarat is the result of the contact between Pre Urban Harappans in Sindh and regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions in Gujarat. Rangpur and Jaidak showed the independent existence of Microlithic using communities prior to the Chalcolithic level/occupation and the archaeological remains collected from the sites include microliths. Similar kinds of blades were also reported from Somnath along with Pre-Prabhas ceramics and Harappan like pottery (probably the Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type) (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). crested ridge blades were not reported from the Mesolithic levels of any of the excavated sites in Gujarat. Pre Prabhas and Padri were made using hand or slow wheel/turn table. The earliest evidence for the crested ridge blades in the Chalcolithic context of Gujarat occurs in Datrana IV (c. 3200-2800 BC) where it was found occurring along with Pre-Prabhas ceramics. Anarta ceramics. the vessels of regional Chalcolithic traditions/cultures like Anarta. Similarly. At the same time. Hence. Many sites showed an unclear gap between the Mesolithic and the Chalcolithic occupations. The vessel shapes of the same are also very different from those in Sindh region or reported from any other parts of the 607    . Similarly. the blades collected from the Mesolithic and Chalcolithic levels were devoid of crested ridge guiding technique (Brahmbhatt 2000). Moti Pipli. ceramics collected from the excavations at Datrana IV is crudely made in comparison to other regional Chalcolithic types and constitutes as the most fragile ceramic type from Chalcolithic Gujarat. broken sandstone grinding stones and faunal remains from the Mesolithic levels. Datrana IV. Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type pottery and Rohri Chert blades.

Ajithprasad 2002). Patel (2008. the chronometric dates obtained from the Pre Urban Harappan levels at Loteshwar (Ajithprasad 2002. the moving communities have all the chances of developing contacts with other cultural communities so easily that it could have led to the diversity in material culture within the particular site. At the same time there is no evidence to prove the arrival of these people from anywhere else in Gujarat or other parts of Greater Indus region. If the pastoral nomads were to arrive from some other region. Ajithprasad 2002) go back to 3700 BC or earlier. 3200-2800 BC (Majumdar 1999. The Chalcolithic population of Datrana IV had their own technique of bead making and it appears to be different from that of Sindh region. 2009) 608    . The site has not yielded a single Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type pottery. These dates make one propose that the existence of regional cultures/traditions in Gujarat is datable to nearly 500 years before the beginning of their cultural contacts with Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region. Probably. Similarly. All the available data till date suggest that the contacts between the Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh and Regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions in Gujarat began approximately around c. Patel 2009). Pre Urban Harappan Chalcolithic population at Loteshwar had no contact or very minimal contact with the Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region and this can be inferred from the material evidences from the site. If one keenly observes the material remains from Loteshwar. they are termed as seasonal encampments of pastoral communities (Bhan 1994. 2009. similar artefacts should have been reported from other places in the Greater Indus region in good quantities. At the same time. Patel 2008) and Padri (Shinde 1998. Based on the AMS and conventional c14 dates from Loteshwar. it becomes obvious that the material remains of the site have not much changed over a period of 1500 years of occupation. Due to the presence of very flimsy deposit at many of the Chalcolithic sites in North Gujarat.Discussion and Conclusion   Indian subcontinent.

it becomes very clear that the samples were not collected systematically from regular intervals. 609    . food processing and food habits continue from the Mesolithic period with some addition. Based on the analysis of faunal remains from Loteshwar. in the flimsy deposit which represent approximately 5000 years of human habitation. Patel (2009) suggests the possibilities of the appearance of domesticated cattle during the Chalcolithic period contrary to the remains of wild cattle in the aceramic Mesolithic period. It implies that the domestication of animals and the introduction of ceramics are the distinguishing features of Chalcolithic period at Loteshwar where local tradition of stone tool production. wild sheep and goat are completely absent in Mesolithic and Chalcolithic levels and its domestic varieties are available at the site in later Chalcolithic levels and it may have been brought to the site probably from areas to the Northwest. instead they are randomly collected from various contexts and depths. Due to the availability of small sized cattle bones similar to those from the Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic levels at Mehrgarh along with large wild cattle bones at Loteshwar by the first half of the fourth millennium BC and difficulties in identifying the direct cultural interaction between Mehrgarh region and North Gujarat. even small gaps in the sampling for chronometric dates can create errors of hundreds or thousands of years. The studies of Patel (2008. Patel (2009) suggests the necessity to explore the possibility of Loteshwar being a local cattle domestication centre. Therefore.suggest a probable gap of nearly 1500 years. The introduction of domesticated sheep and goat at the site during the later levels of Chalcolithic period may indicate the beginning of cultural contacts in later period between the regional Cultures and Classical Harappans. According to Patel (2009). If one goes through the dates and the context (mainly pits) of dated material. 2009) indicate that the Mesolithic/Microliths using communities and the Chalcolithic population at the site are two different groups.

Absence of chronometric dates from these sites blocks its further interpretation. Whereas at Santhli and Mathutra only Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type ceramics are found (Majumdar 1999). The initial stage of Datrana reveals cultural materials of Pre Prabhas regional Chalcolithic tradition of Gujarat (Ajithprasad 2002). In the beginning. 3200 BC. By c. there are clear evidences for the contacts between different regional cultures and cultures of Sindh region. It is possible that major contacts and cultural integration between the Gujarat region and Indus region occurred at a later stage. the regional Chalcolithic cultures/tradition that evolved from the Mesolithic communities of Gujarat around c. The final phase of Datrana has a mixture of both regional and Pre Urban Harappan materials (Ajithprasad 2002). This is supported by the presence of 610    . These Chalcolithic people produced pottery in their own style and domesticated animals.Discussion and Conclusion   On the basis of aforesaid archaeological data it is logical to propose that the regional Chalcolithic people within the Gujarat region may have evolved from the Mesolithic/Microliths using people settled here approximately by the beginning of 4th millennium BC. Similarly. Beginning of Cultural Contact The evidences for the beginning of cultural contacts between the Chalcolithic communities and Mesolithic communities of Gujarat with that of their contemporary cultural tradition in Sindh region are available towards the end of 4th millennium BC approximately. ceramic types from Santhli (Majumdar 1999) and Mathutra (Majumdar 1999) suggest an evidence of an earlier contact with the Sindh region (Pre Urban Harappan). although. Gujarat region had Chalcolithic communities prior to the arrival of people from Indus region. It is very likely that after a long period of existence in isolation they may have came into contact with the Pre Urban or Urban Harappans. However. probably had an independent existence and had some contacts with the Mesolithic/Microliths using communities within the nearby areas. the evidence for these contacts are scanty. 4000 BC.

3700 BC (Shinde 1998. At Somnath. At Moti Pipli. Bhagat 2001) but due to certain discrepancies in the chronology and stratigraphy of the site. there was a fortified settlement during this period (Bisht 2000) and probably both regional Chalcolithic and Pre Urban Harappan ceramics are present in the ceramic collection (Shinde 1998). 2009).Discussion and Conclusion   settlements dating prior to 3200 BC like Loteshwar (Patel 2008. the Pre Prabhas pottery is found associated with the Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type ceramics and Anarta ceramics (Ajithprasad 2002). The evidences from the explored sites around Somnath (Ajithprasad et al. the Pre Prabhas ceramics were found along with ceramics similar to Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). search for raw material resources. Need for Contact The probable reasons which led to the cultural contacts between Pre Urban Harappans and Region Chalcolithic communities may be many including the movement of people in search of pastoral lands. Shirvalkar 2008). At the upper levels of Chalcolithic period at Datrana. new markets for finished products. From the above discussion it appears that the beginnings of cultural contacts between the regional Chalcolithic cultures of Gujarat and Sindh type ceramic within them maybe dated to the close of fourth millennium BC. understanding arts and crafts. At Dholavira. Anarta ceramics are found associated with the Pre Urban Harappan artefacts (Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-97). Pre Urban Harappan ceramics were also unearthed from the sites like Surkotada (Joshi 1990) and Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. these results have to be used with a certain degree of caution. Apart from this many of the sites showed the presence of Black and Red Ware and Reserved Slip Ware. The Padri Ware also showed similarities to ceramics of Anarta tradition from Loteshwar (Shinde 1998. agricultural 611    . Bhagat 2001. Padri showed evidences for cultural contact between the Padri Ware using communities and Sorath Harappans from the earlier levels dated to c. 2011). 2011) indicate the probabilities of the presence of Pre Urban Harappan ceramics at Somnath.

Bhan 1994.e. bride/groom and workers. Ajithprasad 2002. The availability of different raw materials and finished products like shell bangles. Gujarat coast is famous for the marine shell and probably was a source for this raw material. During this period 612    . The evidences for many of the aforesaid parameters are unclear. Impact of Contact The probable impacts of contact with the Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region led to the introduction of crested ridge blade making technique and the use of fast wheel for pottery production. availability of fresh water from inter dunal depressions may have attracted the pastoral nomads within and outside of Gujarat. Similarly. the regional Chalcolithic Anarta Tradition and Padri Culture integrated into the Classical Harappans whose predecessors started the cultural contacts with the indigenous communities of Gujarat by the end of fourth millennium BC. beads and various ceramics of different cultures and traditions from various sites within and outside Gujarat clearly show that regional cultures/traditions in Gujarat. Gujarat is well known for its grasslands majority of which are located in arid zones North Gujarat and Kachchh. Kenoyer and Meadow 2000. religious beliefs and rituals (?). c. Apart from the green grass. Another result of these contacts may be the integration of various regional cultures/traditions of different parts of Gujarat into the Harappan cultural sphere.Discussion and Conclusion   lands. expansion of territory. to acquiring private property (?). during the Pre Urban Harappan period had interaction networks with one another as well as with cultures in the Indus Valley proper (Kenoyer 1997. Towards Integration Towards the end of Pre Urban Harappan Phase i. Gujarat is also known for the mines of semi-precious stones which were used to produce beads. the fertile black cotton soil in the Saurashtra and other parts of Gujarat may have attracted the agricultural communities and the people in search of agricultural fields and private properties. Possehl 2002). 2600 BC.

2003. Anarta ceramics are the dominant variety (85%) while other Classical Harappan artefacts are also present. The Reserved Slip Ware and Black and Red Ware technique continued during the Urban Harappan Phase. 3700 BC) in North Gujarat (Patel 2008) show the independent existence of Anarta tradition at the site for about 500 years. Emergence of New Cultures/Taditions/Wares The Urban Harappan Period in Gujarat (2600-1900 BC) is noted for the 613    . While considering the Padri Ware. Chase 2010). Padri (Shinde 1998). Some of the sites of this period also showed the presence of Black and Red Ware and Reserved Slip Ware.Discussion and Conclusion   the material evidences for the cultural contacts becomes clearer. 1988). Nagwada (Hegde et al. The evidence for the integration can be inferred from the data recovered from the excavations at Loteshwar (Ajithprasad 2002. Around 3200-3000 BC the Anarta ceramics are found along with the Pre Prabhas Assemblage and Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type ceramics at Datrana IV (Ajithprasad 2002) and Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type ceramics at Moti Pipli (Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-97). which is dated to the late phase of Urban Harappan period. Bagasra (Sonawane et al. The Pre Prabhas assemblage which existed in the Pre Urban Harappan Phase at Datrana IV and Somnath did not continue during the Urban Harappan phase and the reasons for their decline is not clear. 1988). and Nagwada (Hegde et al. In the beginning of Urban Harappan phase. The earliest evidence from Loteshwar (c. Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2009). Yadav 2005). At Nagwada (Hegde et al. 1988) and Mathutra (Majumdar 1999) which perhaps continued up to the beginning of Urban Harappan period. 2003) and in the next phase Classical Harappan ceramics became prominent while at Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2009) though Anarta ceramics appears in the first phase it is lesser in quantity compared to Classical Harappans. which was found associated with the Sorath Harappan ceramics at Pre Urban Harappan levels at Padri continues during the Urban Harappan period. Anarta pottery is the dominant ceramic type at Bagasra (Sonawane et al.

This was also found along with Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan artefacts. It occurred along with Classical and Sorath Harappan ceramics at Lothal (Rao 1979. Another regional culture of this period is Sorath Harappan which is widely distributed all over Gujarat. 2000/1900 BC. The Sorath Harappan ceramics were reported along with Padri Ware at Pre Urban Harappan levels (Shinde and Kar 1992. Vagad (Sonawane and Mehta 1985). Similarly the Reserved Slip Ware. Bhagat 2001) but the evidences from the site are doubtful to support its early origin. All the regional cultures/traditions of this period except Sorath Harappan are identified based on the ceramics originated in Saurashtra region and they are found associated with other cultures/traditions. According to the excavator.continuation of old cultures/traditions and beginning of new cultures/traditions/ wares. It can be divided into two phases i. 1980) and Desalpur (Soundararajan 1984). the Padri Ware became extinct at Padri by the end of Urban Harappan period and the site was 614    . Kanewal (Mehta et al. whose quantities were found to increase in the lower levels at Lothal (Rao 1979. The middle of Urban Harappan period witnessed the origin of another regional ceramic type known as Prabhas Ware. The Chalcolithic cultures of this period had some cultural contacts with the Mesolithic population which existed during this period. Transformation of Cultures Towards the end of Urban Harappan phase around c. The first regional Chalcolithic tradition/ceramic type emerged during this period was the Micaceous Red Ware. Rangpur (Rao 1963). which originated in Pre Urban Harappan period also came to an end. the Anarta Tradition underwent a complete transformation due to which its identifiable parameters changed and the reasons for the same are not sure. 1985). This is indicated by the occurrence of Chalcolithic artefacts like copper objects and ceramics at Langhnaj (Sankalia 1965). The Sorath Harappan also underwent changes and continued in the next phase as Late Sorath Harappan.e Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan. 1985). Rojdi (Possehl and Rawal 1989).

The Prabhas Ware which came into existence in 2200 BC became extinct in 1700 BC. Padri Culture and Pre-Prabhas Assemblage. Towards Extinction The Post Urban Harappan period in Gujarat (1900-900 BC) is noted for the emergence of new traditions and extinction of certain Chalcolithic traditions which existed in the earlier phases. its cultural contacts. 1975). 1900-1700 BC). The Malwa Ware which was common in the Deccan region also appeared in very few sites in the time period between 1700-1500 BC (Mehta et al. The shapes of the Black and Red Ware vessels varied in different periods and the manufacturing technique probably remained the same. Rissman and Chitalwala 1990). 615    . The Micaceous Red Ware which emerged during the beginning of Urban Harappan period continued up to 1700/1600 BC (Herman and Krishnan 1994). The Black and Red Ware which appeared in the beginning of Pre Urban Harappan phase continued to the Early Historic period. The Sorath Harappan ceramics evolved into new shapes and were called as Late Sorath Harappan culture (c.Discussion and Conclusion   deserted till Early Historic period (Shinde 1998. But the reanalysis of ceramics from Padri by the researcher shows its continuation till the end of Post Urban Harappan period. various features of the artefacts and its similarities with cultures/traditions of other regions. Features of Regional Chalcolithic Cultures The analysis of artefacts and other data regarding various Chalcolithic sites in Gujarat highlighted different features of Pre Urban Harappan Regional Chalcolithic cultures/traditions in Gujarat like Anarta Tradition. The Jorwe Ware also showed its presence in very few sites in South Gujarat and it is dated in between 1500-900 BC (Mehta et al. Shirvalkar 2008). The results include insights about spatial and temporal distribution of various cultures/traditions. The new ceramic type which emerged during this period is the Lustrous Red Ware and it continued from 1900 BC to 1400 BC or little later (Rao 1963. 1971).

2011). burial practices. 2003) showed its presence. Later excavations in various sites like Moti Pipli (Majumdar and Sonawane 1996-97. chalcedony and agate. its presence was noticed by the excavator. The Anarta ceramics were first recognized as a regional Chalcolithic ceramic type in 1985 during the excavations at Nagwada where it was found along with the Urban Harappan artefacts (Hegde et al. 1988). Majumdar 1999).Discussion and Conclusion   architectural elements. There are similarities in the stone tools of both the periods which include blades. Majumdar 1999). 1985) and Surkotada in 1970-72 (Joshi 1990) and at Lothal it remained unnoticed for a long time while at Surkotada though not in the name of Anarta. craft activities and beautification of body and validity of titles like culture/tradition/assemblage/ceramic type. Anarta Tradition from Loteshwar At Loteshwar the Chalcolithic period which succeeds the Mesolithic period is marked by the presence of ceramics. blade blanks. These ceramics were also present at Zekhda in North Gujarat (Momin 1983). Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994). Dholavira (Bisht 2000. Its independent existence was noticed at Loteshwar (Khari no Timbo) in 1990-91 by The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (Mahida 1992. Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. Large number of grinding stones and hammer stones collected from both the Mesolithic and Chalcolithic levels may indicate the similar kind of food processing techniques or food grains during both the periods at the site. Datrana (Ajithprasad 2002). The absence of crested ridge 616    . copper and terracotta objects. Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2009). Anarta Tradition: History of Discovery The Anarta ceramics were encountered during the excavations of Lothal in 195562 (Rao 1979. The explorations in various parts of Gujarat showed its presence in 68 sites (Ajithprasad and Sonawane 1993. lunates and points of chert. Shinde 1998) and Bagasra (Sonawane et al. The site is notable for the absence of structures belonging to this period while few clay lumps with reed impressions may indicate that wattle and daub structures existed. fluted cores.

steatite beads. basins. animal figurine and probably a human figurine (Madella and Ajithprasad: Personal Communication). pottery discs. terracotta beads. The other artefacts from the site include shell beads and bangles. Burnished Black/Gray Ware. Black and Red Ware. Pre Urban Harappan levels at Kalibangan (Thapar 1975. small and medium sized pots with flaring out rim. copper wires and nails. sharp carinated bowls. The ceramics of Anarta tradition recovered from the excavations at Loteshwar include Gritty Red Ware. Similarities and Differences According to Ajithprasad (2002) the use of white and cream pigment either as a background for painting decorative patterns in shades of red and black or use of white as pigment directly over black as well as red is a widely spread Pre urban Harappan tradition in decorating pottery in many sites in the Indus valley and Rajasthan.Discussion and Conclusion   blades and crested ridge cores during the Mesolithic and Chalcolithic period is one of the main features of the site (Brahmbhatt 2000). Meadow and Kenoyer 2008). Harppan Red Ware (1 or 2 sherds) and Reserved Slip Ware (Ajithprasad 2002. Ajithprasad (2002. Large blunt carinated basins. Ravi Phase ceramics from Harappa (Kenoyer and Meadow 2000. 2011 – in press) points out that some of the Anarta vessels in form and the scheme and style of painted decorations share common features with the Pre Urban Harappan ceramics from Jalilpur (Mughal 1974). Girhawad (Shinde et al. Bhan (2010) also suggested some similarities in decorations and vessel shapes of 617    . The designs on the sherds include prefiring incisions and painted designs. Burnished Red Ware. 2005). 2008) and Baror (Urmila et al. semi precious stone beads. The vessel shapes from the site include pots. Coarse Red Ware. constricted neck. bowls with incurved rims. globular body and round bottom and matt surfaced pots are certain characteristic vessels belonging to this tradition. lids and dish on stands. 2006). Lal 1979). Bhirana (Rao et al. bone points. Fine Red Ware. dishes. Majority of the vessels are hand/turn table made and are slipped and burnished on both the surfaces. Yadav 2005). spindle whorls.

Discussion and Conclusion   Anarta tradition and ceramics of Rehman Dheri (Durrani 1981). 2009) (Chart 5. wild sheep and goat are completely absent in Mesolithic and Chalcolithic levels at Loteshwar and its domestic varieties are available at the site in later Chalcolithic levels and it may have brought into the site probably from areas to the Northwest. Ajithprasad 2002. many a times fabric and surface treatment of the same is different (Dangi: Personal Communication). Sindh region and Ghaggar basin is essential. this evidence shows that the domesticated varieties of 618    . Though there are similarities in certain vessel shapes and decorative patterns.1). Shirvalkar 2008). At Padri. 2009). differences also exist between the two. Hence a detailed comparative study of ceramics from various sites in Gujarat. Karela-1 (Dangi 2009) and Kheima Kheri-2 (Dangi 2009). Sonawane and Ajithprasad 1994. The domestic varieties of animals from the site are represented by zebu and sheep. As per Patel (2009). Thus. Siah II (de Cardi 1965). Faunal Remains Faunal remains from the Chalcolithic period of Loteshwar are represented by both wild and domestic animals (Patel 2008. Based on the observations made from the animal bones and chronometric dates from Loteshwar. Similarly some similarities are noticeable in the Anarta ceramics and Padri Ware in certain shapes and decorative patterns (Shinde and Kar 1992. As majority of the comparisons are based on the published drawings and descriptions there are chances of misinterpretations. The faunal remains from Nagwada. Patel (2009) suggests the possibility of the local domestication of cattle in North Gujarat by the beginning of fourth millennium BC. Shinde 1998. where majority of the ceramic collection is represented by Anarta tradition. majority of the Anarta vessel shapes are absent and surface treatment of most of the vessels are also different. Though some ceramics from Ghaggar basin look similar in shape to Anarta ceramics. Bhagat 2001. reveals the presence of domestic animals like cattle and goat/sheep during Pre Urban Harappan and Urban Harappan periods (Patel 1989.

these ceramics were found associated with fortification walls.06 1.42 10.32 Period IB 18. 619    .86 2.27 1.00 15.38 Chart 5.00 0.30 1.00 5. ashes and ceramics. Bagasra (Sonawane et al.00 10.65 12.06 0. At Nagwada (Hegde et al.00 Bos indicus (Cattle) Ovis/Capr Cervus a unicolor (Goat/She (Sambar) ep) Antelope cervicapr Gazella Sus scrofa Axis axis a dorcas (Pig) (Chital) (Blackbuc (Gazelle) k) Period IA 4. 1988) these ceramics were found associated with residential structures and Classical Harappan artefacts.26 1. the purpose of these pits are however not clear.82 0. 2003). The site is noted for the presence of big pits filled with bones. residential structures and Classical Harappan artefacts. These evidence suggests the possibilities of the use of some structures in these sites by the Anarta ceramics using communities.36 2.58 0.1: Animal Remains from Nagwada (Expressed in Percentage) (Adapted: Patel 1989) Structural Remains No structural remains apart from some clay lumps with reed impressions were unearthed from the excavations at Loteshwar.00 25. Anarta Burial One burial found during the excavations at Loteshwar unassociated with burial goods appears to be the earliest Chalcolithic burial in Gujarat (Ajithprasad 2009).04 0. Surkotada (Joshi 1990) and Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. 2011).00 20.81 1.12 5.Discussion and Conclusion   sheep/goat were present in North Gujarat at least from the beginning of 3rd millennium BC.86 4.53 0.25 Pits 27. At sites like Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2009). 30.44 1.63 1.

Patan. Mehsana and Banaskantha districts while in Saurashtra these are in Bhavnagar.Discussion and Conclusion   Burials from various sites in Gujarat datable to the Pre Urban Harappan Period have Sindh type ceramics as part of the burial goods (Majumdar 1999. Saurashtra (3 sites) and Kachchh (4 sites) sub-regions (Map 7). In the period between 3200-2600 BC. While observing the distribution pattern of the Anarta sites in Gujarat. They may have maintained some cultural contacts with the contemporary Mesolithic communities in the nearby areas but in the absence of clear cut evidences the nature of this contact cannot be traced. Rajkot and Ahmedabad districts. it is found associated with Pre Urban Harappan Sindh type ceramics at 620    . At North Gujarat. Spatial Distribution Excavations and explorations in various parts of Gujarat showed the presence of Anarta ceramics in North Gujarat (61 sites). Ajithprasad 2011 – in press). it is seen that South Gujarat is completely devoid of this tradition and the reasons for the same needs to be explored further. Cultural Contacts The Anarta Tradition named after the traditional name of North Gujarat (Ajithprasad and Sonawane 1993) probably evolved from the indigenous Mesolithic population in Gujarat. The earliest evidences of their cultural contacts with the contemporary Chalcolithic communities are available from Datrana IV around 3200 BC where Anarta ceramics were found associated with the Pre-Prabhas assemblage and Pre Urban Harappan ceramics (Ajithprasad 2002). these sites are distributed in Surendranagar. The burial also indicates that the regional Chalcolithic people disposed their dead within the habitation area. The absence of burial goods along with the skeleton at Loteshwar indicates that they were probably culturally different from the Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region or the cultural relations between the two communities was nil at the time of the burial.

1985). Moti Pipli (Majumdar 1999) and Nagwada (Hegde et al. The major questions that arise against the proposition of seasonal encampment theory are. But the c14 dates from the pits of Loteshwar suggests that the occupants of the sites were using the pits for thousands of years. 1985). Chase 2007). None of the 621    . 1988). Bagasra (Sonawane et al. 1985) and Nagwada (Hegde et al. It is also found associated with Micaceous Red Ware at Lothal (Rao 1973. did the pastoralists continuously used the same pits for thousands of years? If it was a seasonal encampment where were they coming from? If they were moving communities there are all possibilities of coming into contact with other cultures and traditions and if so why was there no change in the ceramic or artefacts assemblage at the site? The ongoing researches in the area under the North Gujarat Archaeological Project and interregional researches can give some answers to these questions. In the beginning of Urban Harappan period it is found associated with Classical Harappan and Sorath Harappan artifacts at Bagasra (Sonawane et al. Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2009). Surkotada (Joshi 1990). Anarta tradition can be dated in between c. Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. many of the regional Chalcolithic sites in North Gujarat including Loteshwar are interpreted as the seasonal encampments of the pastoral communities (Bhan 1994. 3700 BC to 1900 BC. Patel 2008. 2003). Proposition of Seasonal Encampments In the absence of permanent structures and due to the presence of flimsy deposits. Patel 2008. Moti Pipli (Majumdar 1999) and Zekhda (Momin 1983) also suggest these dates. 2011). 2009. Kanmer (Kharakwal et al. 1988) and Zekhda (Momin 1983).Discussion and Conclusion   Dholavira (Bisht 2000). 2009). 1988). Chronology As per the chronometric dates from Loteshwar (Ajithprasad 2002. Nagwada (Hegde tal. The combination of relative dates from sites like Shikarpur (Bhan and Ajithprasad 2009). Lothal (Rao 1979. 2011). 2003. 1979. 2009). Surkotada (Joshi 1990). Lothal (Rao 1979.

instead of calling it as a ceramic type or Anarta Culture. They remained in isolation during the beginning of Pre Urban Harappan period and later came into contact with other regional cultures/traditions and Pre Urban Harappans of Sindh region. White Lustrous Ware. 1995). use of semiprecious stone beads and copper objects in Gujarat.Discussion and Conclusion   excavated sites in Gujarat showed its presence in Post Urban Harappan period while in twenty explored sites Anarta ceramics are found along with Post Urban Harappan ceramics (Mahida 1992. While 622    . Anarta Tradition/Anarta Culture/Ceramic Type The Anarta tradition which probably evolved from the Mesolithic communities has limited spatial distribution and wider temporal distribution in Gujarat and based on definitions given by various scholars (Haury 1956. Gradually in the beginning of the Urban Harappan period. Hence. production of ceramics. the term ‘Anarta Ceramic Tradition’ is more appropriate in this context. Bichrome Ware. Plain Handmade Ware and White Painted Ware. started the process of domestication of animals. Padri Culture The Padri Culture identified in 1990s from the excavations at Kerala no Dhoro in Padri Gohilini village includes the ceramic types like Padri Ware (thick and thin variety). Being the first Chalcolithic community in Gujarat who probably evolved from the Mesolithic communities. they integrated into the Urban Harappans and continued the ceramic type approximately till c. the site is dated between c. Based on chronometric and relative dates. Deetz 1967 and Eddy 1984) it can be called as a tradition. 3700-1900 BC. Red Painted Ware. Pink Slipped Painted Ware. Willey and Phillips 1958.1900 BC. Anarta Tradition has distinctive traits to be treated as a ‘Culture’. In the absence of its presence in the Post Urban Harappan period in excavated sites it cannot be dated beyond 1900 BC. The terminology Anarta tradition (named after the traditional name of North Gujarat) perfectly fits into the same as its earliest origin and major concentration are in North Gujarat.

Contrary to this all the Sorath Harappan ceramics from the site are fast wheel made and multiple techniques may also have been used during its production. Among this stud handle bowls. The vessel shapes collected from the site include pots. black. Few of the Padri vessels have white or pink slip on it. Various ceramic production techniques were noticed in the Padri collection. The surface 623    . perforated jars and lamps. pink and white. Slip is applied on all vessels and bichrome slip is present on some Sorath Harappan vessels. gray. basins. four basic wares were identified at Padri and they are Red Ware. Buff Ware. Sorath Harappan Ceramics During the analysis. the Post Urban Harappan period is missing. Urban Harappan. and lamps occurs exclusively in Sorath Harappan ceramics while basins are rare in Padri Ware. lids. Shirvalkar 2008). All the sherds belonging to the Padri Ware reveals hand/slow wheel making techniques irrespective of cultural period of its occurrence. yellow. lids. bowls and basins have carination. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware. 3700-1700 BC. Many of the vessels from the site have even. Among this. Padri Ware has thick dark red slip and which has a tendency to peel or crack. eroded and calcium encrusted surfaces. few of the Red Ware and Gray Ware sherds represents Padri Ware. Some of the vessel shapes like pots. stud handle bowls. bowls. dishes. The colour of these sherds as per the Munsell Soil Colour Chart (1954) includes variants of red. Many of the Padri Ware vessels retain beating and paddling marks on them. Post Urban Harappan and Early Historic periods at the site (Shinde 1992b) while in later publications (Shinde 1998. perforated jars.Discussion and Conclusion   analysing the pottery it was observed that the Padri Ware also occurs in the Post Urban Harappan phase at the site and hence it can be roughly dated between c. In the earlier reports there was mention about Pre Urban Harappan. Many of the vessels were burnished irrespective of it belonging to either Padri Ware or Sorath Harappan. The diameter of the rims of the vessels showed the presence of miniature vessels to big pots/jars at the site. dish on stands. uneven. Padri Ware vs.

The decorations on the vessels can be divided into two i. The texture of the ceramics was divided using sand paper chart into fine. decorations were present on the internal surface too. Shinde (1998) based on the observations of Padri Ware made by Bisht mentions some resemblance between Bichrome Ware at 624    . The incised decorations include vertical strokes. vertical bands. slanting vertical strokes. Paintings on Sorath Harappan sherds include thick and thin horizontal bands and hanging loops. curvy lines. The incised decorations are completely absent in Padri Ware.Discussion and Conclusion   feel of both Sorath Harappan and Padri Ware varies from smooth to rough. The designs are geometric and non geometric in nature. Majority of Padri Ware have impurity imprints in them.e. painted and incised. The brush strokes of Padri Ware are not so regular/straight compared to those in Sorath Harappan pottery. Maximum amount of soot marks are present on Black and Red Ware sherds from the site. criss cross pattern and different combinations of them. The paintings on Padri Ware include broad and thin horizontal bands. Majority of the graffiti are on Sorath Harappan ceramics and very few sherds belonging to Padri Ware have graffiti. wavy lines. Pre firing and post firing graffiti is present on few Red Ware and Buff Ware vessels from the site. Similarities Shinde and Kar (1992) and Sonawane and Ajithprsad (1994) found some similarities in the painted ceramics of Anarta Tradition found in Loteshwar in North Gujarat and Padri Ware. Sometimes the paintings were executed over white back ground using various shades of black colour on different parts of the body and in some vessels. medium and coarse and vessels of both Sorath Harappan and Padri Ware have all the varieties. Fractures of majority of Padri Ware are irregular compared to Sorath Harappan. Core of the maximum amount of sherds belonging to Padri Ware are deoxidized while Sorath Harappan have more oxidized core. Some of the Sorath Harappan ceramics were reworked and probably used as pottery discs while none belonging to Padri Ware were reworked.

Differences Some vessels types of Anarta tradition show similarities to Padri Ware in certain vessel shapes like medium size pots with flaring rim and constricted neck. Shirvalkar (2008) found similarities in the making technique. blunt carinated basins and sharp carinated bowls are absent in Padri Ware. painted decorations and paint colour. hand/turn table making. dish on stands of Pre Urban Harappan levels of Padri and Baluchistan and Sindh and Perforated jars of Padri and Classical Harappan sites. dish on stands and perforated jars of thick variety of Padri Ware are representing the Sorath Harappan ceramics 625    . At the same time lot of differences are also present. Shinde (1998) based on the similarities in surface treatment.Discussion and Conclusion   Padri and ceramics found in the Pre Urban Harappan levels at Dholavira. basins and globular pots of Padri Ware and Anarta ceramics. Thus various studies show that there are certain similarities in the vessels types of various contemporary cultures and Padri Ware. The application of very thick red slip on ceramics is the characteristic feature of Padri Ware and this kind of slip is absent in Anarta ceramics. Shinde (1998) suggests the similarities between the stud handle bowls of Pre Urban Harappan phase of Padri and Sorath Harappan. Incised decorations are present on Anarta ceramics while they are completely absent in the Padri Ware and the incised pottery present at Padri belong to Sorath Harappans. The absence of fast wheel made pottery is the another feature of Anarta tradition while many of the ceramics from Padri which looks similar to Anarta ceramics are wheel made and there are differences from the Sorath Harappan ceramics in the surface treatment and decorative pattern on these vessels. painted decorations. The Anarta vessels like Red Ware pots with mat surface. painted motifs and vessel types of painted ware (Red Ware?) of Urban Harappan culture in Gujarat and Padri Ware suggest the possibility of the derivation of the painted ware from Pre Urban Harappan Padri Ware. The Painted Red Ware stud handle bowls. paint colour. and vessel shapes like bowls.

use of various tools. knowledge of metals and probable craft activities that existed during the period. These objects indciate the importance they gave for beautification of body. Apart from the same. copper razor. the site marked an increase in the preference of wild animals during Urban Harappan period (Joglekar 1996-97). there is a mention about the existence of a fortified settlement at Pre Urban Harappan Phase (Bisht 2000) and other details regarding the same are unknown. The only one type of floral remains reported from the site is Coix lachryma-jobi seeds (Shinde 1998) and some of them may have used as beads. At the same time.). Padri is the only site from where structural remains of Pre Urban Harappan period are reported. beads of semi-precious stones. bead polisher. Another structure from the site belonging to Urban Harappan period is a rammed earth floor having post holes on its sides (Shinde et al in Press). short blades of chert. This structure is made out of mud bricks and clay having nine rectangular rooms measuring 12. 626    . Organic Remains Study of the faunal remains from the site show that during Pre Urban and Urban Harappan period the inhabitants of the site preferred more domestic animals compared to wild animals. Structural Remains At Dholavira. copper fish hooks. globular carnelian bead. saddle quern and grinding stones were recovered from the site (Shinde 1998).5m in size. Due to this reason the ceramics looks similar to Sorath Harappan/Classical Harappan. Thus the study clearly reveals that the comparisons of artefacts of various cultures/traditions should be done with careful observation of minute features to avoid further confusion.Discussion and Conclusion   which is technologically at par with the Classical Harappan ceramics and not the Padri Ware. Other Artefacts Micro steatite beads (180 nos.5x12. their food habits.

3200 BC as evident from the 627    . Pre Urban Harappan and layer 8 as Transitional from Early Cultural Phase to Urban Harappan. The introduction of fast wheel technique in Gujarat took place only by the middle of the Pre Urban Harappan phase i. Shinde et al. 3700 BC is represented by hand/slow wheel made Padri Ware and fast wheel made Sorath Harappan ceramics comparable to Rangpur IIA and IIB and Rojdi A and B phases. 3700 BC. The reanalysis of the ceramics from Padri by the researcher clearly shows the presence of Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan levels at Padri instead of the proposals supporting the presence of Pre Urban and Urban Harappan levels. (in press) also mentions that the structures of Pre Urban Harappan and Post Urban Harappan period at Padri have yielded evidence of being used as storage rooms and dwelling places and it indicates the function of the structures related to salt manufacturing. c. layers 6 to 4 corresponds to the Urban Harappan period and layers 4 to 1 characterize the Early Historic period while Shirvalkar (2008) based on his observation of ceramics from the site called layers 9 to 11 as Early Cultural Phase i.e. its natural setting is beneficial for salt production and the geomorphological work carried out at the site showed that it is rested on an ancient fluvio-marine surface which is 0. (in press) as Padri is located in the coastal area of Saurashtra region. the layers 11 to 8 of Padri represent Pre Urban Harappan Padri Culture datable from c. layer 7 correspond to the transitional phase between preceding Pre Urban Harappan Padri Culture and succeeding Urban Harappan period.Discussion and Conclusion   Proposition of Salt Manufacturing Centre According to Shinde et al.5 m below the present mean sea level and an inlet of the Gulf of Cambay was much closer to the site. In the absence of specific evidences for salt manufacturing and storage.e. Chronology of Padri Culture According to Shinde (1998). The ceramics from the so called Pre Urban Harappan phase datable from c. this view cannot be supported.

IIB and IIC and Rojdi A. Pre Urban Harappan Phase in Gujarat can be dated between c. They also have a great resemblance with the Sorath Harappan ceramics at Padri. Apart from this. painted motifs and types. globular pots. dish on stands. All the evidence strongly supports the above view to reconsider the observations made by Shirvalkar (2008) and Shinde (1998). perforated jars. perforated jars. pots and dish on stands represents the Sorath Harappan ceramics of the period. The radiocarbon dates from the 628    . B and C. perforated jars and basins are essentially Sorath Harappan in nature. However. This phase is notable for the concave sided bowls and lamps. These ceramics can be compared to those from Rangpur IIA. the Sorath Harappan vessel types are occurring in all the Sorath Harappan sites of Gujarat in the Urban Harappan period. Shirvalkar (2008) suggests the gradual evolution of Sorath Harappan ceramics at Padri from the Padri Ware during Pre Urban Harappan phase and Shinde (1998) menitions the possibilities of derivation of painted ware of the Urban Hrappan period from the Padri Ware based on similarities in surface treatment. dish on stands and convex sided bowls with stud handle. dishes. Relative Dates from Padri Based on the chronometric dates from various sites. decorative pattern and even in majority of the vessel shapes with one can establish or even propose that the Harappan ceramics from the site has its ancestry in the Padri Ware. Convex sided bowls. the present analysis revealed that there is no similarity in manufacturing technique. 3700-2600 BC. considering the Sorath Harappan ceramics at Padri as evolved from the Padri Ware/Pre Urban Harappan ware needs reconsideration. basins.Discussion and Conclusion   available archaeological remains. But majority of the thick vessel types like convex sided bowls with stud handle. Therefore. According to Shinde (1998) the vessel shapes which occur in thick variety of Padri Ware is convex sided bowls. The so called ‘transition phase’ from Pre Urban to Urban Harappan at the site is marked by the continous occurrence of Padri Ware and the Late Sorath Harappan ceramics comparable to Rangpur IIC and Rojdi C phases. Chronometric Dates vs.

particularly in Saurashtra. B and C and Jaidak IIA and IIB. Thus chronology of Padri suggests that Sorath Harappan at the site can be dated between c. 1997. However. In the transitional period between Pre Urban to Urban Harappan (c. Chronologically Placing the Sorath Harppan Possehl and Herman (1990) defined Sorath Harappan as the regional manifestation of Urban Harappn phase in Saurashtra based on the systematic excavations at Rojdi. series of radio carbon dates from the site. without even noticing the absence of Pre Urban Harappan ceramics and its presence along with Sorath and Late Sorath Harappan ceramics comparable to Rangpur IIA. Data from Explored Sites The Padri Ware was also found occurring in eleven explored sites in Bhavnagar district (Paul et al. IIB and IIC. 1997) due to the occurrence of Padri Ware.Discussion and Conclusion   Pre Urban Harappan levels at Padri goes back to c. 3700-2600 BC and Late Sorath Harappan between c. the Padri Ware is found occurring along with Late Sorath Harappan ceramic types like concave sided bowls and lamps. If one considers the Pre Urban Harappan phase at Padri as the beginning phase of Sorath Harappan culture in Gujarat. 3700 BC and at that level both Padri Ware and Sorath Harappan ceramics are occurring from the very beginning and the same continues to the Urban Harappan period without any evolution in its forms. 2600-1900 BC. Rojdi A. Shirvalkar 2008) and most of them were called as Pre Urban Harappan sites (Paul et al. typological analysis of various artefacts and seriation of ceramics. 26002500 BC). if one considers Possehl and Herman (1990) to be right then the relative dates suggested for different periods of Padri require a reappraisal. relative dates and data gathered from explorations carried out in various parts of Gujarat. These problems necessitated a relook into data available from the nearby explored sites. it contradicts the definition of Sorath Harappan given by Possehl and Herman (1990). 629    .

The possibilities of errors during the collection of the samples for dating cannot be ruled out as well. it does not have a wider geographical distribution. The term Padri/Anarta Cultural complex is also not free from 630    . Padri Ware is the predominant one amounting roughly to 95% of the total ceramic assemblage. colour of paints and wider geographical distribution suggested the term Padri/Anarta cultural complex. the site did not reveal either a different artifact inventory or any other cultural attributes with which it can be considered as a separate culture. Padri Culture vs. apart from certain similarities to Anarta tradition. manufacturing techniques. the Regional Chalcolithic ceramic types identified at Padri were termed as Padri Ware based on vessel shapes and manufacturing technique and its differences from other wares/traditions/cultures (Shinde 1992.Discussion and Conclusion   Resolving the Problem Thus from the study it becomes clear that the scholars who previously analysed the data from Padri and nearby explored sites failed to consider the large number of Sorath Harappan sites in Gujarat. Though it is reported from 11 explored sites in Bhavnagar district none of the sites showed its independent existence. Padri/Anarta Cultural Complex In the initial years of excavation. All these drawbacks in the material collection from Padri suggest the necessity to have a systematic re-excavation at the site. As per the current understanding. In the later publication (Shinde 1998). Shirvalkar (2008) based on similarities in certain vessel shapes. The term Padri Culture (Shinde 1998) appears to be inappropriate as except from certain ceramics. Shinde and Bhagat-Kar 1992). It is also important to collect a series of samples for chronometric dates from regular intervals at the site. Padri Ware vs. painted designs. The probable reason for the discrepancies in the data may be the mixed nature of artefacts within the site or the mixing while transporting. its relative and chronometric dates and different ceramic types available from various excavated sites. the excavator defined it as Padri Culture as amongst a variety of different painted wares.

At the same time the hand/turn table/slow wheel made ceramics at Padri are different from the Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappn ceramics. Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). the term Padri Ware appears more correct and suitable and the use of Padri culture and Padri/Anarta Cultural complex appears to be improper. Incised Red Ware. Shinde and Kar 1992) identified at Padri. While considering all the above discussed terminologies. Though a clear Pre-Prabhas level was identified at Somnath during 1970s re-excavations. the thick variety of ceramics are Sorath Harappan and Late Sorath Harappan in nature.Discussion and Conclusion   limitations as the similarities of ceramics between Padri Ware and those of Anarta tradition is very meager compared to the differences. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage from Somnath The Pre-Prabhas pottery first unearthed in 1956-57 excavation at Prabhas Patan (Somnath) in Junagadh district (Subbarao 1958) represent another Pre Urban Harappan regional Chalcolithic tradition in Gujarat. This level also yielded beads of faience (some are segmented) and steatite and a wall plaster with reed impressions indicating simple wattle and daub architecture (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). Black and Red Ware and Gray Ware and vessel shapes in 631    . the details of this ceramic type were published only in the beginning of 1990s (Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). The ceramics of this assemblage is characterised by handmade pottery including Red Ware. Subbarao 1958. Among the two varieties (thick and thin) of Padri Ware (Shinde 1992. The reanalysis of the ceramics from Padri showed that the Pre Urban and Urban Harappan ceramics at Padri are not clearly identified or defined. Period I at Prabhas Patan dated to 3000-2800 BC was characterised by the occurrence of corrugated or broadly incised ware along with a blade industry of agate and chalcedony with crested ridges and Harappan like ceramics probably representing Pre Urban Harappan ceramics of Sindh region (IAR 1956-57. the ceramic type being reported from Padri for the first time.

deep/shallow basins. The decorations on the ceramics are pre-firing geometric and natural incisions and impressions. stone tools including crested ridge blades. pots and pots/basins.Discussion and Conclusion   the same include wide mouthed jars. It is the texturally most inferior pottery ever reported from the Chalcolithic context of Gujarat probably indicating incipient stages of ceramic production. bases (mainly ring bases). Dhavalikar and Possehl 1992). The vessel shapes identified were rims. All the analysed ceramics were very small in size and fragile in nature. neck and shoulder portions and body sherds of basins. Some ceramics have even. These decorations are confined to the external surface 632    . Miniature and big vessels are completely absent there. The diameter of the rims of the vessels from the site indicated the presence of medium sized vessels in the site. The Pre-Prabhas ceramics from Datrana IV include three Wares viz. flat bottomed basin with flaring sides and incised rims (IAR 1971-72. Some ceramics of all the wares from the site have carinations and corrugations. Gray Ware and Black and Red Ware. Beating/paddling marks. Majority of the vessels from the site are slipped on both the surfaces and burnishing is also visible on both the surfaces of many vessels. dishes. irregular striations. The presence of more sherds having smooth external surface compared to the internal surface indicaties the deliberate finishing of the external surface by the potter. beads of semiprecious stones and copper punch (Ajithprasad 2002). uneven surfaces. bowls. Pre-Prabhas Assemblage from Datrana IV The excavations in 1993-94 and 1994-95 at Datrana in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat also revealed Pre-Prabhas ceramics (first identified by Possehl in the collection of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) in association with Anarta pottery. Pre Urban Harappan Sindh Type Pottery. Red Ware. All the ceramics were made using hand/turn table/slow wheel. finger marks etc indicate that a multiple technique was involved in the ceramic production. Only four sherds from the site showed the presence of one pre-firing perforation on each of them. abraded and calcium encrusted surfaces also.

gray. A number of ceramics from the site have impurity imprints. small and large sand particles in it and this may be deliberately added. Colour of the ceramics as per the Munsell Soil Chart (1954) are the variants of black. Majority of the ceramics have deoxidized core indicating deficiencies in the heating technique or indicating a short duration of firing. brown.55 0.56 3.00 15. red.Discussion and Conclusion   of the ceramics and noteworthy feature of the assemblage is the complete absence of painted decorations.00 20.10 Period II 22. Some of the ceramics from the site have soot marks/smoke clouding on them and majority of them are of Black and Red Ware.09 1.68 3. Pre-firing and post-firing graffiti marks are present on very few ceramics and they are geometric and non-geometric in nature. Bubalus bubalis.65 1.51 3. Gazella 633    .24 5. and wild varieties like Sus scrofa.00 25.28 0. 35.11 Period III 28. Very few sherds from the site were reworked to make pottery discs which may have been used as play objects. Various animals identified at Prabhas Patan are domesticated animals like Bos indicus.77 5.06 3. Capra/Ovis.13 0.31 5.00 Bos indicus Bubalus bubalis Capra/Ovis Sus scrofa Gazella gazella Cervus duvauceli Period I 3. pink and white.00 0.29 2.00 5.40 1.00 30.86 Chart 5.2: Animal Remains from Somnath (Expressed in Percentage) (Adapted: Thomas 1979) Faunal Remains There are similarities in the animal remains from Datrana IV and Prabhas Patan. mica.00 10.97 1. Majority of the vessels have fine texture followed by coarse textured ceramics. white organic/inorganic particles.

Nevertheless.50) is brittle and handmade or made on turn table.49 and 4. tortoise. due to the absence of comparable diagnostic sherds from Bagor. sheep/goat. Ceramics having certain similarities to the incised Red Ware in fabric and incised decorations are reported from Bagor (Ajithprasad: Personal Communication). which are totally different from the ceramics of other Chalcolithic cultures/traditions. Distribution of Pre-Prabhas Assemblage The archaeological data available till date from various sub-regions of Gujarat 634    . The close observation of nondiagnostic ceramics from both the sites located in two distant geographical sub-regions shows obvious similarities. The preliminary analysis of animal remains from Datrana IV showed the presence of large quantities