ResistorProblems

Charlotte Stahl October 2013

1

Equations
I= dq = n|q |vdr A dt J = nq vdr Resistivity ρ= |E | |J |

Current

ρ(T ) = ρ0 [1 + α(T − T0 )] Resistors Ohm’s Law V = IR ρL R= A Energy and Power Ohm’s Power Law P = IVab = I 2 R =
2 Vab R

2
2.1

Problem 25.1
Question

During lightning strikes from a cloud to the ground, currents as high as 25,000 A can occur and last for 40µs. How much charge is transferred from the cloud to the earth during such a strike?

2.2

Answer
I= ∆Q ∆t

∆Q = I ∆t = (25, 000)(40 × 10−6 ) = 1C 1

finding the current is plug and chug.4 Question A 18-gauge copper wire (diameter 1.85A of current. Calculate (a) the current in the wire (b) the drift velocity of electrons in the wire 3.50 × 106 2 )(π ( ) ) = 1.50 × 106 = .05 mm in diameter carries a 4.6 ∗ 10− 19) 4 4.3 3. A 71.0cm length of 12gauge copper wire that is 2.5 × 10 8 eletrons per cubic meter. (c) Generally speaking.5 × 102 8 free electrons per cubic meter.12 mm) of the same length that carries the same current.6 ∗ 10− 19)(π ( 2.00011m/s = 110µm/s (8.2 (a) vdr = Answer J I 4.85 = = = 0.000108m/s 10−3 2 2 nq nqA (8.5 × 102 8)(−1. it follows that vdr = vdr = J nq 1. (a) How much time does it take for an electron to travel the length of the wire? (b) Repeat part a for 6-gauge copper wire (diameter 4.02 mm) carries a current with a current A 2 density of 1. The density of free electrons for copper is 8. how does changing the diameter of a wire that carries a given amount of current affect the drift velocity of the electrons in the wire? 4.00102 2 I = JA = (1.5 × 10 8)(−1.50 × 106 m 2 .1 Problem 25. I J= A A .1 Problem 25.2 Answer (a) Since we are given the current density and the diameter.23 m 2 (b) Since J = nq vdr .05× ) 2 v= dx dt 2 .5 Question Copper has 8.

5 × 10 8)(−1.34s = 109minutes vdr 0. You can ignore any thermal expansion of the rod. 5 5. (b) vdr = I 4.2 Answer (a) to find the resistivity of the rod.0025)2 10V /m E = = 0.5 A.∆t = ∆x . and slow the drift velocity of individual electrons. the electric field will simply be E= V 15 = = 10V /m d 1. To do this.2 = = 875989A/m2 A π (.0◦ C for the rod.0 C and (b) The temperature coefficient of resistivity at 20. but the current density will change.5 = = 942197A/m2 A π (. The electric field strength will remain the same.4 = 7. we need to find the electric field inside the rod and the current density.6hours vdr 0. You observe that at room temperature (20.0025)2 3 . Find (a) the resistivity at 20.5 The current density also simple to find J= ρ0 = I 18.0 V across its ends.1 Problem 25. Since we know the length of the rod and the potential difference across both ends.12× ) 2 v= ∆t = dx dt ∆x . while an ammeter measure tha current through it. while at 92.2 A.0◦ C ) the ammerter reads 18. J= I 17.85 J = = = 0. the temperature coefficient of resistivity.0◦ C it reads 17. 11 Question A 1.50 cm is connected to a power supply that maintains a constant potential difference of 15.6 ∗ 10− 19)(π ( 4.0000267497 (c) by increasing the diameter of the wire.000027m/s 10−3 2 2 nq nqA (8.000108045 So about the length of a kid’s movie. you reduce the current density.0000106135V m/A J 942197A/m2 (b) Now we need to find alpha.71 = = 6571.71 = = 26542. we need the resistivity at 92◦ C .50 m cylindrical rod of diamter 0. 5.

(a) What is the maximum electric field in this filament.1815/12. and (b) what will be its resistance with that field? (c) What is the maximum potential drop over the fill length of the filament? 6. Therefore a ’100 W’ European bulb would be intended for use with a 220 V potential difference.5 ) = 1.0◦ C is 5.0005)2 E = ρJ = (ρ0 [1 + α(T − T0 )]) (b.15 = .21V /m E = (5.0045(120 − 20)])( π (.2 Answer ρ= E J I A 12. what should be its US power rating? (b) How much current will the 100-W European bulb draw during normal use in the US? 4 .25 × 10−8 Ωm and its temperature coefficient α = 0.00104976◦ C −1 6 6.01452 7 7. Its resistivity at 20.5 A at all temperatures.0000106135 −1 −1 T − T0 α= 92 − 20 =α = 0. (a) If you bring a ’100 W’ European bulb home to the United Steates.1815V R = V /I = .0◦ C .5 = .1 Problem 24.15 Question A cylindrical tungsten filament 15 cm long with a diameter of 1.0045◦ C −1 . we can find the maximum voltage Vmax = E ∗ d = 1. c) Now that we have the maximum electric field.0◦ C ) up to 120.21 ∗ .0000114157 0.0000114157V m/A = J 875989A/m2 Now we can solve our resistivity-temperature equation for α ρ = ρ0 [1 + α(T − T0 )] ρ ρ0 0.00 mm is to be used in a machine for which the temperature will range from room tempertature (20.25 × 10−8 [1 + 0. It will carry a current of 12.1 Problem 25.ρ= E 10V /m = 0.41 Question In Europe standard voltage in homes is 220 V instead of the 120 V used in the United States.

V2 P = R V2 2202 = = 484Ω P 100 So in the US. I= 120 V = = 0.2479A R 484 So what do you think would happen if we tried to use a US 100 W bulb in Europe? 5 . with the lower voltage it would use R= P = V2 1202 = = 29. (b)We can use the regular Ohm’s law for this. we need to know what the internal resistance of the bulb is. which is easy enough using Ohm’s power law.75W R 484 So.2 Answer (a) To find out how much power it would use in the US.7. a bright nightlight.