APRIL 15, 2014

MARTHA VALLES-MOTEJO

Section 1:
OZONE DEPLETION. SECTION TWO: CAUSES OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE. SECTION 3: EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE SECTION 4: SOLUTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

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GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE.

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Planetary Change in the Earth System. It consists of land, ocean, atmosphere, poles, life, planet's natural cycles and deep Earth processes. It’s currently being affected by the human population. The increases of chemicals in our products and the amount of fossil fuel being burned. Also the combustion from the vehicles. But our question is, what is the ozone depletion? and can what be done to solve it? !
By Martha Valles-Montejo Per.1 APES

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APRIL 15, 2014

MARTHA VALLES-MOTEJO

SECTION 1. OZONE DEPLETION Montreal Protocol: ! Is a international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by reducing the production on numerous substance that can contribute to the damage of ozone depletion. A protocol that helps restore the Earth’s ozone layer.! How does it works? Reducing substances that deplete the ozone layer, and use of damage chemicals including: CFCs, HCFCs,
Solution to Ground Zone Layer: The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set national ambient air quality standards. The reduce of harmful pollutant that can damage the ozone such as: nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and lead. • Ensuring that the air quality standards are met. • Conserve Energy, • Education the public, and teach them

Layers of the atmosphere

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Ground Level Ozone Human Health: • Difficulty to breathe. • Sore Throat. • Lung infection. • Asthma Attacks.

Stratosphere Ozone Human Health: • UV radiation Protection . • Skin cancer. Death.

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Environmental: • UV protection. • Can have an important implications for plant competitive balance, herbivory, plant diseases, and biogeochemical cycles.

Environmental: • Weak Vegetations. • Interfere with the ability of sensitive plants to produce and store food. • Reduce Trees Growth. • Harmful to animals.

Solutions to the hole in the ozone, located a the stratosphere. Mostly appears to be in Antarctic, but it can also be found in other places where the latitude is and population is dense. Because it’ believed that these places have cloud types that aid in the chemical reactions that cause ozone depletion. Solutions. • Remove the excess chlorine and bromine !2 from the stratosphere. • Stop making CFCs and other harmful chemicals.

APRIL 15, 2014

MARTHA VALLES-MOTEJO

SECTION 2. CAUSES OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
Greenhouse Gasses ! What they are? ! ! • Carbon dioxide (84%)! • Methane (9%)! • Nitrous oxide (5%)! • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).! • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)! • Sulfur hexafluoride (collectively 2%)!

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EPA’s regulated air pollutants • Ground-level ozone. • Carbon monoxide. • Particular matter. • Sulfur oxides. • Nitrogen oxides.

(There are other greenhouse gases that are not counted in U.S. or international greenhouse gas inventories) ! The ozone is technically a greenhouse gas because it contributes to the changes in global temperature. ! Where do they come from? ! • Agricultural Practices. (8%)! • Livestock manure management.! • Burning of fossil fuels:Coal, oil and gas. ! • (70% of U.S. electricity comes from plants that burn fossil fuels, usually coal and natural gas.) ! • Cars, trucks, ships, trains and airplanes that runs on gasoline or diesel fuels. ! • (Vehicles 28%) ! • Manufacturing and other industries contribute about 20% ! • Residential and commercial sources (11%)!

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El Niño & La Niña ! Niño: ! Warms water in the pacific ocean. ! It warms the temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific.! ! plankton and fish dies in coastal waters! Raise temperature. ! Lowe sea level! ! Expose of underwater, coral reef.! Higher sea level! ! Salt water intrusion into water supplies. ! Droughts ! ! Crop failure.! ! Blowing dust, ! La Niña: ! • Coolers sea temperatures, high atmospheric pressure and driers air in the Southern Oscillation.! • Bring nutrients up from the deep water. ! •Strong winds blow moisture away.

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Greenhouse Effect! Process by which thermal radiation from planetary surface it’s absorbed by the atmospheric greenhouse gasses.

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Major Types of Fuel Types! Pros and Cons:! Firewood:! Pros: Inexpensive. Ashes used in the garden, or compost pile.! Cons: Produces smoke, destruction of trees, of habitat.! Many tree have been chopped down in to obtain timber, wood chip as result it increases erosion, soil salinisation, and flooding.! Gasoline:! Pros: Affordable, higher energy density, use for various purpose, transportations, no waste.! Cons: Pollutes the environment, there’s a limited supplied, expensive, very flammable, emits greenhouse gasses.! Diesel Fuel:! Pros: More fuel than gasoline, more efficient, great mileage, energy dense.! Cons: Louder than gasoline engines, can cause dirty emissions, more energy used to keep them running.! Kerosene:! Pros: Works well at cold temperature, inexpensive, less complicated to use, can be stored in large quantities.! Cons: No delivered to your house, serous fire hazard, conjunction with fire hazards.! Propane:! Pros: Not electricity required, easy to move, can be use for a long period of time.! Cons: Have to be kept outside of building for safety reason, could lead to explosion, expensive.! Solar Power:! Pros: Abundant, sustainable, silent, financial support from government, good availability, low maintenance.! Cons: Expensive, requires space, exotic materials, intermittent, associated with pollutions.! Oil:! Pros: Abundant, easy to handle, store and transport. Easy to extract than coal, transportation.! Cons: Contributes to the emission of the carbon gasses that go to the atmosphere, hazards involved, it can spill, can destroy habitats.! Natural Gas: ! Pros: No waste, more than 21% if the worlds power, manufacturing, can be used for transportation,! Cons: Non-renewable, extensive pipelines to deliver, extraction process, emits less Co2 than coal but still emits million of tons per year.! Coal:! Pros: Abundant, inexpensive, continues power, low carbon, converted into liquid, or a gas, low capital investment.! Cons: Nonrenewable, contributes to global warming., high cost of transportation, high level of radiations, not carbon free, emits mercury and other heavy

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APRIL 15, 2014

MARTHA VALLES-MOTEJO

SECTION 3: EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGES.
Changes in Precipitation: ! It can be directly impacted by changes in the atmosphere circulation, and increases water vapor and evaporation associated with warmer temperatures.Global precipitation patterns are changing direction worldwide and heattrapping gases in the atmosphere cause this. One main way is called “wet getting wetter, dry getting drier”, when warmer air traps more water, making it rain more in the already rainy parts, making the already dry parts even drier. The second main way is a change in storm tracks, moving way from the equator and towards the poles. It’s hard to tell between a large change in the climate or simply El Nino.!

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Climate Change as an example of Positive Feedback Loop: ! It’s vicious cycle. Example is melting ice. Because ice is lightcoloured and reflective, a large proportion of the sunlight that hits it is bounced back to space, which limits the amount of warming it cause. But as the ice melts, world gets hotter, ice melts, revealing the darker-coloured land or water below. The water get hotter, and so on. ! Industrial vs. Photochemical Smog: ! Industrial: ! Originates from coal-burning, and can be toxic in high concentrations. An example of this smog is in London, UK, where the city is famous for its smog. Occurs in foggy, cool weather. Composition: sulfur dioxide and particulate matter.! Photochemical smog: which is created by the burning of other fossil fuels, and the emissions, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, bind by solar energy catalyzing reactions. This smog can be found in Los Angeles and NY. Occurs in hot, dry climates, and particularly on sunny days. Components: nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in automobile and fossil-fueled power-plant emissions. !

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Sea Level Changes: ! Sea levels rise because the more the seawater heats up, the more it expands, raising the sea levels. The melting of ice over land increases the sea levels by adding more water into the ocean that originally wasn’t there. When sea level rise rapidly it can effect coastal habitats. !

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Global Ice: ! The change in temperature causes the ice caps to melt and the temperature gets even higher. The ice caps act as a mirror and reflect heat and as the ice caps melt, the Earth heats up because the water absorbs heat. It’s acceleration for albedo. Threading polar

Temperature Changes: ! temperatures have reached levels within one degree Celsius of the highest temperatures of the last million years. A graph supplied by the EPA of the worldwide temperatures and the changes shows that ever since the 1970s, the global temperature has risen drastically. Many sources that show predictions show that temperature will continue to increase even if

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Changes in Biota: ! have accelerated the melting of ice sheets, altering organisms within these ecosystems such as polar bears, penguins, and seals. The reduced amount of ice in that area leads to these animals having to swim longer distances to try to find land resulting in heightened amounts of deaths due to exhaustion. Human activities have caused these changes in the global climate.!

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Proxy Indicators: ! How each of the following helps us understand climate: ice cores, tree cores, ocean sediment, coral, pollen: ! Scientists drill long cores of ice that can date back up to 750,000 years. These cores provide annual records of temperature, precipitation, atmospheric composition, volcanic activity, and wind patterns. Tree cores can be used for dendrochronology, which is the dating of past events such as drought and wildfire through the rings on trees. ! Ocean: (grain size, sedimentation patterns), lake sediments can be analysed from a variety of approaches: isotope analyses. ! Coral: Annual growths of coral skeletons, useful to resolve large-scale patterns of climate, high-resolution archives of climate.! Pollen: Peat bogs, lake and marine beds, several kinds of loose terrestrial sediments, and even in consolidated rocks. palynologists are able to reconstruct past vegetation from the study of fossil pollen assemblages. human-derived noise to provide reliable climatic !4 information, although still giving useful information about the landscape.

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APRIL 15, 2014

MARTHA VALLES-MOTEJO

SECTION 4. SOLUTIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Carbon Offsets: Practical and effective way to address climate change and encourage the growth of renewable energy. Fossil fuels, Co2, and other greenhouse bass contribute to the climate change. In order to reduce you can use hybrid car, or eat at a local food. Carbon offsets do, however, raise awareness about lowering the GHG world total.

Kyoto Protocol!

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What is it? International treaty to reduce global warming, and to cope with the effects of temperature increases contributed to industrialization. ! ! Explain the debate over this law: The U.S doesn’t want to sign it because, we are the most pollutant producers. It would takes us more time, and we would have to scarify more in order to contribute and be on the standards of the protocol.

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Major Types of Renewable Fuel Types Hydropower: Pros: Water reserves, energy supplies. Cons: Expensive, dams have major ecological impact. Can cause flooding. Algae/biofuel: Pros: Cheap, source of energy. Long term energy source. Cons: When born it gives off atmospheric pollutant. Contributes to greenhouse effect gasses. Only crops and replanted. Solar: Pros: Infinite energy supplied. Cons:Expensive, manufacture solar panels. Wind: Pros: Wind farms, infinite solar energy supply. Cons: Costly. Spoils the country side. Tidal: Pros: Ideal to islands, lot of energy, can help prevent flooding. Cons:Few are suitable, costly, can have negative impact on wildlife, reduce flow. Wave: Pros: Idea for island, small local operation. Cons:Costly, environmental groups may be opposed. Geothermal: Cons: Energy supply, used successfully in some countries. Pros: Expensive. Can calm down leaving power. Most be use carefully. Elements can be dangerous.

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