DEFINITION According to Koontz and o’ Donnell “it is the art of including the subordinates to accomplish their assignments with zeal and confidence. Zeal reflects ardour, earnestness and intensity in execution of work; confidence reflects experience and technical ability.”

Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing. 'Leadership is all about courage to dream big.‘ Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task, or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent Leadership makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives, while, on the other hand, bosses tell people to accomplish a task or objective. Leadership can be used for good or ill

Leadership skills can be perverted to pursue bad ends

Co-existence with follower ship  Responsibility  Understanding nature  Precedence  Situation

Co-existence with follower ship :  a leader cannot exist without followers existing.  A leader exercises authority over the group, and it should be willingly accepted by his followers.  Leadership is not conferred or ordered but is one to be earned

Responsibility:  a leader is expected to assume full responsibility in all situations.  he must steer the group clear of all difficulties.  he has to assume responsibility for all actions of the group.

Understanding nature:  important characteristic feature of leadership is its nature to understand the feelings and problems of the group as a whole as well as the individuals.  guide a leader is looked upon as a friend and a philosopher.  a leader should strive to satisfy the personal and social needs of his followers, which is very much expected by them

Precedence:  Since the leader influences the behavior and the activities of the followers he should be endowed with the technical competence and personality traits.  He should also be well aware of his own preferences and limitations to impress upon his followers

Situation:  Leadership patterns changes according to the type of group and the situation in which the group is operating.  A leader should know on the role to be adopted on different situations

1.Initiates action 2.Motivation 3.Providing guidance 4.Creating confidence 5.Building morale 6.Builds work environment 7.Co-ordination

Initiates action
•Leader communicates the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.


•A leader motivates the employees with economic and non- economic rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates.

Providing guidance
 A leader guides by instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently.

Creating confidence

Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is also important to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems.

Building morale

A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals.

Builds work environment Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work environment helps in sound and stable growth.He should listen to his subordinates problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.


Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive of a leader.

Leadership and human behavior Leadership and Communication Leadership and motivation

Leadership and human behavior
Human nature is the comman qualities of all people have similar needs . A leader must understand these needs because they are powerful motivators.

Leadership and Communication
Communication is very important because a leader coach, coordinate, counsel, evaluate, and supervise through this process.

Leadership and motivation

A person's motivation is a combination of desire and energy directed at achieving a goal.


Keith davis has summarized four of the major traits which might have an impact on successful organizational leadership. They are:  Intelligence  Social maturity and breath:  Inner motivation and achievement drives  Human relations attitude

Intelligence: Research has shown that generally a leader has higher intelligence that the average intelligence of the followers. However the leader cannot be exceedingly much more intelligent than his followers Social maturity and breath: Leaders tend to be emotionally stable and mature and to have broad interests and activities. They have an assured, respectful self concept Inner motivation and achievement drives: Leaders have relatively intense motivational drives of the achievement type. The strive for intrinsic than extrinsic rewards. Human relations attitude: Successful leaders recognize the worth and dignity of their followers and are able to emphasize with them. According to research studies leaders possess consideration and are employee centered rather than production centered.

Autocratic  Participative or supportive  Instrumental or instrumental supportive

Autocratic: An autocratic leader is one who commands and expects compliance. He is dogmatic and positive and leads by his ability to withhold or give rewards and punishments. Participative or supportive:The participative or supportive leadership behaviour is based on the assumption that people essentially want to participate, want to accomplish and will work well if general supervision is employed and where they are allowed to use their own initiative and support is given while accomplishing their task. Instrumental or instrumental supportive:Instrumental behaviour of leadership emphasizes the leaders role as a manager in the rational aspects of management namely planning, organizing, controlling etc.

 Stagdill

and his associates research findings revealed that leadership ability is heavily affected by situational factors like their job, the organizational environment in which they operated history of the enterprise, community in which the organization operates, psychological climate of the group their characteristics, group member personalities and cultural influences and so on

CONTIGENCY THEORIES: THE FIEDLER MODEL:Fred E. Fiedler argued that effectiveness depends on two interacting factors: leadership style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence. Three things are important here: The relationship between the leaders and followers: If leaders are liked and respected they are more likely to have the support of others. The structure of the task: If the task is clearly spelled out as to goals, methods and standards of performance then it are more likely that leaders will be able to exert influence. Position power: If an organization or group confers powers on the leader for the purpose of getting the job done, then this may well increase the influence of the leader.


It is a contingency theory that focuses on followers' readiness. Readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. There are four stages of readiness: able and willing, able and unwilling, unable and willing and unable and unwilling

THE PATH-GOAL THEORY: Path-goal theory identifies four kinds of leader behavior.  directive leader behavior - letting subordinates know what is expected of them, giving guidance and direction, and scheduling work.  supportive leader behavior - being friendly and approachable, showing concern for subordinate welfare, and treating members as equals.  participative leader behavior - consulting subordinates, soliciting suggestions, and allowing participation in decision making.  achievement-oriented behavior - setting challenging goals, expecting subordinates to perform at high levels, encouraging subordinates and showing confidence in subordinates' abilities.

Path-Goal Situations & Preferred Leader Behavior

Source: Adapted from Gary A. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1981), 146-152.

Transactional Leaders
 Clarify

the role and task requirements of subordinates structure appropriate rewards

 Initiate  Provide  Display

consideration for subordinates  Meet the social needs of subordinates

Charismatic Leaders  The ability to inspire  Motivate people to do more than they would normally do  Tend to be less predictable than transactional leaders  Create an atmosphere of change  May be obsessed by visionary ideas

Transformational Leader
 Similar

to charismatic leaders  Distinguished by their special ability to bring about innovation and change by Recognizing followers’ needs and concerns Helping them look at old problems in new ways Encouraging them to question the status quo

TEAM LEADER: Leadership is increasingly taking place within a team context. The role of team leader is different from the traditional leadership role. The challenge for most managers is learning how to become an effective team leader. There are four basic team leadership roles: team leaders are liaisons with external constituencies, troubleshooters, conflict managers and coaches

Leadership styles refer to a leader’s behaviour. It is the result of the philosophy, personality and experience of the leader.

Kurt Lewin's Leadership styles Autocratic Democratic Laissez Faire Functional Institutional Paternalistic

Autocratic Leader:

An Autocratic leader will not entertain any suggestions or initiative from subordinates. Under this type of leadership, one person decides for the whole group. An autocratic leader does not trust anybody.

 It

helps to make quick decisions  Inefficient and insincere workers can easily be identified

 It

kills initiatives for work and results in frustration among workers.  It often gives scope for conflicts between the leader and his followers

A democratic leader can win the cooperation of his group and can motivate them effectively and positively. Merits  The decision finally made is mutually accepted.  It improves the job attitudes of the sub-ordinate staff. Demerits  this leadership is suitable only if the subordinates are all capable of making worthwhile suggestions.  It may, sometimes be very difficult to evolve a solution that is acceptable to everyone.

Participative or Democratic Leader:

Laissez Faire or Free Rein Leader:
A free rein leader will leave the group entirely to itself such as a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates. Merits  1. The superior subordinate relationship is found to be very good.  Highly efficient subordinates, can make use of the freedom given to them to excel. Demerits  Control may become difficult As the leader does not involve himself at all in the activities.  The subordinates are deprived of the expert advice and moral support of their leader.

Functional Leader:

A functional leader is one who is an expert in a particular field of activity. Such a leader always thinks of the task he has undertaken and spends most of his time finding out ways and means of doing it better.

Merits  The very presence of an expert is beneficial to the followers and the organisation.  the subordinates can certainly enrich their job knowledge and skill.

Institutional Leader:

An institutional leader is one who has become a leader by virtue of his official position in the organisational hierarchy. An institutional leader may not be an expert in his field of activity.

 

He has official authority to act. He may initiate action against a subordinate who is shirking duties.


He will not be in a position to offer proper guidance to his followers because he may not be an expert in his field of activity.  Although the leader has the official right to demand performance from his followers, he may not have the moral right

Paternalistic Leader:

A paternalistic leader takes care of his followers in the way the head of the family takes care of the family members

He assumes a paternal role to protect his sub-ordinates.  He is always ready to provide the necessary physical amenities to the sub-ordinates Demerits  He is not in a position to offer

intellectual help to his followers.

The functional leader will not be able to go down to the level of an average worker and offer any help. Misunderstandings may also arise between the leader and his followers.


 Trust

and confidence in top leadership is the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.  Effective communication by leadership in the critical areas is the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:  Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy.

 Helping

employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives.  Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing relative to strategic business objectives.

1. DECISIVENESS IS KEY (LALIT KHAITAN, Chairman and Managing Director, Radico khaitan) The most distinguished trait that defines a good leader is the willingness to make decisions that are need of the hour no matter how difficult they may be. And the most significant component of such decision-making is self-confidence.

2.VISIONARY LEADERSHIP (B.MUTHURAMAN, Managing Director, Tata steel) The ability to create a shared vision among team members is the primary trait of a true leader.

3. RELATE AND RULE  (N.LAKSHMI NARAYAN, CEO AND President, Cognizant Technology Solutions) Good leadership is the ability to recognize all the factors that would make the leader succeed in motivating the group.

4. TAKE RESPONSIBILTY (R.V.SHASTRI, Chairman and Managing Director, Canara bank) A leader is only as good as his team. Leadership involves two steps: helping subordinates take advantage of their talents, and then fine tuning their performance. Good leaders always take responsibility for both the success and failure of their teams