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988 views4 pagesA tutorial on thermodynmaics.

Apr 19, 2014

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A tutorial on thermodynmaics.

© All Rights Reserved

988 views

A tutorial on thermodynmaics.

© All Rights Reserved

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1. A vacuum gauge indicates that the pressure of air in a closed chamber is 0.2bar (vacuum). The pressure of the surrounding atmosphere is equivalent to 760mm column of mercury. The density of mercury is 13.59 g/cm3, and the acceleration of gravity is 9.81m/s2. Determine the absolute pressure within the chamber, in bar. Ans: 0.8 bar 2. A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. The fluid used has a specific gravity of 0.85, and the manometer column height is 55 cm. If the local atmospheric pressure is 96 kPa, determine the absolute pressure within the tank. Ans: 100.6 kPa 3. The piston of a vertical pistoncylinder device containing a gas has a mass of 60 kg and a cross-sectional area of 0.04 m2, as shown in Fig. The local atmospheric pressure is 0.97 bar, and the gravitational acceleration is 9.81 m/s2. Determine the pressure inside the cylinder. Ans: 1.12 bar 4. A large chamber is separated into compartments 1 and 2, as shown, which are kept at different pressures. Pressure gauge A reads 0.3 Mpa (gauge pressure of Chamber 1) and the mercury manometer installed between the chambers indicates a level difference of 900mm. If the local barometer reads 1 bar (absolute), determine the absolute pressures existing in each compartment, and the reading of gauge C in kPa. Convert these readings to atm. Ans: 3.94atm, 2.76 atm, 1.78 atm

5. A gas in piston-cylinder assembly undergoes a polytropic expansion. The initial pressure is 3 bar, the initial volume is 0.1 m3, and the final volume is 0.2 m3. Determine the work for the process, in kJ, if a) n=1.5, b) n=1.0, and c) n=0. Ans: 17.6kJ, 20.79 kJ, 30 kJ 6. Determine the total work done by a gas system following an expansion process as shown in Figure. Ans: 2251kJ

7. A gas undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of three processes: Process 1-2: constant volume, V = 0.028 m3, U2-U1 = 26.4kJ Process 2-3: expansion with pV = constant, U3= U2 Process 3-1: constant pressure, p = 1.4 bar, W31 = -10.5 kJ There are no significant changes in kinetic or potential energy. (a) Sketch the cycle on a p-V diagram (b) Calculate the net work for the cycle, in kJ (c) Calculate the heat transfer for process 2-3, in kJ (d) Calculate the heat transfer for process 3-1, in k Ans: 8.28kJ, 18.78kJ, -36.9kJ 8. Figure shows a power cycle executed by a gas in a piston-cylinder assembly. For process 1-2, U2-U1 = 15kJ. For process 3-1, Q31 = 10kJ. There are no changes in kinetic or potential energy. Determine (a) work for each process and net work for the cycle, in kJ (b) heat transfer for process 1-2 and 2-3, each in kJ (c) Calculate E for this cycle Ans: 8kJ, 31kJ, -33kJ, 0

9. A closed, rigid container of volume 0.5 m3 is placed on a hot plate. Initially the container holds a two-phase mixture of saturated liquid water and saturated water vapor at P1= 1 bar with a quality of 0.5. After heating, the pressure in the container is P2=1.5 bar. Indicate the initial and final states on a T-v diagram, and determine: a) the temperature, in C, at each state. b) the mass of vapor present at each state, in kg. c) if heating continues, determine the pressure, in bar, when the container holds only saturated vapor. Ans: T1 = 99.63 C and T2 = 111.4 C, 0.295kg, 0.431kg, P3=2.11 bar 10. A cylinder-piston assembly initially contains water at 3 MPa and 300oC. The water is cooled at constant volume to 200 oC, then compressed isothermally to a final pressure of 2.5 MPa. Sketch the process on a T-v diagram and find specific volume at the 3 states. Ans: v2= v1= 0.0811 m3/kg, v3= 1.155x10-3 m3/kg 11. Determine the specific volume of R-134a at 1 MPa and 50C, using (a) ideal gas equation (b) the generalized compressibility chart. Compare the values obtained with the actual value of 0.02171 m3/kg. (For R-134a, R = 0.0815 kPa.m3/(kg.K), Pcr = 4.067 MPa, and Tcr = 374.3 K) Ans: videal= 0.02632 m3/kg (21.2% difference), vcompressiblinity chart= 0.02211 m3/kg (1.84% diference)

12. A tank contains 0.042 m3 of oxygen (O2) at 21C and 15 MPa. Determine the mass of the oxygen, in kg, using the compressibility chart ideal gas model. Comment on the applicability of the ideal gas model. Ans: mcompressiblinity chart= 8.94 kg mideal= 8.24 kg (8% difference) 13. Water in a piston-cylinder assembly, initially at a temperature of 99.63C and a quality of 65%, is heated at constant pressure to a temp of 200 C. If the work during the process is +300kJ and changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible, determine (a) the mass of water, in kg and (b) the heat transfer, in kJ Ans: 2.80kg, 2772.57kJ 14. A piston-cylinder assembly contains 0.5kg of water, initially 3 bar and 165 C. The water is compresses to a final pressure of 10 bar. During the process, the pressure and specific volume are related by Pv = constant. Determine the work and heat transfer done during the process. Ans: W12 = -119.0 kJ, Q12 = -117.3 kJ 15. A piston-cylinder assembly contains 1 kg of nitrogen gas (N2). The gas expands from an initial state where T1= 700K and P1= 5 bar to a final state where P2= 2 bar. During the process the pressure and specific volume are related by Pv1.3= const. Assuming ideal gas behaviour and neglecting KE and PE effects, determine the heat transfer during the process, in KJ. Ans: 27.5 kJ 16. Water contained in a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes a compression process that is described by Pv =constant. Initially the water is in the form of saturated vapour at 1 bar. Following compression the final pressure is 10 bar and the cylinder volume is 0.1 m3. Friction between the cylinder and the piston and cylinder is negligible. a) show the process on a P-v diagram relative to the vapour dome b) calculate mass of the water that condenses during compression, in kg c) determine the work done in the process, in kJ d) determine the heat transferred in the process, in kJ Ans: m = 0.59kg, W =-230kj, Q = -323.99kJ 17. Water with an initial quality of 25% is contained in a piston-cylinder assembly as shown. The mass of the piston is 40 kg, and its diameter is 10 cm. The atmospheric pressure of the surroundings is 1 bar. The initial and final positions of the piston are shown in the diagram. As the water is heated, the pressure inside the cylinder is constant until the piston hits the stops. Heat transfer to the water continues until its pressure is 3 bar. Friction between the piston and the cylinder wall is negligible. Show the process(es) on a P-v diagram and calculate the total amount of heat transfer. Determine the in J. Take g = 9.81 m/s2. Ans: 657.8kJ

18. Steam enters a turbine operating at steady-state with a mass flow rate of 4600 kg/h. The turbine develops a power output of 1000 kW. At the inlet the pressure is 60 bars, the temperature is 400C and the velocity is 10 m/s. At the exit the pressure is 0.1 bar, the quality is 0.9 and the velocity is 50 m/s. Calculate the rate of heat transfer between the turbine and the surroundings, in kW. Ans: -61.3 kW 19. Steam at 160 bar, 480C, enters a turbine operating at steady state with a volumetric flow rate of 800 m3/min. Eighteen percent of the entering mass flow exits at 5 bar, 240C, with a velocity of 25 m/s. The rest exits at another location with a pressure of 0.06 bar, a quality of 94%, and a velocity of 400 m/s. Determine the diameters of each exit duct, in m. Ans: 1.756m and 6.495m 20. An Adiabatic air compressor is to be powered by a direct-coupled adiabatic steam turbine that is also driving a generator. The conditions at the turbine and compressor inlets and outlets are provided in the figure below. Note the quality of the steam exiting the turbine is 0.92. Steam flows at 25 kg/s through the turbine and air that can be treated as an ideal gas flows through the compressor flows at 10kg/s. Determine the net power delivered to the generator by the turbine. Ans: 20364.9 kW 21. Steam enters a heat exchanger operating at steady state at 0.07 Mpa with a specific enthalpy of 2431.6 kJ/kg and exits at the same pressure as saturated liquid. The steam mass flow rate 1.5kg/min. A separate stream of air with a mass flow rate of 100kg/min enters at 30C, and exits at 60C. The ideal gas model with cP = 1.00kJ/kg.K can be assumed for air. Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible. Determine (a) the quality of the entering steam and (b) the rate of heat transfer between the heat exchanger and its surroundings, in kW. Ans: x = 0.9, and -1.12kW

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